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Karina Kravčenko, Laura Šeibokaitė
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 56-71; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.26

Abstract:
Background. Social norms theory-based interventions have been widely used to reduce alcohol consumption among college and university students. Lately, it has been argued that such interventions may actually increase alcohol use among light drinkers. However, little studies have been focused on testing this possible negative effect. Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine possible negative impact of descriptive normative feedback (DNF) on drinking intentions among students whose baseline drinking scores were below the average of a reference group. We also studied the preventive effect of injunctive normative feedback (INF). Methods. Actual descriptive and injunctive norms were collected from 234 university students. From those who reported drinking below the norm, 26 were randomly assigned to a control or intervention condition that received normative feedback via PowerPoint presentations over two meetings. Results. DNF increased students’ intentions of spirits drinking frequency and quantity. Meanwhile intentions to drink beer, cider, wine and cocktails remained the same. Increased intentions to drink spirits were not reduced by INF. Conclusions. Findings suggest that DNF-based interventions might negatively affect the use of spirits among those students who consume less than their peer norm by increasing their intentions to drink spirits more often and in larger quantities. Ways other than the INF to prevent this negative effect need to be further explored.
Justė Norvaišaitė, Vita Mikuličiūtė
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 72-85; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.27

Abstract:
Gender stereotypes have determined that the concepts of management and leadership are more associated with men than women. There are more men working in management positions than women in various countries, including Lithuania. The most widely discussed cause for that is discrimination against women in the labor market. The aim of the study was to examine evaluation differences between personnel specialists and comparison group, depending on their own and candidate‘s gender. Study was based on quasi-experimental strategy which included a hiring simulation. Participants had to evaluate potential candidates, a man and a woman, seeking for a job in management position. Data was collected from 128 people (age range - 19 to 56 years): 48 personnel specialists (M=29,38; SD=7,48), 49 women, who represented other specialties (M=26,29; SD=7,36) and 31 men, who represented other specialties (M=25,39; SD=5,05). Both personnel specialists and comparison group evaluated man and woman-candidate as similar. There were no significant differences between the two candidates on their hireability, reliability, competence, potential salary and promotability. However, results also indicate that personnel specialists and women, representing other specialties, suggested that man was more capable to work in teams than woman. The study gives an insight about the possibility of gender stereotype change.
Ernesta Smilingytė,
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 40-55; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.25

Abstract:
Even though the increasing amount of waste is one of the biggest environmental challenges we currently face, surprisingly little is known about the psychological factors of waste prevention behaviour. The purpose of the study is to examine whether students‘ waste prevention behaviour can be predicted by the Value-Belief-Norm theory. In this paper, we report results from a questionnaire study of 221 students aged from 18 to 26 years. It was found that the Value-Belief-Norm theory could indeed explain students‘ waste prevention behaviour. As expected, findings indicate that high endorsement of biospheric values is associated with a strong ecological worldview, which was related to an increased awareness of environmental consequences. Those beliefs led to stronger personal norms, which were associated with more frequent waste prevention behaviour. Understanding students‘ waste prevention behaviour and the factors predicting it is a key step that could help to reduce the amount of waste that is generated. It is particularly relevant among students because higher education environment could be an effective place to increase students‘ pro-environmental behaviour and connect this behaviour with their values, beliefs and norms.
Eglė Gabrėnaitė, Monika Triaušytė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 92, pp 46-64; doi:10.15388/im.2021.92.51

Abstract:
The great spread of the phenomenon of MeToo, a global movement promoting the publicity of the facts of sexual harassment, has also received a response in Lithuania: anonymous stories in blogs have grown into a provocative discourse that has attracted a great deal of attention. The aim of the research presented in this article is to characterise the discourse of MeToo in terms of rhetorical expression that has not been discussed yet: to identify and elicit the dominant elements of rhetorical argumentation. The empirical research was conducted using the method of rhetorical analysis that allows distinguishing and defining in rhetorical categories the models characteristic to rhetoric appeals. The method of rhetorical analysis combined with directed content analysis, as well as with critical discourse analysis. Following the methodology of provocative narrative research, it was analysed the material published at the time of maximum intensity and involvement in the discourse, such as testimonies, publications, interviews, and comments of women who have been subjected to sexual harassment. The results of rhetorical discourse analysis allow us to discuss the culture of accusation in which the normalization of victim condemnation is prevalent, and logical reasoning gives way to prejudice-based emotional appeals.
Monika Kvedaraitė, Austėja Dumarkaitė
Vilnius University Proceedings, Volume 14, pp 1-57; doi:10.15388/spv.2021.1

Abstract:
Conference for Junior Scientists in Psychology is an annual event, organized by PhD students of Vilnius University, Institute of Psychology. The conference gives a platform for psychology students and junior researchers to present their scientific work and findings.
Published: 7 May 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Agnė Jankuvienė, Nadežda Ščupakova, Karolis Urbonas, Lilė Mikelevič, Renata Drutel, Robertas Samalavičius
Lietuvos chirurgija, Volume 20, pp 68-72; doi:10.15388/lietchirur.2021.20.41

Abstract:
Background. Cardiogenic shock caries high mortality and morbidity. Myocarditis patients developing cardiogenic shock refractory to medical treatment might benefit from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or mechanical ventricular assist devices. Methods. A retrospective, single center observational study to assess the rate and outcomes of mechanical circulatory support of patients with fulminant myocarditis related cardiogenic shock. Short-term outcomes were evaluated. The primary endpoint of the study was hospital survival. Results. Two hundred ninetyone patient were supported with short-term mechanical assist devices at our institution during 12 year period. Among them, 4 (1.4%) were treated for myocarditis related cardiogenic shock. All patients were female, with a mean age of 34±4 years. In one case surgically implantable short-term mechanical assist device was used, in other three cases – extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The mean duration of the support was 364±273 hours, mean intensive care unit stay – 35±29 days. Three of four patients were successfully weaned from the support and discharged from the hospital with complete heart function recovery. Conclusion. Patient with fulminant myocarditis, who would have died without the initiation of mechanical circulatory, had favorable short-term outcome with 75% survival rate.
Martynas Lukšta, Gustas Sasnauskas, Augustinas Baušys, Andrius Rybakovas, Justas Kuliavas, Rimantas Baušys, Kęstutis Strupas
Lietuvos chirurgija, Volume 20, pp 73-85; doi:10.15388/lietchirur.2021.20.43

Abstract:
Background. Gastric cancer remains one of the most common cancers in Lithuania and Worldwide. Surgical treatment is the only potentially curative treatment option for it. Historically open gastrectomy was considered as the gold standard approach. Although, the development of minimally invasive surgery and accumulation of the clinical data has led to the adoption of minimally invasive gastrectomy. Clinical cases. We present a series of 8 clinical cases who underwent minimally invasive surgery for early or locally advanced gastric cancer in Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos and the National Cancer Institute. Discussion. Large scale randomized controlled trials in Asia have proved that laparoscopic surgery is safe and oncologically effective for clinical stage I distal gastric cancer. The increa­sing amount of data supports the safety of minimally invasive gastrectomy for advanced or proximal gastric cancer. Most of the trials performed in Asia confirmed, that laparoscopic gastrectomy has some advantages, including: decreased blood loss, decreased post­operative pain, and morbidity. Recent randomized controlled trials of Western countries proved the safety of laparoscopic gastrectomy and the comparable 1-year long-term outcomes. Although, they failed to show improved recovery after minimally invasive surgery. Currently, there is sufficient evidence to adopt minimally invasive gastrectomy for gastric cancer into routine clinical practice in Lithuania. Conclusions. The first experience of minimally invasive gastric cancer surgery in Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos and the National Cancer Institute was successful. All gastrectomies were radical, and without major postoperative complications.
Domas Kurlavičius, Gediminas Rauba, Giedrė Stundžaitė-Baršauskienė
Lietuvos chirurgija, Volume 20, pp 95-102; doi:10.15388/lietchirur.2021.20.45

Abstract:
The article deals with one of the most complex hand injuries in the practice of plastic and reconstructive surgery – amputation of degloving the upper tissues of the upper limb. The clinical case of a woman who has suffered from this trauma, the course of treatment, remote functional and aesthetic results are presented.
Gustas Sasnauskas, Aivaras Grybas
Lietuvos chirurgija, Volume 20, pp 86-94; doi:10.15388/lietchirur.2021.20.44

Abstract:
Background. Recurrent proximal ureteral stricture is a complex rare disease that is difficult to treat. Post-operative scarring, impaired blood supply to the ureter, stricture-related stones, and chronic infection – all factors make the treatment even more complicated. Methods. There are various surgical procedures for ureteral reconstruction, however, most of them are very traumatic and quite often ineffective. Our case reports the first experience of treating a complicated recurrent proximal ureteral stricture with ureteroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft. Results. The patient had a 12-month post-operative follow-up. No stricture recurrence was observed and hydronephrosis decreased. Although the excretory function of the left kidney remained lower, serum creatinine became normal. The most important clinical outcome was the withdrawal of left flank pain. Conclusions. We are lacking high volume clinical trials for appropriate ureteral stricture treatment modality. All available publications in this field compare single cases or low volume studies. While buccal mucosa graft procedures are well established in urethral reconstruction, our case proves that buccal mucosa graft method can be successfully used for ureteroplasty as well, providing good post-operative functional outcomes.
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 534-549; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23933

Abstract:
The task of identification of randomly scattered “bad” items in a fixed set of objects is a frequent one, and there are many ways to deal with it. “Group testing” (GT) refers to the testing strategy aiming to effectively replace the inspection of single objects by the inspection of groups spanning more than one object. First announced by Dorfman in 1943, the methodology has underwent vigorous development, and though many related research still take place, the ground ideas remain the same. In the present paper, we revisit two classical GT algorithms: the Dorfman’s algorithm and the halving algorithm. Our fresh treatment of the latter and expository comparison of the two is devoted to dissemination of GT ideas, which are so important in the current COVID-19 induced pandemic situation.
Wenjun Liu, Weifan Zhao
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 396-418; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23051

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the stabilization of a one-dimensional thermoelastic laminated beam with structural damping coupled with a heat equation modeling an expectedly dissipative effect through heat conduction governed by Gurtin–Pipkin thermal law. Under some assumptions on the relaxation function g, we establish the well-posedness of the problem by using Lumer–Phillips theorem. Furthermore, we prove the exponential stability and lack of exponential stability depending on a stability number by using the perturbed energy method and Gearhart–Herbst–Prüss–Huang theorem, respectively.
, , Shikun Bai, Yonghong Wu
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 502-521; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.22538

Abstract:
In this paper, we study a system of Hadamard fractional multi-point boundary value problems. We first obtain triple positive solutions when the nonlinearities satisfy some bounded conditions. Next, we also obtain a nontrivial solution when the nonlinearities can be asymptotically linear growth. Furthermore, we provide two examples to illustrate our main results.
Chengbo Zhai, Jing Ren
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 482-501; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23055

Abstract:
This article is devoted to studying a nonhomogeneous boundary value problem involving Stieltjes integral for a more general form of the fractional q-difference equation with p(t)-Laplacian operator. Here p(t)-Laplacian operator is nonstandard growth, which has been used more widely than the constant growth operator. By using fixed point theorems of φ – (h, e)-concave operators some conditions, which guarantee the existence of a unique positive solution, are derived. Moreover, we can construct an iterative scheme to approximate the unique solution. At last, two examples are given to illustrate the validity of our theoretical results.
Roberta Hansen, Graciela A. González
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 419-439; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23052

Abstract:
Based on existing feedback control methods such as OGY and Pyragas, alternative new schemes are proposed for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits of chaotic and hyperchaotic dynamical systems by suitable modulation of a control parameter. Their performances are improved with respect to: (i) robustness, (ii) rate of convergences, (iii) reduction of waiting time, (iv) reduction of noise sensitivity. These features are analytically investigated, the achievements are rigorously proved and supported by numerical simulations. The proposed methods result successful for stabilizing unstable periodic orbits in some classical discrete maps like 1-D logistic and standard 2-D Hénon, but also in the hyperchaotic generalized n-D Hénon-like maps.
Rina Su, Chunrui Zhang
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 375-395; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23050

Abstract:
In this paper, the Hopf-zero bifurcation of the ring unidirectionally coupled Toda oscillators with delay was explored. First, the conditions of the occurrence of Hopf-zero bifurcation were obtained by analyzing the distribution of eigenvalues in correspondence to linearization. Second, the stability of Hopf-zero bifurcation periodic solutions was determined based on the discussion of the normal form of the system, and some numerical simulations were employed to illustrate the results of this study. Lastly, the normal form of the system on the center manifold was derived by using the center manifold theorem and normal form method.
, Lakshmi Kanta Dey, , Stojan Radenovi´c
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 522-533; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.22497

Abstract:
In this manuscript, we establish two Wardowski–Feng–Liu-type fixed point theorems for orbitally lower semicontinuous functions defined in orbitally complete b-metric spaces. The obtained results generalize and improve several existing theorems in the literature. Moreover, the findings are justified by suitable nontrivial examples. Further, we also discuss ordered version of the obtained results. Finally, an application is presented by using the concept of fractal involving a certain kind of fractal integral equations. An illustrative example is presented to substantiate the applicability of the obtained result in reducing the energy of an antenna.
Shuangrui Zhao, HongBin Wang, Weihua Jiang
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 461-481; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23054

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the dynamics of delayed Gierer–Meinhardt system, which is used as a classic example to explain the mechanism of pattern formation. The conditions for the occurrence of Turing, Hopf and Turing–Hopf bifurcation are established by analyzing the characteristic equation. For Turing–Hopf bifurcation, we derive the truncated third-order normal form based on the work of Jiang et al. [11], which is topologically equivalent to the original equation, and theoretically reveal system exhibits abundant spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal patterns, such as semistable spatially inhomogeneous periodic solutions, as well as tristable patterns of a pair of spatially inhomogeneous steady states and a spatially homogeneous periodic solution coexisting. Especially, we theoretically explain the phenomenon that time delay inhibits the formation of heterogeneous steady patterns, found by S. Lee, E. Gaffney and N. Monk [The influence of gene expression time delays on Gierer–Meinhardt pattern formation systems, Bull. Math. Biol., 72(8):2139–2160, 2010.]
Dehua Wang, Xiao-Li Ding,
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 440-460; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23053

Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the stability of fractional-order systems with randomly timevarying parameters. Two approaches are provided to check the stability of such systems in mean sense. The first approach is based on suitable Lyapunov functionals to assess the stability, which is of vital importance in the theory of stability. By an example one finds that the stability conditions obtained by the first approach can be tabulated for some special cases. For some complicated linear and nonlinear systems, the stability conditions present computational difficulties. The second alternative approach is based on integral inequalities and ingenious mathematical method. Finally, we also give two examples to demonstrate the feasibility and advantage of the second approach. Compared with the stability conditions obtained by the first approach, the stability conditions obtained by the second one are easily verified by simple computation rather than complicated functional construction. The derived criteria improve the existing related results.
Antanas Laurinčikas, Darius Šiaučiūnas, Monika Tekorė
Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, Volume 26, pp 550-564; doi:10.15388/namc.2021.26.23934

Abstract:
In the paper, a joint discrete universality theorem for periodic zeta-functions with multiplicative coefficients on the approximation of analytic functions by shifts involving the sequence f kg of imaginary parts of nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta-function is obtained. For its proof, a weak form of the Montgomery pair correlation conjecture is used. The paper is a continuation of [A. Laurinčikas, M. Tekorė, Joint universality of periodic zeta-functions with multiplicative coefficients, Nonlinear Anal. Model. Control, 25(5):860–883, 2020] using nonlinear shifts for approximation of analytic functions.
Taras Panskyi, Zdzisława ROWIŃSKA
Informatics in Education; doi:10.15388/infedu.2021.12

Carlos Dos Santos Portela, Alexandre Marcos Lins de Vasconcelos, Sandro Ronaldo Bezerra Oliveira,
Informatics in Education; doi:10.15388/infedu.2021.13

Rima Bakšienė
Respectus Philologicus pp 73–88-73–88; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.78

Abstract:
The article analyses the linguistic basis of the Tarmynas, the database Lithuanian local language variants. The development of the database model was based on the linguistic variability of Kaunas district as an important zone for the development of Standard Lithuanian. Until now, the territory of Kaunas district has not been systematically studied by dialectologists; therefore, the study is relevant in assessing the interaction between Standard language and local variants; the conclusions drawn are significant for prognostic models of the Lithuanian language. The analysis performed by the methods of geolinguistics research showed a significant horizontal and vertical variability of Kaunas district. Based on the characteristics of the traditional dialects and their spread in the new dialectal structures, four linguistic areas of Kaunas district were distinguished. Their main distinguishing features are the shortening of long vowels in unaccented inflexions and the hardening of the compounds le and lė. The influence of the local Polish dialects on the current linguistic variants was also identified. The possibilities of the explication of the dialectal phonetic features in the database are also briefly presented: transcriptions of acoustic recordings and a questionnaire about the frequency of usaging the dialectal features.
Skirmantė Biržietienė, Eglė Gabrėnaitė
Respectus Philologicus pp 46-57; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.76

Abstract:
Candidate programs are a publication of political parties during the agitation campaign, which presents the political attitudes of a political actor and influence voters’ motivation to vote in elections. The electoral candidate program illustrates a politician’s relationship with voters. It is an element of political communication, part of the image of a political figure. The article deals with the rhetoric of electoral candidate programs announced before the elections to the Seimas, the European Parliament, and Municipal Councils (2014–2019). The aim is to identify and expand the characteristic rhetorical elements that allow qualifying political electoral programs as a specific genre of political rhetoric: at the inventive level, the study of rhetorical strategies includes the analysis of rhetorical reasoning, the relationship between a political actor and a voter; at the dispositional level, the composition of programs is analyzed; and finally, at the elocutionary level, the specifics of the linguistic expression of discourse are investigated. A rhetorical study of discourse revealed that, in many cases, the electoral candidate program functions as a tool for building the image of a political actor, a tool for discrediting opponents and spreading populist promises.
Agnieszka Kania
Respectus Philologicus pp 110–119-110–119; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.81

Abstract:
Stefan Batory University in Vilnius was established in 1919 as a regional entity to carry out scientific research and develop Polish academic education. One of its faculties – the Faculty of Fine Arts (1930–1939) – gathered charismatic and popular artists, historians and architects. Among them, two professors – Juliusz Kłos (1888–1933) and Marian Morelowski – published the guidebooks for Vilnius and Wileńszczyzna region (Wilno. Przewodnik krajoznawczy, 1937; Zarys sztuki wileńskiej z przewodnikiem po zabytkiem między Niemnem a Dźwiną, 1939). The book written by Kłos gained popularity and was often purchased by the tourists who visited Vilnius. The aim of the article is to determine the main methodology, historical approaches and working styles of both authors. Moreover, the paper involves their attitude towards developing tourism, cultural heritage and historical research. The article also involves the main ideas of artistic education professors had and how much tourism was involved in the whole education process for them.
Yuliia Honcharova, Victoriia Lipina
Respectus Philologicus pp 89–100-89–100; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.79

Abstract:
The idea advanced in the paper is to theorize the mechanisms of autobiographicality in Stephen Dixon’s novels that are viewed as a radical renewal of autobiographical narrative, where the modality of disappearance/return of the subject produces a new mode of life-writing. We propose the term “autobiographical transgression” to capture the essence of this renewal started by three representative figures – John Barth, Stephen Dixon, and Joseph Heller that can be reduced neither to autobiography as a genre, nor to “transgressive autobiography” as its generic variant. Dixon finds a new form for representing autos. He creates the character with the name-deixis I. that personifies a fiduciary subject, thus, suggesting a provocative restatement of postmodernist generic problems. In the novels I. and End of I. the autobiographical hero I. exists simultaneously as a metaphor of the author’s presence in the text, as the subjective author’s I and as a character in the novel − an objectified, semi-functional, distancing I. The transplanting of life experience manifests itself in a special kind of repersonalization and double coding of the traditional autobiographical subject.
Zoriana Huk
Respectus Philologicus pp 101–109-101–109; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.80

Abstract:
The paper analyzes works by the Serbian postmodernist writer Milorad Pavić. It attempts to prove that he possesses knowledge of royal art and uses masonic symbols in his writing related to geometry and architecture, including the radiant delta, compass, masonic gloves, and clepsydra. It is assumed that under the influence of these particular ideas, the writer creates the leading image of an architect and the motif of construction as freemasons believe in the Great Architect of the Universe. In the short novel Damascene, according to speculative masonry’s beliefs, the building of the church projects the building of a temple in a human soul. M. Pavić, as an architect, creates a structure of every novel, which he identifies with the golden section. This paper finds special symbols of the divine proportion in his prose, including snail’s shells, pyramids, and violins. A dynamic structure as an embodiment of the open work concept and a broad spectrum of themes provide artistic communication with a creative recipient. A reader has an opportunity to choose their own style of reading and solving textual puzzles because Pavić’s prose represents a wide variety of themes, symbols, images, and allusions that embody the secrets of Freemasonry, allowing for various interpretations.
Jurgita Kerevičienė, Jurgita Astrauskienė
Respectus Philologicus pp 148–160-148–160; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.84

Abstract:
The growing supply of audiovisual products is closely linked to their translation to the target audience. In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, various modes of audiovisual translation are applied: some audiovisual works are dubbed, some are translated using voice-over, and still others are subtitled or surtitled. Deaf and hard of hearing viewers have access to the audiovisual content with the help of specialized subtitles; whereas the blind and partially sighted gain access via audio description. Each mode of audiovisual translation is defined by particular terms and specific characteristics, the variety of which may frequently seem like a kind of terminological maze for their users. This article aims at defining terms related to both the field of audiovisual translation and its modes by examining their differences and similarities to provide a structured classification of these terms. The paper also presents the insights and results of the survey, which reveals consumers’ ambiguities about the perception of audiovisual products and the application of audiovisual translation terminology.
Klaudia Łodejska
Respectus Philologicus pp 185–195-185–195; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.87

Abstract:
Migration processes have accompanied man since the dawn of time. In the case of migration currents to South Africa after World War II, there are several factors influencing the decisions to migrate. There were several waves of migration, depending on the changing in the second half of the Twentieth century South Africa’s economic and political situation. To properly present the issue of migration to South Africa, both from Poland and other countries of the world, it is first necessary to focus on the events that enabled the development of a policy of racial segregation. Then focus on economic development during this period that determined the successive waves of migrants. The last, crucial element is focusing on emigrants and the reasons for their emigration. In the case of the Polish diaspora in South Africa, many people decided to leave Poland due to the political system that was in the communist period; they wanted to give their children a better start in life or simply wanted to develop professionally, which was not possible at that time in the country. The aim of this article is to present the political, economic, demographic and social factors that influenced migration to South Africa.
Olena Statsenko
Respectus Philologicus pp 161–172-161–172; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.85

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the cognitive analysis of linguistic means, representing the primary human needs in extreme conditions. The nominations denoting the concepts of “food” and “warmth” are subjected to the lexico-semantic, grammatical, stylistic consideration. A choice of the discourse for analysis is due to describing a human life in detention when the primary adaptive needs prevail all others and become the most valuable. The representation of human basic biological need in food and warmth is considered in the given contexts. The use of colloquial vocabulary, grammatical norms violation, as well as figurative comparisons and transformed phraseological units in the contexts determine peculiarities of the verbal explication of the concept “food”. The author pays attention to the stylistically reduced vocabulary, which stands out the lexeme “belly”, acquiring new semantic shades in the analyzed fragments. With the nomination of warmth as another important human need for existence, the lexeme “stove” is associated. The paper identifies and analyzes the factors that cause the life values changes at the cognitive level of a person experiencing deprivation of basic biological needs.
Olga Karpova
Respectus Philologicus pp 11-20; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.73

Abstract:
The paper is devoted to cultural heritage dictionaries with special reference to the oldest branch of English lexicography – author lexicography, comprising three hundred reference books of different types: concordances, glossaries, lexicons, indices, thesauri, etc. The article describes the main trends in developing author linguistic dictionaries for general and special purposes to single and complete works of G. Chaucer, W. Shakespeare, J. Milton, other famous English writers since the 16th c. up to the present days. The architecture of author encyclopedic dictionaries (guides, encyclopedias, companions) and onomasticons (dictionaries of characters and place names, who is who in … series) and their significant contribution to the English language, culture and society are discussed. The main accent is made on the digital era of English heritage lexicography, innovative features of modern printed and Internet author reference resources, aimed at certain target groups users’ needs and demands.
Aušra Valančiauskienė
Respectus Philologicus pp 173–184-173–184; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.86

Abstract:
During the development of structuralist semantics, there had been a strong emphasis on the distinction between encyclopedic and linguistic dictionaries because, in the latter, any reference to encyclopedic knowledge should be absent or kept to a minimum. Later it was realised that it is not possible to write a dictionary without using any encyclopedic explanations because those explanations make a dictionary more attractive, more interesting to read, and therefore more usable. This is particularly important when preparing bilingual dictionaries because it is not only two languages but indeed two cultures that are being aligned and compared. As lexica related to cognitive fields (medicine, history, botany, etc.) are incorporated into the nomenclature of modern dictionaries, relevant encyclopedic information is then added by way of explanation. Accordingly, this article examines, based on analytical, descriptive and comparative methods, how historical knowledge is presented in the micro- and macro-structures of four dictionaries: The Great Lithuanian-English Dictionary (2006), Lithuanian-Russian Dictionary (2015), The Great Lithuanian-French Dictionary (2012) and Lithuanian-Norwegian Dictionary (2016).
Ibrahim Najjar, Kais Amir Kadhim
Respectus Philologicus pp 120–135-120–135; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.82

Abstract:
Translating rhetorical questions from one language into another is not an easy task at all. This is due to the fact that rhetorical questions are not posed to elicit information, but rather to denote something else, namely rhetorical functions or purposes. Such functions, in fact, might be changed and or distorted in translation if certain issues are not considered. Of these issues is the tenor of rhetorical questions. As such, the current study is an attempt to investigate Quranic rhetorical questions that denote rhetorical functions such as negation, testing, and showing abundance to determine the extent to which the tenor of such questions is preserved in the English translation of al-Hilali and Khan (1996). Toward this end, the interpersonal Metafunction of the Quranic rhetorical questions and their English translation is analysed. In this case, the study employs Halliday's (1996) tenor and its associated metafunction, i.e., interpersonal metafunction. The analysis shows that the tenor of Quranic rhetorical questions under investigation is maintained, highly distorted and partially distorted. Consequently, the functions of such rhetorical questions are mostly affected.
Piotr Zbróg
Respectus Philologicus pp 21-31; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.74

Abstract:
Monuments of the Polish language contain numerous examples of apposition groups of the type jezioro Błędno, imię Bartłomiej, miasto Betsaida, Maryja, match Boża, królewna Nebraska, Jesusa Krysta syna Dawidowego, Bogu Oćcu. Metalinguistic appositions refer to intra-textual elements, e.g. słowo Pokłada, słowo Betanija, imię Jan, imię Fryzon. The article focuses on an overview and description of expressions of this type from the formal point of view (internal structure, grammatical features of the members), semantic (issues of the connotation of the basis of apposition and apposition, denotation, function) and syntactic (deep structure, the arrangement of members, syntactic accommodation). As it turned out, these groups were, to a large extent, shaped in terms of their specific features in the oldest Polish language and have preserved them until the present times. In semantic and grammatical terms, contemporary constructions of the word Sometime or the name Piotr imitate the old Polish groups, such as the słowo Zawżdy or the imię Bartłomiej. They are connoted on both sides, characterized by inclusion and restrictiveness of appeals. Appeals are not accommodated; expressions have a strict chord and are derived from the use of elements SOUND or HAVE A CHARACTER. Even today, they appear extremely rarely in the texts.
Loreta Ulvydienė Huber, Viktorija Lideikytė
Respectus Philologicus pp 136–147-136–147; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.83

Abstract:
Films as multimodal products have an increasing entertainment value, so the need to transfer them to other cultures arises. Audiovisual translation (AVT) becomes the only practice to translate and adapt multimodal discourse to various audiences. Together with audio description, that translates the visual into spoken language completing in this way the sounds and dialogues of films, subtitling deals with the changes within the semiotic system. Since subtitles have to interact and work in synchrony with dialogue and image, a great variety of problems arises when this translation mode is employed because a lot of constraints that exist. However, semiotic cohesion between subtitles and other elements such as moving pictures, verbal and non-verbal language and camera editing should be retained. The aim of the paper is to analyse the cases of semiotic cohesion in the English subtitles of the Lithuanian film Garden of Eden (2015). The research is carried out within the framework of multimodal discourse analysis that permits the incorporation of all identifiable communicative modes. The course of practical investigation crystallises out into three underlying directions: assessment of semiotic cohesion, identification of particular form(s) of semiotic cohesion depending on its (dis)appearance on screen and the analysis of the selected instances.
Donata Katinaitė, Inga Hilbig
Respectus Philologicus pp 58–72-58–72; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.77

Abstract:
This study investigates Lithuanian refusals to comply with requests. Refusals are face-threatening speech acts. They can endanger social relationships, and therefore require mitigation by employing politeness means. The aim of the study is to find out strategies, sub-strategies, internal and external modifications of Lithuanian refusals. The research data was collected from students using an open-ended discourse completion test and consists of 1046 refusals. Summarizing the results, it can be stated that Lithuanians opt for indirect refusals. When refusing directly, the least straightforward strategy – stating the inability to comply with a request – is used, especially by women. Refusals (especially the direct ones) are often mitigated with external modifications that were again more frequent in women’s responses. Socioculturally, the most acceptable and thus polite way to refuse in Lithuanian is to apologize and provide reasons. Overall, there is a clear tendency to express positive politeness when refusing.
Respectus Philologicus pp 32-45; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.39.44.75

Abstract:
This article investigated how metaphors for COVID-19 were framed in a Catholic-based journal Thinking Faith. Data, consisting of 107 metaphors, were collected from the online journal and were analyzed within the Jesuit perspectives. Results showed that out of the 107 occurrences of metaphoric expressions for the pandemic, the source domains tend to have reflective and empowering aspects. The 12 main source domains of COVID-19 were war, drama, tools, natural forces, journey, manageable item, teacher, other living beings, darkness, pain, threat, and signs of the times. The coverage of Thinking Faith aimed to show the life-changing wisdom of the Gospel, Catholic Social Teaching, and Papal messages. Positive or neutral word choices of metaphors like teacher, drama, journey, manageable items, natural forces, and signs of the times managed to spark hopefulness for the journal readership. Meanwhile, the violence-related metaphors war, pain, and threat may appear to be discouraging. Overall, the metaphors used in the Jesuit online journal were contextually heartening
Juan José Garrido Periñán
Published: 21 April 2021
Problemos, Volume 99, pp 161-173; doi:10.15388/problemos.99.12

Abstract:
Determining what philosophy is for the young Heidegger is a complex task. It is also an ambiguous task in that it is considered unresolved and intricate due to its subsidiary link to factical life. This paper will try to show that from the approach of worried concern and from a critique of the theoretical attitude and worldviews, Heidegger conceives that philosophizing is committing oneself to the possibility of carrying out a personal transformation lived as a commitment of a personal nature. From this situation, which will be critically scrutinized in the development of the present paper, I will determine philosophy to be the setting in motion of the self-enlightenment of the life of each existent.
Pranciškus Gricius
Published: 21 April 2021
Problemos, Volume 99, pp 87–100-87–100; doi:10.15388/problemos.99.7

Abstract:
In this article, the problem of transworld identity – that is the question, if and how it is possible to ground the intuition that the same individual exists in more than one possible world – is solved by arguing that individuals have essences. First of all, it is claimed that the concept of transworld identity is desirable since it betters both global pan-essentialism and counterpart theory. Then, necessary terminology for successful understanding of the transworld identity problem is introduced. Afterwards, it is contended that the well-known Chisholm’s paradox for transworld identity can be resolved by appealing to individual essences. It is argued that if extreme haecceitism is true, then essences of individuals are non-qualitative and hence haecceitist switches are ontologically grounded. On the other hand, if reductionism is true, then essences of individuals are qualitative and hence haecceitist switches are impossible. Finally, it is shown that by referring to individual essences across possible worlds it is possible to solve the problem of cross-world identification.
Dovydas Caturianas
Published: 21 April 2021
Problemos, Volume 99, pp 34–47-34–47; doi:10.15388/10.15388/problemos.99.3

Abstract:
The paper deals with the problem of E. Voegelin’s notion of experience: the positive meaning of this concept is not specified in any of the author’s works. Based on W. James’s ‘‘Essay on Radical Empiricism” and Voegelin’s late works, it is shown that Voegelin’s theory of consciousness is rooted in James‘s concept of “pure experience”, which essentially sought to close the epistemological chasm between subject and object, phenomena and noumena. According to this notion, mental and physical, subjective and objective realities are merely derivative aspects of a certain primordial pure experience, which is more elementary and fundamental than the two former aspects of reality. Finally, the article exposes other implications of this connection with James’s philosophy for E. Voegelin’s theory of consciousness.
Published: 21 April 2021
Problemos, Volume 99, pp 8-20; doi:10.15388/problemos.99.1

Abstract:
In this paper, the concept of creative emotion (émotion créatrice) and the understanding of democracy, which arises out of it, in the philosophy of Bergson is analysed. This specific emotion does not depend on an object’s intellectual representation; therefore, Bergson refers to it as “supra-intellectual.” Contrary to the usual “infra-intellectual” emotions, it is primary in regard of the mind and the will, and it comprises the fundamental matrix of creative acts of the human being. Creative emotion is one of the forms of the intuition of duration that is rooted in élan vital. It not only determines the essential changes in the fields of art, religion or science, but also re-configures the political rationality by revealing a deeper form of sociality. Thus, the presumed anti-sociality of the philosophy of Bergson is denied. In his last work, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion, Bergson shows how creative emotion transforms understanding of democracy and how it turns this political conception into a dynamic movement corresponding to the deep process of the human being and the whole reality.
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