(searched for: doi:10.1038/bonekey.2016.87)
Bone, Volume 154; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116207
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Micron, Volume 150; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2021.103142
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PLoS ONE, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0243933
Chronic low-grade inflammation has been identified as an underlying cause of many diseases including osteoporosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of the inflammatory response that can negatively affect bone outcomes by upregulating bone resorption and inhibiting bone formation. The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal response of trabecular and cortical bone structure and bone mineral density to LPS continuously administered for 12 weeks in male and female CD-1 mice. Mice were assigned to one of four LPS groups at 8-weeks of age: placebo (0.0 μg/d), low (0.9 μg/d), mid (3.6 μg/d) and high (14.4 μg/d) dose. Trabecular and cortical bone outcomes were measured at 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age using in vivo micro-computed tomography. The anticipated serum LPS dose-dependent response was not observed. Therefore, the low, mid, and high LPS groups were combined for analysis. Compared to the placebo group, endpoint serum LPS was elevated in both males (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.05) when all LPS treatment groups were combined. However, there was no significant change in trabecular or cortical bone outcomes in the combined LPS groups compared to the placebo following the 12-week LPS intervention for either sex. This suggests that although serum LPS was elevated following the 12-week LPS intervention, the dosages administered using the osmotic pumps was not sufficient to negatively impact trabecular or cortical bone outcomes in either male or female CD-1 mice.
eLife, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.56666
Bone strength is determined by its dense cortical shell, generated by unknown mechanisms. Here we use the Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f mouse, with delayed cortical bone consolidation, to characterise cortical maturation and identify control signals. We show that cortical maturation requires a reduction in cortical porosity, and a transition from low to high density bone, which continues even after cortical shape is established. Both processes were delayed in Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f mice. SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3) inhibits signalling by leptin, G-CSF, and IL-6 family cytokines (gp130). In Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f bone, STAT3 phosphorylation was prolonged in response to gp130-signalling cytokines, but not G-CSF or leptin. Deletion of gp130 in Dmp1Cre:Socs3f/f mice suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in osteocytes and osteoclastic resorption within cortical bone, leading to rescue of the corticalisation defect, and restoration of compromised bone strength. We conclude that cortical bone development includes both pore closure and accumulation of high density bone, and that these processes require suppression of gp130-STAT3 signalling in osteocytes.
Bone Reports, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2019.100232
While repeated in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) allows for longitudinal measurement of bone outcomes in rodent models, it is important to determine that the resulting irradiation – dependent on the frequency and number of scans - does not exceed the effects of the intervention. The objective of this study was to determine whether repeated irradiation exposure from μCT scans at 1-month intervals for a total of four scans would alter trabecular or cortical bone structure outcomes and/or bone mineral density in tibias from both male and female CD-1 mice. The right tibia of male (n = 12) and female (n = 11) CD-1 mice were scanned using μCT at 2, 3, 4, and 5 months of age, while the contralateral left tibia served as a control and was scanned only at 5 months of age. All scans were performed at a resolution of 9 μm using a radiation dose of 460 mGy per scan. Some outcomes of trabecular bone structure were affected by repeated irradiation in both males and females. The bone volume fraction was lower in the irradiated right tibia compared to the non-irradiated left tibia in both males (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.01) as a result of decreased trabecular number (males p < 0.05; females p < 0.05) and increased trabecular separation (males p < 0.05; females p < 0.01). Some cortical measures were also affected in females but not in males, including lower cortical bone periosteal perimeter (p < 0.05), lower total area (p < 0.01) and lower marrow area (p < 0.05) with repeated irradiation. Exposure to repeated radiation at intervals of 1 month, for a total of four scans, altered trabecular bone in both male and female CD-1 mice while outcomes of cortical bone structure were altered only in females.
PLoS ONE, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225127
In longitudinal studies, in vivo micro-Computed Tomography (microCT) imaging is used to investigate bone changes over time due to interventions in mice. However, ionising radiation can provoke significant variations in bone morphometric parameters. In a previous study, we evaluated the effect of reducing the integration time on the properties of the mouse tibia measured from microCT images. A scanning procedure (100 ms integration time, 256 mGy nominal radiation dose) was selected as the best compromise between image quality and radiation dose induced on the animal. In this work, the effect of repeated in vivo scans has been evaluated using the selected procedure. The right tibia of twelve female C57BL/6 (six wild type, WT, six ovariectomised, OVX) and twelve BALB/c (six WT, six OVX) mice was scanned every two weeks, starting at week 14 of age. At week 24, mice were sacrificed and both tibiae were scanned. Standard trabecular and cortical morphometric parameters were calculated. The spatial distribution of densitometric parameters (e.g. bone mineral content) was obtained by dividing each tibia in 40 partitions. Stiffness and strength in compression were estimated using homogeneous linear elastic microCT-based micro-Finite Element models. Differences between right (irradiated) and left (non-irradiated control) tibiae were evaluated for each parameter. The irradiated tibiae had higher Tb.Th (+3.3%) and Tb.Sp (+11.6%), and lower Tb.N (-14.2%) compared to non-irradiated tibiae, consistently across both strains and intervention groups. A reduction in Tb.BV/TV (-14.9%) was also observed in the C57BL/6 strain. In the OVX group, a small reduction was also observed in Tt.Ar (-5.0%). In conclusion, repeated microCT scans (at 256 mGy, 5 scans, every two weeks) had limited effects on the mouse tibia, compared to the expected changes induced by bone treatments. Therefore, the selected scanning protocol is acceptable for measuring the effect of bone interventions in vivo.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 27, pp 288-295; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.09.010
Thirty six 56-week-old ISA cage layers were divided into two groups randomly. The cage layers in control group (12 birds) and experiment group (24 birds) were respectively injected with 300 µL sodium chloride and 300 μg eucaryon recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-chOPG. Eighty 56-week-old ISA cage layers were divided into group A, B, C and D randomly. Group A is for control group, while plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-chOPG was injected to B, C, D groups in muscle at the dosage of 200 μg, 400 μg, 600 μg at 57, 59, 61, 63th weeks respectively. After the detection on the expression of chOPG protein after 3 h, it reached the peak at 7 d and then fell down. After 28 d, nothing was detected in the injected skeletal muscles. The other organs did not express exogenous chOPG protein. Plasmid in liver had the fastest metabolism. The pathological effects in main organs were not observed by histological section. The concentration of plasma calcium in B, C and D groups significantly decreased, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly improved, compared to control group. The total average value of abnormal and broken eggs of group C, D was significantly higher than those of group A. The bone biomechanical property and bone radiographic density of tibia and femur in experiment group were significantly higher than control group. Therefore, one conclusion is drawn that the expression of chOPG from foreign plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-chOPG have contribute to bone formation, chOPG can increase bone density and strength by inhibiting bone resorption. Nevertheless, it was cleared out from cellular system in a short-term after intramuscular injection and cannot integrate into host chromosome genomic in cage layers. There were no pathological effects observed in the main tissues. It is believed that 200 μg plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-chOPG should be within the safe range for application, because it can improve bone metabolism and will not affect the production of cage layer during the post cycle.
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2019.00088
Ionizing radiation constitutes a health risk to imaging scientists and study animals. Both PET and CT produce ionizing radiation. CT doses in pre-clinical in vivo imaging typically range from 50 to 1,000 mGy and biological effects in mice at this dose range have been previously described. [18F]FDG body doses in mice have been estimated to be in the range of 100 mGy for [18F]FDG. Yearly, the average whole body doses due to handling of activity by PET technologists are reported to be 3–8 mSv. A preclinical PET/CT system is presented with design features which make it suitable for small animal low-dose imaging. The CT subsystem uses a X-source power that is optimized for small animal imaging. The system design incorporates a spatial beam shaper coupled with a highly sensitive flat-panel detector and very fast acquisition (<10 s) which allows for whole body scans with doses as low as 3 mGy. The mouse total-body PET subsystem uses a detector architecture based on continuous crystals, coupled to SiPM arrays and a readout based in rows and columns. The PET field of view is 150 mm axial and 80 mm transaxial. The high solid-angle coverage of the sample and the use of continuous crystals achieve a sensitivity of 9% (NEMA) that can be leveraged for use of low tracer doses and/or performing rapid scans. The low-dose imaging capabilities of the total-body PET subsystem were tested with NEMA phantoms, in tumor models, a mouse bone metabolism scan and a rat heart dynamic scan. The CT imaging capabilities were tested in mice and in a low contrast phantom. The PET low-dose phantom and animal experiments provide evidence that image quality suitable for preclinical PET studies is achieved. Furthermore, CT image contrast using low dose scan settings was suitable as a reference for PET scans. Total-body mouse PET/CT studies could be completed with total doses of <10 mGy.
Published: 1 May 2019
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 44, pp 455-460; https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0781
This Horizons is part of a series that identifies key, forward-thinking research questions and challenges that need to be addressed. Specifically, this Horizons paper discusses research in nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals for health, physical activity, and performance, and is the product of a discussion by an expert panel that took place in January 2018 prior to the Canadian Nutrition Society Thematic Conference “Advances in Sport Nutrition from Daily Living to High Performance Sport”. The objective of this Horizons paper was to identify core considerations for future studies for this research area, and how scientists can be leaders in the field to ensure the best quality science is available for decision makers. It is strongly recommended that the various elements highlighted throughout this Horizons paper will increase the awareness of the significant before-, during-, and after-research due-diligence required to produce research of the highest quality. While it is recognized that many scientists will not be able to meet all of these aspects, it is nonetheless important to consider the points outlined and to recognize that those elements that are not met in studies may be significant limitations. Highlights Research questions that are hypothesis-driven are the strongest, and when combined with careful planning of the study, the result will often be of the best quality. Studies with a strong experimental design help discern between evidence-based findings and those that have not been substantiated.
Bone Reports, Volume 10, pp 100191-100191; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100191
Calcium (Ca) and vitamin D (vit D) in the AIN-93G diet may be higher than required for healthy bone development, and mask the potential benefit of a dietary intervention. The objective was to determine if lower levels of Ca and vit D than is present in the AIN-93G diet supports bone development in growing male CD-1 mice. Weanling male CD-1 mice were randomized to modified AIN-93G diets containing either 100 (Trial 1) or 400 (Trial 2) IU vit D/kg diet within one of two or three Ca levels (0.35, 0.30, or 0.25% Ca diet in Trial 1 or 0.35% or 0.25% in Trial 2) or the AIN-93G diet (1000 IU/kg vit D and 0.5% Ca) from weaning to 4 months of age (n = 13–15/group). At 2 and 4 months of age, BMD and structural properties of the tibia were analyzed in vivo. Structure of lumbar vertebra 4 (L4) and mandible, and femur strength were assessed ex vivo at age 4 months. There were no differences in tibia, L4, and mandible structure between the AIN-93G diet and the 0.35% Ca groups at either vit D level. A few structure outcomes were compromised with the 0.25 and/or 0.3% Ca diets but there were no differences in femur biomechanical strength compared to AIN-93G group in either Trial. At 400 or 100 IU vit D/kg diet, Ca can be lowered to 0.35% without detriment to BMD or bone structure while bone strength is not altered at lower Ca (0.25%) compared to CD-1 mice fed AIN-93G diet. Because of genetic variation in CD-1 mice among different breeding facilities, results in CD-1 mice from other facilities may differ from the present study.
Forensic Sciences Research, Volume 3, pp 294-309; https://doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2018.1483294
Bone is a mechanically active, three-dimensionally (3D) complex, and dynamic tissue that changes in structure over the human lifespan. Bone tissue exists and remodels in 3D and changes over time, introducing a fourth dimension. The products of the remodelling process, secondary and fragmentary osteons, have been studied substantially using traditional two-dimensional (2D) techniques. As a result, much has been learned regarding the biological information encrypted in the histomorphology of bone, yielding a wealth of information relating to skeletal structure and function. Three-dimensional imaging modalities, however, hold the potential to provide a much more comprehensive understanding of bone microarchitecture. The visualization and analysis of bone using high-resolution 3D imaging will improve current understandings of bone biology and have numerous applications in both biological anthropology and biomedicine. Through recent technological advancements, we can hone current anthropological applications of the analysis of bone microstructure and accelerate research into the third and fourth dimensional realms. This review will explore the methodological approaches used historically by anthropologists to assess cortical bone microstructure, spanning from histology to current ex vivo imaging modalities, discuss the growing capabilities of in vivo imaging, and conclude with an introduction of novel non-histological modalities for investigating bone quality.
International Immunopharmacology, Volume 62, pp 277-286; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2018.07.017
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Bone Reports, Volume 8, pp 229-238; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2018.05.004
The AIN-93G reference (REF) diet is used to allow the comparison within and between studies of different research groups but its levels of vitamin D (vit D) and calcium (Ca) may be higher than required for healthy bone structure and bone mineral density (BMD). To determine if lower dietary levels of Ca (3.5, 3 or 2.5 g Ca/kg diet) at 1 of 2 levels of vit D (100 or 400 IU/kg diet) supports similar development of bone structure and BMD compared to AIN-93G reference (REF) diet in female CD-1 mice at 2 and 4 months of age. Within a trial, weanling female mice (n = 12–15/group) were randomized to 1 of 4 diets until necropsy at 4 months of age: Trial 1: 100 IU vit D/kg + 3.5, 3 or 2.5 g Ca/kg diet or 1000 IU vit D/kg + 5 g Ca/kg diet (REF); and Trial 2: 400 IU vit D/kg + 3.5, 3 or 2.5 g Ca/kg diet or 1000 IU vit D/kg + 5 g/kg diet (REF). At age 2 and 4 months, in vivo bone structure and BMD were assessed using micro-computed tomography (μCT) at the proximal and midpoint tibia. At age 4 months, lumbar vertebra 4 (L4) and mandible structure were analyzed ex vivo, femur strength at midpoint and neck was assessed and serum 25(OH)D3 and PTH were quantified. For Trial 1 (100 IU vit D/kg), there were no differences in tibia structure at age 2 and 4 months nor L4 or mandible structure or femur strength at the midpoint or neck at 4 months of age despite lower serum 25(OH)D3 among all groups compared to REF. For Trial 2 (400 IU vit D/kg), mice fed 2.5 g Ca/kg diet had lower (p < 0.05) Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar and Ct.Th at the tibia midpoint compared to REF. Furthermore, Ct.Th. was greater in REF and 3.5 g Ca/kg diet compared to 2.5 g Ca/kg diet at age 2 but not 4 months of age. At L4, BV/TV was lower (p < 0.05) in the 3 g Ca/kg diet group compared to REF at age 4 months. There were no differences among groups for serum 25(OH)D3 or femur strength at the midpoint or neck. Serum PTH was not elevated compared to REF in either Trial. Lowering both dietary vit D (100 IU/kg) and Ca (2.5 g/kg) in AIN-93G diet did not result in differences in bone development of female CD-1 mice at early adulthood. Translational relevance of bone studies conducted using the AIN-93G diet may be affected by its high vit D and Ca content.
Ceramics - Silikaty pp 194-199; https://doi.org/10.13168/cs.2018.0012
Journal of Visualized Experiments; https://doi.org/10.3791/56346
The use of in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) is a powerful tool which involves the non-destructive imaging of internal structures at high resolutions in live animal models. This allows for repeated imaging of the same rodent over time. This feature not only reduces the total number of rodents required in an experimental design and thereby reduces the inter-subject variation that can arise, but also allows researchers to assess longitudinal or life-long responses to an intervention. To acquire high quality images that can be processed and analyzed to more accurately quantify outcomes of bone micro-architecture, users of in vivo µCT scanners must properly anesthetize the rat, and position and restrain the hind limb. To do this, it is imperative that the rat be anesthetized to a level of complete relaxation, and that pedal reflexes are lost. These guidelines may be modified for each individual rat, as the rate of isoflurane metabolism can vary depending on strain and body size. Proper technique for in vivo µCT image acquisition enables accurate and consistent measurement of bone micro-architecture within and across studies.
Calcified Tissue Research, Volume 102, pp 671-682; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-017-0366-0
Maternal exposure to hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR) during pregnancy and lactation transiently compromised bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure at the proximal tibia in female CD-1 offspring. We examined whether maternal consumption of HSP + NAR during pregnancy and lactation compromises BMD, bone structure, and bone strength in male CD-1 offspring. Male CD-1 offspring, from mothers fed a control diet (CON, n = 10) or a 0.5% HSP + 0.25% NAR diet (HSP + NAR, n = 8) for 5 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, were weaned and fed CON until 6 months of age. In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) measured tibia BMD and structure at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Ex vivo µCT measured femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV) structure at age 6 months. Ex vivo BMD (femur, LV) and biomechanical strength (femur and tibia midpoint, femur neck) were assessed at age 6 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and strength testing, respectively. At all ages, HSP + NAR offspring had greater (p < 0.05) proximal tibia cortical structure compared to CON offspring. At age 4 months, proximal tibia trabecular structure was greater (p < 0.05) than CON offspring. At age 6 months, femur neck and LV trabecular structure were greater (p < 0.05) than CON offspring. Our results demonstrate that unlike our previous study of female offspring, maternal consumption of HSP + NAR resulted in greater bone structure at the proximal tibia in male CD-1 offspring that persisted to 6 months of age. Thus, maternal programming of offspring BMD and bone structure from consumption of HSP + NAR occurred as a sex-specific response.
Physiological Reports, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13338
Microcomputed tomography (μCT) is an imaging technology to assess bone microarchitecture, a determinant of bone strength. When measured in vivo, μCT exposes the skeletal site of interest to a dose of radiation, in addition to nearby skeletal muscles as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated radiation exposure from in vivo μCT on muscle health – specifically, muscle morphometrics, contractile function, and enzyme activity. This study exposed the right hind limb of female mice to either a low (26 cGy) or moderate (46 cGy) dose, at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, while the left hind limb of the same animal was exposed to a single dose at 6 months to serve as a nonirradiated control. Muscle weight, cross‐sectional area, isometric contractile function, and representative maximal enzyme activities of amino acid, fatty acid, glucose, and oxidative metabolism in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus were assessed. Low‐dose radiation had no effect. In contrast, moderate‐dose radiation resulted in a 5% increase in time‐to‐peak tension and 16% increase in half‐relaxation time of isometric twitches in EDL, although these changes were not seen when normalized to force. Moderate‐dose radiation also resulted in an ~33% decrease in citrate synthase activity in soleus but not EDL, with no changes to the other enzymes measured. Thus, three low doses of radiation over 6 months had no effect on contractile function or metabolic enzyme activity in soleus and EDL of female mice. In contrast, three moderate doses of radiation over 6 months induced some effects on metabolic enzyme activity in soleus but not EDL. Future studies that wish to investigate muscle tissue that is adjacent to scanned bone should take radiation exposure dose into consideration.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201700137
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Nutrients, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030250
Hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR), flavanones rich in citrus fruits, support skeletal integrity in adult and aging rodent models. This study determined whether maternal consumption of HSP and NAR favorably programs bone development, resulting in higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater structure and biomechanical strength (i.e., peak load) in female offspring. Female CD-1 mice were fed a control diet or a HSP + NAR diet five weeks before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet until six months of age. The structure and BMD of the proximal tibia were measured longitudinally using in vivo micro-computed tomography at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The trabecular bone structure at two and four months and the trabecular BMD at four months were compromised at the proximal tibia in mice exposed to HSP and NAR compared to the control diet (p < 0.001). At six months of age, these differences in trabecular structure and BMD at the proximal tibia had disappeared. At 6 months of age, the tibia midpoint peak load, BMD, structure, and the peak load of lumbar vertebrae and femurs were similar (p > 0.05) between the HSP + NAR and control groups. In conclusion, maternal consumption of HSP and NAR does not enhance bone development in female CD-1 offspring.