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Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Giovanna Russelli, Matteo Bulati, Vitale Miceli, Alessia Gallo, Rosalia Busà, Rosaria Tinnirello, Pier Giulio Conaldi,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1905-1919; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1905

Abstract:
Due to their immunomodulatory potential and release of trophic factors that promote healing, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered important players in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. MSCs have been widely used in clinical trials to treat multiple conditions associated with inflammation and tissue damage. Recent evidence suggests that most of the MSC therapeutic effects are derived from their secretome, including the extracellular vesicles, representing a promising approach in regenerative medicine application to treat organ failure as a result of inflammation/fibrosis. The recent outbreak of respiratory syndrome coronavirus, caused by the newly identified agent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has forced scientists worldwide to use all available instruments to fight the infection, including the inflammatory cascade caused by this pandemic disease. The use of MSCs is a valid approach to combat organ inflammation in different compartments. In addition to the lungs, which are considered the main inflammatory target for this virus, other organs are compromised by the infection. In particular, the liver is involved in the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes organ failure, leading to death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We herein summarize the current implications derived from the use of MSCs and their soluble derivatives in COVID-19 treatment, and emphasize the potential of MSC-based therapy in this clinical setting.
Michael N Rosen, Rachel A Goodwin,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1943-1958; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1943

Abstract:
Pancreatic cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death with few available therapies for advanced disease. Recently, patients with germline BRCA mutations have received increased attention due to advances in the management of BRCA mutated ovarian and breast tumors. Germline BRCA mutations significantly increase risk of developing pancreatic cancer and can be found in up to 8% of patients with sporadic pancreatic cancer. In patients with germline BRCA mutations, platinum-based chemotherapies and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors are effective treatment options which may offer survival benefits. This review will focus on the molecular biology, epidemiology, and management of BRCA-mutated pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, we will discuss future directions for this area of research and promising active areas of research.
Xi-Hua Dong, Di Dai, Zhi-Dong Yang, Xiao-Ou Yu, Hua Li,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1973-1992; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1973

Abstract:
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressing cholestatic disease, which causes damage to the small intrahepatic bile duct by immuno-regulation, and may lead to cholestasis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and, eventually, liver failure. To explore the potential diagnosis and staging value of plasma S100 calcium binding protein A6 (S100A6) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), LINC00312, LINC00472, and LINC01257 in primary biliary cholangitis. A total of 145 PBC patients and 110 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Among them, 80 PBC patients and 60 HCs were used as the training set, and 65 PBC patients and 50 HCs were used as the validation set. The relative expression levels of plasma S100A6 mRNA, long noncoding ribonucleic acids LINC00312, LINC00472 and LINC01257 were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The bile duct ligation (BDL) mouse model was used to simulate PBC. Then double immunofluorescence was conducted to verify the overexpression of S100A6 protein in intrahepatic bile duct cells of BDL mice. Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells were treated with glycochenodeoxycholate to simulate the cholestatic environment of intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells in PBC. The expression of S100A6 protein in intrahepatic bile duct cells was up-regulated in the BDL mouse model compared with sham mice. The relative expression levels of plasma S100A6 mRNA, log10 LINC00472 and LINC01257 were up-regulated while LINC00312 was down-regulated in plasma of PBC patients compared with HCs (3.01 ± 1.04 vs 2.09 ± 0.87, P < 0.0001; 2.46 ± 1.03 vs 1.77 ± 0.84, P < 0.0001; 3.49 ± 1.64 vs 2.37 ± 0.96, P < 0.0001; 1.70 ± 0.33 vs 2.07 ± 0.53, P < 0.0001, respectively). The relative expression levels of S100A6 mRNA, LINC00472 and LINC01257 were up-regulated and LINC00312 was down-regulated in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells treated with glycochenodeoxycholate compared with control (2.97 ± 0.43 vs 1.09 ± 0.08, P = 0.0018; 2.70 ± 0.26 vs 1.10 ± 0.10, P = 0.0006; 2.23 ± 0.21 vs 1.10 ± 0.10, P = 0.0011; 1.20 ± 0.04 vs 3.03 ± 0.15, P < 0.0001, respectively). The mean expression of S100A6 in the advanced stage (III and IV) of PBC was up-regulated compared to that in HCs and the early stage (II) (3.38 ± 0.71 vs 2.09 ± 0.87, P < 0.0001; 3.38 ± 0.71 vs 2.57 ± 1.21, P = 0.0003, respectively); and in the early stage (II), it was higher than that in HCs (2.57 ± 1.21 vs 2.09 ± 0.87, P = 0.03). The mean expression of LINC00312 in the advanced stage was lower than that in the early stage and HCs (1.39 ± 0.29 vs 1.56 ± 0.33, P = 0.01; 1.39 ± 0.29 vs 2.07 ± 0.53, P < 0.0001, respectively); in addition, the mean expression of LINC00312 in the early stage was lower than that in HCs (1.56 ± 0.33 vs 2.07 ± 0.53, P < 0.0001). The mean expression of log10 LINC00472 in the advanced stage was higher than those in the early stage and HCs (2.99 ± 0.87 vs 1.81 ± 0.83, P < 0.0001; 2.99 ± 0.87 vs 1.77 ± 0.84, P < 0.0001, respectively). The mean expression of LINC01257 in both the early stage and advanced stage were up-regulated compared with HCs (3.88 ± 1.55 vs 2.37 ± 0.96, P < 0.0001; 3.57 ± 1.79 vs 2.37 ± 0.96, P < 0.0001, respectively). The areas under the curves (AUC) for S100A6, LINC00312, log10 LINC00472 and LINC01257 in PBC diagnosis were 0.759, 0.7292, 0.6942 and 0.7158, respectively. Furthermore, the AUC for these four genes in PBC staging were 0.666, 0.661, 0.839 and 0.5549, respectively. The expression levels of S100A6 mRNA, log10 LINC00472, and LINC01257 in plasma of PBC patients were decreased (2.35 ± 1.02 vs 3.06 ± 1.04, P = 0.0018; 1.99 ± 0.83 vs 2.33 ± 0.96, P = 0.036; 2.84 ± 0.92 vs 3.69 ± 1.54, P = 0.0006), and the expression level of LINC00312 was increased (1.95 ± 0.35 vs 1.73 ± 0.32, P = 0.0007) after treatment compared with before treatment using the paired t-test. Relative expression of S100A6 mRNA was positively correlated with log10 LINC00472 (r = 0.683, P < 0.0001); serum level of collagen type IV was positively correlated with the relative expression of log10 LINC00472 (r = 0.482, P < 0.0001); relative expression of S100A6 mRNA was positively correlated with the serum level of collagen type IV (r = 0.732, P < 0.0001). The AUC for the four biomarkers obtained in the validation set were close to the training set. These four genes may potentially act as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of PBC. Moreover, LINC00472 acts as a potential biomarker for staging in PBC.
, Jonas Christoffer Lindstrøm, Marte Eide Jahnsen, Elisabeth Finnes, Heinz Zoller, Bjørn Moum, Jørgen Jahnsen
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 2039-2053; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.2039

Abstract:
High-dose intravenous iron is an effective treatment option for iron deficiency (ID) or ID anaemia (IDA) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) has been associated with the development of hypophosphatemia. To investigate mechanisms behind the development of hypophosphatemia after intravenous iron treatment, and disclose symptoms and clinical manifestations related to hypophosphatemia short-term. A prospective observational study of adult IBD patients with ID or IDA was conducted between February 1, 2017 and July 1, 2018 at two separate university hospitals in the southeast region of Norway. Patients received one dose of 1000 mg of either FCM or ferric derisomaltose (FDI) and were followed for an observation period of at least 7 wk. Blood and urine samples were collected for relevant analyses at baseline, week 2 and at week 6. Clinical symptoms were assessed at the same timepoints using a respiratory function test, a visual analogue scale, and a health-related quality of life questionnaire. A total of 106 patients was available for analysis in this study. The FCM treatment group consisted of 52 patients and hypophosphatemia was present in 72.5% of the patients at week 2, and in 21.6% at week 6. In comparison, the FDI treatment group consisted of 54 patients and 11.3% of the patients had hypophosphatemia at week 2, and 3.7% at week 6. The difference in incidence was highly significant at both week 2 and 6 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.013, respectively). We observed a significantly higher mean concentration of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (P < 0.001), a significant rise in mean urine fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.004), a significant decrease of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (P < 0.001) and of ionised calcium levels (P < 0.012) in the FCM-treated patients compared with patients who received FDI. No clinical symptoms could with certainty be related to hypophosphatemia, since neither the respiratory function test, SF-36 (36-item short form health survey) or the visual analogue scale scores resulted in significant differences between patients who developed hypophosphatemia or not. Fibroblast growth factor 23 has a key role in FCM induced hypophosphatemia, probably by inducing loss of phosphate in the urine. Short-term clinical impact of hypophosphatemia was not demonstrated.
Mohamed Shengir, Mohamed Elgara,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1959-1972; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1959

Abstract:
The association between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection and extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs), particularly cardiometabolic diseases, has been extensively examined. However, there has still been insufficient evaluation for these EHMs after virological cure. Several multidirectional mechanisms have been proposed explaining the ability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) developing EHMs, cardiometabolic ones, as well as the effect of antiviral therapy to resolve these EHMs. Data on these manifestations after achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) are still conflicting. However, current evidence suggests that reversal of hepatic steatosis and its coexistent hypocholesterolemia after successful viral eradication led to unfavorable lipid profile, which increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Additionally, most observations showed that metabolic alterations, such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM), undergo some degree of reduction after viral clearance. These changes seem HCV-genotype dependent. Interferon-based antiviral therapy and direct acting antiviral drugs were shown to minimize incidence of DM. Large epidemiological studies that investigated the effect of SVR on CVD showed great discrepancies in terms of results, with predominant findings indicating that CVD events decreased in patients with SVR compared to non-responders or untreated ones. In this review, we present a summary of the current knowledge regarding extrahepatic sequelae of CHC following SVR, which may have an impact on healthcare providers’ clinical practice.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1936-1942; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1936

Abstract:
Progress in the fight against pancreatic cancer has been hampered by many factors. One of them is the inability to detect the disease early in overwhelming majority of patients. The present paper outlines a novel way in which progress could be accelerated. This includes a focus on two harbingers—post-pancreatitis diabetes mellitus and excess intra-pancreatic fat deposition—that converge at affecting the tumor macroenvironment and microenvironment specifically in the pancreas, not other organs. The two entities have the potential to be incorporated into future screening strategies with a view to early detecting of pancreatic cancer.
Jan Grosek, Hana Zavrtanik,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1816-1827; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1816

Abstract:
With improved survival in gastric cancer patients, health-related quality of life has become an important clinical endpoint alongside primary oncological outcomes. To investigate health-related quality of life after various surgical procedures for gastric cancer treatment. The validated Slovenian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its gastric cancer-specific module (QLQ STO-22) was sent for self-completion to patients that underwent curative resection for gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2014 and December 2018 at our centre. In total, 116 patients responded. Scores were compared between patients after subtotal distal vs total gastrectomy and patients after subtotal distal gastrectomy with Billroth II vs Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Interestingly, the extent of resection did not influence daily functioning; however, more dysphagia and eating restrictions were reported in patients after total gastrectomy when compared to patients after subtotal distal gastrectomy. Moreover, patients with Billroth II reconstruction after subtotal distal resection experienced worse physical and role functioning and reported more pain, fatigue and reflux compared to Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Based on our results, Roux-en-Y reconstruction after subtotal distal gastrectomy should be preferred over Billroth II reconstruction. The data obtained from this study will help surgeons when preoperatively informing their patients about expected functional outcomes after gastrectomy and enable them to ensure proper supportive care of their patients in the postoperative period.
Bin Wang, Xing Sun, Ke-Jian Huang, Li-Sheng Zhou, Zheng-Jun Qiu
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1993-2014; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1993

Abstract:
Previous studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) TP73-AS1 is significantly upregulated in several cancers. However, the biological role and clinical significance of TP73-AS1 in pancreatic cancer (PC) remain unclear. To investigate the role of TP73-AS1 in the growth and metastasis of PC. The expression of lncRNA TP73-AS1, miR-128-3p, and GOLM1 in PC tissues and cells was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bioinformatics prediction software ENCORI was used to predict the putative binding sites of miR-128-3p. The regulatory roles of TP73-AS1 and miR-128-3p in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities were verified by Cell Counting Kit-8, wound-healing, and transwell assays, as well as flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The interactions among TP73-AS1, miR-128-3p, and GOLM1 were explored by bioinformatics prediction, luciferase assay, and Western blot. The expression of TP73-AS1 and miRNA-128-3p was dysregulated in PC tissues and cells. High TP73-AS1 expression was correlated with a poor prognosis. TP73-AS1 silencing inhibited PC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, TP73-AS1 was validated to promote PC progression through GOLM1 upregulation by competitively binding to miR-128-3p. Our results demonstrated that TP73-AS1 promotes PC progression by regulating the miR-128-3p/GOLM1 axis, which might provide a potential treatment strategy for patients with PC.
Dan-Hong Yang, Wei-Ping Wang, Qiang Zhang, Hong-Ying Pan, Yi-Cheng Huang, Jia-Jie Zhang
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 2025-2038; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.2025

Abstract:
Antiviral therapy cannot completely block the progression of hepatitis B to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, there are few predictors of early HCC progression and limited strategies to prevent progression in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis who receive nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy. The study aim was to clarify risk factors and the diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) for HCC progression in NA-treated hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis patients. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we analyzed the clinical data of 266 patients with HBV-related cirrhosis who received NA treatment between February 2014 and April 2020 at Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups, 145 who did not progress to HCC (No-HCC group), and 121 who progressed to HCC during NA treatment (HCC group). The logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of HCC progression. The diagnostic value of AFP for HCC was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Univariate analysis showed that age ≥ 60 years (P = 0.001), hepatitis B and alcoholic etiology (P = 0.007), smoking history (P < 0.001), family history of HBV-related HCC (P = 0.002), lamivudine resistance (P = 0.011), HBV DNA negative (P = 0.023), aspartate aminotransferase > 80 U/L (P = 0.002), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase > 120 U/L (P = 0.001), alkaline phosphatase > 250 U/L (P = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 6.16 (mmol/L) (P = 0.001) and Child-Pugh class C (P = 0.005) were correlated with HCC progression. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 60 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.089, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.437-6.631, P = 0.004], smoking history (HR = 4.001, 95%CI: 1.836-8.716, P < 0.01), family history of HBV-related HCC (HR = 6.763, 95%CI: 1.253-36.499, P < 0.05), lamivudine resistance (HR = 2.949, 95%CI: 1.207-7.208, P = 0.018), HBV DNA negative (HR = 0.026, 95%CI: 0.007-0.139, P < 0.01), FBG ≥ 6.16 mmol/L (HR = 7.219, 95%CI: 3.716-14.024, P < 0.01) were independent risk factors of HCC progression. ROC of AFP for diagnosis of HCC was 0.746 (95%CI: 0.674-0.818). A cutoff value of AFP of 9.00 ug/L had a sensitivity of 0.609, and specificity of 0.818 for diagnosing HCC. Age ≥ 60 years, smoking history, family history of HCC, lamivudine resistance, HBV DNA negative, FBG ≥ 6.16 mmol/L were risk factors of HCC progression. Serum AFP had limited diagnostic value for HCC.
, Silvia Noventa, Alberto Zaniboni
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1847-1863; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1847

Abstract:
Pancreatic cancer is considered one of the most aggressive cancers, with an increasing incidence in recent years. To date, chemotherapy is still the standard of care for advanced metastatic disease, unfortunately providing only a slight advantage in terms of survival. The molecular and cellular characteristics of pancreatic cancer cells, as well as the cells that characterize the pancreatic tumour microenvironment, are the basis of the mechanisms of resistance to treatment. After progression during first-line treatment, few patients are eligible for second-line treatment due to the loss of performance status. To date, a clear survival advantage has not yet been demonstrated for second-line chemotherapy. Precision medicine could be the key to increasing responses to cancer treatment and finally impacting survival in this difficult-to-treat disease. In this review, we analyze current recommendations in the second-line setting and potential future prospects.
Peng Liu, Xian-Zhen Tan, Ting Zhang, Qian-Biao Gu, Xian-Hai Mao, Yan-Chun Li, Ya-Qiong He
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 2015-2024; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.2015

Abstract:
Liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, and ranks as the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Microvascular invasion (MVI) is considered one of the most important factors for recurrence and poor prognosis of liver cancer. Thus, accurately identifying MVI before surgery is of great importance in making treatment strategies and predicting the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radiomics as an emerging field, aims to utilize artificial intelligence software to develop methods that may contribute to cancer diagnosis, treatment improvement and evaluation, and better prediction. To investigate the predictive value of computed tomography radiomics for MVI in solitary HCC ≤ 5 cm. A total of 185 HCC patients, including 122 MVI negative and 63 MVI positive patients, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were randomly assigned to the training group (n = 124) and validation group (n = 61). A total of 1351 radiomic features were extracted based on three-dimensional images. The diagnostic performance of the radiomics model was verified in the validation group, and the Delong test was applied to compare the radiomics and MVI-related imaging features (two-trait predictor of venous invasion and radiogenomic invasion). A total of ten radiomics features were finally obtained after screening 1531 features. According to the weighting coefficient that corresponded to the features, the radiomics score (RS) calculation formula was obtained, and the RS score of each patient was calculated. The radiomics model exhibited a better correction and identification ability in the training and validation groups [area under the curve: 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.86) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.66-0.83), respectively]. Its prediction performance was significantly higher than that of the image features (P < 0.05). Computed tomography radiomics has certain predictive value for MVI in solitary HCC ≤ 5 cm, and the predictive ability is higher than that of image features.
Rajiv Heda, Masahiko Yazawa, Michelle Shi, Madhu Bhaskaran, Fuad Zain Aloor, Paul J Thuluvath, Sanjaya K Satapathy
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1864-1882; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1864

Abstract:
With the growing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States and across the world, a rise in the overall incidence and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is expected. The risk factors for NAFLD are also associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We review the epidemiology, risk factors, genetics, implications of gut dysbiosis, and specific pathogenic mechanisms linking NAFLD to CKD. Mechanisms such as ectopic lipid accumulation, cellular signaling abnormalities, and the interplay between fructose consumption and uric acid accumulation have led to the emergence of potential therapeutic implications for this patient population. Transplant evaluation in the setting of both NAFLD and CKD is also reviewed. Potential strategies for surveillance and management include the monitoring of comorbidities, the use of non-invasive fibrosis scoring systems, and the measurement of laboratory markers. Lastly, we discuss the management of patients with NAFLD and CKD, from preventative measures to experimental interventions.
, Steven Levitte, Akshar Patel, Tatiana Balabanis, Mike T Wei, Sidhartha R Sinha
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1920-1935; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1920

Abstract:
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex and multifaceted disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that is increasing in incidence worldwide and associated with significant morbidity. The rapid accumulation of large datasets from electronic health records, high-definition multi-omics (including genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metagenomics), and imaging modalities (endoscopy and endomicroscopy) have provided powerful tools to unravel novel mechanistic insights and help address unmet clinical needs in IBD. Although the application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods has facilitated the analysis, integration, and interpretation of large datasets in IBD, significant heterogeneity in AI methods, datasets, and clinical outcomes and the need for unbiased prospective validations studies are current barriers to incorporation of AI into clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the application of AI and machine learning technologies in the diagnosis and risk prediction, assessment of disease severity, and prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with IBD.
Ademar Dantas Cunha Júnior, Arinilda Campos Bragagnoli, Felipe Osório Costa, José Barreto Campello Carvalheira
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1883-1904; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i17.1883

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus type 2 and cancer share many risk factors. The pleiotropic insulin-dependent and insulin-independent effects of metformin might inhibit pathways that are frequently amplified in neoplastic tissue. Particularly, modulation of inflammation, metabolism, and cell cycle arrest are potential therapeutic cancer targets utilized by metformin to boost the anti-cancer effects of chemotherapy. Studies in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated the potential of metformin as a chemo- and radiosensitizer, besides its chemopreventive and direct therapeutic activity in digestive system (DS) tumors. Hence, these aspects have been considered in many cancer clinical trials. Case-control and cohort studies and associated meta-analyses have evaluated DS cancer risk and metformin usage, especially in colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most clinical studies have demonstrated the protective role of metformin in the risk for DS cancers and survival rates. On the other hand, the ability of metformin to enhance the actions of chemotherapy for gastric and biliary cancers is yet to be investigated. This article reviews the current findings on the anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin and its apparatus from pre-clinical and ongoing studies in DS malignancies.
Johan F Lock, Stanislaus Reimer, Sebastian Pietryga, Rafael Jakubietz, , Alexander Meining, Christoph-Thomas Germer, Florian Seyfried
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1841-1846; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1841

Abstract:
Gastric pull-up (GPU) procedures may be complicated by leaks, fistulas, or stenoses. These complications are usually managed by endoscopy, but in extreme cases multidisciplinary management including reoperation may be necessary. Here, we report a combined endoscopic and surgical approach to manage a failed secondary GPU procedure. A 70-year-old male with treatment-refractory cervical esophagocutaneous fistula with stenotic remnant esophagus after secondary GPU was transferred to our tertiary hospital. Local and systemic infection originating from the infected fistula was resolved by endoscopy. Hence, elective esophageal reconstruction with free-jejunal interposition was performed with no subsequent adverse events. A multidisciplinary approach involving interventional endoscopists and surgeons successfully managed severe complications arising from a cervical esophago-cutaneous fistula after GPU. Endoscopic treatment may have lowered the perioperative risk to promote primary wound healing after free-jejunal graft interposition.
Michael Yodice, Alexandra Mignucci, Virali Shah, Christopher Ashley,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1751-1769; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1751

Abstract:
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most commonly encountered digestive diseases in the world, with the prevalence continuing to increase. Many patients are successfully treated with lifestyle modifications and proton pump inhibitor therapy, but a subset of patients require more aggressive intervention for control of their symptoms. Surgical treatment with fundoplication is a viable option for patients with GERD, as it attempts to improve the integrity of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). While surgery can be as effective as medical treatment, it can also be associated with side effects such as dysphagia, bloating, and abdominal pain. Therefore, a thorough pre-operative assessment is crucial to select appropriate surgical candidates. Newer technologies are becoming increasingly available to help clinicians identify patients with true LES dysfunction, such as pH-impedance studies and high-resolution manometry (HRM). Pre-operative evaluation should be aimed at confirming the diagnosis of GERD, ruling out any major motility disorders, and selecting appropriate surgical candidates. HRM and pH testing are key tests to consider for patients with GERD like symptoms, and the addition of provocative measures such as straight leg raises and multiple rapid swallows to HRM protocol can assess the presence of underlying hiatal hernias and to test a patient’s peristaltic reserve prior to surgery.
, Adalberto Jose Gonzalez, Mohammad Alomari, Kanwarpreet Tandon, Xaralambos Bobby Zervos
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1691-1715; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1691

Abstract:
Viral infections affecting the liver have had an important impact on humanity, as they have led to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with acute and chronic infections. Once an unknown etiology, the discovery of the viral agents triggered interest of the scientific community to establish the pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities to identify the affected population. With the rapid scientific and technological advances in the last centuries, controlling and even curing the infections became a possibility, with a large focus on preventive medicine through vaccination. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of hepatitis A, B, C, D and E is required by primary care physicians and gastroenterologists to provide care to these patients. The review article describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and current medication regimens, with a focus on upcoming treatment options and the role of liver transplantation.
Monica State, , Theodor Voiosu, Andrei Voiosu, Paul Balanescu, Radu Bogdan Mateescu
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1828-1840; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1828

Abstract:
Mucosal healing (MH) has emerged as a key therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and achievement of this goal is documented by endoscopy with biopsy. However, colonoscopy is burdensome and invasive, and substitution with an accurate noninvasive biomarker is desirable. To summarize published data regarding the performance of noninvasive biomarkers in assessing MH in IBD patients. We conducted a systematic review of studies that reported the performance of biomarkers in diagnosing MH in patients with IBD. The main outcome measure was to review the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal markers that showed promising utility in assessing MH. We screened 1301 articles, retrieved 46 manuscripts and included 23 articles for full-text analysis. The majority of the included manuscripts referred to fecal markers (12/23), followed by circulatory markers (8/23); only 3/23 of the included manuscripts investigated combined markers (serum and/or fecal markers). Fecal calprotectin (FC) was the most investigated fecal marker for assessing MH. In ulcerative colitis, for cutoff levels ranging between 58 mcg/g and 490 mcg/g, the sensitivity was 89.7%-100% and the specificity was 62%-93.3%. For Crohn’s disease, the cutoff levels of FC ranged from 71 mcg/g to 918 mcg/g (sensitivity 50%-95.9% and specificity 52.3%-100%). The best performance for a serum marker was observed for the endoscopic healing index, which showed a comparable accuracy to the measurement of FC and a higher accuracy than the measurement of serum C-reactive protein. Several promising biomarkers of MH are emerging but cannot yet substitute for endoscopy with biopsy due to issues with reproducibility and standardization.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1738-1750; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1738

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has drawn the scientific community's attention to pre-existing metabolic conditions that could aggravate the infection, causing extended viral shedding, prolonged hospitalization, and high death rates. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) emerges as a surrogate for COVID-19 severity due to the constellation of metabolic alterations it entails. This review outlines the impact MAFLD exerts on COVID-19 severity in obese subjects, besides the possible mechanistic links to the poor outcomes. The data collected showed that MAFLD patients had poorer COVID-19 outcomes than non-MAFLD obese subjects. MAFLD is generally accompanied by impaired glycemic control and systemic arterial hypertension, both of which can decompensate during the COVID-19 clinical course. Also, MAFLD subjects had higher plasma inflammatory marker concentrations than non-MAFLD subjects, which might be related to an intensified cytokine storm syndrome frequently associated with the need for mechanical ventilation and death. In conclusion, MAFLD represents a higher risk than obesity for COVID-19 severity, resulting in poor outcomes and even progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatologists should include MAFLD subjects in the high-risk group, intensify preventive measurements, and prioritize their vaccination.
, Rosa Cotugno, Giovanna Cocomazzi, Maria Maddalena Squillante, Valeria Piazzolla
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1728-1737; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1728

Abstract:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2030, using direct-acting antiviral treatments, has been promoted by the World Health Organization. This achievement is not attainable, however, particularly after the 2020 pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019. Consequently, the more realistic objective of eliminating HCV from population segments for which targeted strategies of prevention and treatment are easily attained has been promoted in Europe, as a valid alternative. The underlying idea is that micro-elimination will ultimately lead to macro-elimination. The micro-elimination strategy may target different specific populations and at-risk groups. Different settings, including prisons and hospitals, have also been identified as micro-elimination scenarios. In addition, dedicated micro-elimination strategies have been designed that are tailored at the geographical level according to HCV epidemiology and individual country’s income. The main elements of a valid and successful micro-elimination project are reliable epidemiological data and active involvement of all the stakeholders. Community involvement represents another essential component for a successful program.
Xiao-Jie Xue, Fei-Rong Li, Jing Yu
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1805-1815; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1805

Abstract:
Esophageal cancer is a malignant tumor of the digestive tract that is difficult to diagnose early. CPI-455 has been reported to inhibit various cancers, but its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unknown. To investigate the effects and mechanism of the lysine demethylase 5C inhibitor, CPI-455, on ESCC cells. A methyl tetrazolium assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect of CPI-455 on the proliferation of Eca-109 cells. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by flow cytometry. Laser confocal scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe changes in Eca-109 cell morphology. The protein expression of P53, Bax, lysine-specific demethylase 5C (KDM5C), cleaved Caspase-9, and cleaved Caspase-3 were assayed by western blotting. Compared with the control group, CPI-455 significantly inhibited Eca-109 cell proliferation. Gemcitabine inhibited Eca-109 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. CPI-455 caused extensive alteration of the mitochondria, which appeared to have become atrophied. The cell membrane was weakly stained and the cytoplasmic structures were indistinct and disorganized, with serious cavitation when viewed by transmission electron microscopy. The flow cytometry and western blot results showed that, compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and depolarized in Eca-109 cells treated with CPI-455. CPI-455 significantly upregulated the ROS content, P53, Bax, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 protein expression in Eca-109 cells, whereas KDM5C expression was downregulated. CPI-455 inhibited Eca-109 cell proliferation via mitochondrial apoptosis by regulating the expression of related genes.
Ling Yuan, Jia-Xin Li, Yi Yang, Yan Chen, Ting-Ting Ma, Shuang Liang, Yang Bu, Lei Yu, Yi Nan
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1785-1804; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1785

Abstract:
Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a digestive system disease with high morbidity and mortality. However, early clinical detection is difficult, and the therapeutic effect for advanced disease is not satisfactory. Thus, finding new tumor markers and therapeutic targets conducive to the treatment of GC is imperative. MRPL35 is a member of the large subunit family of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. MRPL35 shows the characteristic of oncogene in colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer, which promotes the exploration of the correlation between MRPL35 and GC. We proposed that the expression of MRPL35 might be critical in GC. To study the effect of MRPL35 knockdown on GC cell proliferation. The expression of MRPL35 in GC was evaluated based on data from the public tumor database UALCAN (http://www.ualcan.path.uab.edu). The effect of the expression of MRPL35 on the prognosis was evaluated with KMplot (http://www.kmplot.com). The expression of MRPL35 was assessed on the tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry and the level of MRPL35 mRNA in 25 pairs of clinical GC tissues and matched adjacent tissues was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Celigo cell count assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry were used to assess the role of MRPL35 in GC cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Additionally, tumor formation experiment in BALB/c nude mice was utilized to determine the effect of MRPL35 on GC cell proliferation. After knockdown of MRPL35, related proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification analysis, and the expression of related proteins was detected by Western blot. The expression of MRPL35 was up-regulated in GC (P = 1.77 × 10-4). The Kaplan-Meier plots of the overall survival indicated that high expression of MRPL35 was associated with a poor survival in GC. Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression of MRPL35 in GC tissues was increased, which was related to age (P = 0.03), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), and pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.024). Knockdown of MRPL35 inhibited GC cell proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis. Animal experiment results showed that knockdown of MRPL35 inhibited tumor formation in BALB/c nude mice. Western blotting analysis showed that after knockdown of MRPL35, the expression of PICK1 and BCL-XL proteins decreased, and that of AGR2 protein increased. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that knockdown of MRPL35 inhibits GC cell proliferation through related proteins including PICK1, BCL-XL, and AGR2.
Jia-Sheng Cao, Zi-Yi Lu, Ming-Yu Chen, Bin Zhang, Sarun Juengpanich, Jia-Hao Hu, Shi-Jie Li, Win Topatana, Xue-Yin Zhou, Xu Feng, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1664-1690; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1664

Abstract:
Originally proposed by John McCarthy in 1955, artificial intelligence (AI) has achieved a breakthrough and revolutionized the processing methods of clinical medicine with the increasing workloads of medical records and digital images. Doctors are paying attention to AI technologies for various diseases in the fields of gastroenterology and hepatology. This review will illustrate AI technology procedures for medical image analysis, including data processing, model establishment, and model validation. Furthermore, we will summarize AI applications in endoscopy, radiology, and pathology, such as detecting and evaluating lesions, facilitating treatment, and predicting treatment response and prognosis with excellent model performance. The current challenges for AI in clinical application include potential inherent bias in retrospective studies that requires larger samples for validation, ethics and legal concerns, and the incomprehensibility of the output results. Therefore, doctors and researchers should cooperate to address the current challenges and carry out further investigations to develop more accurate AI tools for improved clinical applications.
Mohammed Al-Beltagi, Nermin Kamal Saeed, Adel Salah Bediwy, Yasser El-Sawaf
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1716-1727; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1716

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat worldwide for individuals of all ages, including children. Gastrointestinal manifestations could be the initial presenting manifestation in many patients, especially in children. These symptoms are more common in patients with severe disease than in patients with non-severe disease. Approximately 48.1% of patients had a stool sample that was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA. Children typically form 1%-8% of all laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2. Gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 in children are not rare, with a prevalence between 0 and 88%, and a wide variety of presentations, including diarrhoea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, can develop before, with or after the development of respiratory symptoms. Atypical manifestations such as appendicitis or liver injury could also appear, especially in the presence of multisystem inflammatory disease. In this review, we discussed the epidemiology of COVID-19 gastrointestinal diseases in children as well as their implications on the diagnosis, misdiagnosis, prognosis, and faecal-oral transmission route of COVID-19 and the impact of gastrointestinal diseases on the gut microbiome, child nutrition, and disease management.
Shan Tong, Huan Wang, Li-Sha A, Ta-Na Bai, Ju-Hua Gong, Wen-Jie Jin, Li-Li Dai, Gen-Na Ba, Sung-Bo Cho,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1770-1784; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i16.1770

Abstract:
Sulongga-4 (SL-4) is a herbal formula used in traditional Mongolian medical clinics for the treatment of peptic ulcers and gastroenteritis, even though its pharmacological mechanism has not been well characterized. To evaluate the protective effect and identify the mechanisms of action of SL-4 on gastroduodenal ulcer induced by pyloric ligation (PL) in rats. PL was performed to induce gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats, which were then treated with oral SL-4 (1.3, 2.6, or 3.9 g/kg per day) for 15 d. PL-induced gastroduodenal ulceration. Therapeutic effects were characterized by pathological and histological evaluations and inflammatory indicators were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Microarray analyses were conducted to identify gene expression profiles of gastroduodenal tissue in PL rats with or without SL-4 treatment. The candidate target genes were selected and verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). SL-4 decreased histopathological features in the PL-induced ulcerated rats. SL-4 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, endotoxin, platelet-activating factor, and increased prostaglandin E2 and epidermal growth factor in ulcer tissue. Microarray analysis was used to identify a panel of candidate target genes for SL-4 acting on PL-induced ulceration. Genes included some complement and coagulation cascade and retinol metabolism pathways that are closely associated with inflammatory responses and gastric mucosal protective mechanisms. qRT-PCR showed that altered expression of the selected genes, such as CYP2b2, UGT2b1, A2m, and MASP1 was consistent with the microarray results. SL-4 exerts protective effects against PL-induced gastroduodenal ulcers via reducing inflammatory cytokines and elevating expression of gastric acid inhibitory factors. Downregulation of CYP2b2 and UGT2b1 genes in retinol metabolism and upregulation of A2m and MASP1 genes in the complement and coagulation cascades pathways are possibly involved in SL-4-mediated protection against gastroduodenal ulcer.
Kun Li, Yi-Fan Peng, Jing-Zhu Guo, Mei Li, Yu Zhang, Jing-Yi Chen, Ting-Ru Lin, Xin Yu,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1595-1615; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1595

Abstract:
Expression of the full-length isoform of Abelson interactor 1 (ABI1), ABI1-p65, is increased in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and is thought to be involved in one or more steps leading to tumor progression or metastasis. The ABI1 splice isoform-L (ABI1-SiL) has conserved WAVE2-binding and SH3 domains, lacks the homeo-domain homologous region, and is missing the majority of PxxP- and Pro-rich domains found in full-length ABI1-p65. Thus, ABI1-SiL domain structure suggests that the protein may regulate CRC cell morphology, adhesion, migration, and metastasis via interactions with the WAVE2 complex pathway. To investigate the potential role and underlying mechanisms associated with ABI1-SiL-mediated regulation of CRC. ABI1-SiL mRNA expression in CC tissue and cell lines was measured using both qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. A stably ABI1-SiL overexpressing SW480 cell model was constructed using Lipofectamine 2000, and cells selected with G418. Image J software, CCK8, and transwell assays were used to investigate SW480 cell surface area, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Immunoprecipitation, Western blot, and co-localization assays were performed to explore intermolecular interactions between ABI1-SiL, WAVE2, and ABI1-p65 proteins. ABI1-SiL was expressed in normal colon tissue and was significantly decreased in CRC cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of ABI1-SiL in SW480 cells significantly increased the cell surface area and inhibited the adhesive and migration properties of the cells, but did not alter their invasive capacity. Similar to ABI1-p65, ABI1-SiL still binds WAVE2, and the ABI1-p65 isoform in SW480 cells. Furthermore, co-localization assays confirmed these intermolecular interactions. These results support a model in which ABI1-SiL plays an anti-oncogenic role by competitively binding to WAVE2 and directly interacting with phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated ABI1-p65, functioning as a dominant-negative form of ABI1-p65.
Monia Cecati, , Alessandra Righetti, Berina Sabanovic, Francesco Piva
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1616-1629; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1616

Abstract:
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of death among cancers, it is characterized by poor prognosis and strong chemoresistance. In the PDAC microenvironment, stromal cells release different extracellular components, including CXCL12. The CXCL12 is a chemokine promoting the communication between tumour and stromal cells. Six different splicing isoforms of CXCL12 are known (α, β, γ, δ, ε, θ) but their role in PDAC has not yet been characterized. To investigate the specific role of α, β, and γ CXCL12 isoforms in PDAC onset. We used hTERT-HPNE E6/E7/KRasG12D (Human Pancreatic Nestin-Expressing) cell line as a pancreatic pre-tumour model and exposed it to the α, β, and γ CXCL12 isoforms. The altered expression profiles were assessed by microarray analyses and confirmed by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction. The functional enrichment analyses have been performed by Enrichr tool to highlight Gene Ontology enriched terms. In addition, wound healing assays have been carried out to assess the phenotypic changes, in terms of migration ability, induced by the α, β, and γ CXCL12 isoforms. Microarray analysis of hTERT-HPNE cells treated with the three different CXCL12 isoforms highlighted that the expression of only a few genes was altered. Moreover, the α and β isoforms showed an alteration in expression of different genes, whereas γ isoform affected the expression of genes also common with α and β isoforms. The β isoform altered the expression of genes mainly involved in cell cycle regulation. In addition, all isoforms affected the expression of genes associated to cell migration, adhesion and cytoskeleton. In vitro cell migration assay confirmed that CXCL12 enhanced the migration ability of hTERT-HPNE cells. Among the CXCL12 splicing isoforms, the γ isoform showed higher induction of migration than α and β isoforms. Our data suggests an involvement and different roles of CXCL12 isoforms in PDAC onset. However, more investigations are needed to confirm these preliminary observations.
Xue-Ying Liang, Tian-Xu Jia,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1643-1654; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1643

Abstract:
In the early stage of acute pancreatitis (AP), a large number of cytokines induced by local pancreatic inflammation seriously damage the intestinal barrier function, and intestinal bacteria and endotoxins enter the blood, causing inflammatory storm, resulting in multiple organ failure, infectious complications, and other disorders, eventually leading to death. Intestinal failure occurs early in the course of AP, accelerating its development. As an alternative method to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, the hydrogen breath test is safe, noninvasive, and convenient, reflecting the number of intestinal bacteria in AP indirectly. This study aimed to investigate the changes in intestinal bacteria measured using the hydrogen breath test in the early stage of AP to clarify the relationship between intestinal bacteria and acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Early clinical intervention and maintenance of intestinal barrier function would be highly beneficial in controlling the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). To analyze the relationship between intestinal bacteria change and ALI/ARDS in the early stage of SAP. A total of 149 patients with AP admitted to the intensive care unit of the Digestive Department, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University from 2016 to 2019 were finally enrolled, following compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of the hydrogen breath test within 1 wk of admission were collected, and the hydrogen production rates at admission, 72 h, and 96 h were calculated. The higher the hydrogen production rates the more bacteria in the small intestine. First, according to the improved Marshall scoring system in the 2012 Atlanta Consensus on New Standards for Classification of Acute Pancreatitis, 66 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 score ≤ 1 were included in the mild AP (MAP) group, 18 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 score ≥ 2 and duration < 48 h were included in the moderately SAP (MSAP) group, and 65 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 score ≥ 2 and duration > 48 h were included in the SAP group, to analyze the correlation between intestinal bacterial overgrowth and organ failure in AP. Second, ALI (PaO2/FiO2 = 2) and ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 > 2) were defined according to the simplified diagnostic criteria proposed by the 1994 European Union Conference. The MSAP group was divided into two groups according to the PaO2/FiO2 score: 15 patients with PaO2/FiO2 score = 2 were included in group A, and three patients with score > 2 were included in group B. Similarly, the SAP group was divided into two groups: 28 patients with score = 2 were included in group C, and 37 patients with score > 2 were included in group D, to analyze the correlation between intestinal bacterial overgrowth and ALI/ARDS in AP. A total of 149 patients were included: 66 patients in the MAP group, of whom 53 patients were male (80.3%) and 13 patients were female (19.7%); 18 patients in the MSAP group, of whom 13 patients were male (72.2%) and 5 patients were female (27.8%); 65 patients in the SAP group, of whom 48 patients were male (73.8%) and 17 patients were female (26.2%). There was no significant difference in interleukin-6 and procalcitonin among the MAP, MSAP, and SAP groups (P = 0.445 and P = 0.399, respectively). There was no significant difference in the growth of intestinal bacteria among the MAP, MSAP, and SAP groups (P = 0.649). There was no significant difference in the growth of small intestinal bacteria between group A and group B (P = 0.353). There was a significant difference in the growth of small intestinal bacteria between group C and group D (P = 0.038). Intestinal bacterial overgrowth in the early stage of SAP is correlated with ARDS.
Qing-Hua Yang, Xiao-Peng Ma, , Da-Ming Bai, Yu Zou, Si-Xi Liu, Jian-Ming Song
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1655-1663; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1655

Abstract:
Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs commonly in immunocompromised/immunodeficient patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, neoplasm, solid organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or treatment with immunosuppressants, but is rarely reported in association with measles infection. We describe a case of extensive gastrointestinal CMV disease secondary to measles infection in a 9-mo-old boy who presented with persistent fever and bloody diarrhea. His condition was improved after ganciclovir treatment. Serological analysis of CMV showed negative immunoglobulin (Ig) M and positive IgG. Blood CMV-DNA was 9.26 × 103 copies/mL. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal CMV disease was confirmed by histopathological findings of intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions and Owl’s eye inclusion. This case highlights the differential diagnosis and histopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal CMV infection and laboratory tests. Extensive gastrointestinal CMV lesions can be induced by the immune suppression secondary to measles infection. Rational, fast, and effective laboratory examinations are essential for suspected patients.
, Marco Bustamante-Balén, Vicente Pons-Beltrán
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1563-1568; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1563

Abstract:
Endoscopic removal of large (≥ 20 mm) non-pedunculated colorectal lesions (LNPCLs) may result in major adverse events, such as delayed bleeding (DB) and delayed perforation (DP), despite closure of the mucosal defects with clips. Topical application of a coverage agent refers to the creation of a shield with a biocompatible medical device (tissue or hydrogel) with proven bioactive properties. Coverage of the eschar after endoscopic resection provides shielding protection to prevent delayed complications. The aim of the present review was to systematically collect and review the currently available literature regarding the prevention of DB and DP with coverage agents after endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection of LNPCLs.
, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Harutoshi Sugiyama, Rintaro Mikata, Shin Yasui, Izumi Ohno, Yotaro Iino, Jun Kato, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Naoya Kato
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1569-1577; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1569

Abstract:
Bile duct epithelial tumours showing papillary neoplasm in the bile duct lumen are present in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Clinicopathological images of these tumours are distinctive and diverse, including histological images with a low to high grade dysplasia, infiltrating and noninfiltrating characteristics, excessive mucus production, and similarity to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. The World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System in 2010 named these features, intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), as precancerous lesion of biliary carcinoma. IPNB is currently classified into type 1 that is similar to IPMN, and type 2 that is not similar to IPMN. Many of IPNB spreads superficially, and diagnosis with cholangioscopy is considered mandatory to identify accurate localization and progression. Prognosis of IPNB is said to be better than normal bile duct cancer.
, Zuhair M Mohammedsaleh, Mahmoud M Ali, Osama M Ghogar
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1531-1552; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1531

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a devastating worldwide pandemic infection caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome namely coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is associated with a high spreading and mortality rate. On the date this review was written, SARS-CoV-2 infected about 96 million people and killed about 2 million people. Several arguments disclosed the high mortality of COVID-19 due to acute respiratory distress syndrome or change in the amount of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression or cytokine storm strength production. In a similar pattern, hepatic impairment patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibited overexpression of ACE2 receptors and cytokine storm overwhelming, which worsens the hepatic impairment and increases the mortality rate. In this review, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatic impairment conditions we overviewed. Besides, we focused on the recent studies that indicated cytokine storm as well as ACE2 as the main factors for high COVID-19 spreading and mortality while hinting at the potential therapeutic strategies.
Samah Abdulaali Alharbi, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Ernst Wolvetang
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1578-1594; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1578

Abstract:
Colon cancer cell lines are widely used for research and for the screening of drugs that specifically target the stem cell compartment of colon cancers. It was reported that colon cancer carcinoma specimens contain a subset of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5)-expressing stem cells, these so-called “tumour-initiating” cells, reminiscent in their properties of the normal intestinal stem cells (ISCs), may explain the apparent heterogeneity of colon cancer cell lines. Also, colon cancer is initiated by aberrant Wnt signaling in ISCs known to express high levels of LGR5. Furthermore, in vivo reports demonstrate the clonal expansion of intestinal adenomas from a single LGR5-expressing cell. To investigate whether colon cancer cell lines contain cancer stem cells and to characterize these putative cancer stem cells. A portable fluorescent reporter construct based on a conserved fragment of the LGR5 promoter was used to isolate the cell compartments expressing different levels of LGR5 in two widely used colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and LoVo). These cells were then characterized according to their proliferation capacity, gene expression signatures of ISC markers, and their tumorigenic properties in vivo and in vitro. The data revealed that the LGR5 reporter can be used to identify and isolate a classical intestinal crypt stem cell-like population from the Caco-2, but not from the LoVo, cell lines, in which the cancer stem cell population is more akin to B lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 homolog (+4 crypt) stem cells. This sub-population within Caco-2 cells exhibits an intestinal cancer stem cell gene expression signature and can both self-renew and generate differentiated LGR5 negative progeny. Our data also show that cells expressing high levels of LGR5/enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) from this cell line exhibit tumorigenic-like properties in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, cell compartments of LoVo that are expressing high levels of LGR5/EYFP did not show these stem cell-like properties. Thus, cells that exhibit high levels of LGR5/EYFP expression represent the cancer stem cell compartment of Caco-2 colon cancer cells, but not LoVo cells. Our findings highlight the presence of a spectrum of different ISC-like compartments in different colon cancer cell lines. Their existence is an important consideration for their screening applications and should be taken into account when interpreting drug screening data. We have generated a portable LGR5-reporter that serves as a valuable tool for the identification and isolation of different colon cancer stem cell populations in colon cancer lines.
, Harry R Aslanian, Loren Laine, Priya A Jamidar, James F Farrell, Kisha A Mitchell, Ronald R Salem
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1630-1642; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1630

Abstract:
Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) may be a presenting feature of and an indication for resection of pancreatic cysts, including intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Few data are available regarding the prevalence of malignancy and post-operative RAP in this population. To study the role of resection to help prevent RAP and analyze if presentation as RAP would be a predictor for malignancy. This retrospective study assessed 172 patients who underwent surgical resection of pancreatic cystic neoplasms at a university hospital between 2002 and 2016. The prevalence of preoperative high-risk cyst features, and of neoplasia was compared between patients with and without RAP. To identify the cause of pancreatitis, all the patients had a detailed history of alcohol, smoking, medications obtained, and had cross-sectional imaging (contrast-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) and endoscopic ultrasound to look for gallstone etiology and other structural causes for pancreatitis. The incidence of RAP post-resection was the primary outcome. IPMN accounted for 101 cases (58.7%) {[branch duct (BD) 59 (34.3%), main duct (MD) 42] (24.4%)}. Twenty-nine (16.9%) presented with RAP (mean 2.2 episodes): 15 had BD-IPMN, 8 MD-IPMN, 5 mucinous cystic neoplasm and 1 serous cystic neoplasm. Malignancy was similar among those with vs without RAP for all patients [6/29 (20.7%) vs 24/143 (16.8%)] and IPMN patients [6/23 (26.1%) vs 23/78 (29.5%)], although tended to be higher with RAP in BD-IPMN, [5/15 (33.3%) vs 3/44 (6.8%), P = 0.04]. At mean follow-up of 7.2 years, 1 (3.4%) RAP patient had post-resection RAP. The mean episodes of acute pancreatitis before vs after surgery were 3.4 vs 0.02 (P < 0.0001). Malignancy was not increased in patients with pancreatic cystic neoplasms who have RAP compared to those without RAP. In addition, specific cyst charac-teristics were not clearly associated with RAP. The incidence of RAP was markedly decreased in almost all patients following cyst resection.
Wisam Sbeit, , Amir Mari
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1553-1562; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1553

Abstract:
Faecal incontinence (FI) is a debilitating common end result of several diseases affecting the quality of life and leading to patient disability, morbidity, and increased societal burden. Given the various causes of FI, it is important to assess and identify the underlying pathomechanisms. Several investigatory tools are available including high-resolution anorectal manometry, transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and electromyography. This review article provides an overview on the causes and pathophysiology of FI and the author’s perspective of the stepwise investigation of patients with FI based on the available literature. Overall, high-resolution anorectal manometry should be the first investigatory tool for FI, followed by either transrectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging for anal internal sphincter and external anal sphincter injury, respectively.
Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Timothy Michael Pawlik,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1524-1530; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i15.1524

Abstract:
The concept of textbook outcome (TO) has recently gained popularity in surgical research and has been used to evaluate the quality or success of different surgical procedures, including hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) operations. TO consists of individual outcome parameters that each reflect different domains of care including structure, process, and individual outcomes; in turn, the composite TO metric represents the optimal course after a surgical episode. TO can be used to assess patient-level outcomes, hospital performance, center designation and quality metrics. In addition to being an outcome measurement, TO may also be linked to healthcare costs. Future efforts should be directed towards establishing a universal definition of TO in HPB surgery so that surgeons and hospitals can assess and compare outcomes, identify shortcomings and improve real world patient outcomes.
, Amany H Hasanin, Reham Hussein, Sarah El-Nakeep, Eman K Habib, Rawan Ellackany, Lobna A Saleh
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1435-1450; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1435

Abstract:
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cyan) exhibits antioxidant and anticancer properties. The cell cycle proteins and antimitotic drugs might be promising therapeutic targets in hepatocellular carcinoma. To investigate the effect of cyan administration on cell cycle in hepatic precancerous lesion (PCL) induced by diethylnitrosamine/2-acetylaminofluorene (DEN/2-AAF) in Wistar rats. In vivo, DEN/2-AAF-induced hepatic PCL, rats were treated with three doses of cyan (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg/d, for four consecutive days per week for 16 wk). Blood and liver tissue samples were collected for measurement of the followings; alpha fetoprotein (AFP) liver function and RNA panel differential expression was evaluated via real time polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination of liver sections stained with H&E and immunohistochemical study using glutathione S-transferase placental (GSTP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies were assessed. Cyan administration mitigated the effect of DEN/2-AFF induced PCL, decreased AFP levels, and improved liver function. Remarkably, treatment with cyan dose dependently decreased the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 and tubulin gamma 1 mRNA expressions and increased the levels of miR-125b, all of which are involved in cell cycle and mitotic spindle assembly. Of note, cyan decreased GSTP foci percent area and PCNA positively stained nuclei. Our results indicated that cyan could be used as a potential therapeutic agent to inhibit liver carcinogenesis in rat model via modulation of cell cycle.
Sarah A Malik, Chencan Zhu, Jinyu Li, Joseph F LaComb, Paula I Denoya, Igor Kravets, Joshua D Miller, Jie Yang, Melissa Kramer, W Richard McCombie, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1465-1482; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1465

Abstract:
Integrative multi-omic approaches have been increasingly applied to discovery and functional studies of complex human diseases. Short-term preoperative antibiotics have been adopted to reduce site infections in colorectal cancer (CRC) resections. We hypothesize that the antibiotics will impact analysis of multi-omic datasets generated from resection samples to investigate biological CRC risk factors. To assess the impact of preoperative antibiotics and other variables on integrated microbiome and human transcriptomic data generated from archived CRC resection samples. Genomic DNA (gDNA) and RNA were extracted from prospectively collected 51 pairs of frozen sporadic CRC tumor and adjacent non-tumor mucosal samples from 50 CRC patients archived at a single medical center from 2010-2020. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V3V4 region, paired end, 300 bp) and confirmatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were conducted on gDNA. RNA sequencing (IPE, 125 bp) was performed on parallel tumor and non-tumor RNA samples with RNA Integrity Numbers scores ≥ 6. PERMANOVA detected significant effects of tumor vs nontumor histology (P = 0.002) and antibiotics (P = 0.001) on microbial β-diversity, but CRC tumor location (left vs right), diabetes mellitus vs not diabetic and Black/African Ancestry (AA) vs not Black/AA, did not reach significance. Linear mixed models detected significant tumor vs nontumor histology*antibiotics interaction terms for 14 genus level taxa. QPCR confirmed increased Fusobacterium abundance in tumor vs nontumor groups, and detected significantly reduced bacterial load in the (+)antibiotics group. Principal coordinate analysis of the transcriptomic data showed a clear separation between tumor and nontumor samples. Differentially expressed genes obtained from separate analyses of tumor and nontumor samples, are presented for the antibiotics, CRC location, diabetes and Black/AA race groups. Recent adoption of additional preoperative antibiotics as standard of care, has a measurable impact on -omics analysis of resected specimens. This study still confirmed increased Fusobacterium nucleatum in tumor.
Yan Xue, Meng Zhang, Tao Li, Feng Liu, Li-Xin Zhang, Xiao-Ping Fan, Bao-Hua Yang,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1497-1506; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1497

Abstract:
Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) cessation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients remains a matter of debate in clinical practice. Current guidelines recommend that patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion discontinue NAs after relatively long-term consolidation therapy. However, many patients fail to achieve HBeAg seroconversion after the long-term loss of HBeAg, even if hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss occurs. It remains unclear whether NAs can be discontinued in this subset of patients. To investigate the outcomes and factors associated with HBeAg-positive CHB patients with HBeAg loss (without hepatitis B e antibody) after cessation of NAs. We studied patients who discontinued NAs after achieving HBeAg loss. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors for virological relapse after cessation of NAs. The cut-off value of the consolidation period was confirmed using receiver operating characteristic curves; we confirmed the cut-off value of HBsAg according to a previous study. The log-rank test was used to compare cumulative relapse rates among groups. We also studied patients with CHB who achieved HBeAg seroconversion and compared their cumulative relapse rates. Propensity score matching analysis (PSM) was used to balance baseline characteristics between the groups. We included 83 patients with HBeAg loss. The mean age of these patients was 32.1 ± 9.5 years, and the majority was male (67.5%). Thirty-eight patients relapsed, and the cumulative relapse rate at months 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 60, 120, and 180 were 22.9%, 36.1%, 41.0%, 43.5%, 45.0%, 45.0%, 45.0%, and 52.8%, respectively. Twenty-six (68.4%) patients relapsed in the first 3 mo after NAs cessation, and 35 patients (92.1%) relapsed in the first year after NAs cessation. Consolidation period (≥ 24 mo vs < 24 mo) (HR 0.506, P = 0.043) and HBsAg at cessation (≥ 100 IU/mL vs < 100 IU/mL) (HR 14.869, P = 0.008) were significant predictors in multivariate Cox regression. In the PSM cohort, which included 144 patients, there were lower cumulative relapse rates in patients with HBeAg seroconversion (P = 0.036). HBeAg-positive CHB patients with HBeAg loss may be able to discontinue NAs therapy after long-term consolidation, especially in patients with HBsAg at cessation < 100 IU/mL. Careful monitoring, especially in the early stages after cessation, may ensure a favorable outcome.
Maja Cigrovski Berkovic, Danko Mikulic, Ines Bilic-Curcic,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1362-1368; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1362

Abstract:
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide, and its prevention and reduction of incidence is imperative. The presence of diabetes has been associated with a 30% increased risk of CRC, likely through the mechanism of hyperinsulinemia, which promotes tumorigenesis via the insulin receptor in the epithelium or by insulin-like growth factor pathways, inflammation, or adipokines, inducing cancer cell proliferation and cancer spread. Metformin, the first-line agent in treating type 2 diabetes, has a chemopreventive role in CRC development. Additionally, preclinical studies suggest synergistic effects of metformin with oxaliplatin in inhibiting in vitro models of colon cancer. Although preclinical studies on the post diagnostic use of metformin were promising and suggested its synergistic effects with chemotherapy, the data on the possible effects of metformin after surgery and other CRC treatment in the clinical setting are less conclusive, and randomized controlled trials are still lacking.
Jun-Zhou Zhao, Lin-Lan Qiao, Zhao-Qing Du, Jia Zhang, Meng-Zhou Wang, Tao Wang, Wu-Ming Liu, Lin Zhang, Jian Dong, Zheng Wu, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1507-1523; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1507

Abstract:
Whether to use a T-tube for biliary anastomosis during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains a debatable question. Some surgeons chose to use a T-tube because they believed that it reduces the incidence of biliary strictures. Advances in surgical techniques during the last decades have significantly decreased the overall incidence of postoperative biliary complications. Whether using a T-tube during OLT is still associated with the reduced incidence of biliary strictures needs to be re-evaluated. To provide an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on using a T-tube during adult OLT. In the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trails Register, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, we identified 17 studies (eight randomized controlled trials and nine comparative studies) from January 1995 to October 2020. The data of the studies before and after 2010 were separately extracted. We chose the overall biliary complications, bile leaks or fistulas, biliary strictures (anastomotic or non-anastomotic), and cholangitis as outcomes. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to describe the results of the outcomes. Furthermore, the test for overall effect (Z) was used to test the difference between OR and 1, where P ≤ 0.05 indicated a significant difference between OR value and 1. A total of 1053 subjects before 2010 and 1346 subjects after 2010 were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that using a T-tube reduced the incidence of postoperative biliary strictures in studies before 2010 (P = 0.012, OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42-0.90), while the same benefit was not seen in studies after 2010 (P = 0.60, OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.27-2.12). No significant difference in the incidence of overall biliary complications (P = 0.37, OR = 1.41, 95%CI: 0.66-2.98), bile leaks (P = 0.89, OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.63-1.70), and cholangitis (P = 0.27, OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 0.59-6.84) was observed between using and not using a T-tube before 2010. However, using a T-tube appeared to increase the incidence of overall biliary complications (P = 0.049, OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.00-2.22), bile leaks (P = 0.048, OR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.64), and cholangitis (P = 0.02, OR = 7.21, 95%CI: 1.37-38.00) after 2010. A random-effects model was used in biliary strictures (after 2010), overall biliary complications (before 2010), and cholangitis (before 2010) due to their heterogeneity (I2 = 62.3%, 85.4%, and 53.6%, respectively). In the sensitivity analysis (only RCTs included), bile leak (P = 0.66) lost the significance after 2010 and a random-effects model was used in overall biliary complications (before 2010), cholangitis (before 2010), bile leaks (after 2010), and biliary strictures (after 2010) because of their heterogeneity (I2 = 92.2%, 65.6%, 50.9%, and 80.3%, respectively). In conclusion, the evidence gathered in our updated meta-analysis showed that the studies published in the last decade did not provide enough evidence to support the routine use of T-tube in adults during OLT.
Aleksandra Glapa-Nowak, Mariusz Szczepanik, Barbara Iwańczak, Jarosław Kwiecień, Anna Barbara Szaflarska-Popławska, Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Marcin Osiecki, Marcin Dziekiewicz, Andrzej Stawarski, Jarosław Kierkuś, et al.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1483-1496; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1483

Abstract:
It has been suggested that apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the early age of disease onset. However, there are no reports regarding the relationship with clinical characteristics and disease severity. To summarise that APOE polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing IBD and the early age of disease onset. In total, 406 patients aged 3-18 with IBD (192 had ulcerative colitis and 214 had Crohn’s disease) were genotyped using the TaqMan hydrolysis probe assay. Clinical expression was described at diagnosis and the worst flare by disease activity scales, albumin and C-reactive protein levels, localisation and behaviour (Paris classification). Systemic steroid intake with the total number of courses, immunosuppressive, biological, and surgical treatment with the time and age of the first intervention were determined. The total number of exacerbation-caused hospitalisations, the number of days spent in hospital due to exacerbation, the number of relapses, and severe relapses were also estimated. Ulcerative colitis patients with the APOEε4 allele had lower C-reactive protein values at diagnosis (P = 0.0435) and the worst flare (P = 0.0013) compared to patients with the APOEε2 allele and genotype APOEε3/ε3. Crohn’s disease patients with the APOEε2 allele scored lower on the Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index at diagnosis (P = 0.0204). IBD patients with APOEε2 allele spent fewer days in the hospital due to relapse (P = 0.0440). APOE polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing IBD and the clinical expression of IBD. However, the clinical relevance of the differences identified is rather modest.
, Giorgia Venutolo, Meritxell Pujolassos Tanyà, Matteo Delli Carri, Annamaria Landolfi, Alessio Fasano
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1406-1418; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1406

Abstract:
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been described in a conspicuous percentage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This clinical evidence is supported by the detection of viral RNA in stool, which also supports the hypothesis of a possible fecal-oral transmission route. The involvement of GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is corroborated by the theoretical assumption that angiotensin converting enzyme 2, which is a SARS-CoV-2 target receptor, is present along the GI tract. Studies have pointed out that gut dysbiosis may occur in COVID-19 patients, with a possible correlation with disease severity and with complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. However, the question to be addressed is whether dysbiosis is a consequence or a contributing cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In such a scenario, pharmacological therapies aimed at decreasing GI permeability may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients. Considering the possibility of a fecal-oral transmission route, water and environmental sanitation play a crucial role for COVID-19 containment, especially in developing countries.
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1392-1405; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1392

Abstract:
Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract and originates from the epithelium of the esophageal mucosa. It has been confirmed that early EC lesions can be cured by endoscopic therapy, and the curative effect is equivalent to that of surgical operation. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is still the gold standard for EC diagnosis. The accuracy of endoscopic examination results largely depends on the professional level of the examiner. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied in the screening of early EC and has shown advantages; notably, it is more accurate than less-experienced endoscopists. This paper reviews the application of AI in the field of endoscopic detection of early EC, including squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, and describes the relevant progress. Although up to now most of the studies evaluating the clinical application of AI in early EC endoscopic detection are focused on still images, AI-assisted real-time detection based on live-stream video may be the next step.
Zhi Yi Goh, Ee Chee Ren,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1369-1391; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1369

Abstract:
Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a major global health threat as 250 million people worldwide continue to be chronically infected with the virus. While patients may be treated with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues, this only suppresses HBV titre to sub-detection levels without eliminating the persistent HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) genome. As a result, HBV infection cannot be cured, and the virus reactivates when conditions are favorable. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines known to induce powerful antiviral mechanisms that clear viruses from infected cells. They have been shown to induce cccDNA clearance, but their use in the treatment of HBV infection is limited as HBV-targeting immune cells are exhausted and HBV has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade and suppress IFN signalling. Thus, to fully utilize IFN-mediated intracellular mechanisms to effectively eliminate HBV, instead of direct IFN administration, novel strategies to sustain IFN-mediated anti-cccDNA and antiviral mechanisms need to be developed. This review will consolidate what is known about how IFNs act to achieve its intracellular antiviral effects and highlight the critical interferon-stimulated gene targets and effector mechanisms with potent anti-cccDNA functions. These include cccDNA degradation by APOBECs and cccDNA silencing and transcription repression by epigenetic modifications. In addition, the mechanisms that HBV employs to disrupt IFN signalling will be discussed. Drugs that have been developed or are in the pipeline for components of the IFN signalling pathway and HBV targets that detract IFN signalling mechanisms will also be identified and discussed for utility in the treatment of HBV infections. Together, these will provide useful insights into design strategies that specifically target cccDNA for the eradication of HBV.
Xin Luo, Sheng-Zheng Luo, Zi-Xin Xu, Cui Zhou, Zheng-Hong Li, Xiao-Yan Zhou,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1419-1434; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1419

Abstract:
Exosomes play an important role in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), but the mechanism by which exosomes participate in MAFLD still remain unclear. To figure out the function of lipotoxic exosomal miR-1297 in MAFLD. MicroRNA sequencing was used to detect differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miR) in lipotoxic exosomes derived from primary hepatocytes. Bioinformatic tools were applied to analyze the target genes and pathways regulated by the DE-miRs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was conducted for the verification of DE-miRs. qPCR, western blot, immunofluorescence staining and ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine assay were used to evaluate the function of lipotoxic exosomal miR-1297 on hepatic stellate cells (LX2 cells). A luciferase reporter experiment was performed to confirm the relationship of miR-1297 and its target gene PTEN. MicroRNA sequencing revealed that there were 61 exosomal DE-miRs (P < 0.05) with a fold-change > 2 from palmitic acid treated primary hepatocytes compared with the vehicle control group. miR-1297 was the most highly upregulated according to the microRNA sequencing. Bioinformatic tools showed a variety of target genes and pathways regulated by these DE-miRs were related to liver fibrosis. miR-1297 was overexpressed in exosomes derived from lipotoxic hepatocytes by qPCR. Fibrosis promoting genes (α-SMA, PCNA) were altered in LX2 cells after miR-1297 overexpression or miR-1297-rich lipotoxic exosome incubation via qPCR and western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining and ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine staining demonstrated that the activation and proliferation of LX2 cells were also promoted after the above treatment. PTEN was found to be the target gene of miR-1297 and knocking down PTEN contributed to the activation and proliferation of LX2 cells via modulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. miR-1297 was overexpressed in exosomes derived from lipotoxic hepatocytes. The lipotoxic hepatocyte-derived exosomal miR-1297 could promote the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells through the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, accelerating the progression of MAFLD.
Qian Zhou, Zhi-Min Liu, Hua-Xian Chen, Dong-Lin Ren,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1451-1464; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i14.1451

Abstract:
Currently, rectovaginal fistula (RVF) continues to be a surgical challenge worldwide, with a relatively low healing rate. Unclosed intermittent suture and poor suture materials may be the main reasons for this. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of stapled transperineal repair in treating RVF. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in the Coloproctology Department of The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou, China). Adult patients presenting with RVF who were surgically managed by perineal repair between May 2015 and May 2020 were included. Among the 82 total patients, 37 underwent repair with direct suturing and 45 underwent repair with stapling. Patient demographic data, Wexner faecal incontinence score, and operative data were analyzed. Recurrence rate and associated risk factors were assessed. The direct suture and stapled repair groups showed similar clinical characteristics for aetiology, surgical history, fistula features, and perioperative Wexner score. The stapled repair group did not show superior results over the suture repair group in regard to operative time, blood loss, and hospital stay. However, the stapled repair group showed better postoperative Wexner score (1.04 ± 1.89 vs 2.73 ± 3.75, P = 0.021), less intercourse pain (1/45 vs 17/37, P = 0.045), and lower recurrence rate (6/45 vs 17/37, P = 0.001). There was no protective effect from previous repair history, smaller diameter of fistula (< 0.5 cm), better control of defecation (Wexner < 10), or stapled repair. Direct suture repair and preoperative high Wexner score (> 10) were risk factors for fistula recurrence. Furthermore, stapled repair gave better efficacy in treating complex RVFs (i.e., multiple transperineal repair history, mid-level fistula position, and poor control of defecation). Stapled transperineal repair is advantageous for management of RVF, providing a high primary healing rate and low recurrence rate.
Gopal Veeraraghavan, Amelie Therrien, Maya Degroote, Allison McKeown, Paul D Mitchell, Jocelyn A Silvester, Daniel A Leffler, Alan M Leichtner, Ciaran P Kelly,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1311-1320; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1311

Abstract:
Non-responsive celiac disease (NRCD) is defined as the persistence of symptoms in individuals with celiac disease (CeD) despite being on a gluten-free diet (GFD). There is scant literature about NRCD in the pediatric population. To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and underlying causes of NRCD in children. Retrospective cohort study performed at Boston Children’s Hospital (BCH). Children < 18 years diagnosed with CeD by positive serology and duodenal biopsies compatible with Marsh III histology between 2008 and 2012 were identified in the BCH’s Celiac Disease Program database. Medical records were longitudinally reviewed from the time of diagnosis through September 2015. NRCD was defined as persistent symptoms at 6 mo after the initiation of a GFD and causes of NRCD as well as symptom evolution were detailed. The children without symptoms at 6 mo (responders) were compared with the NRCD group. Additionally, presenting signs and symptoms at the time of diagnosis of CeD among the responders and NRCD patients were collected and compared to identify any potential predictors for NRCD at 6 mo of GFD therapy. Six hundred and sixteen children were included. Ninety-one (15%) met criteria for NRCD. Most were female (77%). Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 1.8 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.9], constipation (OR 3.1 95%CI 1.9-4.9) and absence of abdominal distension (OR for abdominal distension 0.4 95%CI 0.1-0.98) at diagnosis were associated with NRCD. NRCD was attributed to a wide variety of diagnoses with gluten exposure (30%) and constipation (20%) being the most common causes. Other causes for NRCD included lactose intolerance (9%), gastroesophageal reflux (8%), functional abdominal pain (7%), irritable bowel syndrome (3%), depression/anxiety (3%), eosinophilic esophagitis (2%), food allergy (1%), eating disorder (1%), gastric ulcer with Helicobacter pylori (1%), lymphocytic colitis (1%), aerophagia (1%) and undetermined (13%). 64% of children with NRCD improved on follow-up. NRCD after ≥ 6 mo GFD is frequent among children, especially females, and is associated with initial presenting symptoms of constipation and/or abdominal pain. Gluten exposure is the most frequent cause.
Aqsa Ahmad, Syeda Momna Ishtiaq, Junaid Ali Khan, Rizwan Aslam, Sultan Ali,
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1296-1310; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1296

Abstract:
The worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged the priorities of healthcare system in terms of different clinical management and infection transmission, particularly those related to hepatic-disease comorbidities. Epidemiological data evidenced that COVID-19 patients with altered liver function because of hepatitis infection and cholestasis have an adverse prognosis and experience worse health outcomes. COVID-19-associated liver injury is correlated with various liver diseases following a severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that can progress during the treatment of COVID-19 patients with or without pre-existing liver disease. SARS-CoV-2 can induce liver injury in a number of ways including direct cytopathic effect of the virus on cholangiocytes/hepatocytes, immune-mediated damage, hypoxia, and sepsis. Indeed, immediate cytopathogenic effects of SARS-CoV-2 via its potential target, the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor, which is highly expressed in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, renders the liver as an extra-respiratory organ with increased susceptibility to pathological outcomes. But, underlying COVID-19-linked liver disease pathogenesis with abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) is incompletely understood. Hence, we collated COVID-19-associated liver injuries with increased LFTs at the nexus of pre-existing liver diseases and COVID-19, and defining a plausible pathophysiological triad of COVID-19, hepatocellular damage, and liver disease. This review summarizes recent findings of the exacerbating role of COVID-19 in pre-existing liver disease and vice versa as well as international guidelines of clinical care, management, and treatment recommendations for COVID-19 patients with liver disease.
Qiong Zhang, Jie-Ying Zhao, , Chun-Yan Lu, Jin Yao, Yuan Luo, Yong-Yang Yu
World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 27, pp 1354-1361; doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i13.1354

Abstract:
Rectal subepithelial lesions (SELs) are commonly seen in endoscopic examination, generally manifested as bumps with a smooth surface. Precise preoperative diagnoses for rectal SELs are difficult because abnormal tissues are not easily to be obtained by regular endoscopic forceps biopsy. Traditional guidance modalities of preoperative biopsy, including endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography, and transabdominal ultrasound, are often unsatisfactory. An updated, safe, and effective biopsy guidance method is required. We herein report a new biopsy guidance modality—endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). A 32-year-old woman complained of a mass inside the rectovaginal space for 9 years, which became enlarged within 1 year. A rectal SEL detected by endoscopy was suspected to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor or exophytic uterine fibroid. Pathological diagnosis was difficult because of unsuccessful transabdominal core needle biopsy with insufficient tissues, as well as vaginal hemorrhage. A second biopsy was suggested after multiple disciplinary treatment discussion, which referred to a transperineal core needle biopsy (CNB) guided by ERUS combined with CEUS. Adequate samples were procured and rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor was proved to be the pathological diagnosis. Imatinib was recommended for first-line therapy by multiple disciplinary treatment discussion. After the tumor shrunk, resection of the rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor was performed through the posterior vaginal wall. Adjuvant therapy was applied and no recurrence or metastasis has been found by the last follow-up on December 13, 2019. Transperineal CNB guided by ERUS and CEUS is a safe and effective preoperative biopsy of rectal SELs yet with some limitations.
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