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(searched for: doi:10.4103/1817-1737.56008)
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Vladimir V. Chernyshov, , Iana L. Esaulkova, Ekaterina Sinegubova, Sophia S. Borisevich, Irina I. Popadyuk, Vladimir V. Zarubaev, Nariman F. Salakhutdinov
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Volume 55; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128465

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Hamad Eid Al-Romaihi, Maria K. Smatti, Nandakumar Ganesan, Shazia Nadeem, Elmoubasher Farag, Peter V. Coyle, Joanne Daghfal Nader, Hebah A. Al-Khatib, Emad B. Elmagboul, Said Al Dhahry, et al.
Published: 13 June 2019
Abstract:
Limited data is available about the etiology of influenza like illnesses (ILIs) in Qatar. This study aimed at providing preliminary estimates of influenza and other respiratory infections circulating among adults in Qatar. We retrospectively collected data of about 44,000 patients who visited Hamad General Hospital clinics, sentinel sites, and all primary healthcare centers in Qatar between 2012 and 2017. All samples were tested for influenza viruses, whereas about 38,000 samples were tested for influenza and a panel of respiratory viruses using Fast Track Diagnostics (FTD) RT-PCR kit. Among all ILIs cases, 20,278 (46.5%) tested positive for at least one respiratory pathogen. Influenza virus was predominating (22.6%), followed by human rhinoviruses (HRVs) (9.5%), and human coronaviruses (HCoVs) (5%). A detection rate of 2-3% was recorded for mycoplasma pneumonia, adenoviruses, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). ILIs cases were reported throughout the year, however, influenza, RSV, and HMPV exhibited strong seasonal peaks in the winter, while HRVs circulated more during fall and spring. Elderly (>50 years) had the lowest rates of influenza A (13.9%) and B (4.2%), while presenting the highest rates of RSV (3.4%) and HMPV (3.3%). While males had higher rates of HRVs (11.9%), enteroviruses (1.1%) and MERS CoV (0.2%), females had higher proportions of influenza (26.3%), HPIVs (3.2%) and RSV (3.6%) infections. This report provides a comprehensive insight about the epidemiology of ILIs among adults in the Qatar, as a representative of Gulf States. These results would help in improvement and optimization of diagnostic procedures, as well as control and prevention of the respiratory infections.
, , Subramanian Suganya, Balaji Nandagopal, Gopalan Sridharan
Published: 31 May 2018
Bioinformation, Volume 14, pp 183-189; https://doi.org/10.6026/97320630014183

Abstract:
Influenza viruses A and B are important human respiratory pathogens causing seasonal, endemic and pandemic infections in several parts of the globe with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The current inactivated and live attenuated vaccines are not effective. Therefore, it is of interest to design universal influenza virus vaccines with high efficacy. The peptide GQSVVSVKLAGNSSL of pandemic influenza, the peptide DKTSVTLAGNSSLCS of seasonal influenza and the peptide DILLKFSPTEITAPT of influenza B were identified as potential linear cell mediated epitopes. The epitopes predicted by BepiPred (B-cell epitope designer) program was subjected to docking experiment-using HexDock and CABS dock programs. The epitopes of pandemic H1N1 influenza A gave similar score of high affinity in docking. The epitope DKTSVTLAGNSSLCS of seasonal influenza A and epitope DILLKFSPTEITAPT of influenza B had high binding energy. It is further observed that the peptides GQSVVSVKLAGNSSL (pandemic influenza), DKTSVTLAGNSSLCS (seasonal influenza) DILLKFSPTEITAPT (influenza B) are found to interact with some known MHC class II alleles. These peptides have high-affinity binding with known MHC class II alleles. Thus, they have the potential to elicit cell immune response. These vaccines have to be further evaluated in animal models and human volunteers. These findings have application in the development of peptide B-cell epitope vaccines against influenza viruses.
, Ali M. Al Barrak, Mohamed S. Al-Moamary, Nasser S. Alharbi, Majdy M. Idrees, Abdullah A. Al Shimemeri, Mohamed S. Al-Hajjaj
Published: 15 December 2015
by 10.4103
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 10, pp 223-230; https://doi.org/10.4103/1817-1737.167065

Abstract:
Influenza viruses are responsible for the influenza outbreaks that lead to significant burden and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Based on the core proteins, influenza viruses are classified into three types, A, B, and C, of which only A and B cause significant human disease and so the vaccine is directed against these two subtypes only. The effectiveness of the vaccine depends on boosting the immune system against the serotypes included within it. As influenza viruses undergo periodic changes in their antigen, the vaccine is modified annually to ensure susceptibility. In contrast to other countries, Saudi Arabia faces a unique and challenging situation due to Hajj and Umrah seasons, when millions of people gather at the holy places in Mecca and Madinah, during which influenza outbreaks are commonly found. Such challenges making the adoption of strict vaccination strategy in Saudi Arabia is of great importance. All efforts were made to develop this guideline in an easy-to-read form, making it very handy and easy to use by health care workers. The guideline was designed to provide recommendations for problems frequently encountered in real life, with special consideration for special situations such as Hajj and Umrah seasons and pregnancy.
V. Radosavljevic,
Published: 31 January 2012
Public Health, Volume 126, pp 77-81; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2011.11.006

Abstract:
To develop a model for quick and accurate evaluation of unusual epidemic events (UEE), based on the original model of bioterrorism risk assessment. A new scoring system was developed for quick differentiation between a biological attack and other epidemics, using eight qualitative and six quantitative indicators. A new scoring system was applied to three UEEs: (1) a spontaneous outbreak of a new or re-emerging disease ('swine flu'); (2) a spontaneous outbreak following accidental release of a pathogen (Sverdlovsk anthrax); and (3) a spontaneous natural outbreak of a known endemic disease that may mimic bioterrorism or biowarfare (Kosovo tularaemia). The disease agent was found to be the most important and the most informative UEE component of the scoring system. This new scoring system may be useful for public health institutions and federal civil and military officials responsible for bio-attack investigations.
Published: 1 October 2011
Polish Journal of Radiology, Volume 76, pp 45-48

Abstract:
The question arises about the chest X-ray findings and clinical symptoms in swine flu and about the most important clinical finding when correlated with the chest radiograph. Should physicians order a chest X-ray in each patient suspected of having swine flu? There were 179 patients with a high suspicion of swine flu. All 179 patients had an initial chest radiograph. As many as 65 males (representing 56% of the projected study population) had a normal chest radiograph, while 35 males (representing 55.6% of the study population) had an abnormal chest X-ray. As many as 51 females (representing 44% of the population) had a normal chest X-ray, while 20 females (representing 44% of the study population) had abnormal chest X-rays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal chest X-ray (CXR). Rapid antigen test was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Fever was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Cough appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Sore throat appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Chest pain was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Presence of cough with PCR was statistically significant. In my opinion, chest radiographs in patients with suspected H1N1 should only be obtained if there is a cough or sore throat. Other symptoms associated with H1N1 do not warrant a chest radiograph unless absolutely necessary.
Melike Demirbag Kaplan, Yusuf Cem Kaplan
Published: 29 March 2011
Management Research Review, Volume 34, pp 353-363; https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171111116358

Abstract:
Purpose – Anti-consumption is a new domain of research that deals with why individuals avoid consumption of particular products. To date, research in this area is only confined to the rejection of goods, with no evidence from the services industry. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of anti-consumption behaviour for public health services, by deriving data from Swine Flu vaccination resistance in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach – The research employs a factor analysis method based on data collected from 519 individuals. Findings – Findings suggest that there is a strong anti-consumption attitude of the Turkish public towards the service, and a major reason for avoidance was moral incompatibility, such that the public believed that the vaccination served the interests of pharmaceutical companies and the government. The findings also reveal that all the factors previously mentioned in the literature may be involved in the anti-consumption of public health products. Originality/value – This study suggests that public products, including public health services, are highly subject to anti-consumption movements, and policies involving such products should also be considered from this perspective in order to provide an increased welfare for the public.
, Aymen M'rad, Hatem El Ghord, Nadia Kouraichi, Hafedh Thabet, Mouldi Amamou
Published: 1 January 2011
Annals of Thoracic Medicine, Volume 6, pp 241-2; https://doi.org/10.4103/1817-1737.84782

Abstract:
Ann Thorac Med, Official scientific journal of Saudi Thoracic society
, Rupali Roy, Paras Agarwal, Anjur Tupil Kannan
Published: 1 January 2011
Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Volume 36, pp 187-90; https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.86518

Abstract:
Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers) was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.
Clare Looker, , Kristina Grant,
Published: 28 October 2010
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: We characterise the clinical features and household transmission of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in community cases from Victoria, Australia in 2009. METHODS: Questionnaires were used to collect information on epidemiological characteristics, illness features and co-morbidities of cases identified in the 2009 Victorian Influenza Sentinel Surveillance program. RESULTS: The median age of 132 index cases was 21 years, of whom 54 (41%) were under 18 years old and 28 (21%) had medical co-morbidities. The median symptom duration was significantly shorter for children who received antivirals than in those who did not (p = 0.03). Assumed influenza transmission was observed in 63 (51%) households. Influenza-like illness (ILI) developed in 115 of 351 household contacts, a crude secondary attack rate of 33%. Increased ILI rates were seen in households with larger numbers of children but not larger numbers of adults. Multivariate analysis indicated contacts of cases with cough and diarrhoea, and contacts in quarantined households were significantly more likely to develop influenza-like symptoms. CONCLUSION: Most cases of pH1N1 in our study were mild with similar clinical characteristics to seasonal influenza. Illness and case features relating to virus excretion, age and household quarantine may have influenced secondary ILI rates within households
, , Armin Kalenka, Markus Alb, , , Joseph U. Schoepf, Stefan O. Schoenberg,
Published: 30 June 2010
Academic Radiology, Volume 17, pp 681-685; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2010.03.013

Abstract:
Rationale and Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the findings of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography in patients requiring intensive care unit treatment for severe H1N1 virus pneumonia. Materials and Methods In 2009, 10 patients required treatment in an intensive care unit for confirmed H1N1 pneumonia. All patients underwent chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. All 10 patients required mechanical ventilation because of respiratory failure. Nine patients presented with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and one patient died. Four patients underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. The results of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomographic scans of these patients were systematically analyzed. Results The mean age of all patients was 44.1 ± 12.3 years. All 10 patients showed abnormal results on chest radiography. The radiographic abnormalities were bilateral and multifocal in 10 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were consolidations (n = 9), ground-glass opacities (n = 8), and reticular opacities (n = 2). The most frequent computed tomographic findings at presentation consisted of bilateral ground-glass opacities (n = 9), pleural effusion (n = 9), areas of consolidation (n = 8), interstitial marking (n = 8), and crazy paving (n = 4). All patients undergoing ECMO therapy showed extensive bilateral ground-glass opacities, multifocal areas of consolidation, and crazy paving. Pleural effusion was present in three of four patients undergoing ECMO therapy. Conclusion Patients requiring treatment in an intensive care unit for severe H1N1 pneumonia are at high risk for developing acute respiratory distress syndrome and frequently require ECMO therapy.
Shui Shan Lee,
PLoS Currents, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.rrn1151

Abstract:
Using notification data, diffusion of pandemic human influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Hong Kong was explored with geographic information system (GIS) methodology. Point data were displayed and then analysed with interpolation and the application of SaTScan™. Beginning from 6 initial foci, the spatial distribution has remained heterogeneous at the end of the first three months, with students functioning as the main disseminators. Our study showed that routinely collected surveillance data could be effectively used for describing the epidemic, which could support the development of interventions at local levels.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 42, pp 412-420; https://doi.org/10.3109/00365541003699649

Abstract:
In April 2009 a novel (pandemic) influenza A H1N1 virus was identified in Mexico and the USA and spread throughout the world over a short period of time. Although the virulence of novel influenza was no greater than that of seasonal influenza, a major patient load and wave of admissions were faced. There are few evidence-based data available to guide infection control measures for novel influenza, however what is clear is that the novel virus is a very efficient agent for rapid spread and onset of outbreaks in healthcare settings. There are few reports on the nosocomial transmission of novel influenza, however outbreaks with severe morbidity and mortality may occur among high-risk groups. Last y efforts were made in several countries to build infection control capacity in healthcare facilities and to improve employee and patient safety. Adherence of healthcare workers to recommendations for vaccination against novel influenza and the use of personal protective equipment are emerging as major obstacles in achieving this goal. The use of N95 respirators instead of surgical masks for all close contacts, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and in contrast with recommendations for seasonal influenza, is a major shift in everyday practice.
Yu-Jiun Chan, Chia-Ling Lee, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Chang-Phone Fung, Fu-Der Wang, David H.T. Yen, Cheng-Hsien Tsai, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen,
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, Volume 73, pp 62-66; https://doi.org/10.1016/s1726-4901(10)70003-4

Abstract:
Background: The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza emerged in April 2009 and spread rapidly and broadly all over the world. In addition to specific antiviral agents, massive vaccination is thought to be the most effective way of controlling the transmission. To understand the prevaccination status of certain risk groups, this study compared the baseline sero-prevalence of antibodies to the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus among hospital staff with different contact risks and that of the general population. Methods: A total of 295 serum samples from hospital staff and 244 control serum samples from people who came for physical check-up (control group) were collected between October 2009 and November 2009 before the massive vaccination campaign. The hospital staff was divided into first-line risk personnel (group 1) and second-line risk personnel (group 2) according to their potential contact risks. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests were conducted to determine the individual serological status. The seropositive rate (SPR, defined as the proportion with HI titer ≥ 1:40) of antibodies to H1N1 influenza virus and its geometric mean titer (GMT) were calculated and compared among the different groups. Results: The mean ages and sex ratio (% male) of the hospital staff and control groups were 36.9 ± 10.6 years and 52.0 ± 12.6 years, and 24.4% and 57.6%, respectively. The SPR of the antibodies to H1N1 influenza virus of the hospital staff was significantly higher than that of the control group (20.0% vs. 2.9%, p< 0.001). Furthermore, the SPR antibodies to H1N1 influenza virus of group 1 were significantly higher than that of group 2 (30.8% vs. 12.6%, p< 0.001). However, the GMT of antibodies to H1N1 influenza virus of the hospital staff was not significantly different from that of the control group (p = 0.925). Conclusion: The SPR of antibodies against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in the hospital staff was higher than that in the general population, reflecting a higher contact risk. Prevaccination surveillance of the immune status of different risk groups may help to prioritize which groups should be vaccinated first.
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