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Majid Abdulatif Al-Basri
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 22-35; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i3.18628

Abstract:
As its name implies, Lexical Phonology (LP) is a two-sided discipline which is very much pervasive and of a priority for particular interest. It is basically a matter of the systematic correlation of both morphology and phonology as a preliminary to screening endless items and senses. Once postulated and covered with its linguistically theoretical frames, LP has proved attractive, useful and handful in that it turns up so often in such topics as lexical items with their phonological configurations and words with their stratum-based designs. The present paper is a painstaking scrutiny of how LP is thoroughly worked out to demarcate the lexical and phonological boundaries of Zubairi Arabic lexical items with a special reference to the linguistic behavior of affix attachments. It is no doubt a massive task – it is armed with such and such amount of systematization and provided with certain 'harmless looking terms and expressions that are frequently used. In attempt to focus on this point of interaction between phonology and morphology, the paper adopts the line of reasoning that is primarily based on a tabulated description and analysis of examples so as to serve the purposes of setting some comparisons, showing certain contrasts or governing particular rules of applications as far as Zubairi words and expressions are concerned. Among many results the paper has reached is evidently the one that the structure of Zubairi Arabic lexical items is the empirical "container" in which both phonological and morphological lines of representation are sometimes crossed very sharply or sometimes paralleled very endlessly whereby their blurriness may be relative and variable.
Zhanwen Song, Ogunniran Moses Oladele
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 1-21; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i3.18606

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the impact of professional learning communities on English teacher belief change with English teachers in Hospitality Institute of Sanya as a case study. The study proffered answers to magnitudes at which professional learning communities motivate English teacher belief change in Hospitality Institute of Sanya, the characteristics of professional learning communities that affect English teacher belief change in Hospitality Institute of Sanya, and the belief changes that were experienced by English teachers in Hospitality Institute of Sanya. The study adopted a qualitative research design that used structured interviews with (fifteen) 15 English teachers as participants for the study. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that most participants had the right perspectives of their communities through the professional learning communities, which exert positive effects on English teacher belief change. Reflective dialog, feedback among teachers, collaborative activity, a shared sense of purpose, and collective focus on students' learning were found out to be the major characteristics of professional learning communities that affected English teacher belief change in Hospitality Institute of Sanya. The study recommended that teacher belief change needs to be monitored by the institution's authority, going by the nature of the activities that go on in the institution.
Elisa Basika, Julia Kigozi, Guston Tumuhimbise
Journal of Food Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5296/jfs.v10i1.18567

Abstract:
Post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables in Uganda are estimated at 30% which is approximately 4 billion shillings lost annually. This is due to limited knowledge on value addition and preservation technologies being unaffordable. This study sought to add value to fruits and vegetables with a focus on mangoes, tomatoes, and carrots produced locally. The study determined the effect of processing conditions and addition of fruits and vegetables on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of tomato ketchup. Tomatoes were replaced with mangoes in increments of 10% up to 50% while keeping carrot levels constant at 5%. The best sensory properties were observed in the treatment that contained 15% mango. The Physico-chemical and sensory properties of ketchup were enhanced by the addition of fruits and vegetables up to 20%. The sensory evaluation revealed that ketchup prepared by the addition of fruits and vegetables (local mangoes and carrots) was preferred as compared to the control sample at 0% mango. The color of ketchup was affected by the incorporation of mangoes and carrots and it was acceptable up to at 5% carrot and 15% mango including taste, appearance, flavor, mouthfeel and aroma. The best treatment was then subjected to different processing conditions at different holding times and temperatures of 5, 10 and 15 minutes at temperatures of 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 100 degrees Celsius respectively. The best conditions were observed to be between 80℃ and 85℃ and 10 to 15 minutes holding time. It was also evident that time and temperature had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the Physico-chemical properties of ketchup.
Vasiliki Polydorou, Zoe Karanikola, George Panagiotopoulos
International Journal of Learning and Development, Volume 11, pp 17-31; doi:10.5296/ijld.v11i2.18317

Abstract:
Following the guidelines of the Agenda 2020, the international Organisations and the European Union have laid the foundations of educational policy. Every person’s right to quality education is put forward to every international document, considering education as the means for the prosperity of all the people and the planet. Through qualitative analysis, with the use of thematic networks, three documents: of UNESCO, (2017) “E2030 education and skills for the 21st century”, of the OECD, (2019) “future of Education and skills 2030: OECD learning compass 2030” and of the European Commission, (2018). “Annex of the Recommendation for the establishment of a Council regarding the basic skills of lifelong learning”, the modern skills required of students as well as teachers are explored, since their acquisition is imperative, as well as the manner of this acquisition are being examined. Thus arose the necessity of acquiring digital and social skills, lifelong learning culture, citizenship and ecology learning. Additionally, the necessity of modification of education is put forward. Finally, it is important that educators receive proper education, so that they acquire new knowledge, attitudes, skills to be able to respond to their role as vehicles of change.
Li Sun
International Journal of Learning and Development, Volume 11, pp 32-45; doi:10.5296/ijld.v11i2.18580

Abstract:
This paper studies the relationship between minority college students’ English learning autonomy, English learning self-efficacy and English learning engagement, based on attribution theory and social cognitive theory. A questionnaire was first conducted on 570 ethnic minority non-English major college students in Yunnan province, Guizhou province, and Sichuan province, China. Then, statistical software is used to make regression analysis on the relationship between variables. Research results show that English learning autonomy has a significant positive impact on English learning engagement; English learning autonomy has a significant positive impact on English learning self-efficacy; English learning self-efficacy has a significant positive impact on English learning engagement; English learning self-efficacy has a partial mediating role in English learning autonomy and English learning engagement. Finally, some strategies are proposed to improve English learning engagement from motivation-driven perspective, involving learning evaluation, learning resources and learning guidance.
Maria Karadimou, Kostis Tsioumis
International Journal of Learning and Development, Volume 11, pp 1-16; doi:10.5296/ijld.v11i2.18363

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a correlation between the leader's collaborative networks (teachers, students, and the community) and the civic education provided to students in their school unit. The survey was conducted in July 2020 using a closed questionnaire. The research involved 122 primary school teachers (kindergarten teachers, teachers, and expertise teachers) who were asked to choose from a five-point scale, or from multiple answers. The survey based on the assumption that the existence of a collective and democratic climate of school administration helps to encourage teachers to address issues of education in the capacity of citizen. The results of the survey lead us to confirm our initial thought, which was the springboard for conducting this research, that those teachers who work in an environment characterised with respect and collectivity, it makes sense to be them who embrace the principles of citizenship education and consider it important to convey them on to their students.
Adetunji Adeniyi
International Journal of Learning and Development, Volume 11, pp 46-62; doi:10.5296/ijld.v11i2.18612

Abstract:
Unemployment is a major macroeconomic malaise in Nigeria. It has been high and rising over the years across dictatorship, democratic, administrative, and economic regimes. In the process sectoral employment transitioned from the productive sectors of agriculture and manufacturing to services sectors of trade and services and administration sectors of the economy. This study examined the patterns of unemployment and the transitioning of sectoral employment during the economic growth period between 1981 and 2014.It concluded that, despite the fact that economic growth was a common factor, unemployment worsened during democracy, and more so under the Yar’Adua / Jonathan administration. Unemployment was best managed under the military, ironically, and better under the Obasanjo administration, respectively.
Adetunji Adeniyi
International Journal of Learning and Development, Volume 11, pp 63-93; doi:10.5296/ijld.v11i2.18613

Abstract:
The Nigerian economy was characterised with high levels of unemployment during the periods of substantial growth between 1981 and 2014. Various economists described the growth regime as “jobless”. Sectoral differences were, also, observed with regard to their job absorptive capacities. Time series secondary data covering 1981 to 2014 on the rebased Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and sectoral Gross Value Added (GVA) at 2010 constant basic prices, employment, wage rate, inflation rate and interest rate were collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). The variables were extracted from statutory publications of the institutions, collated and summarised into a table of data. The unit root test was carried out to test for stationarity of variables. The data was analysed using VECM at α 0.05. The result shows that wage rate, inflation rate, and interest rate all affected employment negatively across sectors. Gross Value added affected employment positively in the non-agricultural sectors, but negatively in the agricultural sectors. Inter-sectoral linkages and dependences also peculiarly affected job creation positively or negatively.
Benigni Alfred Temba, Gaymary George Bakari
Journal of Biology and Life Science, Volume 12, pp 16-26; doi:10.5296/jbls.v12i2.18576

Abstract:
Occurrence of mycotoxins in foods poses a serious health concern all over the world. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic, with widest occurrence in various foods, but mainly in cereals and nuts and its accumulation depends on substrate and environmental factors. This study investigated the how physical status (milling) of maize kernels and atmospheric conditions (aeration, moisture and temperature) affect production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 28862). Intact kernels and flour were incubated for up to 20 days in open and partially sealed petri dishes under controlled temperatures of 25 ºC, 30 ºC and 37 ºC and initial moisture contents of 27%, 22%, 18%, 15% and 12%. It was found that on average, significantly higher (p < 0.05) aflatoxin B1 level was accumulated in intact kernels (145.7 µg/kg) as compared to milled kernels (2.2 µg/kg). Also, none of the samples incubated under partially sealed conditions, compared to up to 100% of the samples incubated in open atmosphere had detectable levels of aflatoxin B1 after 20 days. Fungal growth was not affected by milling or aeration, but sporulation was low at 37 ºC and high at 25 ºC and 30 ºC. The findings of this study provide baseline information on how conditions can be modified to control postharvest accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in cereals.
Ji Huilong, Gao Xin, Wu Wenxuan, Ma Zhuang, Qing Qing
Journal of Biology and Life Science, Volume 12, pp 1-15; doi:10.5296/jbls.v12i2.18483

Abstract:
In this study, we successfully isolated a strain of Aspergillus oryzae TR08, which produced xylanase secreted to the outside of the cell productively. The enzyme activity and specific activity in the fermentation broth of this strain reached peak values of 451 IU/mL and 1963 IU/mg after 156 h of fermentation. A single factor experiment was designed, and it was found that the strain was adjusted to the initial pH of the fermentation broth to 7.5 in a shaker at 180 rpm and 32 °C. After 156 h of fermentation, the enzyme activity reached a maximum of 1264 IU/mL. The optimal reaction temperature and pH value of the xylanase were 55 °C and 7.5, respectively, and it had excellent acid and alkali resistance and a wide pH activity range. The xylanase was increased the catalytic activity by 15% in 0.25 mM Fe3+, and the biological activity of the enzyme was not affected in the sodium dodecyl sulfate environment.
John Vourdoubas
International Journal of Global Sustainability, Volume 5; doi:10.5296/ijgs.v5i1.18522

Abstract:
Distributed electricity generation technologies have increasing applications worldwide in various sectors due to their environmental and economic benefits. In the present study the use of these technologies in hotel industry is investigated. Various distributed electricity technologies, including co-generation of heat and power systems, are examined. Some of them are using renewable energies like solar energy, wind energy and biomass for electricity generation. Others are related with various co-generation systems including fuel cells. Many hotels require almost equal amounts of heat and electricity in their daily operations. Co-generation technologies have the advantage that they can cover almost all of their requirements in both electricity and heat. Some distributed electricity generation technologies including solar photovoltaic energy, co-generation systems, wind turbines and fuel cells are already used in hotels. Their energy efficiency varies in the range of 10% to 90%. Technologies using renewable energies generate carbon-free electricity while others fueled by natural gas generate electricity with low carbon impacts. Each technology has advantages and drawbacks while the possibility of using each technology depends on hotel’s characteristics as well as on the local availability of renewable energy sources. The results of the present study are important in hotel industry since they indicate the possibility of using the environmentally friendly distributed electricity generation technologies for covering their electricity as well as, in some cases, their heating requirements reducing their carbon footprint due to energy use and increasing their energy and environmental sustainability.
Phillip Y. Freiberg, Kasemsarn Chotchakornpant
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 1-23; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18516

Abstract:
In the modern social sciences, the concept of confidence or trust is considered an essential element of the socio-cultural potential of each given society. Trust in the institutions of the socio-political system is the basis and condition for its effectiveness and is the central element of its [the system] legitimation. Many researchers view trust in the media from the point of view of public confidence in the authorities, which is formed by providing the media with this or that information.Trust is based on a cognitive process that discriminates among persons and institutions that are trustworthy, distrusted, and unknown. Therefore, the concept of trustworthiness is central to understanding and predicting trust levels.In this work, we viewed trust as a manifestation of social capital. At the same time, trust antecedents are trustworthiness and propensity to trust.Proceeding from the resource approach, the credibility (trustworthiness) of the media is a set of ideas and attitudes of the audience: reflecting the public’s expectations that the media will implement some of the practices that allow the audience to increase or maintain their social resources.The goal of this work was to establish a causational relationship between the level of trustworthiness (social capital) of the political power (via its administration and mass media) and the level of trust in its messages by youth as they are transmitted via MSM; while the rise of information through the Internet is rising in Russia and the overall propensity to trust is falling.
Jr. David V. Tolliver, , G. David Gearhart
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 58-70; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18311

Abstract:
Higher education has made progress in the enrollment of under-represented minorities, yet very notably, African American men continue to enroll in college at very low rates. The current study explores the factors that lead to the college enrollment of African American men, using the lived experiences of 8 undergraduates at mid-western universities. The study findings are consistent with the emerging theory of Community Expectancy, suggesting that many informal factors play important roles in encouraging the academic performance and ultimately the college enrollment of African American men.
Etebom John Monday
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18355

Abstract:
Nigeria gained her independence in October 1960 after almost six decades of British colonial rule. The country’s journey into nationhood was herald by high hopes and prospects for national unity, peace and development. This was because of its vast human and material resources, and land mass. Nigeria is dominantly made of three prominent regions: the North (Hausa Fulani), the West (Yorubas) and the East (Igbos) with minorities in other regions.The military took over the leadership of the country barely six years into her independence as a nation. The military held sway for twenty nine years out of the ininitial forty years of the country’s post independence history before her return to civil rule in 1999.The county is still been confronted with challenges on all fronts ranging from insecurity and insurgency, economy, political uncertainty, electoral malpractices, high rate of unemployment, poor infrastructure amongst others. Literature have been skewed toward military intervention in politics as the root cause of the challenges bedeviling the country more than two decades after her return to civil rule.The study employed both quantitative and qualitative data. The study analysed the history of military rule in Nigeria and interrogated the crux of the military institution. It further analysed the peculiarities of each of the military regimes. The study also examined the post-military era in the country and concluded with recommendations.
Jake Dabang Dan-Azumi, Caroline Asan
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 86-109; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18543

Abstract:
This study focuses on women legislative representation in Nigeria since the commencement of the Fourth Republic (1999 to 2020). It investigates the low levels of representation of women in the National Assembly and factors that explain this. Results from the study show that the majority of female respondents indicate active interest in politics but are discouraged by factors that include prevailing gender stereotypes, cultural/religious reasons, unfavourable political environment, lack of financial capacity, electoral violence and restrictive party structures and processes amongst others. The bulk of male respondents confirm these structural biases and barriers to women’s political participation. In view of these findings, some recommendations offered include implementation of deliberate policies and legislations that target women quotas and affirmative action, elimination of structural barriers to women's participation, reducing the cost of political participation for women, reforming the electoral process, and sustained and systematic gender education.
Abdulhamid Ozohu-Suleiman
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 134-155; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18242

Abstract:
The inextricable relationship between environment and development is unarguable, and the literature is replete with scientific evidence of the interdependence between the two phenomena. However, as the interaction between man and nature proceeded from the condition of conviviality to that of belligerence, there has been a marked decline in the resilience of nature to accommodate human avarice. It is nature’s reactions to this unfair transaction that is today called climate change. In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change remains an intractable problem, or to borrow the words of Pollitt (2016), “a very wicked issue” that challenges state capacity to contain its scourge. Finding a way around this wicked issue has been the preoccupation of public policy scholars and practitioners. Incidentally, combating climate change is a cross cutting issue in the 2030 global agenda for sustainable development which inevitably touches on access to affordable and sustainable energy, protection of the ecosystem to halt biodiversity loss. Consistent with this global agenda is the Africa agenda 2063 with the overarching aspiration of “a prosperous Africa based on inclusive growth and sustainable development”. These multinational initiatives suggest a growing consensus on environmental sustainability as the desideratum of development. In Nigeria, the energy crisis and its attendant consequences on the environment has made the country one of the most vulnerable to climate change in the region. This paper seeks to offer a perspective on public governance for climate action. It argues that lack of state capacity to address the energy requirement of the economy has had grave consequences on environmental resourcefulness. While consensus on multinational agenda is given, the point at issues is for national governments to domesticate this agenda and mobilize the requisite resources to translate them into measurable achievements. The paper observes that apart from the huge deficit in furnishing the energy need of the real sector, the energy crisis poses existential threats such as food insecurity, environmental pollution/degradation through deforestation, flooding and pollution. The paper recommends, among others, that the Nigeria-Germany bilateral cooperation on the power sector should be implemented to its logical conclusion, and that a program of public enlightenment is urgently required to arrest traditional practices that are harmful to environmental sustainability.
Horacio Zandamela, Matuku Mphahlele
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 156-177; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18373

Abstract:
Bojanala Platinum District Municipality (BPDM), in the North West Province is endowed with the extractive economy. The District experiences challenges of capacity development of service delivery structures and programmes. It is in this context that this paper explains how local government responses to challenges of capacity development in the District Municipality. In addition, the paper explores ways in which they can be overcome for enhanced service delivery. The purpose of this study is to examine challenges related to the use of capacity development structures and programmes related to service delivery and explores how to overcome them. The study examines the structures and programmes, facilitators and inhibitors of skills development and performance initiatives within the context of local government capacity development. This study develops a theoretical framing incorporating scholarship on human capital and performance improvement in the context of local government. This framing is premised on the scholarly evidence that capacity development is an enabler of service delivery, influenced by skills development and municipal performance improvement. The research is a single case qualitative case study approach and employs an interpretative paradigm. The paper employs senior managers in the municipalities as the unit of analysis. That study reveals that there are difficulties associated with skills retention and organisational relations. In conclusion, political abandonment, poor communication and stakeholder engagements contribute to weakened inter-municipal co-operation and inadequate use of resources. The interface between learning and skills development contributes to the body knowledge.
Matthew Funsho Bello, Kajo Aondohemba Emmanuel
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 24-57; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18517

Abstract:
This study centres on the Nigerian experience in leadership styles and strategies in the 21st century. This study covers 1999-2020. The population of the study is the entire staff of the 43 Federal Ministries in Abuja, Nigeria. The sample size was two hundred and thirty-six (236) respondents. The study adopted both primary and secondary sources of data, correlation and regression analysis were used to determine the existing relationship using SPSS Package. The findings revealed that a positive relationship exists between leadership styles and strategies and service delivery to citizens, but not significant in achieving service delivery with the standard error of 1.240, and a p-value of 0.387 which is greater than 0.05(5%) level of significance. The second finding also reveals that, there is a positive relationship between leadership styles and strategies and the economic wellbeing of citizens in Nigeria but not significant in achieving the economic wellbeing of citizens with the standard error of 2.312, and a p-value of 0.673 which is greater than 0.05(5%) level of significance. The study concluded that, the different leadership styles and strategies to be adopted are based on the prevailing situation the leader finds him or herself. The study recommended that government should from time to time organize leadership seminars and workshops for leaders at all levels both in the public and private sectors with a view to educating them on the need for quality leadership and the provision of service delivery for citizens’ wellbeing in the 21st century in Nigeria.
Temitope Francis Abiodun, Marcus Temitayo Akinlade, Olanrewaju Abdulwasii Oladejo
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 110-133; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i2.18544

Abstract:
In the West African sub-region, the trend of trafficking in persons is widespread; and the phenomenon now attaining its peak unhindered, has actually portrayed Nigeria as a nation occupying a central position as an originating state, transit and destination for victims of trafficking. There is also evidence of internal trafficking from rural zones to cities. The menace of human trafficking in Nigerian state has taken an indescribable facet in the last two decades owing to the factors of; massive unemployment, poverty, recession in the economy, conflicts, globalization, existing weak legal system, and inadequate legislation, and political will. Trafficking in person is an organized crime and a modern form of slavery. The two methods used by traffickers to get their victims are deception and through force. Human trafficking has continued to strive in Nigeria because of shameful connivance among the Nigeria’s security agencies, Embassies, airline officials and human traffickers. The study adopts Marcus Felson and Lawrence Cohen’s Routine Activity and the Kevin Bales’ Modern Slavery theories (1979; 1999). 500 copies of questionnaire were administered to a set of purposively selected respondents with the In-Depth Interview Guide to elicit information on the subject. The study in its findings reveals that human trafficking has continued to strive in Nigeria because of connivance from the security, immigration, embassy, airline officials and traffickers while the menace has put Nigeria’s identity black in the global system. The study therefore recommended that the Nigerian government should swiftly endeavour to address the issue of massive unemployment and poverty in the state as well as create enabling environments for entrepreneurship for the citizenry; also the national laws, international conventions and protocols that have legal potencies to curb trafficking must be implemented or strengthened; and finally, fighting human trafficking in Nigeria requires more efforts to create public awareness of the crime, organize counseling, rehabilitation and re-integration program for the victims.
, Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda, , Rayssa Juliane Souza de Jesus, Millena DOS Santos Santana, Carlos Eduardo Celestino de Andrade
Journal of Studies in Education, Volume 11, pp 1-19; doi:10.5296/jse.v11i2.18362

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Wenyu Guan
Journal of Studies in Education, Volume 11, pp 32-61; doi:10.5296/jse.v11i2.18445

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Claudia MontAlvao, Pedro Bevilaqua, Raquel Cappelletto
Journal of Studies in Education, Volume 11, pp 20-31; doi:10.5296/jse.v11i2.17257

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Fahad H Abdeen, Waheeb Albiladi
Journal of Studies in Education, Volume 11, pp 62-70; doi:10.5296/jse.v11i2.18339

Abstract:
The use of games in education has received much attention from educators who perceive games as a motivational tool that can enhance their teaching and learning practice. Gamification in education is a relatively new field that promotes the use of games for educational purposes. Gamification or game-bases teaching is a growing trend among educational institutions, which use it to promote training, develop problem-solving skills in learners, and enhance the learning experience. The present paper aims to revisit the literature on the use of gamification in educational settings. Specifically, the paper discusses the use of gamification for teaching and learning English in the ESL/EFL context. Games have been used effectively with language learners to develop their skills in speaking, listening, writing, reading, and grammar.
Hasani De Ravindranath, Jugindar Singh Kartar Singh, Thilageswary Arumugam, Janitha Kularajasingam
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 17-37; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18457

Abstract:
The purpose of this exploratory study was to explore the challenges faced by working mothers in the education sector and the perceived policies and strategies to retain them in their current jobs. This basic qualitative study used in-depth semi-structured interviews to collect information from five working mothers with at least one child. Thematic analysis was done to analyse the data manually. The key challenges highlighted include work-life conflict, stereotyping, exhaustion, changing work schedule and career growth opportunities. The working mothers also stated that the key perceived policies and strategies to retain them include child-care support, working from home and flexible work arrangements. Generally, they stated that motherhood was their key priority, and they prioritised family overwork. The study provided an understanding to organisations on the challenges faced by working mothers and what policies organisations should focus on to retain them. This study was the first of its kind, and it provided in-depth experience and views of working mothers in the education sector. This paper makes contributions to work-life integration and career theory.
Thang Dac Pham
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 151-167; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18365

Abstract:
In the process of deeper and broader integration into the world and regional economy, Vietnamese businesses in general and veterinary drug manufacturers in particular have had advantages as well as disadvantages. Veterinary medicine manufacturers’ advantages are, such as: market expansion, access to science and technology, access to capital, improving management skills, etc. Nevertheless, it also faces many challenges and risks. During the development phase, Vietnamese veterinary medicine manufacturers have to face robust competition from regional and international competitors. Besides, meeting industry standards (such as GMP) is also a prerequisite for veterinary drug manufacturers in Vietnam to focus on implementation. This study analyzes the competitiveness of Vietnamese veterinary drug manufacturers, on that basis gives discussions, thereby proposing some recommendations in order to enhance the competitiveness of Vietnamese veterinary medicine manufacturers in the context of international economic integration.
Lyndon Garvin Augustine
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 71-83; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18501

Abstract:
The ethical dilemma for the healthcare industry is that although they strive to keep patients safe, the culture reflects an underreporting of medical errors. Because of this, healthcare leaders have strived relentlessly to create a positive patient safety culture. A positive patient safety culture alludes to traits within a company that permit patient safety to be a goal, including open reporting, a no blame environment to incident reporting, dedicated leadership, continuous companywide learning, and a take charge recognition of safety warnings.Despite the efforts to create this type of safety culture, based on findings within this study, the conclusion is that leaders within the healthcare community have failed to foster this form of culture. Because of this, the objective of this study was to explore the importance of changing the culture within healthcare towards the underreporting of medical errors. In terms of methodology used to explore a culture change, the researcher performed a literature review. As for the results towards addressing a culture change, the researcher identified three barriers. Thereafter, the researcher provided resolutions to overcome these barriers.
Alvin Chong, Ibiwani Alisa Hussain, Noraini Ahmad, Jugindar Singh Kartar Singh
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 58-70; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18459

Abstract:
Turnover of employees has gained the attention of organisations due to the impact of human resources on organisation performance and competitive advantage. This dilemma leads the management to struggle to find ways and retain employees. To attract, organisations use the "pull factors" to entice employees to perform better in the organisation. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the three dimensions of organisational justice: distributive, procedural and interactional justice towards voluntary turnover. This was an explanatory study that used a quantitative research design. Through a survey method, data was collected from a total of 115 respondents. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between employee turnover, distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. However, interactional justice had the strongest impact. This study also unearthed that attractive compensation is not the only method for the management to retain talent in organisations. Organisational justice plays an essential role in the retention of employees. These results will provide a better understanding of supervisors and human resource professionals with additional insights into the impact of organisational justice on employees' turnover. This study indicates that organisations' interactional justice practised is considered a central factor for employee retention. Although prior research has investigated a number of these issues, this study was the first to focus on employees in Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia.
Douglas Rolls, Kwesi Atta Sakyi, Geoffrey K. Mweshi
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 84-136; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18502

Abstract:
Even though students with eidetic or photographic memories are naturally found in universities, it is not necessary that all the students be of the same super endowment. However, in the university setting, we need students who have stability in all faculties so that the learning process is maximised through constructive and interactive instruction. Issues in education can neither be divorced from the fact-value dichotomy nor from the nature-nurture imperatives that affect and determine educational outcomes. In this regard, neither can some issues escape some element of subjectivity nor others be strictly measured and assessed by scientific strictures. The objective of this paper is to examine some of the learning disabilities among our law students at ZCAS University, and how these affect their academic performance. We settled on this topic after noting that some of our students do not perform well because of many learning disabilities which could be hidden from our view and which should have been diagnosed during the pre-admission period; and also diagnosed through pre-admission tests. Our objective was to establish some of the underlying causes of their poor performance during tests and final year examinations. In this paper, we theoretically explore learning disabilities related to mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual aspects of the well-being of our students. The research took the form of administering questionnaires to the relevant students through purposive sampling. With regard to the methodological approach, we adopted an exploratory approach by using descriptive, quantitative and analytical qualitative methods such as content and thematic analysis. We found out that some students came to the university not because they had academic strength and aptitude in the field of law but because they could afford to pay for the programme. We also found out that some of the students admitted to the university had poor learning styles and habits such as spending too much time online with friends. Furthermore, it came to light that some lecturers did not deliver lectures to suit the learning styles and preferences of students. Our findings were not conclusive enough as similar tests have to be carried out in future in different places to validate and corroborate our findings.
Tariq T. Jarrar, Hazril Izwar Ibrahim
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 1-16; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18268

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to employ Social Exchange Theory to examine the relationship between organizational trust and work engagement and the role of perceived stress as a moderator in Palestinian ministries. For this purpose, the study utilizes a sample of 178 respondents of executive-level employees in which primary data collection is conducted using survey instrument and PLS-SEM for data analysis. The study proposes that perceived stress moderates the impact of organizational trust on vigor, dedication and absorption, and that perceived stress plays an important role in moderating the relationship between organizational trust and employees' work engagement. The study concludes that implementation of organizational trust is important in Palestinian ministries to support employees’ engagement and to create positive outcome in the workplace.
Andi Aisyah Nurul Alifyanti Hidayah, Jugindar Singh Kartar Singh, Ibiwani Alisa Hussain
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 38-57; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18458

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to examine the impact of flexible working arrangements in the public sector in Indonesia. From a theoretical perspective, this study examines the influence of flexible working arrangements on work-life conflict, work pressure, and organizational commitment. The focus is on employees engaged in the public sector in Indonesia as it regards this as a gap in current research. Most past studies on flexible working arrangements concentrate on large corporations in developed countries. There is a dearth of studies on the impact of flexible working arrangements on employee work-related outcomes in the public sector in Indonesia. In addition, empirical evidence concerning the association between flexible working arrangements and employee outcomes such as work-family conflict and organizational commitment shows inconsistent and mixed results. This was a quantitative study that used a survey method to collect data from 400 respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were generated using the SPSS software. The result showed that only organizational commitment was significantly correlated with flexible working arrangements. Work-family conflict and work pressure did not show a significant association with flexible work arrangements. This deviation from past studies could be attributed to cultural differences and policies in the public sector. This study provided new insights to organizations and human resource managers on the effect of the outcomes of flexible working arrangements. The findings revealed in this study are unique, and they provide support for the theory that flexible working conditions lead to increased organizational commitment. In terms of originality, past literature on flexible working arrangements mainly concentrates on large corporations or the private sector. With the growing importance of flexible working arrangements, there is a need to focus on the public sector.
Li Sun, Ning Cheng
International Journal of Human Resource Studies, Volume 11, pp 168-184; doi:10.5296/ijhrs.v11i2.18564

Abstract:
Improving the credit system is a new requirement of the Ministry of Education of China. The academic advisor system is an essential part of the credit system management and plays an important role in the planning and guidance of students’ academic career. Therefore, this paper studies the influence of students’ perception of academic advisor support on academic motivation. It surveyed 455 undergraduates from universities and colleges in Henan Province that implemented the academic advisor system, and found that students have a high degree of academic motivation. The main results of the research are as follows: 1) Freshmen’s perception of academic advisor support is higher than that of senior students; 2) Perceived autonomy support and engagement support have a significantly positive impact on intrinsic academic motivation; 3) Perceived opportunity support has a significantly positive impact on extrinsic academic motivation; 4) Perceived relationships support has a significant negative impact on amotivation. This research can help higher education workers to value student autonomy in learning, actively communicate with students, and provide resource support for the realization of student goals.
Theodore S. Corwin Iii, Daniel K.N. Johnson
Research in Applied Economics, Volume 13, pp 1-14; doi:10.5296/rae.v13i1.18283

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Batamaga Akimu Kajuni, Deogratias Faustine Mpenzi
World Journal of Business and Management, Volume 7; doi:10.5296/wjbm.v7i1.17797

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Hideki Takei
World Journal of Business and Management, Volume 7; doi:10.5296/wjbm.v7i1.18163

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Helen Kavvadia
World Journal of Business and Management, Volume 7; doi:10.5296/wjbm.v7i1.18137

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Benta G. Adhiambo Oguda, George Vikiru, Christine Wasanga
Journal of Sociological Research, Volume 12, pp 26-43; doi:10.5296/jsr.v12i2.18454

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J Forbes Farmer, Sal Ali, Jean Dawson
Journal of Sociological Research, Volume 12, pp 1-25; doi:10.5296/jsr.v12i2.18161

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Adel W. Ottoman, Charles Angira, Jane Owenga, Japheth Ogendi
International Journal of Social Science Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5296/ijssr.v9i2.18464

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Michael K. Ponton
International Journal of Social Science Research, Volume 9; doi:10.5296/ijssr.v9i2.18244

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Manfred Kouty
Research in Applied Economics, Volume 13, pp 15-31; doi:10.5296/rae.v13i1.18468

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Lu Zhao, Lu Zou
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 12-26; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18371

Abstract:
The development of pragmatic ability is an essential topic in language acquisition, among which demonstratives are significant to reflect human’s cognition of the relation between language and the environment. The purpose of this research is to investigate the acquisition of spatial demonstratives “zhe” (this) and “na” (that) of Mandarin-speaking children through experimental design (different tool use, e.g. participants pointed at the objects with their finger or a laser pen), exploring the influence of perceptual distance on children’s choice of spatial demonstratives. Through comparison with adults’ data, results supported the view that 5- to 6-year-old children have already developed adult-like cognitive space when it comes to the use of spatial demonstratives, which produced an effect on the use of spatial demonstratives, proving speaker’s subjective involvement in choosing the proximal or distal demonstrative in the process of communication, and rendering more evidence on children’s early development of pragmatic ability.
Quoc Hung Le Pham
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 62-84; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18308

Abstract:
It can be said that the language reflected a national identity, its contains the nation's cultural background and ways of thinking. Euphemism reflects a national cultural system and embodies different cultural patterns. There are a lot of cultural connotations in Chinese and Vietnamese language, although there are a lot of similarities between them, but there are still differences in the way of thinking and expression. By exploring the relationship between language and cultural factors and the influence of word euphemism, euphemism can be seen in two languages in language and culture two aspects of the homogeneous and heterogeneous. On language factor terms, two languages are using assonance to replace human nature discharge, whilst the dissimilaries are metonymy, loan word and personification. On culture factor terms, the convergences are metonymy and application of the semantically-contrary-word-euphemism, whilst the difference is Chinese euphemism using allusion but Vietnamese euphemism does not.
Xiaoya Wu, Huan Peng, Weichao Wang
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 27-61; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18575

Abstract:
In intercultural crisis communication, the globally adopted framework SCCT (Situated Crisis Communication Theory) should be adapted to meet the local contexts. By collecting online posts concerning D&G’s crisis communication from major Chinese social platforms including Sina Weibo, Zhihu (408 posts), WeChat official account (23 posts) as well as Instagram, Facebook and YouTube (344 posts), and with 10 semi-structured interviews (3 university professors and 8 students of different majors) for triangulation, this study analyzes the online posts concerning D&G’s crisis response strategies in China. We find that the public regard denial strategy as being outdated, demonstrating superiority and lack of responsibility; victimage strategy reflecting arrogance and self-centered mindset; moreover, the apologies are analyzed in terms of the manner and content of apology. Effective intercultural communication presupposes equality, mutual respect and empathy; therefore, it is necessary to uphold a glocalization approach to crisis communication.
Najah Ali Al-Jahdali
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 85-106; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18578

Abstract:
This cognitive semantic corpus-based study attempts to outline the biological and social role/s regarding the face in the Hijazi Dialect of Arabic (HDA). The aim is to check the embodied conceptualization in relation to the kinds of emotions, character qualities, and cultural values (Maalej and Yu, 2011) that Hijazi face idioms represent in the conceptual system of HDA-speakers. This paper uses the theoretical framework of the Conceptual Theory of Metaphor and Metonymy (CTMM) (Lakoff & Johnson (1980), Lakoff (1987), and Kövecses (2002)) in analyzing the specific cognitive structures (i.e. conceptual metaphor/s, conceptual metonym/ies, image schema/s) that are thought to be implemented in the conceptual system of those speakers. It also agrees and incorporates Kövescses (2002), Maalej (2004), and Yu's (2009) views on the importance of experience, embodiment, and culture when analyzing idioms to dig beneath what appears on the surface in the form of idiomatic expressions referred by Yu (2002) as the "tip of the iceberg". Representing a rather conservative society, face is seen as a strong reflection of the culture and values embedded in the Hijaz.
Ersilia Incelli
International Journal of Linguistics, Volume 13, pp 1-11; doi:10.5296/ijl.v13i2.18417

Abstract:
This contribution aims to present an overview of future predictions about the evolution and status of the English language, in particular as a global lingua franca. The paper considers recent events such as Brexit and the emergence of new economic powers, and the fact that other widely spoken languages could compete with the hegemonic longevity of English as a lingua franca. Although English will certainly remain globally dominant for a large part of the 21st century, new geopolitical landscapes may influence the role of English both in Europe and in the world. This overview is not exhaustive in reporting all the variables in the debate, but it wishes to examine the main issues of concern in the future standing of English.
Business and Economic Research, Volume 11, pp 145-164; doi:10.5296/ber.v11i2.18380

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Richard Bwalya, Mabvuto Zulu
Business and Economic Research, Volume 11, pp 44-61; doi:10.5296/ber.v11i2.18451

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Yu Hsing
Business and Economic Research, Volume 11, pp 218-226; doi:10.5296/ber.v11i2.18604

Abstract:
Based on an extended IS-LM-AS model, this study finds that if the Argentine peso depreciates 1% versus the U.S. dollar, the consumer price in Argentina would increase by 0.2518%. In addition, more structural fiscal deficit as a percent of potential GDP, more M2 supply, a higher U.S. price level, and a higher expected price level would raise Argentina’s consumer price level. Therefore, partial exchange rate pass-through is confirmed for Argentina.
Mohsen Mohaghegh, A. S. Valipour
Business and Economic Research, Volume 11, pp 252-265; doi:10.5296/ber.v11i2.18491

Abstract:
Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have investigated the role of financial development, human capital accumulation, and trade liberalization on economic growth. Their findings, however, have been inconclusive as to which of these factors’ implementation should policy makers prioritize. We construct a panel of more than 160 `developed’, `developing’ and `less-developed’ countries between 1965 and 2017 to address this issue. We use non-stationary dynamic panel estimations to argue that quantitative effects of these factors depend on national income levels. Even though developed countries benefit the most from investing in their human capital and developing countries gain more by improving their financial institutions, our results show that both financial development and human capital are relatively ineffective in less developed countries. Nonetheless, trade liberalization has a stronger impact on GDP growth in these economies than in developing and developed countries.
Vo Thi Van Khanh, Nguyen Thi Thu Huong
Business and Economic Research, Volume 11, pp 178-206; doi:10.5296/ber.v11i2.18573

Abstract:
The content of the administrative reform plan for the period 2011–2020 of the Government of Vietnam on the basis of the overall reform of the national administration, focuses on four main areas, namely institutional reform and organizational reform. structure, building and developing contingent of civil servants and public finance (Government, 2011). Thus, along with the institutional and organizational reform, the public finance reform is also a central task of the administrative reform in the condition that Vietnam continues to strongly transition from the centralized mechanism. The subsidy to a socialist-oriented market economy, in particular, is even more necessary when Vietnam has become an official member of the World Trade Organization. One of the current concerns for good implementation of public finance reform is the implementation of autonomy and self-responsibility for the use of payroll and administrative management funding for administrative agencies. state and financial autonomy mechanism for non-business units. This article focuses on analyzing the current situation of reforming the financial operation mechanism of public non-business units in Lao Cai province, Vietnam, pointing out the achievements, limitations, causes and some recommendations to end. promote the reform of the financial operation mechanism of public non-business units in Lao Cai province, Vietnam in the context of world economic integration.
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