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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2018.08.009)
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Josephine M Groot, Gábor Csifcsák, Sven Wientjes, Birte U Forstmann, Matthias Mittner
Published: 17 January 2022
Abstract:
When the human mind wanders, it engages in episodes during which attention is focused on self-generated thoughts rather than on external task demands. Although the sustained attention to response task is commonly used to examine relationships between mind wandering and executive functions, limited executive resources are required for optimal task performance. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mind wandering and executive functions more closely by employing a recently developed finger-tapping task to monitor fluctuations in attention and executive control through task performance and periodical experience sampling during concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry. Our results show that mind wandering was preceded by increases in finger-tapping variability, which was correlated with activity in dorsal and ventral attention networks. The entropy of random finger-tapping sequences was related to activity in frontoparietal regions associated with executive control, demonstrating the suitability of this paradigm for studying executive functioning. The neural correlates of behavioral performance, pupillary dynamics, and self-reported attentional state diverged, thus indicating a dissociation between direct and indirect markers of mind wandering. Together, the investigation of these relationships at both the behavioral and neural level provided novel insights into the identification of underlying mechanisms of mind wandering.
Igor Douven, Shira Elqayam, Patricia Mirabile
Published: 17 December 2021
Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 123; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2021.104302

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Michelle A. Jones, Erik J. Jorgensen, Yu-Hsiang Wu
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1044/2021_jslhr-21-00081

Abstract:
Purpose: The analysis of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data can be difficult to conceptualize due to the complexity of how the data are collected. The goal of this tutorial is to provide an overview of statistical considerations for analyzing observational data arising from EMA studies. Method: EMA data are collected in a variety of ways, complicating the statistical analysis. We focus on fundamental statistical characteristics of the data and general purpose statistical approaches to analyzing EMA data. We implement those statistical approaches using a recent study involving EMA. Results: The linear or generalized linear mixed-model statistical approach can adequately capture the challenges resulting from EMA collected data if properly set up. Additionally, while sample size depends on both the number of participants and the number of survey responses per participant, having more participants is more important than the number of responses per participant. Conclusion: Using modern statistical methods when analyzing EMA data and adequately considering all of the statistical assumptions being used can lead to interesting and important findings when using EMA. Supplemental Material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.17155961
, Ruth Conroy Dalton, , Michal Gath Morad, Simon Robson, Christoph Hölscher
Published: 6 December 2021
Architectural Science Review pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1080/00038628.2021.2008299

Abstract:
In this article, we present the rationale, development and preliminary evaluation of a novel set of materials to encourage and improve the consideration of users and their needs during the process of architectural design. Our focus is specifically on two areas: user-centred design principles and spatial cognition research. To this end, we developed two decks of flash-cards, termed the Architectural Strategies Cards (72 cards) and the Spatial Cognition Cards (111 cards). We conducted preliminary evaluations of the cards in the design studio and in design thinking workshops with multidisciplinary groups of students and with architectural practitioners. Our results suggest that the cards improve designers’ immersion into the perspective of building-users in a playful way and introduce scientific concepts effectively. In conclusion, we argue that serious-games and card-based methods should be part of the multiple approaches necessary to encourage and improve user-centred thinking, and integrate research findings into evidence-based design at large.
Published: 27 November 2021
by MDPI
Sustainability, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313167

Abstract:
Recreational specialization is characteristic of many activities, including recreational fishing, which is a popular and important form of recreation throughout the world. The pressure on the environmental resources used by anglers is increasing. It is becoming crucial to understand the preferences and behaviors of anglers, which can accumulate and multiply the risk of damage to fish stocks and aquatic habitats. The main objective of the study was to comprehensively analyze the differences between anglers with diverse specialization profiles. By investigating the fishing preferences within the context of the socioeconomic, demographic and engagement factors, three groups of anglers were identified: anglers who specialize in predatory fish, anglers who specialize in non-predatory fish and unspecialized anglers. Specialized anglers, regardless of type, were found to be more supportive of releasing caught fish (71% on average) and were less likely to keep them (16%) than unspecialized anglers (55% and 27%, respectively). Unspecialized anglers (26.5% of the surveyed population) show less commitment to ethical values. The potential negative environmental impact of the least specialized anglers is an accumulation of the preferences for the use of ground bait, artificial lures, and live fish as bait. Anglers specializing in predatory fish are the most critical in their evaluation of fish resources and water quality and are least attached to specific fisheries. This work provides insight into angler experience and it may help to better identify anglers who are disrespectful towards the fishing laws in place. The results of this work may be incorporated into fishery management strategies, including strategies to reduce naïve anglers and deter disrespectful anglers, which are lucrative in the fishing process.
, Sarah Schneider,
Personality Science, Volume 2, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.5964/ps.7293

Abstract:
Narcissism is related to income and risk-taking behavior, but previous studies have computed only pairwise associations and have used only domain-specific risk-taking measures. We jointly investigated narcissistic admiration and rivalry, income, and general risk attitude. Using a representative sample from the German population (N = 14,473), we contrasted a model assuming that risk attitude and narcissistic admiration and rivalry share variance when predicting income and a model with additive effects of narcissism and risk attitude. We found stronger effects of admiration on risk attitude and income than of rivalry and no evidence that risk attitude and narcissism share variance when predicting income. Contrary to previous studies, we found that an individual's income was independent of their risk attitude. In exploratory analyses (Response Surface Analysis, Level-and-Difference-Approach), we found that the relative strength of admiration compared with rivalry positively predicted risk attitude and income. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the hierarchical model of grandiose narcissism.
Joshua J. Reynolds
Published: 14 October 2021
Abstract:
Undergraduate statistics in psychology is an important, often challenging, course for students. The focus in psychology tends to be on hypothesis tests, such as t tests and analysis of variance. While adequate for some questions, there are many other topics we might include that could improve that data analytic abilities of students and improve psychological science in the long run. Topics such as generalized linear modeling, multilevel modeling, Bayesian statistics, model building and comparison, and causal analysis, could be introduced in an undergraduate psychological statistics course. For each topic, I discuss their importance and provide sources for instructor’s continuing education. These topics would give students greater flexibility in analyzing data, allow them to conduct more meaningful analyses, allow them to understand more modern data analytic approaches, and potentially help the field of psychology in the long run, by being one part of the strategy to address the reproducibility problem.
Published: 30 September 2021
Cognition and Emotion, Volume 35, pp 1607-1617; https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2021.1979473

Abstract:
We conducted a preregistered study (N = 609) to conceptually replicate and extend prior research regarding the effects of facial redness on emotion perception. In a within-subjects design, participants saw emotion faces (anger, happiness, fear, neutral) of a random female and a random male target with default facial colouration and increased facial redness and were asked to simultaneously rate the intensity of six emotions (happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust, anger) for each emotion face. The emotion intensity was rated higher, when the emotion face and the rated emotion matched than when the emotion face and the rated emotion did not match. However, increased facial redness did not influence the intensity of the rated emotion. The results of this conceptual replication limit the generalisability of previous findings, challenge the assumption that facial redness is used as a cue to infer emotions, and point to the necessity to develop a more nuanced theoretical account of contextual boundaries.
Published: 23 September 2021
by MDPI
Education Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11100570

Abstract:
Interdisciplinary science learning can play a central role in promoting students’ 21st century skills. However, students tend to have low perceived self-efficacy towards 21st century skills, thus limiting the application of their actual scientific competence. This study seeks, based on a 1.5-year intervention study, to promote students’ perceived self-efficacy towards 21st century skills through science learning compared to a non-experimental group. During the intervention, everyday life-related scenarios were utilized, with students guided to create core idea maps. Data on students’ perceived self-efficacy were collected before and after the intervention. Results showed that students’ perceived self-efficacy towards 21st century skills changed in a significantly positively way after the intervention.
, Saowalak Roongtawanreongsri, Thong Quoc Ho, Phuong Hanh Niekdam Tran
Published: 2 September 2021
Forest Policy and Economics, Volume 132; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102578

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Volume 24, pp 842-848; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1366728921000316

Abstract:
Research in bilingualism often involves quantifying constructs of interest by the use of rating scales: for example, to measure language proficiency, dominance, or sentence acceptability. However, ratings are a type of ordinal data, which violates the assumptions of the statistical methods that are commonly used to analyse them. As a result, the validity of ratings is compromised and the ensuing statistical inferences can be seriously distorted. In this article, we describe the problem in detail and demonstrate its pervasiveness in bilingualism research. We then provide examples of how bilingualism researchers can employ an appropriate solution using Bayesian ordinal models. These models respect the inherent discreteness of ratings, easily accommodate non-normality, and allow modelling unequal psychological distances between response categories. As a result, they can provide more valid, accurate, and informative inferences about graded constructs such as language proficiency. Data and code are publicly available in an OSF repository at https://osf.io/grs8x.
, Bradley J. Kennedy,
Journal of Cognitive Psychology pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2021.1971234

Abstract:
The side-effect effect (SEE) demonstrates that the valence of an unintended side effect influences intentionality judgements; people assess harmful (helpful) side effects as (un)intentional. Some evidence suggests that the SEE can be moderated by factors relating to the side effect’s causal agent and to its recipient. However, these findings are often derived from between-subjects studies with a single or few items, limiting generalisability. Our two within-subjects experiments utilised multiple items and successfully conceptually replicated these patterns of findings. Cumulative link mixed models showed the valence of both the agent and the recipient moderated intentionality and accountability ratings. This supports the view that people represent and consider multiple factors of a SEE scenario when judging intentionality. Importantly, it also demonstrates the applicability of multi-vignette, within-subjects approaches for generalising the effect to the wider population, within individuals, and to a multitude of potential scenarios. For open materials, data, and code, see https://www.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/5MGKN.
Published: 10 August 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.629177

Abstract:
Logical connectives in natural language pose challenges to truth-conditional semantics due to pragmatics and gradience in their meaning. This paper reports on a case study of the conditional connectives (CCs) wenn/falls ‘if/when, if/in case’ in German. Using distributional evidence, I argue that wenn and falls differ in lexical pragmatics: They express different degrees of speaker commitment (i.e., credence) toward the modified antecedent proposition at the non-at-issue dimension. This contrast can be modeled using the speaker commitment scale (Giannakidou and Mari, 2016), i.e., More committed<WENN p, FALLS p>Less committed. Four experiments are reported which tested the wenn/falls contrast, as well as the summary of an additional one from Liu (2019). Experiment 1 tested the naturalness of sentences containing the CCs (wenn or falls) and conditional antecedents with varying degrees of likelihood (very likely/likely/unlikely). The starting prediction was that falls might be degraded in combination with very likely and likely events in comparison to the other conditions, which was not borne out. Experiment 2 used the forced lexical choice paradigm, testing the choice between wenn and falls in the doxastic agent’s conditional thought, depending on their belief or disbelief in the antecedent. The finding was that subjects chose falls significantly more often than wenn in the disbelief-context, and vice versa in the belief-context. Experiment 3 tested the naturalness of sentences with CCs and an additional relative clause conveying the speaker’s belief or disbelief in the antecedent. An interaction was found: While in the belief-context, wenn was rated more natural than falls, the reverse pattern was found in the disbelief-context. While the results are mixed, the combination of the findings in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 and that of Experiment 4a from Liu (2019) that falls led to lower speaker commitment ratings than wenn, provide evidence for the CC scale. Experiment 4b tested the interaction between two speaker commitment scales, namely, one of connectives (including weil ‘because’ and wenn/falls) and the other of adverbs (factive vs. non-factive, Liu, 2012). While factive and non-factive adverbs were rated equally natural for the factive causal connective, non-factive adverbs were preferred over factive ones by both CCs, with no difference between wenn and falls. This is discussed together with the result in Liu (2019), where the wenn/falls difference occurred in the absence of negative polarity items (NPIs), but disappeared in the presence of NPIs. This raises further questions on how different speaker commitment scales interact and why.
Amélie Bret, Brice Beffara, Adrien Mierop, Martial Mermillod
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 16, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.6593

Abstract:
Right Wing Authoritarianism (i.e., RWA) is associated with enhanced conservatism and social prejudice. Because research linking RWA to attitudes is largely correlational (i.e., it provides control for neither RWA nor attitude learning), it is not clear how RWA relates to attitude learning dynamics. We addressed this question in 11 evaluative conditioning experiments that ensured rigorous control of the affective learning setting. Results from two integrative data analyses suggest that (i) individuals scoring higher in RWA show a stronger acquisition of positive attitudes, and that (ii) the residuals of this stronger acquisition remain even after exposure to counter-attitudinal information. Implications of these findings for research on RWA and its link to social prejudice are discussed.
, Jerrell C. Cassady
Published: 16 July 2021
Abstract:
Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Model makes a theoretical distinction between the contribution of dispositional anxiety and the transitory experience of anxiety to performance difficulties during testing situations. According to the State-Trait framework, state anxiety is viewed as the primary performance barrier for test-anxious students, and as such, educators and educational researchers have expressed interest in validated, state anxiety measurement tools. Currently, the most widely used measure of state anxiety is the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. However, evidence regarding the psychometric properties of this scale is relatively scarce. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the structural validity, reliability, and concurrent/divergent validity of the instrument. Participants ( N = 294) completed the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale 2nd Edition, and an exam task. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we tested the viability of one-, two-, and bi-factor solutions for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated a two-factor solution consisting of State Anxiety and State Calmness dimensions provided superior fit to the observed data. Results of a reliability analysis indicated that the State Anxiety and State Calmness factors demonstrated excellent internal consistency when applied to university students. Our discussion concerns the utility of the State Anxiety factor as a tool for the identification of test-anxious students.
Published: 9 July 2021
by MDPI
Brain Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11070908

Abstract:
Introduction: Response to treatment, according to Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, is an easily interpretable outcome in clinical trials of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, the CGI-I rating is sometimes reported as a continuous outcome, and converting it to dichotomous would allow meta-analysis to incorporate more evidence. Methods: Clinical trials investigating medications for ASD and presenting both dichotomous and continuous CGI-I data were included. The number of patients with at least much improvement (CGI-I ≤ 2) were imputed from the CGI-I scale, assuming an underlying normal distribution of a latent continuous score using a primary threshold θ = 2.5 instead of θ = 2, which is the original cut-off in the CGI-I scale. The original and imputed values were used to calculate responder rates and odds ratios. The performance of the imputation method was investigated with a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), linear regression, Bland–Altman plots, and subgroup differences of summary estimates obtained from random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Data from 27 studies, 58 arms, and 1428 participants were used. The imputation method using the primary threshold (θ = 2.5) had good performance for the responder rates (CCC = 0.93 95% confidence intervals [0.86, 0.96]; β of linear regression = 1.04 [0.95, 1.13]; bias and limits of agreements = 4.32% [−8.1%, 16.74%]; no subgroup differences χ2 = 1.24, p-value = 0.266) and odds ratios (CCC = 0.91 [0.86, 0.96]; β = 0.96 [0.78, 1.14]; bias = 0.09 [−0.87, 1.04]; χ2 = 0.02, p-value = 0.894). The imputation method had poorer performance when the secondary threshold (θ = 2) was used. Discussion: Assuming a normal distribution of the CGI-I scale, the number of responders could be imputed from the mean and standard deviation and used in meta-analysis. Due to the wide limits of agreement of the imputation method, sensitivity analysis excluding studies with imputed values should be performed.
, Eve Davidian, Maarten H. Jacobs, Julius Ndorosa, Tanja M. Straka, Oliver P. Höner
Frontiers in Conservation Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.3389/fcosc.2021.691975

Abstract:
Management strategies to reduce human-carnivore conflict are most effective when accepted by local communities. Previous studies have suggested that the acceptance depends on emotions toward carnivores, the cultural importance of carnivores, and livestock depredation, and that it may vary depending on the types of strategies and carnivores involved. However, no study so far considered these factors simultaneously to compare their influence on the acceptance of management strategies. We quantified the predictive potential of these factors on the acceptance of three management strategies frequently applied to mitigate human-carnivore conflict: no action, relocation, and lethal control. We interviewed 100 members of the Maasai community in Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania. We used structured, closed questionnaires and focused on the three large carnivores involved in the most depredation regionally: spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), lions (Panthera leo), and leopards (Panthera pardus). We found that the majority of respondents accepted no action and rejected relocation and lethal control for all three carnivores. The acceptance of the management strategies was strongly influenced by the emotion joy and by the cultural importance of carnivores, and the effects of joy and cultural importance were stronger than the effect of livestock depredation. We conclude that authorities should evaluate the emotions and cultural importance that local communities associate with carnivores when seeking to gain acceptance of management strategies and account for differences between species. Finally, we recommend that future human-carnivore coexistence studies should consider the socio-psychology of local communities and be done longitudinally to detect shifts in cultural, emotional, and ecological factors over time.
Published: 29 June 2021
Abstract:
Consumer reviews have emerged as one of the most influential factors in a person's purchase behavior. The existing open-source approaches for detecting expert reviewers and determining product ratings suffer from limitations and are susceptible to manipulation. In this work, we addressed these limitations by developing two algorithms and evaluated them on three datasets from amazon.com (the largest dataset contains nearly eight million reviews). In the first algorithm, we used a combination of the existing open-source approaches such as filtering by volume of contribution, helpfulness ratio, volume of helpfulness, and deviation from the estimated actual rating to detect the experts. The second algorithm is based on link analytic mutual iterative reinforcement of product ratings and reviewers' weights. In the second algorithm, both reviewers and products carry weights reflecting their relative importance. The reviewers influence the product rating according to their weight. Similarly, the reviewers' weights are impacted by their amount of deviation from the estimated actual product rating and the product's weight. Our evaluation using three datasets from amazon.com found the second algorithm superior to the other algorithms in detecting experts and deriving product ratings, significantly reducing the avg. error and avg. Mean Squared Error of the experts over the best of the other algorithms even after maintaining similar product coverage and quantity of reviews.
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Volume 188, pp 716-735; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2021.05.008

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Mark Lowry, Anna Gaysynsky, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou
Published: 19 June 2021
Journal of Cancer Education pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-021-02054-7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 11 June 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.640165

Abstract:
The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a self-report measure of subjective well-being (SWB) for use with older adults with hearing loss (HL). A convenience sample of 173 local volunteers between the ages of 60 and 88 years (M = 74.4; SD = 7.2 years) participated in this study. The initial 18-item version of the scale was constructed, response characteristics examined, and then subjected to factor analysis, as well as evaluation of the scales' reliability and validity. The analysis of response characteristics and subsequent factor analysis resulted in the elimination of eight of the 18 test items. The SWB-HL Total score was derived from the 10 remaining items. It was shown that the SWB-HL tapped three underlying domains interpreted as: Life Satisfaction (three items); Acceptance of Hearing Loss (Accept HL; four items); and Social Support (three items). Psychometric analysis showed very good reliability and good criterion validity was established for the 10-item SWB-HL Total score. In addition, significant differences were observed between aided and unaided SWB-HL Total scores following 4–6 weeks of hearing aid use. The SWB-HL is a 10-item self-report measure of SWB that shows good reliability and validity when used by older adults with hearing loss and reveals improved SWB following the use of hearing aids.
, P Chambers, P Singh, , K Kongara
New Zealand Veterinary Journal pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2021.1927231

Abstract:
To compare the analgesic effect of morphine combined with maropitant and/or dexmedetomidine to morphine alone given at a higher dose, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the drug combinations, in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Forty client owned-dogs were randomised into four treatment groups (n=10 per group) each to receive a different analgesic protocol. After premedication with I/M acepromazine anaesthesia was induced with propofol to effect and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen delivered via a circle system. The heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin oxygen saturation, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, electrocardiogram and rectal temperature were monitored during anaesthesia. The test drugs (Mor: 0.6 mg/kg morphine; Maro + Mor: 0.3 mg/kg morphine and 1 mg/kg maropitant; Dex + Mor: 0.3 mg/kg morphine and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine; Dex + Maro + Mor: 0.2 mg/kg morphine, 7 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.7 mg/kg maropitant) were administered I/M after induction of anaesthesia and thirty minutes before the expected start time of ovariohysterectomy, which was carried out by veterinary students under veterinary supervision. The short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for pain assessment at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours after extubation. Dogs with CMPS-SF pain score ≥ 6 received rescue analgesia with S/C buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected before, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after injection of the test drugs and concentration of the test drugs in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dogs that received Dex + Mor had significantly lower CMPS-SF (estimate of difference=–1.53 (SE 0.58); p=0.010) and VAS (estimate of difference=–0.67 (SE 0.25); p=0.007) scores compared to the dogs that received morphine alone. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of dogs requiring rescue between groups. All dogs that received dexmedetomidine showed cardiac arrhythmia and second-degree heart block. Mean (SD) maximum concentrations (Cmax,) of morphine in plasma were 6.8 (4.56), 9.56 (8.29), 9.30 (3.35) and 18.99 (9.41) ng/mL for the groups Dex + Mor, Dex + Maro + Mor, Maro + Mor and Mor respectively. The Cmax of morphine was significantly lower in the Dex + Mor (p=0.004), Dex + Maro + Mor (p=0.034) and Maro + Mor (p=0.018) groups compared to the Mor group. For dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy, lower doses of morphine (0.2 and 0.3 mg/kg) combined with dexmedetomidine or maropitant may provide analgesia equivalent to or better than morphine when given alone at a higher dose (0.6 mg/kg).
, Joshua Rottman, Caroline Lawrence
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 96; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104160

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 8 June 2021
Discourse Processes pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853x.2021.1924040

Abstract:
Recent studies of appositives have turned up differences between sentence-medial appositives and sentence-final appositives, for instance, in their availability for discourse continuations. Three experiments investigated whether medial appositives are more difficult to comprehend than final appositives and if so why. Experiment 1 tested coordinating (Narration) versus subordinating (Elaboration) discourse relations in sentence-medial or sentence-final position. Coordinating relations received lower naturalness ratings in general but especially in medial position. We propose a timeline hypothesis that coordinating (Narration) relations in medial position are difficult because the processor constructs a narrative timeline from earlier to later times and avoids ordering an event later on the timeline than an event whose description has not yet been completed. An interpretation study of ambiguous appositives confirmed the timeline hypothesis (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the appositive event was disambiguated to either precede or follow the main clause event on the narrative timeline. Sentences with medial appositives disambiguated to precede the main clause event received higher naturalness ratings than those disambiguated to follow the main clause event, as expected on the timeline hypothesis.
Published: 8 June 2021
Journal of Cognition, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5334/joc.161

Abstract:
Repeated statements are rated as subjectively truer than comparable new statements, even though repetition alone provides no new, probative information (the illusory truth effect). Contrary to some theoretical predictions, the illusory truth effect seems to be similar in magnitude for repetitions occurring after minutes or weeks. This Registered Report describes a longitudinal investigation of the illusory truth effect (n = 608, n = 567 analysed) in which we systematically manipulated intersession interval (immediately, one day, one week, and one month) in order to test whether the illusory truth effect is immune to time. Both our hypotheses were supported: We observed an illusory truth effect at all four intervals (overall effect: χ2(1) = 169.91; Mrepeated = 4.52, Mnew = 4.14; H1), with the effect diminishing as delay increased (H2). False information repeated over short timescales might have a greater effect on truth judgements than repetitions over longer timescales. Researchers should consider the implications of the choice of intersession interval when designing future illusory truth effect research.
, Karolína Drábková, Karel Štěrba, Jana Olšovská
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 102; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2021.104028

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, R.J. Quinnell, A.M. Munteanu, S. Hartmann, P. Dalla Villa,
Published: 17 May 2021
Abstract:
Overabundant, free-roaming dog populations are associated with risks to public health, livestock losses, wildlife conservation, and dog health and welfare. Dog population management is conducted to mitigate these issues. Assessing dog population management strategies is important to determine their effectiveness, efficiency, and long-term impact. It is essential to also determine how the behaviour and outlook of local communities may influence the efficacy of dog population management. This study aimed to determine public attitudes towards free-roaming dogs and their management and describe dog ownership practices in three European countries using an online questionnaire survey. This study found that most surveyed respondents wanted to see a reduction in free-roaming dog numbers, and felt that this should be achieved through sheltering, catch-neuter-release, and by controlling the breeding of owned dogs. This questionnaire also identified significant associations between public attitudes and dog ownership practices with gender, religious beliefs, age, education level, reason for dog ownership, previous experience with free-roaming dogs, and country of residence. Respondents who identified as: (i) being male, (ii) holding religious beliefs, (iii) owning dogs for practical reasons, (iv) being young, and (v) having no schooling or primary education had a lower probability of neutering and a higher probability of allowing dogs to roam. Respondents who identified as: (i) being female, (ii) feeling threatened by free-roaming dogs, (iii) being older, and (iv) having more education had a higher probability of answering that an increase in free-roaming dog numbers should be prevented. These findings can help to inform future dog population management interventions in these countries and highlight the importance of considering local public attitudes and dog ownership practices in the development of effective dog population management approaches. Including these social factors will ensure that both the community and organisations involved in dog population management work cohesively towards a shared goal.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105068

Abstract:
Building concentrated resettlement community in small towns is mostly used to deal with resettlement construction for rural migrants in economically developed regions in China, which leads to migrants’ living environment changing from rural settlements where production and living are intertwined to an urban community that only supports living functions. However, the urbanized environment is contrary to elderly migrants’ behavior, resulting in contradictions or conflicts between migrants and resettlement communities, reflecting a lack of urbanization synchronization between migrants and resettlement community environments. Further, elderly migrants are also equipped with different degrees and types of urbanization characteristics, thus reflecting different abilities to adapt to the urban community environment. Based on the corresponding relationship between people’s different production and living needs and urbanization, this research starts by investigating the production and living needs of elderly migrants, and further clarifies the environmental adaptability of elderly migrants by sorting the types and characteristics of urbanization of elderly migrants to provide a reference basis for the planning and construction of future resettlement areas. The research uses questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate the population attributes and characteristics of elderly migrants, as well as their different needs for production and living. The research uses hierarchical cluster analysis, the one-way ANOVA test and Chi-square test to constructed a four-quadrant model on human urbanization features: an Urban Group with both living and production urbanized (Group H-H); a Half-urban-half-rural Group with only living needs urbanized (Group H-L); a Half-urban-Half-rural Group with only production needs urbanized (Group L-H); and a Rural group with both living and production needs not urbanized (Group L-L). Finally, based on the results, this research proposed three elderly environment construction orientations of “Promote the Supply Level of Urban Public Services”, “Create a Place That Embodies the Spirit of Immigrants’ Homeland”, and “Moderate Consideration of Agricultural Production Needs” for residential planning.
Abubakari Yakubu, Fortuna Paloji, Juan Pablo Guerrero Bonnet, Thomas Wetter
Methods of Information in Medicine, Volume 60, pp 062-070; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1731389

Abstract:
Objective We aimed to develop a survey instrument to assess the maturity level of consumer health informatics (ConsHI) in low-middle income countries (LMIC). Methods We deduced items from unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), UTAUT2, patient activation measure (PAM), and ConsHI levels to constitute a pilot instrument. We proposed a total of 78 questions consisting of 14 demographic and 64 related maturity variables using an iterative process. We used a multistage convenient sampling approach to select 351 respondents from all three countries. Results Our results supported the earlier assertion that mobile devices and technology are standard today than ever, thus confirming that mobile devices have become an essential part of human activities. We used the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (WSRT) and item response theory (IRT) to reduce the ConsHI-related items from 64 to 43. The questionnaire consisted of 10 demographic questions and 43 ConsHI relevant questions on the maturity of citizens for ConsHI in LMIC. Also, the results supported some moderators such as age and gender. Additionally, more demographic items such as marital status, educational level, and location of respondents were validated using IRT and WSRT. Conclusion We contend that this is the first composite instrument for assessing the maturity of citizens for ConsHI in LMIC. Specifically, it aggregates multiple theoretical models from information systems (UTAUT and UTAUT2) and health (PAM) and the ConsHI level.
Elizabeth Domholdt, Lina C. Billings
Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, Volume 6, pp 429-433; https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_persp-20-00107

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this survey was to determine current and desired coverage of population health concepts within speech-language pathology programs. Method Thirty-five of 253 (13.8%) Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology program directors responded to an online survey. Results Respondents agreed that 21 of 23 population health domains should be included in the curriculum, with six of the domains having at least moderate coverage within current programs. The largest gaps between current and desired coverage were in global health issues, health policy process, organization of clinical and public health systems, and health promotion interventions. Conclusion Speech-language pathology faculty can use the results to inform their decisions about incorporating population health concepts into their programs. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14044058
American Journal of Audiology pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1044/2021_aja-20-00209

Abstract:
Purpose Hyperacusis is a complex and poorly understood auditory disorder characterized by decreased tolerance to sound at levels that would not trouble most individuals. Recently, it has been suggested that individuals who experience otalgia in response to everyday sounds (termed pain hyperacusis ) may differ clinically from those whose primary symptom is the perception of everyday sounds as excessively loud (termed loudness hyperacusis ). Despite this theoretical distinction, there have been no empirical studies directly comparing these two populations of hyperacusis patients. Method Using data from a multinational patient registry (the Coordination of Rare Diseases at Sanford Registry), we examined self-reported demographics, symptoms, comorbidity, and response to treatment in a sample of 243 adults with hyperacusis, 152 of whom were classified as having pain hyperacusis based on reported symptoms. Bayesian statistical tests were used to investigate both the presence and absence of group differences between patients with loudness and pain hyperacusis. Results Individuals with pain hyperacusis presented with a more severe clinical phenotype, reporting a higher frequency of temporary symptom exacerbations (i.e., “setbacks”), less perceived symptom improvement over time, more severe comorbid headache disorders, and reduced benefit from sound therapy. However, the two hypothesized hyperacusis subtypes exhibited more similarities than differences, with the majority of symptoms and comorbidities being equally prevalent across groups. Multiple comorbidities were commonly observed, including tinnitus, primary headache disorders, psychiatric disorders, and functional somatic syndromes. Intolerance of sensory stimuli in other modalities was also frequently reported. Conclusion Although this study provides little evidence that loudness and pain hyperacusis are pathophysiologically distinct conditions, our findings indicate that a pain-predominant phenotype may be a meaningful prognostic marker in patients with hyperacusis.
, Chen Ling, Sujay Datta
Japanese Journal of Statistics and Data Science, Volume 4, pp 411-425; https://doi.org/10.1007/s42081-021-00114-2

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Johnson Ching-Hong Li, Virginia Man Chung Tze
Methodology, Volume 17, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.5964/meth.4495

Abstract:
Evaluating how an effect-size estimate performs between two continuous variables based on the common-language effect size (CLES) has received increasing attention. While Blomqvist (1950; https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177729754) developed a parametric estimator (q') for the CLES, there has been limited progress in further refining CLES. This study: a) extends Blomqvist’s work by providing a mathematical foundation for Bp (a non-parametric version of CLES) and an analytic approach for estimating its standard error; and b) evaluates the performance of the analytic and bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for Bp. The simulation shows that the bootstrap bias-corrected-and-accelerated interval (BCaI) has the best protected Type 1 error rate with a slight compromise in Power, whereas the analytic-t CI has the highest overall Power but with a Type 1 error slightly larger than the nominal value. This study also uses a real-world data-set to demonstrate the applicability of the CLES in measuring the relationship between age and sexual compulsivity.
, Rachel Smith
Published: 31 March 2021
Journal of Phonetics, Volume 86; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2021.101040

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, Nicola Dawson, Robert Davies
Published: 25 March 2021
Learning and Instruction, Volume 74; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2021.101468

Abstract:
We investigated whether the presence of orthography promotes new word learning (orthographic facilitation). In Study 1 (N = 41) and Study 2 (N = 74), children were taught 16 unknown polysyllabic words. Half of the words appeared with orthography present and half without orthography. Learning assessments captured the degree of semantic and orthographic learning; they were administered one week after teaching (Studies 1 and 2), and, unusually, eight months later (Study 1 only). Bayesian analyses indicated that the presence of orthography was associated with more word learning, though this effect was estimated with more certainty for orthographic than semantic learning. Newly learned word knowledge was well retained over time, indicating that our paradigm was sufficient to support long-term learning. Our approach provides an example of how word learning studies can look beyond simple accuracy measures to reveal the cumulative nature of lexical learning.
, Frank Jotzo
Published: 24 March 2021
Abstract:
Australia is a relative laggard on climate policy, amidst social and political fractures despite rising support for climate policy in opinion polls. In the 2019 Australian federal election, which was dubbed the ‘climate election’, the opposition campaigned on comparatively ambitious climate action but the government was returned on a status quo policy. We explore the social-political determinants of climate attitudes and how they are positioned in relation to voting behaviour, in the context of the 2019 election. We use a large nationally representative survey of Australian voters (n = 2,033), and employ univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression models to uncover correlates. We find that a large majority of voters think it is important for Australia to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the importance given to emissions reductions is sharply divided along lines of political party preference. Holding pro-climate action attitudes consistently correlates with voting for progressive political parties and having higher levels of education. We also find a strong age cohort divide, with younger people holding stronger pro-climate attitudes than older people, raising the question whether we are seeing the emergence of a new generation expressing strong pro-climate action and progressive political attitudes that will persist over time. We conduct population ageing scenarios to project changes to public opinion, by age group, into the future. These indicate that strong support for climate action would increase by about four percentage points over the coming decade as younger voters replace the old, if attitudes within cohorts remained fixed. We conclude that while cleavages in climate attitudes in Australia are set to continue, efforts to promote climate delay are bound to have a limited shelf life as a growing majority of voters accepts the need for climate action.
, , Nick Pidgeon
Published: 19 March 2021
Climatic Change, Volume 165, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-021-03050-y

Abstract:
This study explores how public attitudes across three countries influence support towards terrestrial enhanced weathering, whereby silicate minerals are applied to agricultural land to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. An online survey was administered in Australia (N = 1000), the UK (N = 1000), and the USA (N = 1026) where there are ongoing field trials of this technique. Findings are similar across all three countries with many participants unfamiliar with enhanced weathering and unsure about supporting the use of enhanced weathering. Results show that positive affect is the main predictor for support of this technique, along with perceived benefits and level of concern about climate change. Open-ended questions asking why respondents would or would not support the use of enhanced weathering elicit mainly affective concepts, with enhanced weathering seen by individual respondents as either something mainly positive or mainly negative, with others saying it sounds risky and/or would have impacts on the environment. The way in which enhanced weathering is communicated is likely to influence support of the use of this strategy so must be undertaken carefully. Overall, our findings show that it is imperative to continue to engage the public, thereby allowing their views to be incorporated as enhanced weathering technology develops over time.
Teaching in Higher Education, Volume 26, pp 471-487; https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2021.1899158

Abstract:
Team teaching in higher education offers academics the opportunity to better understand their individual teaching approaches and to learn from their colleagues. Whereas the benefits of team teaching have been widely researched, so far few findings exist regarding its value for doctoral education. This paper introduces findings of a quantitative study, which collected data from mixed-experience teaching teams. Embedded in an educational development programme for the group of teaching newcomers, team teaching here is closely linked to doctoral training. The findings suggest that – for PhD candidates – team teaching does not only provide information on the role as academic teacher, it even supports their transition towards their new academic identity. Grounded in theoretical assumptions on identity construction and the concept of liminality, this paper provides arguments on how team teaching evokes situations of encountered otherness and why this can support doctoral candidates who are on the threshold of becoming independent scholars.
, , Spoorthi Thammaiah
International Journal of Audiology, Volume 60, pp 1039-1045; https://doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2021.1884910

Abstract:
This study aimed to validate the translated Kannada version of the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaire for hearing aid users. The original (English) and the translated versions of the IOI-HA questionnaire along with the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) were self-administered by hearing aid users. To examine test-retest reliability, 50% of the study participants completed the Kannada IOI-HA for a second time approximately 15 days later. The data analyses examined various psychometric properties using a predetermined quality criterion. 105 Kannada-English bilingual adults using hearing aids. Factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure that explained a 61.8% variance in the IOI-HA. A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.7 indicated acceptable internal consistency. Good test-retest reliability (Interclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.9) was obtained for both conditions (i.e. between the original English and translated Kannada versions and also between two different administrations of the Kannada IOI-HA questionnaire). Divergent validity test results were acceptable, and no ceiling or floor effects were noted. Convergent validity testing of the SAC, however, was poor with small correlation, although the direction of correlation (i.e. negative) was as expected. Results suggest acceptable psychometric properties of the Kannada version of the IOI-HA questionnaire.
, Emmanuelle Ménétrier,
Published: 1 March 2021
Abstract:
This study examined the possibility that moderators of false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm affect the occurrence of false memories in the misinformation paradigm. More precisely, the purpose was to determine to what extent an imaging instruction modulates false memories in the DRM and misinformation paradigms. A sample of young adults was assigned to the DRM or the misinformation tasks, either in control conditions or in conditions including an imaging instruction. Findings revealed that an imaging instruction decreases false memories in DRM whereas there is no evidence about imaging effects in the misinformation task. These observations tally with previous studies, reporting a weak or no correlation between false memories in these paradigms, and are discussed in the light of current theories.
, Angelika Love, Ralf Wölfer, Miles Hewstone
Published: 18 February 2021
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Volume 50, pp 1049-1067; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01400-8

Abstract:
Past research has found intergroup contact to be a promising intervention to reduce prejudice and has identified adolescence as the developmental period during which intergroup contact is most effective. Few studies, however, have tested whether contact-based interventions can be scaled up to improve intergroup relations at a large scale. The present research evaluated whether and when the National Citizen Service, a large-scale contact-based intervention reaching one in six 15- to 17-year-olds in England and Northern Ireland, builds social cohesion among adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds. In a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 2099; M age = 16.37, age range: 15–17 years; 58% female), this study used a pretest–posttest design with a double pretest to assess the intervention’s effectiveness. Controlling for test–retest effects, this study found evidence that the intervention decreased intergroup anxiety and increased outgroup perspective-taking—but not that it affected intergroup attitudes, intergroup trust, or perceptions of relative (dis-)advantage. These (small) effects were greater for adolescents who had experienced less positive contact before participating and who talked more about group differences while participating. These findings suggest that the intervention might not immediately improve intergroup relations—but that it has the potential to prepare adolescents, especially those with less positive contact experiences before the intervention, for more positive intergroup interactions in the future.
The Econometrics Journal, Volume 24, pp 502-518; https://doi.org/10.1093/ectj/utab003

Abstract:
Summary Multilateral comparison of outcomes drawn from multiple groups pervade the social sciences and measurement of their variability, usually involving functions of respective group location and scale parameters, is of intrinsic interest. However, such approaches frequently mask more fundamental differences that more comprehensive examination of relative group distributional structures reveal. Indeed, in categorical data contexts, location- and scale-based techniques are no longer feasible without artificial and questionable cardinalisation of categories. Here, Gini’s transvariation measure is extended and employed in providing quantitative and visual multilateral comparison tools in discrete, continuous, categorical, univariate, or multivariate settings which are particularly useful in paradigms where cardinal measure is absent. Two applications, one analysing Eurozone cohesion in terms of the convergence or divergence of constituent nations income distributions, the other, drawn from a study of ageing, health, and income inequality in China, exemplify their use in a continuous and categorical data environment.
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