(searched for: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00558)
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.739981
Pathological Internet use will have a serious impact on normal individual study and work and has become one of the most important factors hindering the growth and development of contemporary college students. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms of loneliness and depression in the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and pathological Internet use (PIU). A total of 1,179 college students were studied using the Chinese version of the Big Five Personality Scale, Loneliness Scale, Depression Scale, and Pathological Internet Use Scale. The results showed that loneliness partially mediated the relationship between extraversion and PIU and completely mediated the relationship between agreeableness and PIU and neuroticism and PIU. Depression completely mediated the relationship between agreeableness and PIU, neuroticism completely mediated the relationship with PIU, and sense of responsibility partially mediated the relationship with PIU. This study revealed the relationship between different personality traits and PIU and the mediating role of loneliness and depression, suggesting that we should carry out targeted interventions on PIU for college students with different personality traits.
Journal of Public Health pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-021-01659-y
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Published: 24 August 2021
Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5817/cp2021-3-1
Starting from the dualistic model of passion by Vallerand and colleagues (2003), this study aimed to identify “obsessive” and “harmonious” involvements in MMORPGs and to verify their relationships with players’ self-esteem and well-being. An international sample of 147 MMORPG players participated in a longitudinal design filling out for 3 times an online questionnaire measuring game involvement (in terms of Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD] symptoms, time spent playing the video game, sense of presence while playing, and avatar identification), global self-esteem, and well-being (i.e., meaningful life, engaged life, and pleasant life). Results supported the presence of these two different types of involvement: Obsessive involvement, characterized by a close association between IGD symptoms and playing time; Harmonious involvement, characterized by a close association between presence, avatar identification, and IGD symptoms. Cross-lagged effects showed that, over time, low self-esteem and low meaningful life predicted obsessive involvement, which in turn predicted engaged life. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the effects between video games use and the users’ self-esteem and well-being. Furthermore, it contributes to the theoretical debate about problematic involvement in videogames, also providing some indications about problematic gaming assessment and prevention.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.529665
This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of internet gaming disorder, social network use, and generalized pathological internet use (GPIU) on the association between loneliness and depression. A total of 2211 junior high school students completed questionnaires regarding loneliness, internet gaming disorder, social network use, GPIU, and depression (aged 10–16 years). The results of a structural equation model revealed that (a) the path coefficient of loneliness to depression was significantly positive, (b) loneliness could not predict depression through GPIU directly, but (c) loneliness could predict depression through internet gaming disorder to GPIU, (d) loneliness could predict depression through social network use to GPIU, and (e) loneliness could not predict depression through internet gaming disorder to social network use to GPIU. These results provided significant implications for the prevention and reduction of depression in Chinese junior high school students.
Published: 4 November 2020
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218152
Phubbing (phone snubbing) has become a commonplace behavior. The more we are phubbed the more likely we are to phub others. The extraordinary attention-grabbing ability of the smartphone would only be an interesting story if not for its impact on social media use and, ultimately, stress and depression. In Study 1 (n = 258, Mage = 20), we develop a parsimonious and valid measure of phubbing. Extant “phubbing” measures all lack important qualities needed to be able to assess phubbing with a brief and valid scale that can be replicated and used in a variety of research settings. In Study 2 (n = 157, Mage = 39), we test and extend the David and Roberts (2017) phubbing model, while further validating our perceived phubbing measure. We use Social Exchange Theory and Kardefelt-Winther’s (2014) model of compensatory internet use as theoretical support for our expected findings. Results find that phubbed individuals experience a sense of social exclusion that, paradoxically, is associated with an increased use of social media. This increased use of social media is associated with higher reported levels of anxiety and depression. Future research directions and study limitations are discussed.
The Open Psychology Journal, Volume 13, pp 242-252; https://doi.org/10.2174/1874350102013010242
Background: The association between traumatic experiences, different forms of emotion dysregulation and problematic technology uses is well established. However, little is known about the role of childhood traumatic experiences and reflective functioning in the onset and maintenance of mobile phone addiction symptoms among adolescents. Methods: Self-reported measures on childhood traumatic experiences, reflective functioning, and Problematic Mobile Phone Use (PMPU) were administered to 466 high school students (47.1% females) aged 13-19 years old. Participants also reported the number of hours per day spent on using a mobile phone. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that increased time spent on the mobile phone, low reflective functioning scores and high childhood trauma scores predicted PMPU scores in the sample. Moreover, two gender-specific pathways were found. Among males, PMPU was positively related to time spent on mobile phone and childhood traumatic experiences and negatively related to reflective functioning. Among females, PMPU was negatively associated with time spent on mobile phone for video gaming and with reflective functioning. Conclusion: These results might have relevant clinical implications in highlighting the importance of planning gender-tailored interventions for adolescents who report mobile phone addiction symptoms.
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2020, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7987356
The study assessed the relationship between Internet addiction and oral health practices and clinical outcomes and whether this was affected by oral health perception. In 2017, a cross-sectional study included university students in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Questionnaires assessed demographic background, oral health practices (consuming sugar, tobacco use, and oral hygiene), perceived oral health, and Internet addiction. Caries experience and gingivitis were assessed using the World Health Organization criteria. The multivariate general linear analysis assessed the relationship between dependent variables (oral health practices, DMFT, and gingivitis) and exposure (Internet addiction). Data were available for 919 participants, 75.4% females, mean age = 19.8 years, and 1.6% with significant Internet use problem. The mean percentage of teeth with gingivitis was 8.5% and mean DMFT was 2.9. Among those with good perception of oral health and compared with participants with significant Internet use problem, average Internet users had lower consumption of sugar and tobacco (B = −6.52,andB = −2.04,), better oral hygiene practices (B = 2.07,), higher DMFT (B = 2.53,), and lesser gingivitis (B = −15.45,). Internet addiction was associated with negative oral health practices and poor clinical outcomes among young Saudis. Holistic health promotion approaches need to address the negative impact of Internet addiction on health and oral health status for this at-risk age group.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01782
Although numerous studies have examined the factors influencing problematic Internet use (PIU), few studies have investigated the interactions between inappropriate physical and mental health (e.g., cyberbullying, Internet pornography, and Internet fraud) as factors facilitating PIU and examined the moderating effect of community bond. Thus, this study analyzed the moderating role of community bond in the relationship between cyberbullying, Internet pornography, Internet fraud, and PIU. Using a cross-sectional survey, adolescents were surveyed through self-report questionnaires. A total of 5,211 responses were received from participant students at 60 senior high schools in Taiwan. Statistical analyses were performed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that cyberbullying, Internet pornography, Internet fraud, and community bond have significant positive effects on PIU. Community bond has a significant moderating effect in the relationship between cyberbullying, Internet fraud, and the PIU of adolescents. Parental Internet attitude and behavior were found to significantly moderate the relationship between inappropriate physical and mental health, community bond, and PIU. The results suggest that public health and education policies should focus more on adolescents who require additional assistance. Furthermore, school policies could be more informed in regard to relevant psychosocial variables and patterns of Internet use. Finally, this study may serve as a reference for parents, schools, and government education authorities.
Internet Addiction in Adolescents pp 3-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43784-8_1
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Atlantic Journal of Communication, Volume 29, pp 189-201; https://doi.org/10.1080/15456870.2020.1742716
Mass media influences to achieve ideal body image are widely posited to be an antecedent of low body esteem in females. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between mass media influence on body image and body esteem, with a focus on the mediating role of hopeful future expectations in a sample of female adolescents. Body esteem, mass media influences on body image, and hopeful future expectations were evaluated in 280 Italian female adolescents by means of questionnaires. Mass media influences on body image are negatively associated with body esteem, and hopeful expectations for the future are positively associated with body esteem. The negative influence of mass media pressures on body esteem was partially mediated by hopeful expectations for the future. Clinicians dealing with adolescents with low body esteem may consider how female adolescents internalize sociocultural body ideals and how this internalization might affect their future expectations and body esteem.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02559
Background: A need exists to increase our understanding of the association between maladaptive personality traits, psychopathological symptoms, game preference, and different types of video game use. In the present study, we used a person-centered approach to identify different subtypes of video game players and we explored how they differ in personality profiles, clinical symptoms, and video game usage. Methods: We assessed problematic gaming via the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale and self-reported screen time playing video games in a sample of 366 adolescents and young adult gamers. Participants also completed measures on maladaptive personality domains (Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form), alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale—20 items), and psychopathological symptoms (DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure) and reported which genre of video games they preferred. Results: Using a person-centered, cluster-analytic approach, we identified four clusters of video game players (Occasional, Passionate, Preoccupied, and Disordered) presenting peculiar combinations of problematic gaming scores and time spent online playing video games. Non-problematic gamers (Occasional and Passionate) represented the majority of the sample (62.3% of the participants). Highly involved gamers who exhibited excessive screen time playing video games (Disordered gamers) presented the highest level of maladaptive personality traits and psychopathological symptoms, and were characterized by the greatest use of Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games. Conclusion: These results have clinical implications on suggesting the importance to determining whether or not problematic gaming activities reflect a dysfunctional emotion-focused coping strategy to avoid inner unpleasant emotional or a more generally compromised emotional and social functioning.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02248
This cross-sectional study explored the impact of stress, social anxiety, and social class on Internet addiction among adolescents. The subjects—1,634 middle school students—were investigated using the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS), the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) Chinese Short Form, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), and the Questionnaire of Family Social-economic Status. The results show that 12% of the adolescents investigated showed signs of Internet addiction. With the increase of grade, the tendency of Internet addiction and the number of addicts gradually increased. It also showed that Internet addiction is positively correlated with stress and social anxiety and negatively correlated with social class. Social anxiety partially mediates the impact of stress on Internet addiction and social class indirectly influences Internet addiction by moderating the relationship between stress and social anxiety. In conclusion, there is a mediated-moderation effect between stress and adolescent Internet addiction This means that adolescents from different social classes have different types of anxiety when they feel the stress, which influences their choices concerning internet use.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01959
Background: It is well established that increased internet use is related to an increased risk of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents. The relationship between internet addiction (IA), a unique condition involving severe internet overuse, and musculoskeletal pain has, however, not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the association between IA and the risk of musculoskeletal pain among Chinese college students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 4211 Chinese college freshmen. IA status was evaluated using the 20-item Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT). IA was defined as internet addiction score ≥50 points. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association between IA categories (normal, mild, and moderate-to-severe) and musculoskeletal pain. Results: Among all participants; neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist/hand, and low back and waist pain was reported by 29.2, 33.9, 3.8, 7.9, and 27.9%, respectively. The prevalence of IA was 17.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders, the results showed significant differences in the risk of musculoskeletal pain among different IA categories. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for neck pain with IA categories were 1.000 (reference), 1.451 (1.221, 1.725), and 1.994 (1.608, 2.473), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). For shoulder pain, these were 1.000 (reference), 1.520 (1.287, 1.795), and 2.057 (1.664, 2.542), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). For elbow pain, ORs (95% CIs) were 1.000 (reference), 1.627 (1.016, 2.605), and 2.341 (1.382, 3.968), respectively (P for trends: 0.001). Those for wrist/hand pain were 1.000 (reference), 1.508 (1.104, 2.060), and 2.236 (1.561, 3.202), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). For low back and waist pain with severe IA categories, these were 1.000 (reference), 1.635 (1.368, 1.955), and 2.261 (1.813, 2.819), respectively (P for trends: < 0.001). Conclusion: This cross-sectional study showed that severe IA was associated with a higher risk of musculoskeletal pain in Chinese college freshmen. In future research, it will be necessary to explore causality regarding this relationship using interventional studies.
Published: 15 April 2019
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, Volume 19, pp 447-461; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00079-0
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Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01822
The present study aimed to explore the mediating effects of loneliness, depression, and self-esteem on the association between shyness and generalized pathological Internet use (GPIU). A total of 5215 school students completed questionnaires regarding shyness, loneliness, depression, self-esteem, and GPIU (aged 11–23 years old, M = 16.19, SD = 3.10). The self-reported scores for GPIU, shyness, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem were tested in students from elementary schools to universities. The results of a variance analysis indicated that senior high school students had the greatest prevalence of GPIU of all the study stages. With the study stages resolved, the results of a structural equation model revealed that: (a) shyness positively predicted GPIU; (b) shyness/loneliness/depression predicted GPIU through self-esteem; (c) shyness predicted GPIU through loneliness/depression → self-esteem; and (d) shyness predicted GPIU through loneliness → depression → self-esteem. In conclusion, these results provided significant implications for preventing or reducing GPIU in Chinese school students.
Published: 11 September 2018
Using the Internet has become one of the most popular leisure activities among postsecondary students in China. Concern about the large number of students using the Internet has led to an increase in research on the influencing factors of Internet addiction and the negative consequences caused by it. This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among three dimensions of social support [objective support (OS), subjective support (SS), and support utilization (SU)], loneliness, and the four dimensions of Internet addiction (compulsive Internet use [CIU] & withdrawal from Internet addiction [WIA], tolerance of Internet addiction [TIA], time-management problems [TMPs], and interpersonal and health problems [IHPs]) in a Chinese sample. A total of 169 postsecondary first-year students (88 girls and 81 boys; mean age = 18.31 years) participated in the study. The questionnaire measurements were taken at the beginning of the school year (T1), 6 months later (T2), and 1 year later (T3). Cross-lagged and structural equation modeling analyses indicated that (a) OS (T1) and SU (T1) negatively predicted loneliness (T2); and loneliness (T2) negatively predicted OS (T3) and SU(T3); (b) CIU & WIA (T1) and TMPs (T1) positively predicted loneliness (T2); and loneliness (T2) positively predicted CIU & WIA (T3), TIA (T3), TMP (T3), and IHP (T3); (c) SS (T1) directly affected TIA (T3) and TMP (T3); and (d) loneliness (T2) played a mediating role in the relationships between OS (T1) and CIU (T3), OS (T1) and TMP (T3), OS (T1) and IHP (T3), and SU (T1) and IHP (T3). Finally, interventions for Internet addiction and implications for future studies were discussed.