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Elisa Sa, , Anabela Carvalho,
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 849-857; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.094

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 797-804; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.088

Abstract:
© Author(s) 2015. Shifting seasons greatly influence the use and management practices in residential built environments which subsequently affect the level of exposure to various pollutants indoors. The levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were monitored in fifteen households of Lahore, Pakistan during different seasons. DustTrak aerosol monitors (model 8520, TSI Inc.) were run simultaneously in the kitchens and living rooms of the selected sites for seventy two hours each. To aid analysis, houses were categorized in three groups according to floor area. For non–smoking houses there was little variation between 24 h average PM 2.5 concentrations in kitchens (270 to 295 μg/m³) although there was an increase in concentrations in living rooms as floor area increased. Across all houses the average PM 2.5 concentration was observed to vary during the seasons. In the kitchens the average PM levels were 326 μg/m³ during the spring falling to 133 μg/m³ in summer, 180 μg/m³ in monsoon, 395 μg/m³ in autumn and 448 μg/m³ during the winter. Similarly, in the living rooms, the mean PM levels observed were 190 μg/m³ in spring, 101 μg/m³ in summer, 158 μg/m³ in monsoon, 458 μg/m³ in autumn and 590 μg/m³ in winter. Factors contributing towards these levels were cooking (involving frequent frying), floor sweeping, and also movement of the occupants. Smoking at two sites and use of gas heaters during the winter were also identified as contributing sources. Apart from these sources, ventilation was identified to be the most singular attributing factor to the above mentioned variations in PM levels. Ventilation during the warm season ranged from 3.51 air changes per hour (ACH) to 7.68 ACH. On the contrary, ventilation decreased during the autumn and winter season (2.5 to 5.64 ACH) and this resulted in an accumulation of PM indoors. The levels of fine particulate matter were observed to be 3 to 23 times higher than the WHO established standard of 25 μg/m³
Mohammed O.A. Mohammed, Wei-Wei Song, Wan-Li Ma, Wen-Long Li, John J. Ambuchi, Mohammed Thabit, Yi-Fan Li
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 893-903; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.099

, Elba Calesso Teixeira, Luis Felipe Silva Oliveira, Flavio Wiegand
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 877-885; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.097

Zhuzi Zhao, Junji Cao, Zhenxing Shen, , Tafeng Hu, Ping Wang, Ting Zhang, Suixin Liu
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 815-823; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.090

Deok-Rae Kim, Jae-Bum Lee, , Seung-Yeon Kim, Young-Ll Ma, Kyung-Mi Lee, Jun-Seok Cha, Sang-Deok Lee
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 768-776; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.085

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Gabriela Lorga, Cristina Balaceanu Raicu, Sabina Stefan
Published: 1 September 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 824-834; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.091

Suchita Lokhande, Pradeep Doggali, Sadhana Rayalu, ,
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 589-595; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.066

Abstract:
Small amounts (0.15wt%) of platinum and palladium were incorporated in porous, high surface area, ultra–stable H–USY–Zeolite by ion exchange method, and their catalytic activity was studied for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation reaction, under various conditions of industrial importance. The catalyst was characterized by p–XRD, chemical analysis, SEM, TEM, evaluated for catalytic activity using a steady state, fixed bed catalytic reactor. The catalysts show high CO oxidation activity and it was possible to convert 0.044 mmols of CO per gram of catalyst at 120 °C, at a space velocity of 60 000 h−1 and with 100 ppm CO concentration in feed gas. The high catalytic activity of this noble metal catalyst also appears to be a factor of porous structure of zeolite facilitating mass transfer; high surface area as well as highly dispersed catalyst sites of palladium and platinum on zeolite structure. Introduction of acidic sites in zeolites probably makes them more resistant towards SO2, while their surface area and pore characteristics make this catalyst efficient even under high space velocity conditions, thus suggesting the potential of larger pore size zeolites over conventional porous materials for industrial applications
Maria Guadalupe Cortina–Januchs, Joel Quintanilla–Dominguez, Antonio Vega–Corona,
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 626-634; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.071

Abstract:
Salamanca has been ranked as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. The industry in the area led to a major economic development and rapid population growth in the second half of the twentieth century. The concerning registered pollutants are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particles in the order of 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The prediction of concentrations of those pollutants can be a powerful tool in order to take preventive measures such as the reduction of emissions and alerting the affected population. This work presents a forecasting model to predict average concentration of PM10 for the next 24 hours. The proposed model uses a combination of Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network and clustering algorithm. The source database used contains historical time series of meteorological variables and concentrations of PM10 collected in three different stations in Salamanca. The clustering algorithms have been implemented in order to find relationships between PM10 and meteorological variables. These relationships will help us to get additional information that will be used in the prediction model. The proposed model was compared, for accuracy and validation purposes, with a simple Multilayer Perceptron and a multiple Linear Regression. The performance estimation is determined using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE). The obtained results show the importance of this set of meteorological variables in the prediction of pollutant concentrations
, , Andrew Turnipseed, Tiffany Duhl
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 696-707; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.078

Abstract:
Contributed Measurements of BVOC emissions, meteorological parameters, and solar radiation were carried out in a temperate forest, China during the summer seasons in 2010 and 2011. Terpenoid emissions were measured using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) technique on an above-canopy tower. Isoprene contributed 79.1% and 82.0% of terpenoid emissions in 2010 and 2011 summer. The monoterpene emissions were dominated by α–pinene, contributing 6.3% and 12.2% of the total terpenoid emissions in 2010 and 2011 summer. Terpenoid emissions exhibited strong diurnal variations. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions maxima typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak and coincided with the daily temperature maximum. During 2011 summer, the mean isoprene emission flux (mg m–2 h–1) was 0.889, mean total monoterpene emission flux was 0.143. Emission factors, representing the emission expected at a temperature of 30 °C, for this site were 0.32mg m–2 h–1 for total monoterpenes and 4.3mg m–2 h–1 for isoprene. The observations were used to evaluate the isoprene and monoterpene emission magnitude and variability predicted by the MEGANv2.1 model. Canopy scale isoprene and monoterpene emission factors based on these observations fall within the range of emission factors assigned to locations within 50km of the site by the MEGANv2.1 emission model. When using the site specific landcover data for the site, the measured emission factors are 12% for isoprene and 20% for monoterpenes lower than the MEGANv2.1 emission factors. MEGANv2.1 predicts that variations in light intensity should result in significant changes in isoprene emissions during the study but this was not evident in the observations. Observed diurnal, seasonal and interannual variations in isoprene and monoterpene emissions were strongly correlated with air temperature which was the dominant driving variable for MEGANv2.1 during the study period. The observed temperature response for isoprene and monoterpenes is similar to the temperature sensitivity of the MEGANv2.1 response functions
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 719-725; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.080

Abstract:
The high levels of indoor particulate matter in developing countries and the apparent scale of its impact on the global burden of disease underline the importance of particulate matter as an environmental health risk and the consequent need for monitoring them particularly in indoor school microenvironments. The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0, were measured along with ionic concentrations K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, SO42–, NO3–, Cl– and F– collected from settled dust in the indoor–outdoor environment of roadside and residentially located schools in Agra City, from January to May 2008–09. Along with PM concentrations at the roadside and residentially located schools meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity, and wind speed and air exchange rate was also calculated during the study period. The enrichment factor was calculated using Ca as a reference to the trace ionic species to identify the sources. Principle component analysis showed three to two factors inside and three factors outside the classrooms of the roadside and residentially located schools. These factors reflected sources like soil dust, road dust, vehicle emissions, anthropogenic sources, industrial emissions, metal processes, and incineration activities and their contributions were estimated using principal component analysis. Symptoms like asthma, dizziness, coughing, itching, eye irritation, shortness of breath, headache, cold and flu were observed. Measurements of such exposure levels would be helpful in the prevention of environmental risks to school children
Maimaitireyimu Wubulihairen, Xiaoying Lu, ,
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 556-561; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.062

Abstract:
Inhalation of infectious bioaerosols has been linked to a variety of respiratory diseases. However, efficient sampling techniques to allow high temporal resolution sampling are limited to collect and study bioaerosols in the various occupational and ambient micro–environmental atmospheres. This study introduces a medium flow swirling bioaerosol sampler (SAS) approach that collects atmospheric bioaerosols at the flow rate of 167 Lpm (10 cubic meter per hour). The collection of bioaerosols is achieved through a combination of impaction and cyclonic centrifugal motion. Aerosol deposition efficiency tests were performed with monodispersive polystyrene latex (PSL) particles ranging from 0.1 to 10 μm. Results have shown that the sampler has cut–off size of 0.7 μm and 1.5 μm, with and without the assistance of added water vapor, respectively. The bioaerosol collection and viability tests were performed with comparison to the commercially–available BioSampler, and the results show that the collection efficiency of the SAS is 97% at the designed flow rate, while the higher flow of the new system yields more than 13 times of the collection rate compared to the BioSampler. The high collection efficiency and observed viability preservation of the SAS make it an attractive alternative for high time resolution bioaerosol sampling for atmospheric, occupational and indoor air quality monitoring.
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 612-617; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.069

Abstract:
Exposure to nanoparticles coming from road–traffic concerns a large part of urban population in both outdoor and indoor environments leading to the enhancement of short and long–term health problems. The dynamics of such small particles is very sensitive to the turbulent diffusion and Brownian motion. Hence their concentrations are dependent on the flow structure properties (length and time scales). In this paper, a wind tunnel study is conducted to assess the effect of the flow on the dispersion of nanoparticles coming out from tailpipe in the near–wake of a reduced–scale truck model. Particle number concentration (PNC) measurements are achieved at 66 positions downstream of the model. Our results point out that the interaction of the ultrafine particles (UFP) with the vortices appearing in the near-wake of a truck enhances their dispersion in both transversal and vertical directions. Increasing the inflow air velocity strengthens this spreading. Overall, we demonstrate that such wind tunnel measurements are fundamental to improve our knowledge on the existing interaction between road–traffic, turbulence and particle concentration to accurately evaluate human exposure rates to ultrafine particles and their potential consequences
Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, , Vipin Bihari, Manoj Kumar Pathak, Amarnath Singh
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 618-625; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.070

Abstract:
Regular exercise improves physiological processes and yields positive health outcomes. However, it is relatively less known that exposure to air pollution during outdoor exercises may actually exacerbate several health problems. The present cross–sectional study was undertaken to assess the particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air and its association with lung functions, pulse rate and respiratory problems among 378 outdoor exercisers in the National Capital Region (NCR), India. Lung functions were measured using a Spirometer (PIKO–1, PIKO–6) and respiratory problems were recorded through a questionnaire–based survey. Concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 and 1 microns were monitored at 10 locations across the study area using an online automated ambient air monitoring instrument–HAZ–DUST (EPAM–5000). Decline in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec–FEV1 (p<0.001) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate–PEFR (p<0.001) was observed among the outdoor exercisers compared to the Indian reference values. Ambient air monitoring showed higher PM2.5 concentrations at all the study locations compared to the recommended permissible levels for residential areas in India. Risk of FEV1 (%) predicted cases with <80% showed an increase from 2.32% to 8.69% among the exercisers with respect to PM1 concentration from lower to higher limit at the study locations. Similarly, PEFR showed an increased risk of predicted cases <80% from 0.78% to 2.91% among outside exercisers for lower to higher limit of PM1 concentration. Cases with FEV1 predicted <80% increased from 2.56% to 13.98% and for PEFR from 0.96% to 5.24% among outdoor exercisers for the corresponding lower to higher limits of PM2.5 concentrations. The study demonstrates that outdoor exercisers in locations with high PM concentrations are at a risk of lung function impairment. These impairments are due to deposition of PM in the smaller and larger airways
, , Sadegh Hazrati, Ali Rastgu
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 550-555; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.061

Abstract:
Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured in 68 Ghalyun cafes in Ardabil City of Iran. One hour sampling was performed in each location and hourly mean concentrations were reported. Respective mean concentrations of CO in indoor and outdoor air were 24.75±17.17 and 2.65±1.33 ppm with an average indoor to outdoor air concentration ratio of 13.3±13.1. Within the variables studied; type of the tobacco smoked, location of the cafe inside the building, and utilizing mechanical ventilator, respectively, were recognized as the most influential factors controlling CO concentrations in Ghalyun cafes (p<0.05). 73.5% of workers (27.3 and 95.7% of cafes located on ground floors and basements, respectively) were exposed to higher levels of CO than the corrected OEL–TWA (Occupational Exposure Limit) of 10.4 ppm
Li Chen, Tzu-Yi Pai
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 572-580; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.064

Abstract:
This paper represents the first study to compare seven types of first–order and one–variable grey differential equation model [abbreviated as GM (1, 1)] and back-propagation artificial neural network (BPNN) for predicting hourly particulate matter (PM) including PMio and PM2.5 concentrations in Dali area of Taichung City, Taiwan. Their prediction performance was also compared. The results indicated that the minimum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean squared error (MSE), and root mean squared error (RMSE) was 16.76%, 132.95, and 11.53, respectively for PM10 prediction. For PM2.5 prediction, the minimum MAPE, MSE, and RMSE value of 21.64%, 40.41, and 6.36, respectively could be achieved. All statistical values revealed that the predicting performance of GM (1, 1, x(0)), GM (1, 1, a), and GM (1, 1, b) outperformed other GM (1, 1) models. According to the results, it revealed that GM (1, 1) could predict the hourly PM variation precisely even comparing with BPNN
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 605-611; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.068

Abstract:
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) spectral data and Taylor statistical diffusion theory are used to obtain Eddy diffusivities in a convective boundary layer. The derivation employs a fitting expression obtained from LES data for the vertical peak frequency. The vertical Eddy diffusivities are well behaved and show similar patterns and magnitudes as those derived from experimental spectral peak frequency data. In addition, this new vertical Eddy diffusivity was introduced into an advection diffusion equation which was solved by Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique (GILLT) method and validated with observed contaminant concentration data of the Copenhagen experiment. The results of this new approach are shown to agree with the measurements of Copenhagen
Neungrothai Saeaw, Sarawut Thepanondh
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 644-650; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.073

Abstract:
Airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration data from monitoring stations in industrial and urban (Bangkok) area of Thailand were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify and elaborate on their source profiles. Analyzed data were obtained from those measured from January 2009 to December 2013 in the study area. The PMF was performed to estimate the contribution of specific source types to ambient concentrations. The most suitable number of factors for a dataset in this study was found to be eleven factors for compositions and characteristics of VOCs. Emission sources of VOCs in industrial area were classified into three to five groups based on their contribution. In industrial area, 42 to 57% of total VOC concentrations were contributed from mobile sources. Contribution to total VOCs concentration from industrial processes and household chemical usage were about 15 to 44% and 3 to 10%, respectively. Moreover, some species of VOCs particularly the ozone depleting substances such as Freon 11, Freon 114 and carbon tetrachloride were found as background concentration in ambient air. As for Bangkok, it was found that most of total VOC concentrations were contributed from mobile source emissions
, , , Monica Ascanelli, , Monica Trombini,
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 708-718; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.079

Abstract:
In this study the metal composition of PM1 and PM2.5 samples collected in the surroundings of a municipal incinerator located in a suburban–farming area, less than 10 km away from Northeast of Bologna (Italy) was investigated. Seven out of eight monitoring stations were installed in a domain of 8x9 km2 around the incinerator plant; the eighth station was placed inside the urban area of Bologna. The coordinates of four monitoring stations were selected on the basis of a preliminary study by using a dispersion model. Eleven metals (Al, Sb, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn) were quantified in both the filter acid–digests and in the water extracts. The PM2.5 collected in all the sites of the domain were highly correlated with exception of the urban site. The daily average metal concentrations in summer were 1.84% and 1.14% for PM2.5 and PM1 respectively, indicating that fine particles are less enriched in metals. Fe, Al and Zn were the most abundant elements, and they represented about the 80% of the total amount of the analyzed ones. The average water soluble metal compositions were 0.71% and 0.41% for PM2.5 and PM1 respectively. In the sites of the suburban–farming studied area the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis revealed differences between water soluble metal compositions in PM1 and PM2.5. The urban sites were characterized by lower total and soluble metals contents than the other PM2.5 stations installed around the incinerator plant. However, no noticeable difference in the concentrations of metals in the particulate matter between the sites chosen as maxima of incinerator emissions and the control sites was observed
Xin Liu, Lihua Sui, Yizong Huang, Chunmei Geng, Baohui Yin
Published: 1 July 2015
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 596-604; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.067

Abstract:
The open top chamber (OTC) method was used in a farmland to study the influence of different levels of O3 concentrations (40 ppb, 80 ppb and 120 ppb) on the enzymatic activity and metabolite contents of the antioxidation system of the winter wheat leaves during the jointing, heading and milk stage. The protective effect of exogenous spermidine (Spd) against the antioxidation of winter wheat under the O3 stress was investigated. With the increasing O3 concentrations and fumigation time, the injuries of the winter wheat leaves were observed to be more serious. For instance, when the O3 concentration reached 120 ppb, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the jointing stage decreased by 50.3%, 64.9%, 75.5% and 92.9%, respectively; peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 45.1% and 80.5%, respectively; the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) increased by 314.3%, 8.4% and 31.7%, respectively; and the soluble protein (SP) content decreased by 47.5%. The O3 stress also had significant impact on the contents of proline (Pro), NO3––N and NH4+–N of the winter wheat leaves. During the heading stage, when the O3 concentration was 40 ppb and 80 ppb, the content of Pro was 163.9% and 173.2% higher than that in the control group, respectively. But under 120 ppb, it was decreased by 42.4%. Exogenous application of Spd increased the activities of SOD, POD, CAT, APX and GR, as well as the contents of GSH and SP, but decreased the contents of MDA and AsA. This indicates that Spd is an effective antioxidant to relieve the O3 stress on winter wheat leaves, thereby might be applicable to protect winter wheat from the harm of O3
Ana Villalobos, Mansur O. Amonov, Martin M. Shafer, J. Jai Devi, , Sachi N. Tripathi, Kushal S. Rana, Michael Mckenzie, Mike H. Bergin, James J. Schauer
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 398-405; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.044

Abstract:
Agra and Kanpur are heavily polluted Indian cities and are the fourth and second largest cities in Uttar Pradesh State, respectively. PM2.5 was collected from December 2011 to May 2012 in Agra and from December 2011 to October 2012 in Kanpur every 6th day. The samples were chemically analyzed to determine organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic ions, and particle–phase organic compounds. A chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model using organic tracers was used to estimate source contributions to PM2.5. Concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were on average 23±16μg/m3 in Agra and 33±21μg/m3 in Kanpur during the winter and summer periods, and had a strong seasonal trend with highest levels in winter (December–February) and then decreasing to summer (March–May). Five primary sources were identified. In Agra, biomass burning was the major source of OC in the winter months with decreasing relative and absolute concentrations in summer. In Kanpur, biomass burning was also the most important primary source of OC, but was about half the concentration found in Agra. Mobile source contributions to OC were on average 25±9% and 25±22% in Agra and Kanpur, respectively, with similar absolute concentrations of 2.5±1.9μg/m3 in most months. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was estimated from non–biomass burning WSOC and the unapportioned OC, with each method indicating SOA as a major source of OC in the winter in both cities, apportioning 25% of OC in Agra and 65% in Kanpur. SOA in Kanpur in December was four times higher than in Agra. Overall, results suggest differences in aerosol chemical composition and sources at these two sites across the Indo–Gangetic plain with biomass burning making up a larger fraction of the particulate OC in Agra, and SOA being a more important contributor to OC mass in Kanpur
Rodriguez Judith Hebelen, Wannaz Eduardo Daniel, Franzaring Jurgen, Klumpp Andreas, Fangmeier Andreas, Pignata Maria Luisa
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 444-453; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.049

Abstract:
A biomonitoring study was performed employing standardized grass cultures. Plants of Lolium multiflorum were exposed at 4 industrial sites over three–month periods in two seasons (dry and rainy) and the biomass produced was used for subsequent measurements of fluoride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]–anthracene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene), total chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, water, and sulfur content. The total content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) revealed seasonal variations, with the highest values corresponding to the dry season, although this species showed a high retention capacity of PAHs during rainy season. In addition, sampling sites with high vehicular traffic and metal–mechanical industries were associated with the highest content of PAHs. Furthermore, physiological degradation associated with anthropogenic activities in the sampling sites was observed. Fluoride content in the biomonitor was associated with the production and use of cement, which was higher in the dry season
, Okechukwu Kelechi Nwofor, Theo Chidiezie Chineke, Ezekiel Onoshi Eguaroje,
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 484-494; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.054

Abstract:
A study of aerosol loading patterns in some selected cities in Nigeria was carried out using MODIS, TOMS/OMI AND AIRS satellite imageries for a period of 10 years. The results showed that an aerosol optical depth (AOD) loading obtained ranged from 0.02–0.9, UV aerosol index (AI) and carbon monoxide (CO) results ranged from 1.32– 2.43 and 2.22–2.6 molecule/cm2, respectively. The CO data was used to infer the presence of carbonecous aerosols from biomass, fossil combustion and industrial activities. This result indicates that areas with higher AOD and AI do not correspond in high CO loading. From the HYSPLIT and HAT analysis conducted it showed that advection plays important role in the dispersion of aerosols. This implies that aerosols can reside in a place remote from where they are generated. Also, the high concentration of CO aerosol in the southern cities suggests a high rate of industrial pollution as a result of fossil fuel burning, vehicular emissions, high population density and gas flaring. Therefore, emphasis should be on the need to switch to renewable energy options as an alternative to fossil fuel. Furthermore, plans for mitigations should not be limited to industrialized cities only but extended to other cities which might be bearing the real brunt of industrial emissions as shown in this work
Panuganti C.S. Devara, Katta Vijayakumar, Pramod D. Safai, P. Raju Made, Pasumarti S.P. Rao
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 511-520; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.057

Abstract:
In this paper, we studied the regional aerosol and air quality over an urban location, Pune, India during the period from 8 to 18 November 2012, encompassing a major Indian celebration, namely, Diwali Festival (12–14 November 2012) and also a clean (control) day (9 November 2012). A suit of ground–based measurements, employing solar radiometers (Microtops II and Cimel Sun–sky radiometer), Nephelometer, and satellite observations carried out over the study region have been applied for these investigations. The study revealed many interesting results which include (i) almost four–fold enhancement in AOD and fine mode dominated aerosol size distribution (ASD) during Diwali compared to clean day conditions; (ii) higher columnar water vapor (H2O), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and lower ozone (O3) during Diwali period; (iii) higher cooling at bottom (–117W m−2) and top of the atmosphere (–33W m−2) and warming (+82W m−2) in the atmosphere during the festival period, (iv) abundance of fine mode anthropogenic scattering particles associated with greater real part and smaller imaginary part of refractive index, and higher single scattering albedo, (v) higher backscattering coefficient revealing intrusion of more aerosol particles, higher depolarization ratio indicating particles of non–spherical nature, presence of water–phase particles, more polluted smoke and dust particles, (vi) greater attenuation and poor horizontal/vertical visibility, and (vii) dominance of urban industrial/biomass burning aerosols among other aerosol types. These results have been compared with concurrent satellite products and found to be consistent. The results have been further explained with local meteorology, back–trajectory analysis and satellite rapid response images
Jagoda Crawford, , Chang-Hee Kang, , Won-Hyung Kim
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 529-539; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.059

Abstract:
Ten years of aerosol and Radon–222 (radon) data from Gosan, Korea, were analyzed. Seasonal cycles were strongly linked to changes in fetch and time of year. We estimated that 7.21t/m y of PMio aerosol pass Gosan in the atmospheric boundary layer, increasing annually by 0.3t/m y. Contributions to aerosol loading were characterized by fetch: South China, North China, Korea and Japan. While the highest, and most variable, contributions typically originated from South China, these air masses contributed to only 6% of the overall dataset. PM10 distributions were broader from South and North China than for Korea or Japan, reflecting differences in natural/anthropogenic soil sources, and number/distribution of large point sources. Employing radon to select air masses more representative of targeted fetch regions typically resulted in greater reported pollutant concentrations and rates of change over the decade. Estimated rates of PM10 increase from North China and Korea over the decade were 1.4 and 0.9μg/m3 y, respectively. Total suspended particulate (TSP) elemental analysis indicated that the (non–sea–salt) nss–SO42− content of aerosols has been gradually increasing over the past decade and more recently an increase in NO3− was seen. However, on average, rates of increase in nss–SO42− have reduced since 2007, which were higher in South than North China
Benton T. Cartledge, Brian J. Majestic
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 495-502; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.055

Abstract:
Fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5) were collected from three locations around the Denver–Metropolitan area to study the impacts of the ground–level light rail on airborne metal concentrations. Size–segregated PM was collected on board the trains, at the side of the tracks, and at a background location in downtown Denver. Results from this study showed highest crustal enrichment factors of metals in samples collected on board the train, despite lower concentrations of total PM2.5. Metals commonly found in steel such as Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni, all exhibited elevated concentrations relating to train activity over the background site. Iron in the PM2.5 at track–side and on board the trains was above the background by a factor of 1.89 and 1.54, respectively. For Mn, the ratios were 1.34 for the track–side and 0.94 for the on board samples. Cr and Ni exhibited higher ratios over the background only in samples collected on board the trains at 1.59 (Cr) and 1.26 (Ni). Soluble metals were measured with Ni (53–71%), Cu (52–81%), and Zn (30–81%) exhibiting the highest solubilities across the different sites. Soluble Fe ranged from 8–15% for the total measured Fe, indicating a non–crustal source of Fe. Soluble Fe was also characterized as Fe(II) and Fe(III) with 87–90% of the soluble Fe being Fe(II), similar to results from studies in Los Angeles, CA and East St. Louis, IL but higher than in Atlanta, GA and Waukesha, WI
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 389-397; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.043

Abstract:
Ground-level ozone (GLO) is produced by a complex chain of atmospheric chemical reactions that depend on precursor emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. GLO concentration in a particular location is also governed by local weather and climatic factors. In this work an attempt was made to explore a Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS–PM) approach to quantify the interrelationship between local conditions (weather parameters and primary air pollution) and GLO concentrations. PLS path modeling algorithm was introduced and applied to GLO concentration analyses at Gulfport, Mississippi, USA. In the present analysis, three latent variables were selected: PRC (photochemical reaction catalyst), MP (meteorological factor), and OPP (other primary air pollutants). The three latent variables included 14 indicators for the analysis; with PRC having two (extraterrestrial radiation on horizontal surface, and extraterrestrial radiation normal to the sun), MP having nine (temperature, dew point, relative humidity, pressure, visibility, maximum wind speed, average wind speed, precipitation, and wind direction) and OPP having three (NO2, PM2.5, and SO2) parameters. The resulting model revealed that PRC had significant direct impact on GLO concentration but very small overall effect. This is because PRC had significant indirect negative impact on GLO via MP. Thus, when both direct and indirect effects were taken into account, PRC emerged as having the weakest effect on GLO. The third variable (OPP) also had a positive impact on GLO concentration
Jianhui Bai
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 6, pp 406-414; https://doi.org/10.5094/apr.2015.045

Abstract:
Measurements of isoprene emissions, solar spectral radiation, temperature and relative humidity were carried out at a grassland site in the Inner Mongolia, China during the growing seasons in 2002 and 2003. Isoprene emissions are dependent on PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and temperature nonlinearly. PAR controls the main processes related to isoprene emission, thus, PAR energy balance is used to establish quantitative relationship between isoprene emission and its affecting factors. An empirical Equation of isoprene emission was built on the basis of PAR energy balance. The calculated values were in good agreement with those measured for 2002 and 2003 summer seasons, the relative biases of 70% estimated emissions were within 50% compared to measured fluxes. The chamber changes the inside environment and emission fluxes, the emission differences were estimated by using the empirical Equation. The results show that isoprene emission flux around the noon decreases by 37% when the chamber is used, i.e., the biggest effect was resulted from PAR difference caused by the chamber. Isoprene emission measured by chamber should be corrected. The empirical model of isoprene emission showed that isoprene emission fluxes were close to zero, when PAR was low in early morning and in late evening. Total isoprene emissions emitted from the grassland in the Inner Mongolia were 1.10 and 1.00gC m−2 during the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003, respectively, which contributed to about 3.1–4.3% and 2.8−3.9% to grass respiration. The averaged isoprene emission normalized to a standard light (1 500μmolm−2 s−1) and temperature (30 °C) condition was 482.8μg m−2 h−1
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