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(searched for: doi:10.1177/0899764018819869)
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Published: 23 May 2022
by MDPI
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi11050318

Abstract:
This study aims to give an insight into the development trends and patterns of social organizations (SOs) in China from the perspective of network science integrating geography and public policy information embedded in the network structure. Firstly, we constructed a first-of-its-kind database which encompasses almost all social organizations established in China throughout the past decade. Secondly, we proposed four basic structures to represent the homogeneous and heterogeneous networks between social organizations and related social entities, such as government administrations and community members. Then, we pioneered the application of graph models to the field of organizations and embedded the Organizational Geosocial Network (OGN) into a low-dimensional representation of the social entities and relations while preserving their semantic meaning. Finally, we applied advanced graph deep learning methods, such as graph attention networks (GAT) and graph convolutional networks (GCN), to perform exploratory classification tasks by training models with county-level OGNs dataset and make predictions of which geographic region the county-level OGN belongs to. The experiment proves that different regions possess a variety of development patterns and economic structures where local social organizations are embedded, thus forming differential OGN structures, which can be sensed by graph machine learning algorithms and make relatively accurate predictions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of graph deep learning to the construction and representation learning of geosocial network models of social organizations, which has certain reference significance for research in related fields.
Wei Luo, Wenjuan Zheng, Yan Long
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory; https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/muac010

Abstract:
Around the world, voluntary programs are an increasingly prevalent regulatory instrument in governing nonprofit organizations. But accounts of mechanisms driving nonprofits’ participation in those programs are underdeveloped. This article combines and expands insights from voluntary regulation and institutional work theories to examine the impact of government’s informal relational work on nonprofits’ regulatory participation. Drawing on interviews and survey data from a random sample of 203 nonprofits in Shenzhen, China, the authors study the country’s pioneering government-sponsored voluntary accreditation program and its varying receptions among nonprofits. The empirical analysis shows that politically embedded nonprofits, those with closer organizational connections with the local government, are more likely to participate in accreditation. Since government agencies rely on existing regulatory networks to conduct relational work at both organizational and personal levels to persuade or cajole nonprofits to participate, they tend to direct their recruitment efforts towards more politically embedded nonprofits. However, these targeted recruitment practices may generate reactions much more complicated than the dichotomy of acceptance versus resistance, which ultimately facilitates some nonprofits seeking accreditation while deterring others.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413064

Abstract:
Social organizations have become an important component of the emergency management system by virtue of their heterogeneous resource advantages. It is of great significance to explore the interaction between the local government and social organizations and to clarify the key factors affecting the participation of social organizations in natural hazard emergency responses. With the aim of exploring the relationship between the local government and social organizations, based on evolutionary game theory, the emergency incentive game model and the emergency linkage game model of natural hazard emergency responses were constructed. The evolutionary trajectories of the emergency incentive game system and the emergency linkage game system were described by numerical simulation. Meanwhile, the influence mechanism of government decision parameters on the strategy selection of both game subjects was analyzed. The results show that both governmental incentive strategy and linkage strategy can significantly improve the enthusiasm of social organizations for participating in natural hazard emergency responses. Moreover, they could encourage social organizations to choose a positive participation strategy. Nevertheless, over-reliance on incentives reduces the probability of the local government choosing a positive emergency strategy. In addition, we found that, when both game subjects tend to choose a positive strategy, the strategy selection of the local government drives that of social organizations.
Xunyu Xiang,
Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, Volume 32, pp 79-95; https://doi.org/10.1080/02185385.2021.1991844

Abstract:
Drawing on a case study of three Non-Profit Support Organizations (NSOs) and their partnership with twenty Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) in China, this paper explored the formation and management of NSO–NPOs partnership under the guidance of the collaborative windows model. Findings suggested that the convergence of politics/society/economy, problem, organisational, and solution streams opens a collaborative window for a partnership. As collaborative entrepreneurs, the NSOs seize the opportunity and enact the formation of partnership before the window closes. Owing to the internal and external challenges faced by NSOs and NPOs after the formation of a partnership, the governance of partnership required modification. To maintain the sustanibility of the partnership, the NSOs, working together with the NPOs, developed their strategies to respond to the challenges. This study offers empirical evidence on the formation and management of NSO–NPOs partnership in China and sheds light on the sustainability of governance in non-profit sectors.
, , Rachel A. Black
Published: 23 September 2021
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1080/19420676.2021.1977975

Abstract:
Incubators have been studied extensively in the private sector, such as those that engage in technological innovation or growing small businesses. The scholarship has not sufficiently explored the efforts of incubators in the non-profit sector that help create programs supporting, mentoring, and cultivating social entrepreneurs. There are numerous documented cases of non-profit organisations establishing initiatives that help motivated entrepreneurs achieve social change; but research is lagging in developing a systematic understanding of these effort’s impact, and the factors associated with the success of non-profit initiatives that support social entrepreneurs. This paper seeks to understand the nature of non-profit organisations that support and cultivate social entrepreneurs. We rely on a unique data set from survey research on non-profit initiatives across three U.S. Census Regions. Results indicate that the characteristics of non-profit organisations vary in their reliance on a variety of revenue resources and governance arrangements, as well as in their diverse policy focus. They also provide an extensive and diverse set of services that supports the ideas and efforts of social entrepreneurs.
, Andrew Pilny, Erich J. Sommerfeldt
Published: 28 May 2021
Communication Research, Volume 49, pp 703-732; https://doi.org/10.1177/00936502211016162

Abstract:
Recent interorganizational communication research has taken up the question: why are networks structured the way they are? This line of inquiry has advanced communication network research by helping explain how and why networks take on certain structures or why certain organizations become positioned advantageously (or not). Yet, those studies assume relationships among organizations are either present or absent. This study considers how the strength of ties and multiplex relationships among organizations may reveal a more complex explanation for why networks take on certain structures. Our results challenge some long held assumptions about the mechanisms that influence network formation. For instance, our results offer important insights into the consequences of closure mechanisms, the applicability of preferential attachment to real-world networks, and the nuances of homophily in network formation on multidimensional relationships in a communication network. Implications for interorganizational networks are discussed.
, Chengyan Zhan, Rui Li, Min Su
Published: 3 February 2021
Journal: Natural Hazards
Natural Hazards, Volume 106, pp 2689-2709; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04560-9

Abstract:
As China is one of the world’s most vulnerable countries to small and medium-scale natural hazards (SMNHs), its NGOs have had a great deal of experience in dealing with disaster relief, especially since the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake; however, there have been few studies that have comprehensively examined China’s NGO disaster relief networks (NDRNs). One Foundation (OF), which is one of the most active public-fund raising foundations in China, has been engaged in developing a nationwide NDRN made up of 20 independently operating provincial networks that are focused on SMNHs. This paper explored the structures, operations and challenges in the representative North-Sichuan network, from which the following key factors for sustainable NDRNs were identified: (1) a combined hierarchal and networked organizational structure; and (2) a coordinated external and internal network operations mechanism that has a specific entry threshold to ensure healthy network expansion, periodic member NGO training to enhance network capacity, and reciprocal and cooperative government-NGO relationships. These findings provide a useful reference for the establishment and development of NDRNs in other countries.
Ling Zhou, Baorong Guo,
The British Journal Of Social Work; https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcaa176

Abstract:
Using secondary data from the 2017 online survey of 736 non-profit social service employees in urban China, this study provides a complete description of the financial well-being of the non-profit social service workforce and examines correlates of financial well-being. Results show that non-profit employees’ household income is lower than the disposable income of a typical urban household. Nearly one-third of social service professionals have short-term unsecured debts, 10 per cent do not have public health insurance coverage and another 22 per cent report economic hardships caused by large unexpected expenses. Correlates of financial well-being include individual characteristics (e.g. age, education and marital status) and organizational characteristics (type, revenue and size). New services (e.g. employment-based programmes and financial services) are proposed to promote financial well-being of non-profit social service employees in China.
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