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, Joanne S. Cunha
Published: 26 March 2021
by Wiley
Arthritis Care & Research, Volume 73, pp 462-470; doi:10.1002/acr.24099

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Christina Ifrim, Peter Bengtson
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Papers in Palaeontology; doi:10.1002/spp2.1358

Abstract:
New, accurately located and well‐preserved agnostid trilobite material has been collected from the type locality of the Drumian (middle Cambrian, Miaolingian) Manuels River Formation, Newfoundland, Canada. The well‐exposed grey to black shales containing the fauna were deposited on the former microcontinent Avalonia. Four interval zones for the succession are proposed, namely, the Tomagnostus fissus, Hypagnostus parvifrons, Ptychagnostus atavus and Ptychagnostus punctuosus zones. The Tomagnostus fissus and Ptychagnostus atavus zones are distinct from each other, which leads to a significantly shorter and stratigraphically higher Ptychagnostus atavus Zone compared with other sections (Scandinavia, South China, Utah and Nevada, Greenland). Specimens of Ptychagnostus atavus, however, occur abundantly, with 107 specimens identified in a short interval of the succession. The Ptychagnostus punctuosus Zone can be correlated globally. The faunal assemblage is comparable to that of Scandinavia, Greenland and England. Ptychagnostus affinis is recorded for the first time from Avalonia. The 1408 collected specimens were assigned to the suborders Agnostina and Eodiscina and to the families Peronopsidae and Ptychagnostidae, and Condylopygidae and Eodiscidae, respectively, with the following species: Peronopsis fallax (Linnarsson), Peronopsis scutalis (Hicks), Hypagnostus parvifrons (Linnarsson), Ptychagnostus punctuosus (Angelin), Ptychagnostus affinis (Brøgger), Ptychagnostus atavus (Tullberg), Tomagnostus fissus (Lundgren), Tomagnostus perrugatus (Grönwall), Pleuroctenium granulatum (Barrande) and Eodiscus punctatus (Salter).
Marina Cabral de Almeida, , João Italo Fortaleza de Melo, Victor Augusto Ramos Fernandes, Rebecca Corrêa Manfredini, Luiz Dias Dutra
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Precision Radiation Oncology, Volume 5, pp 18-24; doi:10.1002/pro6.1112

Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the use of post‐contrast sequences using a hepatospecific contrast medium (gadoxetic acid) in patients with suspected liver nodules or masses, and to identify and describe the main findings in these images. Methods We performed a retrospective study with 67 outpatients, who underwent abdominal magnetic resonance examination with injection of disodium gadoxetate to investigate suspicious nodules or masses. The patients were submitted to the examination on medical request. Results The mean age was 41 ± 11.59 years. The most frequent histological types were focal nodular hyperplasia (31.3%), hemangioma (31.3%), and adenoma (22.4%). In focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma, there was a greater distribution of hypointense and hyperintense enhancement in the pre‐contrast phase. Isointense enhancement was much more prevalent in the arterial, portal, equilibrium, and hepatobiliary phases 15–20. In hemangiomas, hypointense enhancement was prominent in all phases. Conclusion Based on the behavior of liver injuries in this study after the use of the substance studied, it allowed for a better characterization of liver injuries, which can contribute to the medical practice at the time of clinical diagnosis.
, , Cornelia Lawson
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology; doi:10.1002/asi.24472

Abstract:
This study provides the first systematic, international, large‐scale evidence on the extent and nature of multiple institutional affiliations on journal publications. Studying more than 15 million authors and 22 million articles from 40 countries we document that: In 2019, almost one in three articles was (co‐)authored by authors with multiple affiliations and the share of authors with multiple affiliations increased from around 10% to 16% since 1996. The growth of multiple affiliations is prevalent in all fields and it is stronger in high impact journals. About 60% of multiple affiliations are between institutions from within the academic sector. International co‐affiliations, which account for about a quarter of multiple affiliations, most often involve institutions from the United States, China, Germany and the United Kingdom, suggesting a core‐periphery network. Network analysis also reveals a number communities of countries that are more likely to share affiliations. We discuss potential causes and show that the timing of the rise in multiple affiliations can be linked to the introduction of more competitive funding structures such as “excellence initiatives” in a number of countries. We discuss implications for science and science policy.
Huan‐Fan Su, Man Zhao, Jun Zhang,
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Precision Radiation Oncology, Volume 5, pp 25-33; doi:10.1002/pro6.1108

Abstract:
Objective To investigate the dosimetric impact of different collimator angle optimization methods in intensity‐modulated radiotherapy of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 10 gastric cases were retrospectively selected in this study. Three sets of plans were generated with different collimator angle optimization: setting the collimator angle to 0° (CL0), applying Eclipse automatic collimator angle optimization (CLA), and setting the collimator angle corresponding to the minimum X‐jaw gap (CLX). Different dosimetric metrics were applied in comparison of the target volume and normal tissues. Delivery efficiency was accessed in terms of control points, split fields, monitor units, and treatment time. All plans were verified using the 2‐D array MatriXX, and the γ‐index analysis was carried out by using different criteria. Results There was no significant difference in dosimetric comparison of planning target volume and organs at risk. Compared with CL0, Both CLA and CLX can significantly reduce control points, split fields, and monitor units, except that CLA increased treatment time. For dose verification, the γ passing rate showed a tendency of CLx > CLA > CL0. Conclusion For intensity‐modulated radiotherapy for gastric cancer, CLA and CLX can obtain comparable dosimetry distribution in respect to CL0. However, CLX can significantly increase the dose delivery efficiency and verification passing rates. It was suggested that CLx was beneficial in intensity‐modulated radiotherapy for gastric cancer.
, Anna Kjellström
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology; doi:10.1002/oa.2982

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Cell Biology International; doi:10.1002/cbin.11561

Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 40; doi:10.1002/etc.4765

Seyedeh Faezeh Taghizadeh, , Javad Asili, Fatemeh Sadat Madarshahi, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Yoshiharu Fujii
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Food Science & Nutrition; doi:10.1002/fsn3.2248

Abstract:
To assist the development of new therapeutic strategies for several disorders, biologically active peptides/proteins obtained from plant sources can be considered. Current study expected to determine the biological activities of peptide fractions of Mucuna pruriens against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2/ADM, HepG2, SMMC‐7721, and QGY‐7703), as well as normal cell line to prove their selectivity. Moreover, anti‐genotoxicity and antiviral activity against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) were assessed. The methods of this study were to isolate the peptides of M. pruriens and hydrolysate fractionation via fractionated pepsin‐pancreatin hydrolysates by ultrafiltration/high‐performance ultrafiltration cell, identify anti‐hepatoma activity of peptide fractions human liver cancer and normal cells by (3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazole‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, determine anti‐HCV, and assess anti‐genotoxic effect of peptide fractions against damage that induced via alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate in human mononuclear cells. The results showed that the fraction 5–10 kDa has been reported to exhibit significant cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and QGY‐7703. It was proven that both of 5–10 and >10 kDa fractions are active against HCV. The cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 5–10 kDa against the cell line was 703.04 ± 5.21 µg/ml. Anti‐genotoxic activities of the peptide fractions were evaluated as mean values for the analyzed comet images. In this regard, the highest activity of protecting DNA damages was observed by the peptide fraction of 5–10 kDa. This study revealed the potential ability of peptide fractions of M. pruriens for the treatment of liver cancer, HCV, and high activities of protecting DNA damages.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 40, pp 959-962; doi:10.1002/etc.4766

Sebastian C. Schuh, , , Niklas K. Steffens, Emily M. David, Alexander Haslam
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Human Resource Management; doi:10.1002/hrm.22060

Abstract:
Considering recent corporate scandals, organizations have increased their efforts to curb unethical employee behavior. However, little is known about whether leaders comply with these efforts and how they respond to unethical employee behavior, especially when unethical actions benefit the organization. By integrating arguments from social identity and moral disengagement theories, we develop and test a model to explain how leaders respond to unethical pro‐organizational behavior (UPB) among employees. Results from one multi‐wave, multi‐source field study and one experiment showed that leader perceptions of employee UPB were positively related to leader trust in employees when leaders identified strongly with their organization or when they had a strong propensity to morally disengage. Moreover, the results revealed an important three‐way interaction effect. Leaders put considerable trust into UPB‐enacting employees when leaders both identified strongly with the organization and showed high levels of moral disengagement. In contrast, they put little trust into UPB‐enacting employees when leaders identified weakly with the organization and reported low moral disengagement. Furthermore, results showed that leader trust ultimately translated into perceived leader justice toward employees. These findings provide new and important insights into when organizations can(not) rely on their leaders to manage unethical employee behaviors.
Dingjian Zhou, Jincheng Huang, Jun Liu, Huibo Yan, Jianfeng Zhang, Meng Zhang, Guangxing Liang, Lei Lu, Xiuwen Zhang, , et al.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Solar RRL; doi:10.1002/solr.202100112

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yuanhang Guo, Haotian Wu, Zhixin Liu, Shiqi Shan, Benfang Niu, Xiaomei Lian, Lijian Zuo, Hongzheng Chen
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Solar RRL; doi:10.1002/solr.202100114

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Dhruva Kathuria, Binayak P Mohanty, Matthias Katzfuss
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
The past six decades has seen an explosive growth in remote sensing data across air, land, and water dramatically improving predictive capabilities of physical models and machine-learning (ML) algorithms. Physical models, however, suffer from rigid parameterization and can lead to incorrect inferences when little is known about the underlying physical process. ML models, conversely, sacrifice interpretation for enhanced predictions. Geostatistics are an attractive alternative since they do not have strong assumptions like physical models yet enable physical interpretation and uncertainty quantification. In this work, we propose a novel multiscale multi-platform geostatistical algorithm which can combine big environmental datasets observed at different spatio-temporal resolutions and over vast study domains. As a case study, we apply the proposed algorithm to combine satellite soil moisture data from Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) with point data from U.S Climate Reference Network (USCRN) and Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) across Contiguous US for a fifteen-day period in July 2017. Using an underlying covariate-driven spatio-temporal process, the effect of dynamic and static physical controls—vegetation, rainfall, soil texture and topography—on soil moisture is quantified. We successfully validate the fused soil moisture across multiple spatial scales (point, 3 km, 25 km and 36 km) and compute five-day soil moisture forecasts across Contiguous US. The proposed algorithm is general and can be applied to fuse many other environmental variables.
Daniel Wagner, Ralph Neuhäuser, Rainer Arlt
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
To understand long term variability of solar activity, homogeneous time series are required. However, proxies like the Zurich sunspot number or cosmogenic isotopes suffer from discontinuities. Naked eye observations of aurorae, however, might be used to bridge discontinuities in solar activity indices in order to approach a homogeneous solar activity record. With information derived from aurora observations like observing site, time of aurora sighting and position on sky we can reconstruct the auroral oval. Since aurorae are correlated with geomagnetic indices like the Kp index, it is possible to obtain information about the terrestrial magnetic field in the form of the position of the magnetic poles as well as the magnetic disturbance level. \\ Here we present a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the auroral oval from ground-based observations by using two different auroral oval models. With this method we can estimate the position of the magnetic poles in corrected geomagnetic coordinates as well as the Kp index. The method is first validated on synthetic observations before it is applied to four modern geomagnetic storms between 2003 and 2017 where ground-based reports and photographs were used to obtain the necessary information. We have shown that we are able the reconstruct the pole location with an accuracy of $\approx 2^{\circ}$ in latitude and $\approx 11^{\circ}$ in longitude. The Kp index can be inferred with a precision of one class. \\ The future goal is to employ the method to historical observations.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, Volume 44; doi:10.1002/jimd.12257

, Davide Ferrario, Francesco Mega, Giovanna Cornacchia
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Advanced Engineering Materials; doi:10.1002/adem.202100036

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Farouk Nathoo, Linglong Kong, Grace Y. Yi
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Canadian Journal of Statistics, Volume 49, pp 4-9; doi:10.1002/cjs.11613

Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Canadian Journal of Statistics, Volume 49, pp 1-3; doi:10.1002/cjs.11552

Melissa Yang, , Alex Jarnot, Simone Meinardi, Gloria Weitz, Brent Love, Barbara Barletta, Barbara Chisholm, James Flynn, Sergio Alvarez, et al.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic provided a unique opportunity to sample atmospheric gases during a period of very low industrial/human activity. Over 1000 Whole Air Samples were collected in over 30 cities and towns across the United States from April through July 2020 as part of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). Sample locations leveraged the geographic distribution across the United States of the undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, and NASA personnel associated with the internship program (44 people total). Each person collected approximately 24 air samples in their city/town with the goal of characterizing local emissions with time during the pandemic. Samples were collected in 2-Liter stainless steel evacuated canisters at approximately 2 meters above ground level. The canisters were shipped to the Rowland/Blake Laboratory at the University of California Irvine and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, and halocarbons using the gas chromatographic system described in Colman et al. (2001) and Barletta et al. (2002). Initial samples collected in April coincided with the peak of stay-at-home/social distancing orders across most of the United States while samples collected later in the spring and early summer reflect the easing of these measures in most locations. Overall trends in emissions with time across the United States during the pandemic (in several large metro areas as well as rural locations) will be discussed.
, C G M Brum, I S Batista, J H A Sobral, M A Abdu, J R Souza
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
Intermediate layers (ILs) are regions of enhanced electron density located in the ionospheric valley that extends from the peak altitude of the daytime E-region to the bottom side of the F-region. This work presents the daytime behavior of the ILs parameters (the virtual height - h’IL, and the top frequency - ftIL) for the deepest solar minimum of the last 500 years. In such a unique condition, this research reveals for the first time the ILs' quiet state seasonal behavior as well as its responses to moderate changes in the geomagnetic activity. Among the finds, it is highlight the annual periodicity of the ftIL while the h’IL presents semiannual component. The results also show that even small variations of geomagnetic activity (quantified by the planetary Kp index) are able to modify the dynamics of the ILs parameters. For the first time, it was observed that during December solstice and September equinox, the h’IL/ftIL decrease/increase rapidly with the increase of geomagnetic activity at the beginning of the day. As the day progresses, smoothed rise in the h’IL is observed at the same time in which a considerable decrease in the ftIL occurs, except during June solstice when a different behavior is observed both in relation to the annual as the seasonal average values of the ftIL.
Yaoyu Tian, , Quanhan Li, , Zuo Xiao
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
Ionospheric plasma density data from the planar langmuir probe onboard the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) are used to investigate the latitudinal profile of the ionosphere. Along with the well-known profiles with features of the equatorial ionization anomaly and equatorial plasma bubbles, a third type is observed as smooth profiles with large scale deep equatorial trough (DET) where the plasma density is extremely low. A global survey focusing on magnetically quiet condition reveals that, the DET profiles are generally a post-sunset phenomenon, and their appearance depends on longitude and season. During equinox seasons in solar active years, the strong pre-reversal enhancement electric field are believed to uplift the ionosphere and produce the DET profiles. While around June solstice, the DET profiles are clustered at 45° W--0° E longitude, where the zonal electric field is weak but the magnetic meridional component of the neutral wind is most significant. The SAMI2 model is then employed to simulate the ionosphere in the magnetic meridional plane with enhanced neutral wind, and successfully reproduces the main features of the DET profile observed. The results indicate that the neutral wind can obviously affect the equatorial ionosphere by transporting plasma in magnetic flux tube through neutral-ion interaction. The neutral wind is previously known to work with inclined magnetic field at mid-latitude, while this study emphasizes its effect around the magnetic equator especially when the electric field forcing (EXB) is weak or absent.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
Snow is among the most reflective of natural surfaces on Earth and in its reflectance, also known as snow surface albedo (SSA), a small SSA decrease can increase its absorption of solar energy. Also, climate models indicate that the reduction of SSA contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of cryosphere. The snowpack through South America (SA) is mainly associated to the Andes mountain range, which geologically extends 9000 km approx. from the tropical region (11°N) to the Antarctandes (76°S) in the Antarctic. There, snow is an important source of fresh water for more than 80 million people who live in the 9 countries where this mountain passes. In this study we have analyzed the SSA trend. For that, in accordance with the division proposed by Dussaillant et al. (2019), we have divided the study area into 8 zones: Inner Tropics (11°N-5°S), Outer Tropics (5°S-18°S), Desert Andes (18° S-31°S), Central Andes (31°S-37°S), North Patagonia (37°S-46°S), South Patagonia (46°S-54°S), Fuegian Andes (54°S- 56°S), and Antarctandes (63°S- 76°S). We used daily data of SSA available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites for the last 20 years (Mar 2000 to Feb 2020). The results show that the greatest negative inter and intra-annual trends (i.e. is a decrease in SSA) during the last 20 years were observed in the Central Andes (April, -5.76%; p <0.001), North Patagonia (Nov, -2.33%; p <0.05) and Fuegian Andes (Oct, -1.73%; p <0.05). While the greatest positive variations were detected in Antarctandes (May, 4.76%; p <0.001), Fuegian Andes (Dec, 4%; p <0.05), and Outer Tropics (Dec, 1.67%; p <0.01). The highest SSA decrease observed in the Central Andes is consistent with previous studies carried out by the authors that have shown an association between light-absorbing particles with SSA decrease in various basins there. Our results could serve to better understand the radiative forcing changes generated in the SA cryosphere and its effects on climate change.
Shuzhan Wang, , Xiaodong Peng, Handong Chen
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Journal of Applied Polymer Science; doi:10.1002/app.50751

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Senthilkumar Kuppusamy Pandian,
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience; doi:10.1002/cpe.6279

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Badrinath Jagannath, Kai‐Chun Lin, Madhavi Pali, Devangsingh Sankhala, ,
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Bioengineering & Translational Medicine; doi:10.1002/btm2.10220

Abstract:
This work presents the viability of passive eccrine sweat as a functional biofluid towards tracking the human body#x0027;s inflammatory response. Cytokines are biomarkers that orchestrate the manifestation and progression of an infection/inflammatory event. Hence, non‐invasive, real‐time monitoring of cytokines can be pivotal in assessing the progression of infection/inflammatory event which may be feasible through monitoring of host immune markers in eccrine sweat. This work is the first experimental proof demonstrating the ability to detect inflammation/infection such as fever, FLU directly from passively expressed sweat in human subjects using a wearable ‘SWEATSENSER’ device. The developed SWEATSENSER device demonstrates stable, real‐time monitoring of inflammatory cytokines in passive sweat. An accuracy >90% and specificity >95% was achieved using SWEATSENSER for a panel of cytokines (intereleukin‐6, interleukin‐8, interleukin‐10, and tumor necrosis factor‐α) over an analytical range of 0.2‐200 pg mL‐1. The SWEATSENSER demonstrated a correlation of Pearson#x0027;s r>0.98 for the study biomarkers in a cohort of 26 subjects when correlated with standard reference method. Comparable IL‐8 levels (2‐15 pg mL‐1) between systemic circulation (serum) and eccrine sweat through clinical studies in a cohort of 15 subjects, and the ability to distinguish healthy and sick (infection) cohort using inflammatory cytokines in sweat provides pioneering evidence of the SWEATSENSER technology for non‐invasive tracking of host immune response biomarkers. Such a wearable device can offer significant strides in improving prognosis and provide personalized therapeutic treatment for several inflammatory/infectious diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yi Sun, Qiang Liu, Shenlong Zha, Xuanbing Qiu, Hong Chang, Shiling Feng, Guqing Guo, Xiaohu He, Qiusheng He,
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters; doi:10.1002/mop.32836

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Javad Ghorbani, Vahid Daghigh, Sadegh Rahmati, Mahdi Mahdian, Hamid Daghigh
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Polymer Composites; doi:10.1002/pc.26041

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Smart and Sustainable Intelligent Systems; doi:10.1002/9781119752134

Kasper M. Beck, Linette Ruder, Tine S. Nicolai, Robert L. Pham, Nikolaj A. Risgaard, ,
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
European Journal of Organic Chemistry, Volume 2021, pp 1949-1957; doi:10.1002/ejoc.202100054

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Victor Bondzie‐Micah, Sun Qigui, , Benjamin Kweku Lugu, Geoffrey Bentum‐Micah, Aurelia Naa Ayikaikor Ayi‐Bonte
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Journal of Public Affairs; doi:10.1002/pa.2677

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Quoc‐Viet Le, Dongyoon Kim, Jaiwoo Lee, , Yu‐Kyoung Oh
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Advanced Therapeutics; doi:10.1002/adtp.202000288

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Zhibin Cheng, Yilong Chen, Yisi Yang, Linjie Zhang, Hui Pan, Xi Fan, Shengchang Xiang, Zhangjing Zhang
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Advanced Energy Materials, Volume 11; doi:10.1002/aenm.202170048

Abstract:
In article number 2003718 Zhibin Cheng, Zhangjing Zhang and co‐workers systematically modify lithium–sulfur batteries through coating metallic MoS2 nanoflower‐decorated graphene ([email protected]) on both a commercial polypropylene separator and a sulfur cathode. The unique flower‐like 1T‐MoS2 in the [email protected] nanosheet allows more accessible catalytic active sites and speedy electron transfer, resulting in synergy effects between the sulfur host and the separator coating in suppressing shuttle effects and propelling catalytic conversion of polysulfides.
Lingtong Ji, Luke Yan, Min Chao, Mengru Li, Jincui Gu, Miao Lei, Yanmei Zhang, Xun Wang, Junyuan Xia, Tianyu Chen, et al.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Small, Volume 17; doi:10.1002/smll.202170054

Abstract:
In article number 2007122, Min Chao, Jincui Gu, Xun Wang, Tao Chen, and co‐workers present an advanced all‐in‐one separation membrane, which can realize continuous water purification with stable separation performance, catalytic degradation ability, antibacterial capacity and excellent self‐cleaning ability, suggesting its potential value for purifying realistic complex wastewater.
Raffael Herzer, Annett Gebert, Ute Hempel, Franziska Hebenstreit, Steffen Oswald, Christine Damm, Oliver G. Schmidt, Mariana Medina‐Sánchez
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Small, Volume 17; doi:10.1002/smll.202170053

Abstract:
Transparent Ti‐45Nb 3D microstructures offer an elegant way to study single bone cell‐implant material interactions and pore size effects in vitro. In article number 2005527, Mariana Medina‐Sánchez and co‐workers present this technology as an excellent tool to live monitor cell migration and adhesion behavior changes deriving from highly constricted microenvironments, while also providing deeper insights on cell death related bone mineralization processes in low nutrition conditions.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Land Degradation & Development; doi:10.1002/ldr.3950

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Environmental DNA; doi:10.1002/edn3.192

Abstract:
Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis methods have been developed to detect organism distribution and abundance/biomass in various environments. eDNA degradation is critical for eDNA evaluation. However, the dynamics and mechanisms of eDNA degradation are largely unknown, especially when considering different eDNA sources, for example, cells and fragmental DNA. We experimentally evaluated the degradation rates of eDNA derived from multiple sources, including fragmental DNA (internal PCR control [IPC]), free cells (from Oncorhynchus kisutch), and resident species. We conducted the experiment with pond and seawater to evaluate the differences between freshwater and marine habitats. We quantified the eDNA copies of free cells, fragmental DNA, and resident species (Cyprinus carpio in the pond and Trachurus japonicus in the sea). We found that eDNA derived from both cells and fragmental DNA decreased exponentially in both the sea and pond samples. The degradation of eDNA from resident species showed similar behavior to the cell‐derived eDNA. We evaluated three degradation models with different assumptions and degradation steps and found that a simple exponential model was effective in most cases. Our findings on cell‐ and fragmental DNA‐derived eDNA provide fundamental information about the eDNA degradation process and can be applied to quantify eDNA behavior in natural environments.
Mengyao Ning, Kangshuai Li, Chengqi Yan, Guangfei Wang, Zehua Xu,
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Polymer Composites; doi:10.1002/pc.26039

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Liwei Shi, Hailiang Fang, Xiaoxia Yang, Jie Xue, Caifeng Li, ,
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
ChemSusChem; doi:10.1002/cssc.202100473

Abstract:
The Cover Feature shows a Li2S6 molecule adsorbed on Fe‐cation doped NiSe2 for catalyzed conversions in Li–S batteries. Fe‐doping effectively modulates the electronic structure of NiSe2 to enable improved charge transfers and stronger interactions with the adsorbed active sulfur species. Fe‐NiSe2 nanosheets are grown on activated carbon cloth substrates and used as cathodes for high‐performance Li–S batteries. More information can be found in the Full Paper by L. Shi et al.
Guo-Liang Peng, Jun-Jie Zhang, Jian-Nan Chen, Tai-Jiao Du, Hai-Yan Xie
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
We have studied the evolution of the heavy ions that expand in a cold background plasma. Two typical conditions are considered where only the debris ion's initial total mass is significantly different. The work aims to illustrate the complex scaling behavior of the debris evolution in the early time of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosions (HANE). The simulation is performed via the hybrid model, in which the ions and electrons are treated as classical particles and mass-less fluid, respectively. Due to the imbalance of the electric and magnetic force on the debris ions, these debris particles will evolve into different collective patterns at the later times. These patterns manifest a rather different stopping behavior of the debris ions and an opposite drifting direction of the electron fluid. Further numerical and analytical calculations demonstrate that the imbalance depends not only on the number densities of the plasma ions, but also on the spatial variations of the magnetic fields. Our work reveals that the behavior of the debris ions scales non-linearly with their initial total mass, and this non-linearity complicates the scaling from laser experiment to HANE.
, Jaco C. de Smit, Elena Tamarit,
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Limnology and Oceanography: Methods; doi:10.1002/lom3.10425

Abstract:
Wave flume facilities that are primarily designed for engineering studies are often complex and expensive to operate, and hence not ideal for long‐term replicated experiments as commonly used in biology. This study describes a low‐cost small wave flume that can be used for biological purposes using fresh‐ or seawater with or without sediment. The wave flume can be used as a mesocosm to study interactions between wave hydrodynamics and benthic organisms in aquatic ecosystems. The low‐costs wave maker (< 2000 USD) allows for experimental setups which can be easily replicated and used for longer term studies; hence the term wave mesocosm. Waves were generated with a pneumatic piston and wave heights ranged between 3 and 6 cm. Maximum orbital flow velocities ranged between 10 and 50 cm s−1 representing shallow coastal areas with a short fetch. The system can generate both regular waves (i.e., the wave period and orbital velocity remains constant), using a wave absorber, and irregular waves (i.e., varying wave period and orbital velocity) using a fast push and slow pull motion of the wave paddle. This wave mesocosm system is particularly useful in biogeomorphology to quantify interactions between organisms, sediment, and hydrodynamics and for aquatic ecologist aiming to simulate realistic bed shear stress where short‐ and long‐term experiments (weeks–months) can be replicated.
Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics; doi:10.1002/cpa.21988

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Canadian Journal of Statistics, Volume 49, pp 228-233; doi:10.1002/cjs.11608

Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
The roles of heavy ions have long been an important subject in the magnetospheric physics since the first discovery of O+ ions in the magnetosphere as it hinted to the connection between the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma. Albeit limited, several observations show the importance of ionospheric N+ and molecular ions, including NO+, N2+ and O2+, in the high-altitude ionosphere and magnetosphere. However, the mechanisms responsible for accelerating the ionospheric heavy ions from eV to keV energies are still largely unknown. Developed from the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM), the Seven Ion Polar Wind Outflow Model (7iPWOM) solves the gyrotropic transport equations for all relevant species (e-, H+, He+, N+, O+, N2+, NO+ and O2+) along open magnetic field lines and therefore, has the capability to assess the role of heavy ions in the supersonic ionospheric outflow. However, the hydrodynamic approach is limited to the region where collisions are important. For the altitudes above the collision-dominated region, the hydrodynamic solution becomes increasingly inadequate. Thus, the 7iPWOM applies a kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) approach that enables the inclusion of wave-particle interactions (WPI) and Coulomb collisions. The simulation results showed that the N+ ions play a key role in the polar wind solution under all conditions. The mechanisms responsible for the energization of outflowing N+ ions are different than those of O+, not only in the collision-dominated region but also at high-altitudes. This means that the local heating sources to O+ and N+ in the polar wind, even in small amounts, can lead to plasma instability and could possibly affect the large-scale transport properties. In addition, the relative abundance of molecular ions, and how they change the polar wind solution, reveals the link between lower thermosphere and the ionosphere. Therefore, tracking the molecular ions helps understand how the “fast ion outflow” acquires sufficient energy in such a short time scale, compared with the dissociative recombination lifetime of the molecular ions, and assess the role of molecular ions in the overall dynamics of the polar wind outflow.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
Stories are an essential part of our everyday life, vehicles to understand how the world around us works, both physically and emotionally. They allow us to organise otherwise random facts and events into a cohesive and logical structure, making them easier to understand and remember. Science itself is also full of facts and processes, often seemingly disconnected but that, when put in context, pave the road for scientific discoveries. We propose that classical story-telling strategies can also be used to communicate science to a variety of audiences, specialist and non-specialist alike, and present a few practical examples of how this can be achieved. We focus on what we call the “story circle” narrative structure (see Fig. 1), a distillation of the “Hero's Journey”(Campbell, 1949; Harmon, 2009). In this storytelling framework, the circle begins with a hero who, posed with a question, chooses to venture beyond their familiar space in a quest for answers. When the hero returns to familiar territory, they have been forever changed by their journey. Firstly, we discuss how this story circle can be directly mapped onto the structure of a research paper, enabling researchers to write up their work in a way that makes it easier to follow for the reader. Then we apply the story circle strategy to a real research example aimed at explaining large-scale mantle convection, in a story where silica is the “hero” who descends into the deep in a subducting slab to then rise back up to the surface in an upwelling plume. This approach to communicating science by exploiting its story-like qualities is key when explaining complex deep Earth processes to the non-academic public who, understandably, can struggle to grasp these concepts due to their abstract nature and detachment from everyday life. Ultimately, the scientific process is an expression of the most fundamental story of humanity – researchers look at the world as it is, see questions that need answering and go on a voyage of discovery to find the answers. When they return, the world has changed because of what was found on that journey. And so the cycle repeats, the circle keeps turning, and the ideas keep changing after every iteration. In science, however, we will never truly write “The End”.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
Southern Hemisphere (SH) Stratospheric Sudden Warmings (SSWs) result in smaller Antarctic ozone holes and are linked to extreme midlatitude weather on subseasonal to seasonal timescales. Therefore, it is of interest how often such events occur and whether we should expect more events in the future. Here, we use a pair of novel multi-millennial simulations with a stratosphere-resolving coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model to show that the frequency of SSWs, such as observed 2002 and 2019, is about one in 22 years for 1990 conditions. In addition, we show that we should expect the frequency of SSWs - and that of more moderate vortex weakening events - to strongly decrease by the end of this century.
, , , Eli Tzipermann
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
The large scale tropical circulation, commonly named the Hadley circulation, is a key element in the global heat and moisture transport. Traditionally it is defined as the meridional circulation of the zonally averaged flow in the tropics, but in recent years studies have shown the importance of looking at the decomposition of the three-dimensional atmospheric flow into local meridional and zonal circulations. These studies gave useful analysis on the regionality and variability of the meridional circulation in different time scales, but were mostly limited to examining the regional strengthening/weakening of the circulation. Here we study the interannual variability of the longitudinally-dependent meridional circulation (LMC), with a focus on its zonal shift. We use hierarchical clustering to objectively determine the 5 main modes of the LMC interannual variability, and apply a Lagrangian air parcel tracking method to reveal the detailed patterns of the circulation. We find that the most prominent interannual variability of the LMC is an east-west shift, which plays a dominant role in the overall interannual variability of the tropical circulation. In addition, the LMC variability is found to be strongly related to other atmospheric variables such as the sea surface temperature, precipitation and air temperature. Using multiple linear regression we analyze these dependencies and discuss their implications for the tropical climate system. We also relate the LMC interannual variability to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and find that the 2 La-Nina related modes are significantly correlated with 2 different MJO phases.
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
The properties of Earth's albedo and its symmetries are analyzed using twenty years of space-based Energy Balanced And Filled product of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. Despite surface asymmetries, top of the atmosphere temporally & hemispherically averaged albedo appears symmetric over Northern/Southern hemispheres. This is confirmed with the use of surrogate time-series, which fails to refute the hypothesis that the hemispheric albedo difference is distinguishable from zero. An analysis of reflected irradiance time-series fails to find any indicators of some dynamics enforcing this albedo symmetry. This analysis shows that variability in the reflected solar irradiance is almost entirely (99%) due to the seasonal (yearly and half yearly cycle) variations, mostly due to seasonal variations in insolation. Hemispheric residuals of the de-seasonalized reflected solar irradiance are not only small, but indistinguishable from noise, and thus not correlated across hemispheres. The residuals contain a global trend that is large, as compared to expected albedo feedbacks, and is also hemispherically symmetric. Neither the magnitude of these trends nor its symmetry -- which could be indicative of a symmetry preserving cloud dynamics -- is well understood. To pinpoint precisely which parts of the Earth system establish the hemispheric symmetry, we create an energetically consistent cloud-albedo field from the data. We show that the surface albedo asymmetry is compensated by asymmetries between clouds over extra-tropical oceans, with southern hemispheric storm-tracks being 11% cloudier than their northern hemisphere counterparts.
, Bertrand Chapron
Published: 25 March 2021
by Wiley
Abstract:
When wind blows over the ocean, short wind-waves (of wavelength smaller than 10 meters) are generated, rapidly reaching an equilibrium with the overlying turbulence (at heights lower than 10 meters). Understanding this equilibrium is key to many applications since it determines (i) air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum and gas, essential for numerical models, (ii) energy loss from wind to waves, which regulates how swell is generated and how energy is transferred to the ocean mixed layer and (iii) the ocean surface roughness, visible from remote sensing measurements. Here we review phenomenological models describing this equilibrium: those couple a TKE and wave action budget through several wave-growth processes, including airflow separation events induced by breaking waves. Even though those models aim at reproducing measurements of air-sea fluxes and wave growth, some of the observed variability is still unexplained. Hence, after reviewing several state-of-the-art phe-nomenological models, we discuss recent numerical experiments to give hints about future improvements. We suggest three main directions, which should be addressed both through dedicated experiments and theory: (i) a better quantification of the variability of wind-wave growth and of the role played by the modulation of short and breaking wind-waves by long wind-waves, (ii) an improved understanding of the imprint of wind-waves on turbulent coherent structures and (iii) a quantification of the interscale interactions for a realistic wind-waves sea, where several wind-and-waves coupling processes coexist at multiple time and space scales.
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