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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.ast.2018.12.035)
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Luiz Henrique Lindquist Whitacker, Jesuino Takachi Tomita, Cleverson Bringhenti
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Volume 213; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2021.106855

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Chuang Zhou, , Jue Wang, Ping Jin, Guobiao Cai
Published: 24 September 2021
Acta Astronautica, Volume 189, pp 624-637; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2021.08.046

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Mahyar Naderi, Hasan Karimi,
Published: 7 December 2020
Acta Astronautica, Volume 181, pp 201-216; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2020.12.001

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 4 February 2020
by MDPI
Energies, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13030660

Abstract:
Space exploration has recently been growing at an increasing pace and has caused a significant burden to the environment, in particular, during the launch of rockets, when a large amount of fuel is burned and the exhaust gases are released in the air. For this case study, we selected the SpaceX Falcon Heavy reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle, which is one of the most promising rockets for the low-cost lifting of heavy payloads into orbit and beyond. We evaluated several strategies for optimisation of fuel consumption and for minimisation of environmental impact during launch through the atmosphere for the case of its first launch on February 6, 2018, when the rocket carried a red Tesla Roadster with a “Starman” in the direction toward Mars. In addition to the flight plan and Newtonian equations of motion, we have taken into account the thermodynamic properties of the rocket engines. Results are similar but slightly different if one minimises the total fuel consumption for the desired flight plan or if one minimises the environmental pollution during the initial stage of the launch through the atmosphere. The same methodology can be extended for launches in other directions including the Earth orbit and the Moon.
Fernando S. Costa, Gustavo A. A. Fischer
International Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Volume 2019, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3139204

Abstract:
Propellants or combustion products can reach high pressures and temperatures in advanced or conventional propulsion systems. Variations in flow properties and the effects of real gases along a nozzle can become significant and influence the calculation of propulsion and thermodynamic parameters used in performance analysis and design of rockets. This work derives new analytical solutions for propulsion parameters, considering gases obeying the van der Waals equation of state with specific heats varying with pressure and temperature. Steady isentropic one-dimensional flows through a nozzle are assumed for the determination of specific impulse, characteristic velocity, thrust coefficient, critical flow constant, and exit and throat flow properties of He, H2, N2, H2O, and CO2 gases. Errors of ideal gas solutions for calorically perfect and thermally perfect gases are determined with respect to van der Waals gases, for chamber temperatures varying from 1000 to 4000 K and chamber pressures from 5 to 35 MPa. The effects of covolumes and intermolecular attraction forces on flow and propulsion parameters are analyzed.
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