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Vadim Sivkov,
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Studied oceanographic transect across the Equatorial Atlantic is considered as a “screenshot” of suspended particulate matter distribution against a hydrographical background. The area of abnormal high suspended matter volume concentrations was found above the Sierra Leone Rise from top to bottom (eastern part of the transect). The suggested explanation for the anomaly is based on the ballast hypothesis whereby solid particles are incorporated as ballast into suspended biogenic aggregates, leading to increased velocities of sinking. This process is located within the Northwest African upwelling area since the plankton exposed to the Saharan dust abundance form a significant number of aggregates lately transported equatorward via Canary Current. The intermediate nepheloid layer associated with the Deep Western Boundary Current was recorded from the American Slope at the 3200–3700 m to the depth of 4300 m above the Para Abyssal Plain. Antarctic Bottom Water enriched in the suspended matter was found mostly in the troughs at 40–41° W. It was detached from the bottom, coinciding with the core of the flow due to the bottom rise (“dam”) located up-stream. The grain size of particles was in accordance with polymodal distribution – the 2–4 μm and the 8–13 μm modes. The registered rise in the percentage of the 7–21 μm-sized particles suggests the presence of the well-known coarse mode (20–60 μm) formed by aggregation of transparent exopolymer particles (mucus).
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, , , , Chunying Wang
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 21, pp 8677-8692; doi:10.5194/acp-21-8677-2021

Abstract:
The rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented decreases in economic activities, thereby reducing the pollutant emissions. A random forest (RF) model was applied to determine the respective contributions of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions to the changes in air quality. The result suggested that the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p<0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol, including SO42- (29 %), NO3- (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p<0.05). The positive matrix factorization (PMF) result suggested that the contribution ratios of secondary formation (SF), industrial process (IP), biomass burning (BB), coal combustion (CC), and road dust (RD) changed from 36 %, 27 %, 21 %, 12 %, and 4 % before the COVID-19 outbreak to 44 %, 20 %, 20 %, 9 %, and 7 %, respectively. The rapid increase in the contribution ratio derived from SF to PM2.5 implied that the intermittent haze events during the COVID-19 period were characterized by secondary aerosol pollution, which was mainly contributed by the unfavorable meteorological conditions and high NH3 level.
Marc J. P. Gouw, Marc P. Hijma
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Despite extensive research on alluvial architecture, there is still a pressing need for data from modern fluvio-deltaic environments. Previous research in the fluvial-dominated proximal and central Rhine-Meuse delta (The Netherlands) has yielded clear spatial trends in alluvial architecture. In this paper, we include the backwater length to establish architectural trends from apex to shoreline. Channel-belt sand body width/thickness ratios and interconnectedness were determined and the proportions of fluvial channel-belt deposits, fluvial overbank deposits, organics and intertidal deposits were calculated for the complete fluvio-deltaic wedge, based on high-resolution geological cross-sections. It was found that the average width/thickness ratio of channel-belt sand bodies in the proximal delta is five times higher than in the distal delta. Other down-valley trends include an 80 %-decrease of the channel deposit proportion (CDP) and a near-constant proportion of overbank deposits. Additionally, interconnectedness in the proximal delta is three times higher than in the distal delta. Based on the Rhine-Meuse dataset, the authors propose a linear empirical function to model the spatial variability of CDP. It is argued that this relationship is driven by four key factors that change along stream: channel lateral-migration rate, channel-belt longevity, creation of accommodation space and inherited flood-plain width. Additionally, it is established that the sensitivity of CDP to changes in the ratio between channel-belt sand body width and flood-plain with, (normalised channel-belt sand body width) varies spatially and is greatest in the central and distal delta. Also, the proportion of fluvial channel-belt sands is generally an appropriate proxy for the total sand content of fluvio-deltaic successions, albeit that its suitability as a total-sand indicator rapidly fades in the distal delta. With this paper, unique high-resolution quantitative data and spatial trends on the alluvial architecture are available for an entire delta, hereby providing a dataset that can be used to further improve existing fluvial stratigraphy models.
Vera G. Mizonova,
Published: 9 June 2021
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 39, pp 479-486; doi:10.5194/angeo-39-479-2021

Abstract:
We use a full-wave approach to find the field of monochromatic whistler waves, which are excited and propagating in the low nighttime ionosphere. The source current is located in the horizontal plane and can have arbitrary finite distribution over horizontal coordinates. The ground-based horizontal magnetic field and electric field at 125 km are calculated. The character of wave polarization on the ground surface is investigated. The proportion in which source energy supplies the Earth–ionosphere waveguide or flows upward can be adjusted by distribution of the source current. Received results are important for the analysis of ELF/VLF emission phenomena observed both on the satellites and on the ground.
, , Antônio Alves Meira Neto, , Peter Troch
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 25, pp 3105-3135; doi:10.5194/hess-25-3105-2021

Abstract:
In this paper, we present the Catchments Attributes for Brazil (CABra), which is a large-sample dataset for Brazilian catchments that includes long-term data (30 years) for 735 catchments in eight main catchment attribute classes (climate, streamflow, groundwater, geology, soil, topography, land cover, and hydrologic disturbance). We have collected and synthesized data from multiple sources (ground stations, remote sensing, and gridded datasets). To prepare the dataset, we delineated all the catchments using the Multi-Error-Removed Improved-Terrain Digital Elevation Model (MERIT DEM) and the coordinates of the streamflow stations provided by the Brazilian Water Agency, where only the stations with 30 years (1980–2010) of data and less than 10 % of missing records were included. Catchment areas range from 9 to 4 800 000 km2, and the mean daily streamflow varies from 0.02 to 9 mm d−1. Several signatures and indices were calculated based on the climate and streamflow data. Additionally, our dataset includes boundary shapefiles, geographic coordinates, and drainage area for each catchment, aside from more than 100 attributes within the attribute classes. The collection and processing methods are discussed, along with the limitations for each of our multiple data sources. CABra intends to improve the hydrology-related data collection in Brazil and pave the way for a better understanding of different hydrologic drivers related to climate, landscape, and hydrology, which is particularly important in Brazil, having continental-scale river basins and widely heterogeneous landscape characteristics. In addition to benefitting catchment hydrology investigations, CABra will expand the exploration of novel hydrologic hypotheses and thereby advance our understanding of Brazilian catchments' behavior. The dataset is freely available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4070146 and https://thecabradataset.shinyapps.io/CABra/ (last access: 7 June 2021).
Zhe Jiang, , , , Yifang Zhu, , Xin Lu, , , , et al.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 21, pp 8693-8708; doi:10.5194/acp-21-8693-2021

Abstract:
In response to the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), California issued statewide stay-at-home orders, bringing about abrupt and dramatic reductions in air pollutant emissions. This crisis offers us an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions in terms of air quality. Here we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in combination with surface observations to study the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on air quality in southern California. Based on activity level statistics and satellite observations, we estimate the sectoral emission changes during the lockdown. Due to the reduced emissions, the population-weighted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decrease by 15 % in southern California. The emission reductions contribute 68 % of the PM2.5 concentration decrease before and after the lockdown, while meteorology variations contribute the remaining 32 %. Among all chemical compositions, the PM2.5 concentration decrease due to emission reductions is dominated by nitrate and primary components. For O3 concentrations, the emission reductions cause a decrease in rural areas but an increase in urban areas; the increase can be offset by a 70 % emission reduction in anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These findings suggest that a strengthened control on primary PM2.5 emissions and a well-balanced control on nitrogen oxides and VOC emissions are needed to effectively and sustainably alleviate PM2.5 and O3 pollution in southern California.
Jessica Kolbusz, Tim Langlois, , Simon de Lestang
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Dynamics of ocean boundary currents and associated shelf processes can influence onshore/offshore transport of water, critically impacting marine organisms that release long-lived pelagic larvae into the water column. The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, endemic to Western Australia, is the basis of Australia's most valuable wild-caught commercial fishery. After hatching, western rock lobster larvae (phyllosoma) spend up to 11 months in offshore waters before ocean currents and their ability to swim, transport them back to the coast. The abundance of western rock lobster puerulus (settlement phase post phyllosoma) has historically been observed to be positively correlated with the strength of the Leeuwin Current, and an index of puerulus numbers is used by fisheries managers as a predictor of subsequent lobster abundance 3–4 years later. In 2008 and 2009 the Leeuwin Current was strong, yet a settlement failure occurred throughout the fishery prompting management changes and a rethinking of environmental factors associated with their settlement. Thus, understanding factors that may have been responsible for the settlement failure is important for fisheries management. Oceanographic parameters likely to influence puerulus settlement were derived for a 17 year period to investigate correlations. Analysis indicated that puerulus settlement at adjacent monitoring sites have similar oceanographic forcing with kinetic energy in the offshore and the strength of the Leeuwin Current being key factors. Settlement failure years were synonymous with “hiatus” conditions in the south-east Indian Ocean, and periods of sustained cooler water present offshore. Post 2009, there has been an unusual but consistent increase in the Leeuwin Current during the early summer months with a matching decrease in the Capes Current, that may explain an observed settlement timing mismatch compared to historical data. Our study has revealed that a culmination of these conditions likely led to the recruitment failure and subsequent changes in puerulus settlement patterns.
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Atmospheric mineral dust has a rich tri-dimensional spatial and temporal structure that is poorly constrained in forecasts and analyses when only column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) is assimilated. At present, this is the case of most operational global aerosol assimilation products. Aerosol vertical distributions obtained from space-borne lidars can be assimilated in aerosol models, but questions about the extent of their benefit upon analyses and forecasts along with their consistency with AOD assimilation remain unresolved. Our study thoroughly explores the added value of assimilating space-borne vertical dust profiles, with and without the joint assimilation of dust optical depth (DOD). We also discuss the consistency in the assimilation of both sources of information and analyse the role of the smaller footprint of the space-borne lidar profiles upon the results. To that end, we have performed data assimilation experiments using dedicated dust observations for a period of two months over Northern Africa, the Middle East and Europe. We assimilate DOD derived from VIIRS/SUOMI-NPP Deep Blue, and for the first time CALIOP-based LIVAS pure-dust extinction coefficient profiles on an aerosol model. The evaluation is performed against independent ground-based DOD derived from AERONET Sun photometers and ground-based lidar dust extinction profiles from field campaigns (CyCARE and Pre-TECT). Jointly assimilating LIVAS and Deep Blue data reduces the root mean square error (RMSE) in the DOD by 39 % and in the dust extinction coefficient by 65 % compared to a control simulation that excludes assimilation. We show that the assimilation of dust extinction coefficient profiles provides a strong added value to the analyses and forecasts. When only Deep Blue data are assimilated the RMSE in the DOD is reduced further, by 42 %. However, when only LIVAS data are assimilated the RMSE in the dust extinction coefficient decreases by 72 %, the largest improvement across experiments. We also show that the assimilation of dust extinction profiles yields better skill scores than the assimilation of DOD under equivalent sensor footprint. Our results demonstrate the strong potential of future lidar space missions to improve desert dust forecasts, particularly if they foresee a depolarization lidar channel to allow discriminating desert dust from other aerosol types.
, , Keiichi Sato, , Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, , Xuemei Wang, , et al.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 21, pp 8709-8734; doi:10.5194/acp-21-8709-2021

Abstract:
Asia has attracted research attention because it has the highest anthropogenic emissions in the world, and the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III was carried out to foster our understanding of the status of air quality over Asia. This study analyzed wet deposition in southeast Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Cambodia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia) with the aim of providing insights into the seasonal variation of wet deposition. Southeast Asia was not fully considered in MICS-Asia phase II due to a lack of observational data; however, the analysis period of MICS-Asia III, namely the year 2010, is covered by ground observations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), and the coordinated simulation domain was extended to cover these observation sites. The analyzed species are wet depositions of S (sulfate aerosol, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)), N (nitrate aerosol, nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid (HNO3)), and A (ammonium aerosol and ammonia (NH3)). The wet deposition simulated with seven models driven by a unified meteorological model in MICS-Asia III was used with the ensemble approach, which effectively modulates the differences in performance among models. By comparison with EANET observations, although the seven models generally captured the wet depositions of S, N, and A, there were difficulties capturing these in some cases. Considering the model performance for ambient aerosol concentrations over southeast Asia, this failure of models is considered to be related to the difficulty in capturing the precipitation in southeast Asia, especially during the dry and wet seasons. Generally, meteorological fields overestimate the precipitation during the dry season, which leads to the overestimation of wet deposition during this season. To overcome this, a precipitation-adjusted approach that scaled the modeled precipitation to the observed value was applied, and it was demonstrated that the model performance was improved. Satellite measurements were also used to adjust for precipitation data, which adequately accounted for the spatiotemporal precipitation patterns, especially in the dry season. As the statistical scores were mostly improved by this adjustment, the estimation of wet deposition with precipitation adjustment was considered to be superior. To utilize satellite measurements, the spatial distribution of wet deposition was revised. Based on this revision, it was found that Vietnam, Malaysia, and Indonesia were upward corrected, and Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, and the Philippines were downward-corrected; these corrections were up to ±40 %. The improved accuracy of precipitation amount was key to estimating wet deposition in this study. These results suggest that the precipitation-adjusted approach has the potential to obtain accurate estimates of wet deposition through the fusion of models and observations.
Xinyao Feng, Yingze Tian, Qianqian Xue, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang, Yinchang Feng
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
A thorough understanding of the relationship between urbanization and PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) variation is crucial for researchers and policymakers to study health effects and improve air quality. In this study, we selected a fast-developing Chinese megacity as the studied area to investigate the spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 compositions and sources based on a long-term observation at multisite. A total of 836 samples were collected at 19 sites in wintertime of 2015–2019. According to the specific characteristics, 19 sampling sites were assigned into three layers. Layer 1 was the most urbanized area referred to the core zone of Chengdu, layer 2 was located in the outside circle of layer 1, and layer 3 belonged to the outer-most zone with the lowest urbanization level. The averaged PM2.5 concentrations for five years were in the order of layer 2 (133 µg m−3) > layer 1 (126 µg m−3) > layer 3 (121µg m−3). And for each year, the spatial clustering of chemical compositions at sampling sites was generally consistent with the classification of layers. PM2.5 compositions for layer 3 in 2019 were found to be similar to that for other layers two or three years ago, implying that the urbanization levels had a strong effect on air quality. During the sampled period, a decreasing trend was observed for the annual averaged PM2.5 concentrations, especially at sampling sites in layer 1, which was caused by the more strict control policies implemented in layer 1. The SO42−/NO3− mass ratio at most sites exceeded 1 in 2015 but dropped less than 1 since 2016, reflecting decreasing coal combustion and increasing traffic impacts in Chengdu. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied to quantify PM2.5 sources. A total of five sources were identified with the average contributions of 15.5 % (traffic emission), 19.7 % (coal and biomass combustion), 8.8 % (industrial emission), 39.7 % (secondary particles) and 16.2 % (resuspended dust), respectively. From 2015 to 2019, dramatical decline was observed in the average percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion, but traffic emission source showed an increasing trend. For spatial variations, coal and biomass combustion and industrial emission showed the stronger distribution patterns. High contributions of resuspended dust were occurred at sites with intensive construction activities such as subway and airport constructions. Combining the PMF results, we developed the source weighted potential source contribution function (SWPSCF) method for source localization, this new method highlighted the influences of spatial distribution for source contributions, and the effectiveness of the SWPSCF method was well-evaluated.
, Nour-Eddine Laftouhi, Said Khabba, Bouabid El Mansouri
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
The performance of Tropical Precipitation Measurement Mission (TRMM) and its successor, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), has provided hydrologists with a source of critical precipitation data for hydrological applications in basins where ground-based observations of precipitation are sparse, or spatially undistributed. The very high temporal and spatial resolution satellite precipitation products have therefore become a reliable alternative that researchers are increasingly using in various hydro-meteorological and hydro-climatological applications. This study aims to evaluate statistically and hydrologically the TRMM (3B42 V7) and GPM (IMERG V5) satellite precipitations products (SPPs), at multiple temporal scales from 2010 to 2017, in a mountainous watershed characterized by the Mediterranean climate. The results show that TRMM (3B42 V7) and GPM (IMERG V5) satellite precipitation products have a significant capacity for detecting precipitation at different time steps. However, the statistical analysis of SPPs against ground observation shows good results for both statistical metrics and contingency statistics with notable values (CC > 0.8), and representative values relatively close to 0 for the probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI), and false alarm ratio (FAR). Moreover, the sorting of the events implemented on the hydrological model was performed seasonally, at daily time steps. The calibrated episodes showed very good results with Nash values ranging from 53.2 % to 95.5 %. Nevertheless, the (IMERG V5) product detects more efficiently precipitation events at short time steps (daily), while (3B42 V7) has a strong ability to detect precipitation events at large time steps (monthly and yearly). Furthermore, the modeling results illustrate that both satellite precipitation products tend to underestimate precipitation during wet seasons and overestimate them during dry seasons, while they have a better spatial distribution of precipitation measurements performance, which shows the importance of their use for basin modeling and potentially for flood forecasting in Mediterranean catchment areas.
, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Dave D. Nelson, J. Barry McManus, Harro A. J. Meijer
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Volume 14, pp 4279-4304; doi:10.5194/amt-14-4279-2021

Abstract:
Using laser absorption spectrometry for the measurement of stable isotopes of atmospheric CO2 instead of the traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry method decreases sample preparation time significantly, and uncertainties in the measurement accuracy due to CO2 extraction and isobaric interferences are avoided. In this study we present the measurement performance of a new dual-laser instrument developed for the simultaneous measurement of the δ13C, δ18O and δ17O of atmospheric CO2 in discrete air samples, referred to as the Stable Isotopes of CO2 Absorption Spectrometer (SICAS). We compare two different calibration methods: the ratio method, based on the measured isotope ratio and a CO2 mole fraction dependency correction, and the isotopologue method, based on measured isotopologue abundances. Calibration with the ratio method and isotopologue method is based on three different assigned whole-air references calibrated on the VPDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) and the WMO 2007 (World Meteorological Organization) scale for their stable isotope compositions and their CO2 mole fractions, respectively. An additional quality control tank is included in both methods to follow long-term instrument performance. Measurements of the quality control tank show that the measurement precision and accuracy of both calibration methods is of similar quality for δ13C and δ18O measurements. During one specific measurement period the precision and accuracy of the quality control tank reach WMO compatibility requirements, being 0.01 ‰ for δ13C and 0.05 ‰ for δ18O. Uncertainty contributions of the scale uncertainties of the reference gases add another 0.03 ‰ and 0.05 ‰ to the combined uncertainty of the sample measurements. Hence, reaching WMO compatibility for sample measurements on the SICAS requires reduction of the scale uncertainty of the reference gases used for calibration. An intercomparison of flask samples over a wide range of CO2 mole fractions has been conducted with the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, resulting in a mean residual of 0.01 ‰ and −0.01 ‰ and a standard deviation of 0.05 ‰ and 0.07 ‰ for the δ13C measurements calibrated using the ratio method and the isotopologue method, respectively. The δ18O could not be compared due to depletion of the δ18O signal in our sample flasks because of storage times being too long. Finally, we evaluate the potential of our Δ17O measurements as a tracer for gross primary production by vegetation through photosynthesis. Here, a measurement precision of <0.01 ‰ would be a prerequisite for capturing seasonal variations in the Δ17O signal. Lowest standard errors for the δ17O and Δ17O of the ratio method and the isotopologue method are 0.02 ‰ and 0.02 ‰ and 0.01 ‰ and 0.02 ‰, respectively. The accuracy results show consequently results that are too enriched for both the δ17O and Δ17O measurements for both methods. This is probably due to the fact that two of our reference gases were not measured directly but were determined indirectly. The ratio method shows residuals ranging from 0.06 ‰ to 0.08 ‰ and from 0.06 ‰ to 0.1 ‰ for the δ17O and Δ17O results, respectively. The isotopologue method shows residuals ranging from 0.04 ‰ to 0.1 ‰ and from 0.05 ‰ to 0.13 ‰ for the δ17O and Δ17O results, respectively. Direct determination of the δ17O of all reference gases would improve the accuracy of the δ17O and thereby of the Δ17O measurements.
Joshua Baptiste, Connor Williamson, John Fox, Anthony J. Stace, Muhammad Hassan, Stefanie Braun, Benjamin Stamm, ,
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 21, pp 8735-8745; doi:10.5194/acp-21-8735-2021

Abstract:
Agglomeration of charged ice and dust particles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is studied using a classical electrostatic approach, which is extended to capture the induced polarisation of surface charge. Collision outcomes are predicted whilst varying the particle size, charge, dielectric constant, relative kinetic energy, collision geometry and the coefficient of restitution. In addition to Coulomb forces acting on particles of opposite charge, instances of attraction between particles of the same sign of charge are discussed. These attractive forces are governed by the polarisation of surface charge and can be strong at very small separation distances. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, these interactions could also contribute to the formation of stable aggregates and contamination of ice particles through collisions with meteoric smoke particles.
Weather and Climate Dynamics, Volume 2, pp 475-488; doi:10.5194/wcd-2-475-2021

Abstract:
Organised cloud bands are important features of tropical and subtropical rainfall. These structures are often regarded as convergence zones, alluding to an association with coherent atmospheric flow. However, the flow kinematics is not usually taken into account in classification methods for this type of event, as large-scale lines are rarely evident in instantaneous diagnostics such as Eulerian convergence. Instead, existing convergence zone definitions rely on heuristic rules of shape, duration and size of cloudiness fields. Here we investigate the role of large-scale turbulence in shaping atmospheric moisture in South America. We employ the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), a metric of deformation among neighbouring trajectories, to define convergence zones as attracting Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs). Attracting LCSs frequent tropical and subtropical South America, with climatologies consistent with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), the South American Low-Level Jet (SALLJ) and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). In regions under the direct influence of the ITCZ and the SACZ, rainfall is significantly positively correlated with large-scale mixing measured by the FTLE. Attracting LCSs in south and southeast Brazil are associated with significant positive rainfall and moisture flux anomalies. Geopotential height composites suggest that the occurrence of attracting LCSs in these regions is related with teleconnection mechanisms such as the Pacific–South Atlantic. We believe that this kinematical approach can be used as an alternative to region-specific convergence zone classification algorithms; it may help advance the understanding of underlying mechanisms of tropical and subtropical rain bands and their role in the hydrological cycle.
Wolfgang Fischer, , Nikita Zimov,
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Large herbivore grazing has been shown to substantially alter tundra soil and vegetation properties as well as carbon fluxes, yet observational evidence to quantify the impact of herbivore introduction into Arctic permafrost ecosystems remains sparse. In this study we investigated growing season CO2 and CH4 fluxes with flux chambers on a former wet tussock tundra inside Pleistocene Park, a landscape experiment in Northeast Siberia with a 22 year history of grazing. Reference data for an undisturbed system were collected on a nearby ungrazed tussock tundra. Linked to a reduction in soil moisture, topsoil temperatures at the grazed site reacted one order of magnitude faster to changes in air temperatures compared to the ungrazed site and were significantly higher, while the difference strongly decreased with depth. Overall, both GPP (gross primary productivity, i.e. CO2 uptake by photosynthesis) and Reco (ecosystem respiration, i.e. CO2 release from the ecosystem) were significantly higher at the grazed site with notable variations across plots at each site. The increases in CO2 component fluxes largely compensated each other, leaving NEE (net ecosystem exchange) similar across grazed and ungrazed sites for the observation period. Soil moisture and CH4 fluxes at the grazed site decreased over the observation period, while in contrast the constantly water-logged soils at the ungrazed site kept CH4 fluxes at significantly higher levels. Our results indicate that grazing of large herbivores promotes topsoil warming and drying, effectively accelerating CO2 turnover while decreasing methane emissions. Our experiment did not include autumn and winter fluxes, and thus no inferences can be made for the annual NEE and CH4 budgets at tundra ecosystems.
Geoscientific Model Development, Volume 14, pp 3473-3486; doi:10.5194/gmd-14-3473-2021

Abstract:
Weather forecasts rely heavily on general circulation models of the atmosphere and other components of the Earth system. National meteorological and hydrological services and intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), provide routine operational forecasts on a range of spatio-temporal scales by running these models at high resolution on state-of-the-art high-performance computing systems. Such operational forecasts are very demanding in terms of computing resources. To facilitate the use of a weather forecast model for research and training purposes outside the operational environment, ECMWF provides a portable version of its numerical weather forecast model, OpenIFS, for use by universities and other research institutes on their own computing systems. In this paper, we describe a new project ([email protected]) that combines OpenIFS with a citizen science approach to involve the general public in helping conduct scientific experiments. Volunteers from across the world can run [email protected] on their computers at home, and the results of these simulations can be combined into large forecast ensembles. The infrastructure of such distributed computing experiments is based on our experience and expertise with the climateprediction.net (https://www.climateprediction.net/, last access: 1 June 2021) and [email protected] systems. In order to validate this first use of OpenIFS in a volunteer computing framework, we present results from ensembles of forecast simulations of Tropical Cyclone Karl from September 2016 studied during the NAWDEX field campaign. This cyclone underwent extratropical transition and intensified in mid-latitudes to give rise to an intense jet streak near Scotland and heavy rainfall over Norway. For the validation we use a 2000-member ensemble of OpenIFS run on the [email protected] volunteer framework and a smaller ensemble of the size of operational forecasts using ECMWF's forecast model in 2016 run on the ECMWF supercomputer with the same horizontal resolution as [email protected] We present ensemble statistics that illustrate the reliability and accuracy of the [email protected] forecasts and discuss the use of large ensembles in the context of forecasting extreme events.
Karol Kuliński, Gregor Rehder, Eero Asmala, Alena Bartosova, Jacob Carstensen, Bo Gustafsson, Per O. J. Hall, Christoph Humborg, Tom Jilbert, Klaus Jürgens, et al.
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Location, specific topography and hydrographic setting together with climate change and strong anthropogenic pressure are the main factors shaping the biogeochemical functioning and thus also the ecological status of the Baltic Sea. The recent decades have brought significant changes in the Baltic Sea. First, the rising nutrient loads from land in the second half of the 20th century led to eutrophication and spreading of hypoxic and anoxic areas, for which permanent stratification of the water column and limited ventilation of deep water layers made favourable conditions. Since the 1980s the nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have been continuously decreasing. This, however, has so far not resulted in significant improvements in oxygen availability in the deep regions, which has revealed a slow response time of the system to the reduction of the land-derived nutrient loads. Responsible for that is the low burial efficiency of phosphorus at anoxic conditions and its remobilization from sediments when conditions change from oxic to anoxic. This results in a stoichiometric excess of phosphorus available for organic matter production, which promotes the growth of N2-fixing cyanobacteria and in turn supports eutrophication. This assessment reviews the available and published knowledge on the biogeochemical functioning of the Baltic Sea. In its content, the paper covers the aspects related to changes in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N and P) external loads, their transformations in the coastal zone, changes in organic matter production (eutrophication) and remineralization (oxygen availability), and the role of sediments in burial and turnover of C, N and P. In addition to that, this paper focuses also on changes in the marine CO2 system, structure and functioning of the microbial community and the role of contaminants for biogeochemical processes. This comprehensive assessment allowed also for identifying knowledge gaps and future research needs in the field of marine biogeochemistry in the Baltic Sea.
, Zhengyang Hou, Hao Zhou, Peng Wang
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
The observation and estimation of deep crustal stress state is a key and difficult problem in in-situ stress measurement. The borehole wall strain gauge based on the overcoring stress relieving method is one of the main methods of in-situ stress measurement. In this paper, a strain sensing array based on FBG is designed by using the main structure of the classical hollow inclusion cell, and its layout scheme on the hollow inclusion is studied. According to the layout scheme, the in-situ stress inversion algorithm of hole-wall strain to stress is deduced; then, the triaxial loading and unloading experiment platform is built, and the calibration experiment of FBG strain sensor is designed; Finally, Abaqus finite element software is used to simulate the in-situ stress measurement process of the overcoring stress relieving. The FBG strain values of each measurement direction before and after the overcoring process are extracted, and the stress inversion equation is used to carry out the stress inversion. Through the comparison of the inversion results, it is proved that the FBG strain sensor group is feasible and reliable. The quasi-distributed FBG sensor module designed in this paper can invert the three-dimensional in-situ stress by measuring the hole-wall strain, which lays a theoretical and experimental foundation for the development and application of FBG hole wall strain gauge. It fairly makes up for the deficiency of the existing hole-wall strain gauge based on resistance strain gauge, provides direct and accurate observation way for hole wall strain measurement, and has important practical value for the development of in-situ stress measurement technology.
, , , Leyang Wang, Yang Hong
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 25, pp 3087-3104; doi:10.5194/hess-25-3087-2021

Abstract:
Revealing the error components of satellite-only precipitation products (SPPs) can help algorithm developers and end-users understand their error features and improve retrieval algorithms. Here, two error decomposition schemes are employed to explore the error components of the IMERG-Late, GSMaP-MVK, and PERSIANN-CCS SPPs over different seasons, rainfall intensities, and topography classes. Global maps of the total bias (total mean squared error) and its three (two) independent components are depicted for the first time. The evaluation results for similar regions are discussed, and it is found that the evaluation results for one region cannot be extended to another similar region. Hit and/or false biases are the major components of the total bias in most overland regions globally. The systematic error contributes less than 20 % of the total error in most areas. Large systematic errors are primarily due to missed precipitation. It is found that the SPPs show different topographic patterns in terms of systematic and random errors. Notably, among the SPPs, GSMaP-MVK shows the strongest topographic dependency of the four bias scores. A novel metric, namely the normalized error component (NEC), is proposed as a means to isolate the impact of topography on the systematic and random errors. Potential methods of improving satellite precipitation retrievals and error adjustment models are discussed.
, , Feihu Chen, Pierre-Antoine Versini, , Ioulia Tchiguirinskaia
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 25, pp 3137-3162; doi:10.5194/hess-25-3137-2021

Abstract:
During the last few decades, the urban hydrological cycle has been strongly modified by the built environment, resulting in fast runoff and increasing the risk of waterlogging. Nature-based solutions (NBSs), which apply green infrastructures, have been more and more widely considered as a sustainable approach for urban storm water management. However, the assessment of NBS performance still requires further modelling development because of hydrological modelling results strongly depend on the representation of the multiscale space variability of both the rainfall and the NBS distributions. Indeed, we initially argue this issue with the help of the multifractal intersection theorem. To illustrate the importance of this question, the spatial heterogeneous distributions of two series of NBS scenarios (porous pavement, rain garden, green roof, and combined) are quantified with the help of their fractal dimension. We point out the consequences of their estimates. Then, a fully distributed and physically based hydrological model (Multi-Hydro) was applied to consider the studied catchment and these NBS scenarios with a spatial resolution of 10 m. A total of two approaches for processing the rainfall data were considered for three rainfall events, namely gridded and catchment averaged. These simulations show that the impact of the spatial variability in rainfall on the uncertainty of peak flow of NBS scenarios ranges from about 8 % to 18 %, which is more significant than those of the total runoff volume. In addition, the spatial variability in the rainfall intensity at the largest rainfall peak responds almost linearly to the uncertainty of the peak flow of NBS scenarios. However, the hydrological responses of NBS scenarios are less affected by the spatial distribution of NBSs. Finally, the intersection of the spatial variability in rainfall and the spatial arrangement of NBSs produces a somewhat significant effect on the peak flow of green roof scenarios and the total runoff volume of combined scenarios.
, Andreas Plüß, Romina Ihde, Janina Freund, , , Nico Schrage, ,
Published: 9 June 2021
Earth System Science Data, Volume 13, pp 2573-2594; doi:10.5194/essd-13-2573-2021

Abstract:
Marine spatial planning requires reliable data for, e.g., the design of coastal structures, research, or sea level rise adaptation. This task is particularly ambiguous in the German Bight (North Sea, Europe) because a compromise must be found between economic interests and biodiversity since the environmental status is monitored closely by the European Union. For this reason, we have set up an open-access, integrated marine data collection for the period from 1996 to 2015. It provides bathymetry, surface sediments, tidal dynamics, salinity, and waves for the German Bight and is of interest to stakeholders in science, government, and the economy. This part of a two-part publication presents data from numerical hindcast simulations for sea surface elevation, depth-averaged current velocity, bottom shear stress, depth-averaged salinity, wave parameters, and wave spectra. As an improvement to existing data collections, our data represent the variability in the bathymetry by using annually updated model topographies. Moreover, we provide data at a high temporal and spatial resolution (Hagen et al., 2020b); i.e., numerical model results are gridded to 1000 m at 20 min intervals (https://doi.org/10.48437/02.2020.K2.7000.0004). Tidal characteristic values (Hagen et al., 2020a), such as tidal range or ebb current velocity, are computed based on numerical modeling results (https://doi.org/10.48437/02.2020.K2.7000.0003). Therefore, this integrated marine data collection supports the work of coastal stakeholders and scientists, which ranges from developing detailed coastal models to handling complex natural-habitat problems or designing coastal structures.
Geoscientific Model Development, Volume 14, pp 3487-3510; doi:10.5194/gmd-14-3487-2021

Abstract:
Drifting snow, or the wind-driven transport of snow particles originating from clouds and the surface below and above 2 m above ground and their concurrent sublimation, is a poorly documented process on the Antarctic ice sheet, which is inherently lacking in most climate models. Since drifting snow mostly results from erosion of surface particles, a comprehensive evaluation of this process in climate models requires a concurrent assessment of simulated drifting-snow transport and the surface mass balance (SMB). In this paper a new version of the drifting-snow scheme currently embedded in the regional climate model MAR (v3.11) is extensively described. Several important modifications relative to previous version have been implemented and include notably a parameterization for drifting-snow compaction of the uppermost snowpack layer, differentiated snow density at deposition between precipitation and drifting snow, and a rewrite of the threshold friction velocity above which snow erosion initiates. Model results at high resolution (10 km) over Adélie Land, East Antarctica, for the period 2004–2018 are presented and evaluated against available near-surface meteorological observations at half-hourly resolution and annual SMB estimates. The evaluation demonstrates that MAR resolves the local drifting-snow frequency and transport up to the scale of the drifting-snow event and captures the resulting observed climate and SMB variability, suggesting that this model version can be used for continent-wide applications.
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Mixed-phase clouds are globally omnipresent and play a major role in the Earth's radiation budget and precipitation formation. The existence of liquid droplets in presence of ice particles is microphysically unstable and depends on a delicate balance of several competing processes. Understanding mechanisms that govern ice initiation and moisture supply are important to understand the life-cycle of such clouds. This study presents observations that reveal the onset of drizzle inside a ∼600 m deep mixed-phase layer embedded in a stratiform precipitation system. Using Doppler spectra analysis, we show how large supercooled liquid droplets are generated in Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability despite ice particles falling from upper cloud layers. The spectral width of supercooled liquid water mode in radar Doppler spectrum is used to identify a region of increased turbulence. The observations show that large liquid droplets, characterized by reflectivity values larger than −20 dBZ, are generated in this region. In addition to cloud droplets, Doppler spectral analysis reveals the production of the columnar ice crystals in the K-H billows. The modelling study estimates that the concentration of these ice crystals is 3 ∼ 8 L−1, which is at least one order of magnitude higher than that of primary ice nucleating particles. Given the detail of the observations, we show that multiple populations of secondary ice particles are generated in regions where larger cloud droplets are produced and not at some constant level within the cloud. It is therefore hypothesized that K-H instability provides conditions favorable for enhanced droplet growth and formation of secondary ice particles.
Johannes Aschauer,
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Historic measurements are often temporally incomplete and may contain longer periods of missing data whereas climatological analyses require continuous measurement records. This is also valid for historic manual snow depth (HS) measurement time series, where even whole winters can be missing in a station record and suitable methods have to be found to reconstruct the missing data. Daily in-situ HS data from 126 nivo-meteorological stations in Switzerland in an altitudinal range of 230 to 2536 m above sea level is used to compare six different methods for reconstructing long gaps in manual HS time series by performing a "leave-one-winter-out" cross-validation in 21 winters at 33 evaluation stations. Synthetic gaps of one winter length are filled with bias corrected data from the best correlated neighboring station (BSC), inverse distance weighted (IDW) spatial interpolation, a weighted normal ratio (WNR) method, Elastic Net (ENET) regression, Random Forest (RF) regression and a temperature index snow model (SM). Methods that use neighboring station data are tested in two station networks with different density. The ENET, RF, SM and WNR methods are able to reconstruct missing data with a coefficient of determination (r2) above 0.8 regardless of the two station networks used. Median RMSE in the filled winters is below 5 cm for all methods. The two annual climate indicators, average snow depth in a winter (HSavg) and maximum snow depth in a winter (HSmax), can be well reproduced by ENET, RF, SM and WNR with r2 above 0.85 in both station networks. For the inter-station approaches, scores for the number of snow days with HS ≥ 1 cm (dHS1) are clearly weaker and except for BCS positively biased with RMSE of 18–33 days. SM reveals the best performance with r2 of 0.93 and RMSE of 15 days for dHS1. Snow depth seems to be a relatively good-natured parameter when it comes to gap filling of HS data with neighboring stations in a climatological use case. However, when station networks get sparse and if the focus is set on dHS1, temperature index snow models can serve as a suitable alternative to classic inter-station gap filling approaches.
Sam M. Silverman,
History of Geo- and Space Sciences, Volume 12, pp 111-114; doi:10.5194/hgss-12-111-2021

Abstract:
C/1577 V1 was one of the brightest comets and one of the few early observed twin-tail comets. This paper presents the historical and cultural background for the observation of the comet from Safed, Palestine (1577).
Marvin Glowania, Franz Rohrer, Hans-Peter Dorn, , Frank Holland, , ,
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Volume 14, pp 4239-4253; doi:10.5194/amt-14-4239-2021

Abstract:
Three instruments that use different techniques to measure gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were compared in experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. One instrument (AL4021, Aero-Laser GmbH) detects HCHO using the wet-chemical Hantzsch reaction (for efficient gas-phase stripping), chemical conversion and fluorescence measurement. An internal HCHO permeation source allows for daily calibrations. This instrument was characterized by sulfuric acid titration (overall accuracy 8.6 %) and yields measurements with a time resolution of 90 s and a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.3 ppbv. In addition, a new commercial instrument that makes use of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) determined the concentrations of HCHO, water vapour, and methane (G2307, Picarro, Inc.). Its limit of detection (3σ) is specified as 0.3 ppbv for an integration time of 300 s, and its accuracy is limited by the drift of the zero signal (manufacturer specification 1.5 ppbv). A custom-built high-resolution laser differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument provided HCHO measurements with a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.9 ppbv and an accuracy of 7 %​​​​​​​ using an optical multiple reflection cell. The measurements were conducted from June to December 2019 in experiments in which either ambient air flowed through the chamber or the photochemical degradation of organic compounds in synthetic air was investigated. Measured HCHO concentrations were up to 8 ppbv. Various mixtures of organic compounds, water vapour, nitrogen oxides and ozone were present in these experiments. Results demonstrate the need to correct the baseline in measurements performed by the Hantzsch instrument to compensate for drifting background signals. Corrections were equivalent to HCHO mixing ratios in the range of 0.5–1.5 ppbv. The baseline of the CRDS instrument showed a linear dependence on the water vapour mixing ratio with a slope of (-11.20±1.60) ppbv %−1 below and (-0.72±0.08) ppbv %−1 above a water vapour mixing ratio of 0.2 %. In addition, the intercepts of these linear relationships drifted within the specification of the instrument (1.5 ppbv) over time but appeared to be equal for all water mixing ratios. Regular zero measurements are needed to account for the changes in the instrument zero. After correcting for the baselines of measurements by the Hantzsch and the CRDS instruments, linear regression analysis of measurements from all three instruments in experiments with ambient air indicated good agreement, with slopes of between 0.98 and 1.08 and negligible intercepts (linear correlation coefficients R2>0.96). The new small CRDS instrument measures HCHO with good precision and is accurate if the instrument zero is taken into account. Therefore, it can provide measurements with similar accuracy to the DOAS instrument but with slightly reduced precision compared to the Hantzsch instrument.
Alyson Douglas,
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions can lead to a myriad of responses within shallow cumulus clouds including an invigoration response, whereby aerosol loading results in a higher rain rate, more turbulence, and deepening of the cloud layer. However few global studies have found direct evidence that invigoration occurs. The few satellite based studies that report evidence for such effects generally focus on only the deepening response. Here, we show evidence of invigoration beyond a deepening response. Using latent heating and vertical motion profiles derived from CloudSat radar observations, we show precipitating cumulus clouds in unstable, polluted environments exhibit a marked increase in precipitation formation rates and cloud top entrainment rates. However, invigoration is only discernible when the stability of the boundary layer is explicitly accounted for in the analysis. Without this environmental constraint, the mean polluted and pristine cloud responses are indiscernible from each other due to offsetting cloud responses in stable and unstable environments. Invigoration, or suppression depending on the environment, may induce possible feedbacks in both stable and unstable conditions that could subdue or enhance these effects, respectively. The strength of the invigoration response is found to additionally depend on cloud organization defined here by the size of the warm rain system. These results suggest that warm cloud parameterizations must account for not only the possibility of aerosol-induced cloud invigoration, but also the dependence of this invigorated state on the environment and the organization of the rain system.
Jack Longman, Daniel Veres, , , , Daniela Pascal, Tiberiu Sava, Robert Begy
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Peatlands are one of the largest terrestrial carbon sinks on the planet, yet little is known about carbon accumulation rates (CARs) of mountainous examples. The long-term variability in the size of the associated carbon sink and its drivers remain largely unconstrained, especially when long-term anthropogenic impact is also considered. Here we present a composite CAR record of nine peatlands from central-eastern Europe (Romania and Serbia) detailing variability in rates of carbon accumulation across the Holocene. We show examples of extremely high long-term rates of carbon accumulation (LORCA > 120 g C m−2 yr−1), indicating that at times, mountain peatlands constitute an efficient regional carbon sink. By comparing our data to modelled palaeoclimatic indices and to measures of anthropogenic impact we disentangle the drivers of peat carbon accumulation in the area. Variability in early and mid-Holocene CARs is linked to hydroclimatic controls, with high CARs occurring during the early Holocene and lower CARs associated with the transition to cooler and moister mid-Holocene conditions. By contrast, after 4000 years (calibrated) before present (yr BP) the trends in CARs indicate a divergence from hydroclimate proxies, indicating that other processes became the dominant drivers of peat CARs. We suggest that enhanced erosion following tree cover reduction as well as enhanced rates of long-distance atmospheric dust fallout might have played a role as both processes would result in enhanced mineral and nutrient supply to bog surfaces, stimulating peat land productivity. Surprisingly though, for the last 1000 years, reconstructed temperature is significantly correlated with CARs, with rising temperatures linked to higher CARs. We suggest under future climate conditions, predicted to be warmer in the region, peat growth may expand, but that this is entirely dependent upon the scale of human impact directly affecting the sensitive hydrological budget of these peatlands.
Mohammad Reza Heidari, Zhaoyang Song, Enrico Degregori, Jörg Behrens, Hendryk Bockelmann
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
The scalability of the atmospheric model ECHAM6 at low resolution, as used in palaeoclimate simulations, suffers from the limited number of grid points. As a consequence, the potential of current high performance computing architectures cannot be used at full scale for such experiments, particularly within the available domain-decomposition approach. Radiation calculations are a relatively expensive part of the atmospheric simulations taking approximately up to over 50 % of the total runtime. This current level of cost is achieved by calculating the radiative transfer only once in every two simulation hours. In response, we propose to extend the available concurrency within the model further by running the radiation component in parallel with other atmospheric processes to improve scalability and performance. This paper introduces the concurrent radiation scheme in ECHAM6 and presents a thorough analysis of its impact on the performance of the model. It also evaluates the scientific results from such simulations. Our experiments show that ECHAM6 can achieve a speedup over 1.9x using the concurrent radiation scheme. This empirical study serves as a successful example that can stimulate research on other concurrent components in atmospheric modeing whenever scalability becomes challenging.
Haowen Yue, Mekonnen Gebremichael, Vahid Nourani
Published: 9 June 2021
Abstract:
Weather forecast information has the potential to improve water resources management, energy, and agriculture. This study evaluates the accuracy of medium-range (1–15 day) precipitation forecasts from the Global Forecast System (GFS) over watersheds of eight major dams in the Niger river basin. The Niger basin lies in three latitudinal/climatic sub-regions: Sahel (latitude > 12° N) with annual rainfall of rainfall 400–600 mm, Savannah (latitude 8°–12° N) with annual rainfall of 900–1200 mm, and Guinea Coast (latitude 4°–8° N) with annual rainfall of 1500–2000 mm. The GFS forecast tends to overestimate rainfall in the Guinea Coast and western parts of the Savannah, but estimates well in the Sahel. The overall performance of daily GFS forecast was found to be satisfactory for two watersheds, namely, Kainji (the largest watershed in the basin, predominantly located in the Sahel), and Markala (the second largest watershed, located partly in the Sahel and partly in the Savannah). However, the performance of daily GFS forecast was found to be unsatisfactory in the remaining six watersheds, with GFS forecasts characterized by large random errors, high false alarm, high overestimation bias of low rain rates, and large underestimation bias of heavy rain rates. The GFS forecast accuracy decreases with increasing lead time. The accuracy of GFS forecasts could be improved by applying post-processing techniques involving near-real time satellite rainfall products.
, , Nicole Bobrowski, Vladimir Conde, Tobias P. Fischer, Gustav Gerdes, Alexandra Gutmann, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ima Itikarai, Tomas Krejci, et al.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Volume 14, pp 4255-4277; doi:10.5194/amt-14-4255-2021

Abstract:
A multi-rotor drone has been adapted for studies of volcanic gas plumes. This adaptation includes improved capacity for high-altitude and long-range, real-time SO2 concentration monitoring, long-range manual control, remotely activated bag sampling and plume speed measurement capability. The drone is capable of acting as a stable platform for various instrument configurations, including multi-component gas analysis system (MultiGAS) instruments for in situ measurements of SO2, H2S, and CO2 concentrations in the gas plume and portable differential optical absorption spectrometer (MobileDOAS) instruments for spectroscopic measurement of total SO2 emission rate, remotely controlled gas sampling in bags and sampling with gas denuders for posterior analysis on the ground of isotopic composition and halogens. The platform we present was field-tested during three campaigns in Papua New Guinea: in 2016 at Tavurvur, Bagana and Ulawun volcanoes, in 2018 at Tavurvur and Langila volcanoes and in 2019 at Tavurvur and Manam volcanoes, as well as in Mt. Etna in Italy in 2017. This paper describes the drone platform and the multiple payloads, the various measurement strategies and an algorithm to correct for different response times of MultiGAS sensors. Specifically, we emphasize the need for an adaptive flight path, together with live data transmission of a plume tracer (such as SO2 concentration) to the ground station, to ensure optimal plume interception when operating beyond the visual line of sight. We present results from a comprehensive plume characterization obtained during a field deployment at Manam volcano in May 2019. The Papua New Guinea region, and particularly Manam volcano, has not been extensively studied for volcanic gases due to its remote location, inaccessible summit region and high level of volcanic activity. We demonstrate that the combination of a multi-rotor drone with modular payloads is a versatile solution to obtain the flux and composition of volcanic plumes, even for the case of a highly active volcano with a high-altitude plume such as Manam. Drone-based measurements offer a valuable solution to volcano research and monitoring applications and provide an alternative and complementary method to ground-based and direct sampling of volcanic gases.
, Kade S. McQuivey, David G. Deckey, Jack Haglin, Mark J. Spangehl, Joshua S. Bingham
Journal of Bone and Joint Infection, Volume 6, pp 229-234; doi:10.5194/jbji-6-229-2021

Abstract:
Introduction: The gold standard for determining the duration of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a thorough history. Currently, there are no well-defined objective criteria to determine the duration of PJI, and little evidence exists regarding the ratio between ESR (mm/h) and CRP (mg/L) in joint arthroplasty. This study suggests the ESR / CRP ratio will help differentiate acute from chronic PJI. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with PJI was performed. Inclusion criteria: patients >18 years old who underwent surgical revision for PJI and had documented ESR and CRP values. Subjects were divided into two groups: PJI for greater (chronic) or less than (acute) 4 weeks and the ESR / CRP ratio was compared between them. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were evaluated to determine the utility of the ESR / CRP ratio in characterizing the duration of PJI. Results: 147 patients were included in the study (81 acute and 66 chronic). The mean ESR / CRP ratio in acute patients was 0.48 compared to 2.87 in chronic patients (p0.96) vs. acute (<0.96) PJI. The sensitivity at this value was 0.74 (95 % CI 0.62–0.83) and the specificity was 0.90 (95 % CI 0.81–0.94). Conclusions: The ESR / CRP ratio may help determine the duration of PJI in uncertain cases. This metric may give arthroplasty surgeons more confidence in defining the duration of the PJI and therefore aid in treatment selection.
Veronika Hutter, , Ross S. Purves
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Efficient communication in public avalanche forecasts is of great importance to clearly inform and warn the public about expected avalanche conditions. In Europe, avalanche danger is communicated using a pyramid, starting with ordinal categories of avalanche danger, and progressing through avalanche-prone locations and avalanche problems to a danger description. In many forecast products, information relating to the trigger required to release an avalanche, the frequency or number of potential triggering locations, and the expected avalanche size, are described exclusively in the danger description. These danger descriptions are, however, the least standardized part of avalanche forecasts. Taking the perspective of the avalanche forecaster, and focusing particularly on terms describing these three characterizing elements of avalanche danger, we investigate firstly which text symbols are used to describe these elements, and secondly how these descriptions relate to the forecast danger level. We do so through the perspective of the semiotic triangle, relating a referent (the avalanche situation) through thought (the processing process) to symbols (the textual danger description). We analyzed almost 6000 danger descriptions in avalanche forecasts published in Switzerland and written using a structured catalog of phrases with a limited number of words. Text symbols representing information describing these three elements were labeled and assigned to ordinal classes by Swiss avalanche forecasters. These classes were then related to avalanche danger. Forecasters were relatively consistent in assigning labels to words and phrases with Cohen's Kappa values ranging from 0.67 to 0.87. Nonetheless, even experts were not in complete agreement about the labeling of terms and were less likely to agree on terms not used in official definitions. Avalanche danger levels were categorized relatively consistently using words and phrases, with for example avalanche size classes increasingly monotonically with avalanche danger. However, especially for danger level 2-Moderate, information about key elements was often missing in danger descriptions. In general, the analysis of the danger descriptions showed that extreme conditions are more frequently described in detail than intermediate values, highlighting the difficulty of communicating conditions that are neither rare nor frequent, or neither small nor large. Our results provide data-driven insights that could be used to refine the ways in which avalanche danger could and should be communicated, especially to recreationalists, and provide a starting point for future studies of how users interpret avalanche forecasts.
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Geological (Engineering) Field Methods (GEOE/L 221) is a core course for two programs at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada where students learn foundational knowledge, skills, and methods to conduct field work that is used to investigate geological and geological engineering aspects of the Earth. Typically, this fall-term course involves weekly field trips in the Kingston area to visit a variety of rock outcrops to learn and practice methods of field navigation, observation, and measurement. Remote delivery of this course in fall 2020 due to COVID-19 without in-person field trips required a significant transformation, which included creating field and demonstration instructional videos, using 3D digital photogrammetry models of rock samples and outcrops, developing independent outdoor activities for pace and compass navigation, manual sketching and graphical measurements on paper, and utilizing a culminating immersive 3D video game style geological field mapping exercise. This paper examines these new course elements, how well the course learning objectives were achieved in a remote setting, and the successes and limitations of remote delivery. Although many new virtual elements enhance the course and should be incorporated to future offerings, a return to in-person field methods teaching for geological sciences and geological engineering courses is strongly recommended.
, Olaf N. E. Tuinder, Ping Wang,
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Volume 14, pp 4219-4238; doi:10.5194/amt-14-4219-2021

Abstract:
In this paper we introduce the new concept of directionally dependent Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (DLER) of the Earth's surface retrieved from satellite observations. This surface DLER describes Lambertian (isotropic) surface reflection which is extended with a dependence on the satellite viewing geometry. We apply this concept to data of the GOME-2 satellite instruments to create a global database of the reflectivity of the Earth's surface, providing surface DLER for 26 wavelength bands between 328 and 772 nm as a function of the satellite viewing angle via a second-degree polynomial parameterisation. The resolution of the database grid is 0.25∘ by 0.25∘, but the real, intrinsic spatial resolution varies over the grid from 1.0∘ by 1.0∘ to 0.5∘ by 0.5∘ down to 0.25∘ by 0.25∘ by applying dynamic gridding techniques. The database is based on more than 10 years (2007–2018) of GOME-2 data from the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites. The relation between DLER and bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) surface reflectance is studied using radiative transfer simulations. For the shorter wavelengths (λ500 nm). Based on this outcome, the GOME-2 surface DLER is compared with MODIS surface BRDF data from MODIS band 1 (centred around 645 nm) using both case studies and global comparisons. The conclusion of this validation is that the GOME-2 DLER compares well to MODIS BRDF data and that it does so much better than the non-directional LER database. The DLER approach for describing surface reflectivity is therefore an important improvement over the standard isotropic (non-directional) LER approaches used in the past. The GOME-2 surface DLER database can be used for the retrieval of atmospheric properties from GOME-2 and from previous satellite instruments like GOME and SCIAMACHY. It will also be used to support retrievals from the future Sentinel-5 UVNS (ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared) satellite instrument.
, Mees Al, , Marco Belloli
Published: 8 June 2021
Wind Energy Science, Volume 6, pp 885-901; doi:10.5194/wes-6-885-2021

Abstract:
Floating wind turbines rely on feedback-only control strategies to mitigate the negative effects of wave excitation. Improved power generation and lower fatigue loads can be achieved by including information about incoming waves in the turbine controller. In this paper, a wave-feedforward control strategy is developed and implemented in a 10 MW floating wind turbine. A linear model of the floating wind turbine is established and utilized to understand how wave excitation affects rotor speed and so power, as well as to show that collective pitch is suitable for reducing the effects of wave excitation. A feedforward controller is designed based on the inversion of the linear model, and a gain-scheduling algorithm is proposed to adapt the feedforward action as wind speed changes. The performance of the novel wave-feedforward controller is examined first by means of linear analysis and then with non-linear time-domain simulations in FAST. This paper proves that including some information about incoming waves in the turbine controller can play a crucial role in improving power quality and the turbine fatigue life. In particular, the proposed wave-feedforward control strategy achieves this goal complementing the industry-standard feedback pitch controller. Together with the wave-feedforward control strategy, this paper provides some insights about the response of floating wind turbines to collective-pitch control and waves, which could be useful in future control-design studies.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 25, pp 3041-3052; doi:10.5194/hess-25-3041-2021

Abstract:
Breakthrough curves (BTCs) are a valuable tool for qualitative and quantitative examination of transport patterns in porous media. Although breakthrough (BT) experiments are simple, they often require extensive sampling and multi-component chemical analysis. In this work, we examine spectral induced polarization (SIP) signals measured along a soil column during BT experiments in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil profiles. Soil profiles were equilibrated with an NaCl background solution, and then a constant flow of either CaCl2 or ZnCl2 solution was applied. The SIP signature was recorded, and complementary ion analysis was performed on the collected outflow samples. Our results confirm that changes to the pore-water composition, ion exchange processes and profile heterogeneity are detectable by SIP: the real part of the SIP-based BTCs clearly indicated the BT of the non-reactive ions as well as the retarded BT of cations. The imaginary part of the SIP-based curves changed in response to the alteration of ion mobility around the electrical double layer (EDL) and indicated the initiation and the termination of the cation exchange reaction. Finally, both the real and imaginary components of the complex conductivity changed in response to the presence of a coarser textured layer in the heterogeneous profile.
Na Zhao, , , , , , Daven Henze, Tom Kucsera, , Mian Chin, et al.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 21, pp 8637-8654; doi:10.5194/acp-21-8637-2021

Abstract:
Black carbon (BC) emissions play an important role in regional climate change in the Arctic. It is necessary to pay attention to the impact of long-range transport from regions outside the Arctic as BC emissions from local sources in the Arctic were relatively small. The task force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 (HTAP2) set up a series of simulation scenarios to investigate the response of BC in a given region to different source regions. This study investigated the responses of Arctic BC concentrations and surface temperature to 20 % anthropogenic emission reductions from six regions in 2010 within the framework of HTAP2 based on ensemble modeling results. Emission reductions from East Asia (EAS) had the most (monthly contributions: 0.2–1.5 ng m−3) significant impact on the Arctic near-surface BC concentrations, while the monthly contributions from Europe (EUR), Middle East (MDE), North America (NAM), Russia–Belarus–Ukraine (RBU), and South Asia (SAS) were 0.2–1.0, 0.001–0.01, 0.1–0.3, 0.1–0.7, and 0.0–0.2 ng m−3, respectively. The responses of the vertical profiles of the Arctic BC to the six regions were found to be different due to multiple transport pathways. Emission reductions from NAM, RBU, EUR, and EAS mainly influenced the BC concentrations in the low troposphere of the Arctic, while most of the BC in the upper troposphere of the Arctic derived from SAS. The response of the Arctic BC to emission reductions in six source regions became less significant with the increase in the latitude. The benefit of BC emission reductions in terms of slowing down surface warming in the Arctic was evaluated by using absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP). Compared to the response of global temperature to BC emission reductions, the response of Arctic temperature was substantially more sensitive, highlighting the need for curbing global BC emissions.
, Christian Bengs
Published: 8 June 2021
Magnetic Resonance, Volume 2, pp 395-407; doi:10.5194/mr-2-395-2021

Abstract:
The quantum state of a spin ensemble is described by a density operator, which corresponds to a point in the Liouville space of orthogonal spin operators. Valid density operators are confined to a particular region of Liouville space, which we call the physical region and which is bounded by multidimensional figures called simplexes. Each vertex of a simplex corresponds to a pure-state density operator. We provide examples for spins I=1/2, I=1, I=3/2 and for coupled pairs of spins-1/2. We use the von Neumann entropy as a criterion for hyperpolarization. It is shown that the inhomogeneous master equation for spin dynamics leads to non-physical results in some cases, a problem that may be avoided by using the Lindbladian master equation.
, Evgeny Romankevich, Igor Semiletov, , Bart van Dongen, Jorien Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg V. Dudarev, Denis Kosmach, et al.
Published: 8 June 2021
Earth System Science Data, Volume 13, pp 2561-2572; doi:10.5194/essd-13-2561-2021

Abstract:
Biogeochemical cycling in the semi-enclosed Arctic Ocean is strongly influenced by land–ocean transport of carbon and other elements and is vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Sediments of the Arctic Ocean are an important part of biogeochemical cycling in the Arctic and provide the opportunity to study present and historical input and the fate of organic matter (e.g., through permafrost thawing). Comprehensive sedimentary records are required to compare differences between the Arctic regions and to study Arctic biogeochemical budgets. To this end, the Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE) was established to curate data primarily on concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and OC isotopes (δ13C, Δ14C) yet also on total N (TN) as well as terrigenous biomarkers and other sediment geochemical and physical properties. This new database builds on the published literature and earlier unpublished records through an extensive international community collaboration. This paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of CASCADE. The first public version includes OC concentrations in surface sediments at 4244 oceanographic stations including 2317 with TN concentrations, 1555 with δ13C-OC values and 268 with Δ14C-OC values and 653 records with quantified terrigenous biomarkers (high-molecular-weight n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and lignin phenols). CASCADE also includes data from 326 sediment cores, retrieved by shallow box or multi-coring, deep gravity/piston coring, or sea-bottom drilling. The comprehensive dataset reveals large-scale features of both OC content and OC sources between the shelf sea recipients. This offers insight into release of pre-aged terrigenous OC to the East Siberian Arctic shelf and younger terrigenous OC to the Kara Sea. Circum-Arctic sediments thereby reveal patterns of terrestrial OC remobilization and provide clues about thawing of permafrost. CASCADE enables synoptic analysis of OC in Arctic Ocean sediments and facilitates a wide array of future empirical and modeling studies of the Arctic carbon cycle. The database is openly and freely available online (https://doi.org/10.17043/cascade; Martens et al., 2021), is provided in various machine-readable data formats (data tables, GIS shapefile, GIS raster), and also provides ways for contributing data for future CASCADE versions. We will continuously update CASCADE with newly published and contributed data over the foreseeable future as part of the database management of the Bolin Centre for Climate Research at Stockholm University.
, , Svenja Schweikert, Cornelia Spengler, Hans Jürgen Hahn,
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 25, pp 3053-3070; doi:10.5194/hess-25-3053-2021

Abstract:
In Germany, 70 % of the drinking water demand is met by groundwater, for which the quality is the product of multiple physical–chemical and biological processes. As healthy groundwater ecosystems help to provide clean drinking water, it is necessary to assess their ecological conditions. This is particularly true for densely populated urban areas, where faunistic groundwater investigations are still scarce. The aim of this study is, therefore, to provide a first assessment of the groundwater fauna in an urban area. Thus, we examine the ecological status of an anthropogenically influenced aquifer by analysing fauna in 39 groundwater monitoring wells in the city of Karlsruhe (Germany). For classification, we apply the groundwater ecosystem status index (GESI), in which a threshold of more than 70 % of crustaceans and less than 20 % of oligochaetes serves as an indication for very good and good ecological conditions. Our study reveals that only 35 % of the wells in the residential, commercial and industrial areas and 50 % of wells in the forested area fulfil these criteria. However, the study did not find clear spatial patterns with respect to land use and other anthropogenic impacts, in particular with respect to groundwater temperature. Nevertheless, there are noticeable differences in the spatial distribution of species in combination with abiotic groundwater characteristics in groundwater of the different areas of the city, which indicate that a more comprehensive assessment is required to evaluate the groundwater ecological status in more detail. In particular, more indicators, such as groundwater temperature, indicator species, delineation of site-specific characteristics and natural reference conditions should be considered.
, , Jonathan D. Sharp, Denis Pierrot
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (TC) is the largest pool of carbon that interacts considerably with the atmosphere on human timescales. Oceanic TC is increasing through uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), and seawater pH is decreasing as a consequence. Both the exchange of CO2 between ocean and atmosphere and the pH response are governed by a set of parameters that interact through chemical equilibria, collectively known as the marine carbonate system. To investigate these processes, at least two of the marine carbonate system's parameters are typically measured – most commonly, two from TC, total alkalinity (AT), pH, and seawater CO2 fugacity (fCO2; or its partial pressure, pCO2, or its dry-air mole fraction, xCO2) – from which the remaining parameters can be calculated and the equilibrium state of seawater solved. Several software tools exist to carry out these calculations, but no fully functional and rigorously validated tool was previously available for Python, a popular scientific programming language. Here, we present PyCO2SYS, a Python package intended to fill this capability gap. We describe the elements of PyCO2SYS that have been inherited from the existing CO2SYS family of software and explain subsequent adjustments and improvements. For example, PyCO2SYS uses automatic differentiation to solve the marine carbonate system and calculate chemical buffer factors, ensuring that the effect of every solute and reaction is accurately included in all its results. We validate PyCO2SYS with internal consistency tests and comparisons against other software, showing that PyCO2SYS produces results that are either virtually identical or different for known reasons, with the differences negligible for all practical purposes. We discuss new insights that arose during the development process, for example that the marine carbonate system cannot be unambiguously solved from the total alkalinity and carbonate ion parameter pair. Finally, we consider potential future developments to PyCO2SYS and discuss the outlook for this and other software for solving the marine carbonate system. The code for PyCO2SYS is distributed via GitHub (https://github.com/mvdh7/PyCO2SYS) under the GNU General Public License v3, archived on Zenodo (Humphreys et al., 2021), and documented online (https://PyCO2SYS.readthedocs.io).
Marika M. Holland, David Clemens-Sewall, Laura Landrum, , , Chris Polashenski, , Melinda Webster
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
We assess the influence of snow on sea ice in experiments using the Community Earth System Model, version 2 for a pre-industrial and a 2xCO2 climate state. In the pre-industrial climate, we find that increasing simulated snow accumulation on sea ice results in thicker sea ice and a cooler climate in both hemispheres. The sea ice mass budget response differs fundamentally between the two hemispheres. In the Arctic, increasing snow results in a decrease in both sea ice growth and sea ice melt due to the snow’s impact on conductive heat transfer and albedo, respectively. This leads to a reduced amplitude in the annual cycle of ice thickness. In the Antarctic, with increasing snow, ice growth increases due to snow-ice formation and is balanced by larger basal ice melt. In the warmer 2xCO2 climate, the Arctic sea ice sensitivity to snow depth is small and reduced relative to that of the pre-industrial climate. Whereas, in the Antarctic, the sensitivity to snow on sea ice in the 2xCO2 climate is qualitatively similar to the sensitivity in the pre-industrial climate. These results underscore the importance of accurately representing snow accumulation on sea ice in coupled earth system models, due to its impact on a number of competing processes and feedbacks.
, Philippe-Hervé Leloup, Philippe Sorrel, , François Demory, Vincenzo Spina, Bastien Huet, Frédéric Quillévéré, Frédéric Ricciardi, Daniel Michoux, et al.
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
After more than a century of research, the chronology of the deformation of the external part of the Alpine belt is still controversial for the Miocene epoch. In particular, the poor dating of the foreland basin sedimentary succession hampers a comprehensive understanding of the kinematics of the deformation. Here we focus on the Miocene Molasse deposits of the northern subalpine massifs, southern Jura, Royans, Bas-Dauphiné, Crest and La Bresse sedimentary basins through a multidisciplinary approach to build a basin-wide tectono-stratigraphic framework. Based on sequence stratigraphy constrained by biostratigraphical, chemostratigraphical (Sr-isotopes) and magnetostratigraphical data between the late Aquitanian (~21 Ma) and the Tortonian (~8.2 Ma), the Miocene Molasse chronostratigraphy is revised with a precision of ~0.5 Ma. The Miocene Molasse sediments encompass four different palaeogeographical domains: (i) the oriental domain, outlined by depositional sequences S1a to S3 (~21 to ~15 Ma), (ii) the median domain characterized by sequences S2 to S5 (~17.8 to ~12 Ma), (iii) the occidental domain, in which sequences S2a to S8 (~17.8 to ~8.2 Ma) were deposited and, (iv) the Bressan domain, where sedimentation is restricted to sequences S6 to S8 (~12 to ~8.2 Ma). A structural and tectono-sedimentary study is conducted based on new field observations and the reappraisal of regional seismic profiles, thereby allowing the identification of five major faults zones (FZ). The oriental, median and occidental paleogeographical domains are clearly separated by FZ1, FZ2 and FZ3, suggesting strong interactions between tectonics and sedimentation during the Miocene. The evolution in time and space of the paleogeographical domains within a well-constrained structural framework reveals syntectonic deposits and a westward migration of the depocenters, and allows to establish the following chronology of thrust propagation at the western alpine front: (i) A compressive phase (P1) corresponding to thrusting above the Chartreuse Orientale Thrust (FZ1), which was likely initiated during the Oligocene. This tectonic phase generated reliefs that limited the Miocene transgression to the east; (ii) the ~W-WNW/E-ESE-directed compressive phase (P2) involving the Belledonne basal thrust, which activated the Salève thrust (SAL) fault and successively FZ2 to FZ5 from east to west. Phase P2 deeply shaped the Miocene palaeogeographical evolution and most probably corresponded to a prominent compressive phase at the scale of the Alps during the early to middle Miocene (between 18.05 +/- 0.25 Ma and ~12 Ma). In those ~6 Myr, the Miocene sea was forced to regress rapidly westwards in response to westward migration of the active thrusts and exhumation of piggy-back basins atop the fault zones; (iii) the last phase (P3) of Tortonian age (~10 Ma), which likely implied a significant uplift (350 m minimum) of the Bas-Dauphiné basin, whereas horizontal motions prevailed within the Jura Mountains.
Published: 8 June 2021
Abstract:
Ice-marginal lakes impact glacier mass balance, water resources, and ecosystem dynamics, and can produce catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) via sudden drainage. Multitemporal inventories of ice-marginal lakes are a critical first step in understanding the drivers of historic change, predicting future lake evolution, and assessing GLOF hazards. Here, we use Landsat-era satellite imagery and supervised classification to semi-automatically delineate lake outlines for four ~5 year time periods between 1984 and 2019 in Alaska and northwest Canada. Overall, ice-marginal lakes in the region have grown in total number (+176 lakes, 36 % increase) and area (+467 km2, 57 % increase) between the time periods of 1984–1988 and 2016–2019. However, changes in lake numbers and area were notably unsteady and nonuniform. We demonstrate that lake area changes are connected to dam type (moraine, bedrock, ice, or supraglacial) and topological position (proglacial, detached, unconnected, ice, or supraglacial), with important differences in lake behavior between the sub-groups. In strong contrast to all other dam types, ice-dammed lakes decreased in number (−9, 13 % decrease) and area (−56 km2, 43 % decrease), while moraine-dammed lakes increased (+59, 28 % and +468 km2, 85 % for number and area, respectively), a faster rate than the average when considering all dam types together. Proglacial lakes experienced the largest area changes and rate of change out of any topological position throughout the period of study. By tracking individual lakes through time and categorizing lakes by dam type, subregion, and topological position, we are able to parse trends that would otherwise be aliased if these characteristics were not considered. This work highlights the importance of such lake characterization when performing ice-marginal lake inventories, and provides insight into the physical processes driving recent ice-marginal lake evolution.
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