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(searched for: doi:10.4271/2011-01-0633)
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Indranil Brahma, Cristobal Manzanares, Rob Jennings, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Abishek Raghavan, Daniel Johnson, Peter Stryker
Published: 8 November 2016
SAE Technical Paper Series; https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-32-0069

Arumugam Sakunthalai Ramadhas,
Published: 1 February 2016
Biofuels, Volume 7, pp 353-363; https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2015.1138037

Abstract:
Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel, used as a blending component for diesel, which reduces hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions with marginal increases in nitrogen oxide emissions. Engine performance varies with ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and operating conditions. This research investigated the impact of biodiesel blends on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics during cold start at different ambient temperature conditions. Biodiesel blends improved the combustion and thereby reduced the sudden rise in peak speed and the gaseous emissions at normal ambient temperature. At cold ambient conditions biodiesel severely affected the cold start performance and increased the gaseous emissions. During cold start, the biodiesel blends emitted a larger number of particles of diameter 100–1000 nm at cold ambient temperature compared to normal ambient temperature. The particulate surface area and mass was increased by 2–3 times and 3–6 times, respectively, for the biodiesel blends with the drop in ambient temperature. The higher number of larger diameter particles increased the particulate mass significantly at cold ambient temperature conditions.
Husein Adam Nakhawa, S.S. Thipse
Advanced Engineering Forum, Volume 14, pp 86-96; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/aef.14.86

Abstract:
The ultrafine and nano particles compared to larger particles are gaining high importance because of their vulnerable effects to environment and human health causing respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and various types of cancers leading to premature death [1]. WHO report points out that approximately, two thirds of the global burden of disease due to urban outdoor air pollution is mostly from the developing countries in Asia (Cohen et al. 2004)[2]. By number, nearly all of the particles emitted by a diesel engine are nanoparticles which are also true for gasoline engines [3]. This is addressed by new UN Regulations by introducing the emission norms for diesel and GDI vehicles for particle number and PM2.5 as 6 x 10 11 and 4.5 mg/km respectively [4]. However, other S.I. engines like CNG, even though they look clean as there is no visible smoke but emitting large number of particles is necessary to investigate. This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nano particle emissions from CNG vehicle on Indian driving cycle and it covers experimental Investigation to identify the significance of different operating phases viz. idling, acceleration, deceleration and cruising for their contributions to particle number and size distribution pattern over urban as well as on extra urban part of the cycle. CNG passenger car shows large peak of PN emissions during cold starting phase at the beginning of the test cycle which is almost twice that of diesel vehicle. However, this concentration peak will decrease near to 25% on light operating loads during urban part of the cycle, but during acceleration and cruising operation on extra urban cycle under heavy load the PN emissions from CNG car are higher in magnitude. The particles emitted from CNG buses are too small to contribute to PM10 as they are of ultrafine and nano size range.
D. Wang, Z. C. Liu, J. Tian, J. W. Liu, J. R. Zhang
International Journal of Automotive Technology, Volume 13, pp 1023-1032; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-012-0105-5

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, Carlo Ferraro, Davide Vezza, Theodoros Vlachos
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Volume 4, pp 9-22; https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-0328

Abstract:
The effects of using a B30 blend of ultra low sulphur diesel and two different Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) obtained from both Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine on both full load performance and part load emissions have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine torque were firstly analyzed, for both a standard ECU calibration (i.e. without any special tuning for the different fuel characteristics) and for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration obtained by properly increasing the injected fuel quantities to compensate for the lower LHV of the B30: with the latter, the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be observed with the B30 blend too, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits. Moreover, the effects of the two different 30% vol. blends on brake specific fuel consumption and on engine-out exhaust emissions (CO2, CO, HC, NOx and smoke) were also evaluated at 6 different part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle. Both standard engine calibration (change of the accelerator pedal position) and specifically adjusted engine calibration (adjustment of the energizing time of main injection) were evaluated for part load operating conditions, highlighting a 4% average rise of fuel consumption, on a mass basis, at same fuel conversion efficiency and CO2 emissions. A noticeable increase of CO and HC emissions at low load could also be noticed, along with a significant NOx emissions decrease when using a specifically adjusted engine calibration, and a considerable smoke emission reductio
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