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Haojun Zhuang, Austin D. Sarat
Journal of Politics and Law, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jpl.v14n3p115

This research is a continuation of the work done by one of the authors (Austin Sarat) in Gruesome Spectacles: Botched Executions and America’s Death Penalty. That book examined newspaper coverage of botched executions, from hangings, the electric chair, and the gas chamber firing to the early usage of lethal injection. It covered the period 1890 to 2010 and paid particular attention to changes in newspapers’ reporting of botched executions. It argued that the treatment of botched executions as “mishaps” rather than injustices blunted botched executions’ impact on the death penalty abolitionist movement. In this paper, we discuss newspaper coverage of botched lethal injections since 2010, looking closely at nine such executions identified by the Death Penalty Information Center website. Recent news reporting has mainly confirmed Sarat’s findings. However, a new component of the coverage of botched executions— interviews with the victims’ families— further dampens the impact of botched executions on support for the abolition of the death penalty.
Dian Perwitasari, Oster Suriani Simarmata, Lamria Pangaribuan, Teti Tejayanti, Dina Bisara Lolong, Kristina Kristina, Qian Long
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p36

OBJECTIVE: The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Indonesia is currently very high, so the analysis is needed to describe the environmental conditions at risk of TB disease. The aim of the study was to look at the prevalence of pulmonary TB in 2013-2014 in Indonesia based on the area of residence of the respondents and to see the relationship between the environmental conditions of the prevalence of TB in Indonesia. MATERIAL & METHODS: The Prevalence SPTB 2013-2014 was used cross-sectional design with national coverage. Sampling selection used multi-staged cluster sampling in the population aged 15 years and above. The analysis data used SPSS program; first analysis was used bivariate and continuing to multivariate analysis. RESULT: Tb prevalence rate with bacteriological confirmed was 759 [95% CI: 590, 961] per 100,000 population in aged 15 years and above. The bivariable analysis shown those participant who live at house with floor <8m2/person [95% CI:1,053,1,710] and those participant who lived in house with kitchen was not separated from the main living area in the house [95% CI: 1,034,1,669], that was significant related with TB. In the multivariable model, the density characterized by family members with a floor surface <8m2/person [95% CI: 1,017,1,671]is at risk of developing TB. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the effect of the physical environment of living in a crowded household can be a risk factor for TB transmission. The other factor might be influence of infection Tb in the community.
Michela Giordano, Antonio Piga
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p49

The ongoing Pan-European integration process has profoundly influenced the nature of European law and its development, demanding a review of “the ways of how language […] is materialized” (Gibová, 2009, p. 192). EU multilingualism is thus becoming an intricate concept since “EU translation is […] becoming the language of Europe” (Gibová, 2009, p. 192) encompassing a supranational view of the world conveyed in EU-wide legislation. Very much in line with this assumption, and taking into account the teaching experience in Specialised Translation Masters’ courses training would-be professional translators, this study examines a corpus of European Parliament Regulations on immigration. In order to understand whether dissimilarities and/or congruencies occur between the EU working language, i.e., English, and the Italian versions, the metadiscourse framework by Hyland (2005), comprising both interactive and interactional features, is used as the point of departure for the analysis of parallel texts. The Regulations produced by EU institutions and conveyed and transmitted both in English as a “procedural language” (Wagner, Bech, & Martίnez, 2012) as well as in Italian have been scrutinized both quantitatively and qualitatively, in order to draw precious pedagogical implications for translation studies and professional practice for future qualified and trained translators.
Keresi Rokorua Bako, Masoud Mohammadnezhad, Sabiha Khan
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p91

BACKGROUND: More than 60% of the world’s population is not physically active. Physical inactivity affects all sectors of the population including among healthcare professionals (HCPs). The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding the concept, benefits and health consequences of physical activity (PA) among HCPs in Suva, Fiji. METHODS: This quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted among HCPs in Suva, Fiji between 1 July 2017 and 22 September 2017. All available HCPs including doctors, nurses and paramedics who were willing to take part in the study were included. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the level of KAP regarding PA. Data was analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 25. RESULTS: 126 HCPs participated in this study with the majority being female (73.8%), in the age range of 33 – 42 years (47.6%), married (81.7%), from the nursing profession (54.0%) and within 0-5 years of experience (27.0%). The results showed that most of the participants (96.8%) had a high level of knowledge, positive attitudes (100%) and good practice (95%) regarding PA. CONCLUSION: Although the study participants had high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards PA, it is important to promote their practice. Using tailored behavioural change theories that focus on perceived benefits and barriers of PA may help decision-makers to promote PA in the workplace and among HCPs in Fiji.
Arwa AlRumaihi
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n2p42

This paper investigates the Kuwaiti attitudes and code-switching practices between the two most common languages used: Arabic and English. Additionally, it discusses which factors may affect how Kuwaitis code-switch, as well as their attitudes toward this phenomenon. In this study, a qualitative approach was used to collect data by conducting one-on-one interviews with seven participants. The study results showed that four of the seven participants had positive attitudes toward code-switching, whereas the remaining few had either neutral or negative attitudes. The thematic analysis of the qualitative narratives revealed that all of the participants habitually employed code-switching in their social interactions, despite their different attitudes. Being a bilingual speaker is an advantage—it can widen users’ horizons and open new socioeconomic opportunities thanks to globalization and English as a lingua franca. Therefore, parents, teachers, and policymakers are encouraged to work and help create bilingual speakers who are competent users of their mother tongue and their second language, English.
Muhammad Khan Abdul Malik
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p74

There is a plethora of research on the multifarious dialogues on English Language as (EFL and ESL), its teaching-learning approaches, assessment patterns, the learners’ employ ability and their life skills. How all these aspects affect and influence one another, need further exploration. The most important and vital point is that English Language and Literature syllabus may be different in different colleges and universities but the assessment patterns are approximately the same. The alarming situation is that maximum questions are responded through cramming and rote learning where there is no reflection of creative skills and competency in English Language. However, exceptions are always there. The focus and significance of the present study is “how can the ELT approaches and assessment patterns be adapted and transformed specifically to meet the demand of the labor market, employability and life skills. (i) the researcher collected and analyzed 75 Question Papers of English from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, and (ii) developed questionnaires cum opinionnaires for the 50 ELT teachers and the students in Jazan University, Jazan (KSA), and administered online. To determine findings and conclusion, the collected data have been analyzed in the employability, life, and soft skills perspectives that confirmed the validity and reliability of the present research hypothesis.
Claudio De Paiva Franco
International Journal of English Linguistics, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ijel.v11n3p62

In this paper, I intend to examine the main English as a lingua franca (ELF) issues discussed in the National Common Curricular Base (Brasil, 2018) and compare them to the views put forward by mainstream scholars in the field (Baker, 2016, 2018; Dewey, 2007; Jenkins, 2006, 2012, 2015; Pennycook, 2006, 2009; Widdowson, 1994). In addition, as a researcher and creator of teaching materials, I intend to share some insights into materials writing by presenting the main strategies adopted in writing a series of English textbooks for pre-teens, evaluated and approved for distribution by the Brazilian Textbook Program, that I have written with Tavares (Franco & Tavares, 2018). Therefore, I hope this article may help shed light on developing and implementing materials that adopt an ELF-oriented approach in a scenario created by the legislation and the selection of textbooks that seems to be promising for the establishment of the ELF paradigm in Brazil.
Ekowati Rahajeng, Nunik Kusumawardani, Rika Rachmawati, Fitrah Ernawati
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p49

INTRODUCTION: Excess salt intake is known to raise blood pressure and turn increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Data and information on sodium consumption in Indonesia based is limited, while examination method using 24-hour urine examination is a complex method to apply in population based survey. Objective: to estimate value of spot urinary excretion against 24-hour urine values ​​and correction factors. METHOD: Validation was carried out through 24-hour urine and spot urine examination, in 423 individual aged 25-65 years in t Kebun Kelapa Village, Bogor City, Indonesia in 2017. Urine sodium examination method was carried out by laboratory examination inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Accuracy and precision are valued by paired test correlations and mean differences. The coefficient of determination (R Square) of is calculated for sodium intake estimation and correction factors. RESULTS: The morning value of sodium spot urine has better precision and a stronger correlation with the 24-hour sodium urine than the afternoon spot urine. The difference in average morning sodium urine with 24-hour urine sodium according to age and sex was not significantly different (t test 0.30 and p = 0.77), had a positive and moderate correlation (paired r = 0.50 and p = 0.00). The average difference between the estimated evening urine sodium spot was different (t test = 7.32 and p = 0.00), and the correlation was very weak (r = 0.25; p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: The urine content / sodium spot level was accurate to estimate urine sodium value / content 24 hours.
Phatchanun Vivarakanon
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p81

Globally, aging individuals who live independently facing various problems in maintaining their health and well-being. Understanding the capability of personal well-being is an important consideration in promoting healthy behaviors and lifestyles in aging individuals. This paper aimed to more deeply explore, from self-care experiences of aging individuals living independently in the community, from their perspective. The study used the inductive approach of focused ethnography which is based on Orem’s Theory of Self-Care. Data collection consisted of participant observation with field notes and semi-structured interviews with 25 aging individuals living independently in the northern part of Thailand. Three themes were followed as protocol of the data collection plan and used the identification and classification of transcription, coding, and thematic analysis as perspectives of self-care experiences of aging individuals living independently in the community setting: 1) continuing habits of healthcare practices, 2) maintaining positive emotional adaptation, 3) and having reasonable social and life adjustments. These themes exemplified the practice of activities that aging individuals initiated and performed as their daily and routine activities with the intention of maintaining life health and well-being. Consideration of aging individuals living independently self-care experiences assisted nurses and provided greater perspectives in providing actual needs and reduced resources of nursing care and healthcare system.
Evridiki Kaba, Areti Stavropoulou, Martha Kelesi, Aikaterini Triantafyllou, Aspasia Goula, Georgia Fasoi
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p58

Writing a well-structured research protocol is a critical component of any research activity. It is a demanding task that requires rigor and strenuous effort especially for the novice researchers in all disciplines. The aims of the present paper are a) to demonstrate the key steps required towriting a protocol for a qualitative research study b) to assist nurses and other health professionals in effectively developing protocols on qualitative research. For this purpose, an example qualitative research protocol was used entitled “Investigating nurses’ views on care of mentally ill patients with skin injuries”. This protocol was chosen because it provides a reasonable model of proposing a qualitative research design within the field of nursing. Results of this process led to the development of a 10 key-step guide to writing a protocol for a qualitative research study. A thorough analysis of how each step of the protocol must be undertaken and accomplished is presented and supported by the relevant literature. This paper provides an informative guide for novice researchers and/or nurse students, on how to develop successful protocols on qualitative research studies that guide research and decision making in naturalistic settings.
Lyla S. Yang, Susan S. Witte, Carolina Vélez-Grau, Tara McCrimmon, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Gaukhar Mergenova, Nabila El-Bassel
Global Journal of Health Science, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/gjhs.v13n6p69

INTRODUCTION: Despite growing attention to structural approaches to HIV prevention, including economic empowerment interventions for key populations, few studies examine the financial lives of women engaged in sex work (WESW) and even fewer examine the financial lives of those who also use drugs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the financial status, sex work involvement, and individual and structural vulnerabilities of women involved in sex work and drug use in Kazakhstan. METHODS: We used baseline data from Project Nova, a cluster-randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of a combined HIV risk reduction and microfinance intervention for WESW in two cities in Kazakhstan. We collected data on income, savings, debt, sex work, drug use, homelessness, food insecurity, HIV status, attitudes towards safety, and financial knowledge from 400 participants through computer-assisted self-interview techniques. Descriptive statistics were utilized to describe and characterize the sample and aforementioned measures. RESULTS: Findings illustrate the paradoxical nature of sex work, wherein women may achieve economic independence despite the great adversities they encounter in their daily lives and work. The majority of women (65%) in this study reported being the highest income earner in the household, caring for up to 3 dependents, and demonstrated entrepreneurial characteristics and aspirations for the future. However, many were still living below the poverty line (72.5%), as well as experiencing high levels of homelessness (58%) and food insecurity (89.5%). CONCLUSION: Study findings underscore the need for better understanding of the existing capabilities of WESW and those who use drugs, including financial autonomy and community supports, that may guide the design of programs that most effectively promote women’s economic well-being and ensure that it is not at the expense of wellness and safety. Designing such programs requires incorporating a social justice lens into social work and public health interventions, including HIV prevention, and attention to the human rights of the most marginalized and highest risk populations, including WESW and those who use drugs.
Zhenhua Gao, Jing Wang, Wenrui Ren
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/jms.v11n1p177

The power exchange mode is widely applied in the rental field as an efficient energy supply method for new energy vehicles. The power supply-demand relationship analysis swaps. In particular, the quantitative spatial analysis of sub-regions is of great significance for optimizing the spatial layout of power swapping stations, better operation of taxis, and more efficient power swapping stations. Therefore, this paper analyzes the correlation between the ten states of taxis and the corresponding power exchange. The present analysis targets the limitations in the existing methods to analyze the power exchange supply and demand and utilizing the big data pertaining to real-time taxi operation, order-taking mode, and station-swapping operation. As per the correlations, a calculation method is established to determine the power exchange demand based on the location where the orders are received and the matching method of the power exchange supply and demand. Besides verifying the scientific nature and feasibility of the method empirically, this study also ensured its great flexibility, which allows it to adapt to more complicated social scenarios. The big data analysis indicates that determining the spatial distribution of demand based on the location from where the taxi orders are received is far more rational and practical. Thus, this study has a vital role in guiding the location and layout of interchange stations.
Sedat Erol
International Education Studies, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ies.v14n6p23

The aim of this study was to determine and investigate the writing anxiety of Syrian refugees learning Turkish as a foreign language in Turkey according to different variables. The study group of the research, in which survey model was used, consisted of 214 Syrian refugees chosen via purposive sampling method and who learn Turkish as a foreign language in Turkey. “Writing Anxiety Scale for Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language” was used as data gathering tool in the research. In the analysis process, firstly normality test was conducted and it was determined that it indicated normal distribution. Accordingly, t-test was used in pair independent samples, and one-way ANOVA test was used in multi-group comparisons. As a result of the research, it was determined that writing anxiety level of the Syrian refugees learning Turkish as a foreign language (L2) in Turkey, was at medium level and also their writing anxiety was caused by environmental/social factors rather than internal/mental factors. In addition, when the situation was evaluated according to their language levels, it was determined that students at B2 level had the highest level of anxiety; and that using Turkish in social media reduces the action-oriented anxiety of the students. When the participants’ writing anxiety was investigated according to gender, age, and time spent in Turkey it was found that a significant difference was not indicated.
Mehmet Oran
International Education Studies, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ies.v14n6p12

This study aims to reveal the opinions of social studies teacher candidates who are prepared for KPSS on the effects of the pandemic period on their studies. KPSS: It is the shortening of the Public Personnel Selection Exam. These exams determine people to work in public institutions and organizations in Turkey. The phenomenology model, one of the qualitative research techniques, was used in the study. The study group of the research consists of 34 teacher candidates (male = 19, female = 15) graduated from Usak University, Department of Social Studies. In the collection of data in the research, firstly review of literature about the subject was done, and then a semi-structured interview form was used to apply to social studies teacher candidates. Some questions are standardized, some questions are prepared open-ended. In this type of interview, it is possible to obtain in-depth information. The data collected within the scope of the research were transferred to a word file in computer- mediated and subjected to content analysis. At the end of the research, the most frequently applied sources of candidate teachers preparing for KPSS during the pandemic period is that; videos, books, online lessons, articles and lesson notes. The teacher candidates stated that their families’ attitudes towards them were generally positive during the pandemic period. The advantages of the pandemic period was revealed that candidate teachers studied more than usual, the disadvantages of the pandemic periodwas that there was no activity, anxiety and stress increased, and the fear of getting sick came out. In addition, it was emphasized in the study that preparing for KPSS during the pandemic period is more difficult than preparing for it in the normal period.
Naphat Diyen, Kuntida Thamwipat, Pornpapatsorn Princhankol
International Education Studies, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ies.v14n6p1

This research was aimed to examine, develop and find out the quality of an interactive learning resource along with contents on a social network to promote Bangchan Subdistrict of Petchaburi Province through the Way of Buddhism, to evaluate the perception and the satisfaction of the sampling group towards the interactive learning resource along with contents on a social network to promote Bangchan Subdistrict of Petchaburi Province through the Way of Buddhism which was developed in accordance with the 5 stages of the ADDIE Model as in Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. The tools consisted of 1) a questionnaire on the needs analysis, 2) the interactive learning resource along with contents on a social network to promote Bangchan Subdistrict of Petchaburi Province through the Way of Buddhism, 3) evaluation forms for the quality of the contents and the media presentation, 4) a form to evaluate the perception, and 5) a questionnaire on the satisfaction for the sampling group. The data were collected from the people who lived or were involved in Bangchan Subdistrict of Petchaburi Province and followed Facebook Fanpage of Wat Potaimanee, Petchaburi Province, and they had to be followers for at least 1 month and were willing to fill out the questionnaire. They were chosen using purposive sampling method and there were 30 people in total. The findings showed that the needs were at a high level ( = 4.30, S.D. = 1.01). After the design and the development of the resource by the researchers and the evaluation for the quality by the expert panels, it was found that the quality of the contents was at a very good level ( = 4.96, S.D. = 0.20) and the quality of the media presentation was at a very good level ( = 4.72, S.D. = 0.45). The perception of the sampling group was at a high level ( = 4.42, S.D. = 0.69) and the satisfaction of the sampling group was at the highest level ( = 4.59, S.D. = 0.54). Therefore, the interactive learning resource along with contents on a social network to promote Bangchan Subdistrict of Petchaburi Province through the Way of Buddhism could be put into use.
José Florentino Vieira de Melo, Ana Lúcia De Araújo Lima Coelho, Guilhardo Barros Moreira de Carvalho, Nicolle Sales da Costa
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/jms.v11n1p187

This paper aims to analyze the sustainability discourse manifested by a public institution dedicated to higher education located in the northeastern region of Brazil, the Federal University of Paraiba, during the time interval between the years 2009 and 2020. It used Sociological Discourse Analysis as a research method. It also used the documentation produced by the institution as a data source, in particular its Institutional Development Plans and Management Reports, as well as the media content produced and broadcast by its television channel and magazine. The research also used conversations held with employees linked to organizational management and observations recorded through photographs. Some questions were the basis for the data analysis: Who is the speaker; What is the position of the speaker; Which audiences did the speaker target; What did the speaker silence in the discourse; How did the speaker organize the speech; The research discovered discursive positions, narrative configurations, and semantic spaces that revealed an institution focused on its social function. It used teaching, research, and extension activities to be active in contact with society but placed its internal challenges in the background. It emerged that, despite understanding the importance of sustainability, internal actions to transform the organization into a laboratory for experimentation in this sense decreased due to the prioritization of combating recurrent socio-economic problems.
Mohamad Abu Ghazaleh, Abdelrahim M. Zabadi
Journal of Management and Sustainability, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/jms.v11n1p203

This study aims to explore the role of BC and its impact on CRM by suggesting an extended CRM on the basis of BC capabilities thru developing an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights developing a new self-assessment model to determine the most critical factors impacting the BC investment in CRM to enhance customer experience and to enable parties to work together in a trusted technology environment. An analytical hierarchical process (AHP) approach was utilized to prioritize and weigh the factors affecting the BC investment in modern CRM in the service industry based on the extant literature and its interpretation. This approach resulted in a ranking of 19 sub-factors based on experienced customer service professionals and technologists’ evaluations. Findings revealed a significant insight into proposing a new generation of CRM based on BCT, focusing on using the powerful BC platform considering all factors influencing the BC investment in modern CRM from a business perspective. Understanding the new combination of BC and CRM can solve the challenges and dilemmas linked to the untrusted environment of handling CRM data in the information systems field. This study provides valuable information and critical analysis of BC regarding CRM integration. Directions for future research are also included.
Haibin Sun, Tingting Liu
Higher Education Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/hes.v11n2p233

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a serious impact on education at all levels and types, and the education system, including colleges and universities, has been forced to respond by a sudden shift to online teaching. Successful online teaching requires careful thinking, planning, and technical and human support from teachers. Based on the reflection on the offline classroom teaching of theoretical mechanics for many years and the online teaching practice of first half of 2020, the author summarizes effective strategies for implementing online teaching of theoretical mechanics. We prepared the theoretical mechanical lessons through a “student-centered” approach, such as preparing teaching materials, students and teaching methods. These teaching strategies include (i) Adopting live-stream teaching as the main teaching method, (ii) Applying electronic blackboard to online deductions, (iii) Linking theory to practice for better understanding of knowledge, (iv) Integrating curriculum content in ideological and moral education, (v) Conducting formative assessment to supervise and motivate online learning. The implementation of these online teaching strategies has effectively promoted the development of students' independent learning ability.
Othmane Idrissi Fakhr Dine, Nawfal Bahha
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n6p66

This article has two objectives, the first is to present an analysis of the results of a systematic review of literature on logistics and supply chain management (SCM) in Morocco from 2010 to 2018, and second, to present a diagnosis of this research in order to propose a line of research which is little or not explored yet in the Moroccan context. To reach these objectives, we rely on the systematic review approach of literature and 51 articles were selected for final analysis. The results show that some laboratories are more active in logistics and SCM in the Moroccan context than others. Also, most of the articles included present a theoretical background that is not totally explored. Furthermore, our results reveal a dominance of articles highlighting logistics performance. This study presents a number of research tracks which take into consideration the recent evolutions in the logistics sector in Morocco.
Phung Van Hien
Public Administration Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/par.v10n2p7

The State uses legal tools to manage the environment, because the environment plays a particularly important role in the survival and development of the ecosystem and humanity.
Jittinun Boonsathirakul, Chakree Kerdsomboon
Higher Education Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/hes.v11n2p224

This research study aims to investigate university student’s critical thinking disposition (CTD). The sample includes 633 undergraduate students at different levels from Kasetsart University, Thailand. The analysis was based on convenience random sampling. The CTD instrument comprises 24 Likert scale. The subscales consisted of seven crucial dimensions: truth-seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, critical thinking self-confidence, inquisitiveness, and cognitive maturity. The cumulative percent of variance was 61.84%. Cronbrach’s alpha for the overall instrument, the disposition toward critical thinking was .78. The findings revealed that critical thinking disposition has no distinctive correlation to significant difference towards gender and the different levels of university students significantly, particularly at the level of p<.05.
Manatee Jitanan, Varangkana Somanandana, Sutasinee Jitanan, Usanee Lalitpasan, Sumalee Kham-In
Higher Education Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/hes.v11n2p215

Depression and suicide rates among youths tended to increase. From reviews, many applications and online counseling could reduce depression and anxiety to promote well-being of youths and university students effectively. This study was conducted to develop "Friend from heart" application based on LINE system to promote well-being for undergraduate students of faculty of education, Kasetsart University. The research method included the survey of basic data for developing the application and evaluation of the application by specialists. A total of 72 voluntary students were invited to join an online survey. It was found that most of the students (81.94%) wanted applications that provide physical health information such as exercise, eating healthy food, and health care. However, about 16.66% of students needed an application that can speak or listen problems with video calls. Then, researchers took the services that students were interested more than 50% to develop the applications. It worked through the application, consisting of chatbot, physical health, mental health, and appointment with counselor. The index of item-objective congruence was 0.66-1.00 with additional specialists commenting that the application had an interesting design with good structure to help students. For ethical approval, it was obtained from the Kasetsart University Research Ethics Committee.
Robert G. Brannan, Maria N. Coyle
Sustainable Agriculture Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/sar.v10n3p19

The North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a small tree native to the Appalachian region of the United States that produces large, yellowish-green to brown fruit that has the flavor of a banana and mango. The scope of this review is limited to pawpaw orchards outside of North America that were intentionally planted for commercial or research purposes and are documented in the scientific literature. This review identified nine countries outside of North America (Romania, Italy, Ukraine, Slovakia, Austria, Georgia, Russia, Japan, Korea) and across two continents that have scientific literature that describes pawpaw cultivation. There are reports that pawpaws are cultivated in China, Israel, Belgium, and Portugal, however, no scientific literature could be found that describes pawpaw research from these countries. Most of the research since 2010 has featured pawpaws grown in Romania, Italy, and Korea with a focus on characterizing roots, twigs, leaves, pulp and seeds or the toxicity and/or bioactivity of the annonaceous acetogenins naturally found in these parts of the pawpaw.
K. M. Salah Uddin, Nishat Tanzim
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n6p56

The aim of this study is to identify the role of the internal auditors in achieving the social responsibility of the commercial banks operating in Jordan as a result of its affectivity on the sustainable development of the society. The descriptive statistics were used to describe and respond to the two study samples, the ANOVA test and the T-test were used as well at the significance level (0.05) to examine the hypothesis of the study. This study found out that the internal auditors are doing well in verifying the integrity of commercial practices in Jordan regarding the human rights and business behavior on one hand, and don’t leave a finger with regard to the safety of environmental and social practices on the other hand. One of the important study recommendations is the necessity of urging the internal auditors to play a pivotal role in monitoring commercial banks related to environment and social relationships by holding training courses and programs in addition to conducting further studies on social responsibility and sustainable development.
Pongsakorn Kanoknitanunt, Prachyanun Nilsook, Panita Wannapiroon
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p112

This study aimed at developing an imagineering learning process model with logical solutions by using documentary research and relevant experts’ viewpoints with regard to the process of Imagineering Learning—problem-based learning (PBL) involving logical and computational thinking. The data were then synthesized in order to find the relationship of learning theory to achieve an Imagineering Learning process by solving logic problems. The analysis of related documents and research revealed that the Imagineering Learning process involving logical problem solving consisted of 6 important steps as follows: 1) the problem-solving stage, 2) the problem-solving design stage, 3) the innovation development stage, 4) the innovation presentation, 5) the innovation improvement stage, 6) the evaluation stage. The aforementioned learning process can also result in the development of students’ innovative skills, and encouraging learners to develop such skills. The emphasis in terms of the Imagineering process is to create inspiration for the imagination of things that do not yet occur. The process then continues with innovation development by using the PBL process in which students learn solution thinking, focusing on logically-prioritizing problems and their causes and effects. This creates structural and systematic learning through practice, so that students can develop the ability to seek knowledge and develop problem-solving abilities.
Jeroen Provoost, Karen Victor
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n2p1

The complexity of the vapour intrusion (VI) transport pathway has received an ever-increased interest worldwide, and an improved and consolidated understanding of the VI issue requires collaboration between international research groups. This study uses the social network analysis methodology, applied to bibliometric authorship for VI research, to discover trends in collaboration, identify lead scientists, organisations, and countries. Furthermore, some of the external factors influencing the collaboration and productivity were assessed. The data suggests that the global research network for VI produced over a time span of 54 years 566 publications via 157 sources. The research network is composed of 437 organisations and 1053 authors from 33 countries. This suggests an increasingly active international collaborative research effort. However, inter-continental cooperation is much less than continental. The top five most central countries in the network are the USA, followed by Canada, China, The Netherlands, and Italy. The researchers with the most publications are from these five countries as well as the top organisations. The social network analysis conducted shows a good approximation of the collaborative structure for the key countries, organisations and researchers involved. Since 2010, the research community has become more stable.
Arshed Fouad Altameemi, Zaher Abdula Fatah Al-Slehat
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n6p31

E-learning technology adoption has become, during the COVID-19 pandemic, an essential requirement and a new trend to manage the academic activities in the universities which follow traditional education (Face-to-Face Classroom). Because of the significant effect of coronavirus pandemic on the educational Process, this study's primary purpose is to gain an insight into the factors affecting the students' acceptance and their intentions to adopt an e-learning system in the faculty of business at Tafila university in Jordan. A total number of 257 students with different college disciplinary took part in the study by engaging via a survey distributed as a link by WhatsApp, E-mail, and Thuraya Platform. The study formulated a model based on a UTAUT of (Venkatesh et al., 2003) and suggested a new two moderating factors (study qualification level and scientific disciplinary) after drop two variables from the original model to make the model applicable in the context of a study. The data collection analyzed by smart PLS revealed that the research model constructs have positive explanatory power of the student's behavioral intention to adopt an e-learning system and improved after the moderating effect. Final result Sof this study states that the scientific discipline is a critical moderating factor that moderated the behavioral intentions to adopt e-learning technology from Tafila university students' viewpoint and accepted the new situation of academic activities with behavioral intentions to adopt e-learning.
Giovanni Zampone, Natalia Aversano, Giuseppe Sannino
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n6p17

The paper aims at investigating how CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) and ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) disclosure affect the brand value of a sample of Interbrand companies. Empirically results show that the brand value is positively related to the environmental disclosure, social disclosure, and ESG disclosure, whereas no significant correlation has been found for the governance disclosure. This study provides new evidence to the growing body of literature that identifies CSR as a means of improving the company’s brand value and can represent a starting point in the discussion on the reputational benefits of CSR practices.
Recep Öz, Murat Tolga Kayalar
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p122

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of associate degree formal and distance education students course attendance upon their course achievement. The data were obtained from the institutional records of 516 students who registered in formal education programs and 510 students who registered in distance education programs of a vocational school affiliated to a state university in Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. It was noticed that course attendance of formal education students was higher than those who registered in the distance education programs; on the other hand, formal education students were more successful rather than distance education students in terms of midterm, final exam and grade point average. It was determined that course attendance was a significant predictor of midterm, final exam and grade point average, and the achievement scores increased as the course attendance increased, as well. Taking measures to encourage students’ attendance in courses in distance education programs and optimizing access and technical infrastructure could positively contribute upon this issue.
Faris Al Qadi, Mohammed Al Haija
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n6p42

The aim of this study is to identify the role of the internal auditors in achieving the social responsibility of the commercial banks operating in Jordan as a result of its affectivity on the sustainable development of the society. The descriptive statistics were used to describe and respond to the two study samples, the ANOVA test and the T-test were used as well at the significance level (0.05) to examine the hypothesis of the study. This study found out that the internal auditors are doing well in verifying the integrity of commercial practices in Jordan regarding the human rights and business behavior on one hand, and don’t leave a finger with regard to the safety of environmental and social practices on the other hand. One of the important study recommendations is the necessity of urging the internal auditors to play a pivotal role in monitoring commercial banks related to environment and social relationships by holding training courses and programs in addition to conducting further studies on social responsibility and sustainable development.
Saleh Afroogh, Seyyed Abbas Kazemi, Faegheh Hajhosseini, Amin Alizadeh
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n6p1

In this paper, we propose a conceptual model to improve moral sensitivity in human resource development (HRD) practices to assist human resource (HR) practitioners in contending with moral challenges in HRD. The literature on the relationship between ethics and HRD suggests that the organizational and employee development discipline deals with ethical issues at three different levels: Individual, organizational and  and communal, and international levels. In section I, we elaborate on moral challenges facing HRD. In section II, we conceptualize moral sensitiveity in HRD, and propose a conceptual model in virtue of some essential ethical theories and concepts, that assist HRD face those problems. We will show how each theory and concept can help HRD to deal with relevant problems. In section III, we elaborate on the practical approaches to implement moral sensitivity in sensitivity HRD. We put forward some strategies that help HRD bring those theories and concepts to bear on the ethical problems facing this discipline. Finally, we discuss moral education through learning theories to cultivate moral concepts and ethical dimensions in HRD education.
Evgenia Gordeeva
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p164

I believe that the phenomenon of regionalization that currently gains weight as a characteristic of the international system bears a great potential for increasing the effectiveness of complex international environmental regimes. Constituting a sub-level within the international system, macro-regions create a bridge between the anarchy of the international system and the order of the state, by doing so, allowing for a certain amount of intra-regional cooperation to emerge and facilitating inter-regional coordination. The corresponding fragmentation of complex environmental regimes into sub-regimes consisting of groups of states sharing certain characteristics and interests can be expected to contribute to an increase in their effectiveness.
Carol Wong
Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/jedp.v11n1p68

Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2021.
Jenny Zhang
Asian Social Science, Volume 17; doi:10.5539/ass.v17n5p70

Reviewer Acknowledgements for Asian Social Science, Vol. 17, No. 5 2021.
Mustafa Özdere
Journal of Education and Learning, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/jel.v10n3p96

This article explores the process, reasons, and determinants of private tutoring as perceived by the high school students in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. This is a survey study and the quantitative data for the study was collected with a questionnaire from 1329 high school students during the spring semester in 2019. According to the findings, almost half of the participants reported having received private tutoring at private teaching institutions in the last year. The most popular subjects for private tutoring were math, science, and Turkish. Exam-focused learning, poor classroom teaching were reported as the most important reasons behind receiving private tutoring. The individuals who referred most of the participants to private tutoring were the parents. Besides, it was determined that as age, grade, father and mother’s education level, level of income, and parents’ belief in the need for education increases, the likelihood of receiving private tutoring increases; as satisfaction level with the school decreases, students are more likely to participate in private tutoring. Also, it was found out that female students spent on private tutoring more than male students. It is concluded that the demand for private tutoring in Turkey is high, and this may be due to the university entrance system based on high-stakes testing.
Yi Cai, Guiyu Dai
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n2p33

Silko, as a writer who attaches great importance to the landscape of the Laguna reservation, accentuates natural elements and imagery in her literary creation. Gardens in the Dunes is the most typical one. This novel is infused with a vast scope of flora and detailed delineation of weather to the extent that some even believe that Silko must be an expert in horticulture and meteorology. “Wind” is one of the most recurrent weather imageries in Gardens in the Dunes, ranging from the literary form of “wind”, “breeze” to “storms” and “hurricane”. Based on the analysis of the wind’s interaction with different characters and the roles it plays, such as “backgrounder”, purifier, facilitator, messenger, consoler, mentor and destroyer, the author is dedicated to elucidating that through depicting the “wind” in different circumstances, Silko reveals her advocacy of reconstructing female identity, her denunciation of imperialism and capitalism as well as her reflection on native cultures.
Wendy Smith
International Journal of Statistics and Probability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijsp.v10n3p164

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Statistics and Probability, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2021
Gavin Yu
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p124

English Language Teaching, Vol. 14, No. 5, May 2021
Chris Lee
International Education Studies, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ies.v14n5p168

Reviewer acknowledgements for International Education Studies, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2021.
Cristiano Farias Almeida, Yaeko Yamashita, Mario Cools, Jean Marchal, Bernard Piette
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p147

Several scholars have addressed the locational factors necessary for the best installation of industries or services; among them, one finds the costs with transportation of products and raw materials, labor-related costs, benefits deriving from the agglomeration of companies, as well as place-environment associations. Some agglomeration types stand out in this context, each one of them has its specific features, although they share the same goal. The agglomeration of companies is an increasingly frequent trend observed in production centers. Companies belonging to the same production chain remain close to each other in order to reduce costs with product transportation, storage and distribution processes. Consequently, they get to optimize their processes and increase their profits. The proximity between companies belonging to the same branch increases competitiveness between them. In addition, there is significant presence of skilled labor in these regions, a fact that favors logistics operations such as the transportation of inputs needed to enable companies’ production, and cost reduction. Thus, the aim of the present research is to create a methodology capable of identifying the variables necessary to develop a logistics cluster based on concepts such as productive economic agglomerations, by taking into consideration aspects addressed in a survey conducted with key cluster policy-development actors. Moreover, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) was used to create an ontology to help better understanding the association among all variables necessary to structure logistics clusters.
Olanrewaju Davies Eniade, Joshua Odunayo Akinyemi, Oyindamola Bidemi Yusuf, Rotimi Felix. Afolabi, Olufunmilayo I. Fawole
International Journal of Statistics and Probability, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ijsp.v10n3p154

Propensity Score Methodology (PSM) was used to investigate the effect of education on attitude towards domestic violence (ATDV) among men and women in Nigeria. A total of 14,495 and 33,419 records were extracted for men and women respectively from the 2016-2017 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) in Nigeria. The outcome variable was ATDV. The study framework described the role of education on ATDV in the light of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic profile, and lifestyle. Selection bias was checked among the levels of education using the multinomial logit regression. Propensity scores (PS) and PS weights were generated for the treatment variable and average treatment effects (ATE) of ATDV were estimated using logistic regression that combined regression adjustment and inverse-probability weight. Descriptive statistics, odds ratios and 95%CI were presented. The mean age of men and women were 30.8±10.2 years and 29±9.4 years respectively. About 22% men and 35% women justified domestic violence (DV) respectively. Selection bias was found between the covariates and level of education (p<0.05). PSM effectively corrected the selection bias (SD diff ≈ 0, Variance ratio ≈ 1). Men (AOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.92) and women (AOR=0.94, 95%CI: 0.80, 2.22) who have attained tertiary level of education were less likely to justify DV in comparison to their uneducated counterparts. Tertiary education was protective for ATDV among men and women. The use of PSM effectively controlled for selection bias in estimating the effect of education on ATDV. PSM will enable researchers make causal inference from non-experimental/cross-sectional studies in situations where randomized control trials are not feasible.
Joan Lee
Sustainable Agriculture Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/sar.v10n2p98

Sustainable Agriculture Research wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal are greatly appreciated. Sustainable Agriculture Research is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please contact us for the application form at: [email protected] Reviewers for Volume 10, Number 2 Araya Ranok, Department of Applied Biology, Faculty Science and Liberal Arts, Thailand Cristina B. Pocol, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj Napoca, Romania Daniel L Mutisya, Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization, Kenya Darwin Pangaribuan, Lampung University, Indonesia Gunnar Bengtsson, Sweden Inder Pal Singh, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University (GADVASU), India Katarzyna Panasiewicz, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland Khaled Sassi, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, Tunisia Luciano Chi, Sugar Industry Research and Development Institute, Belize Manuel Teles Oliveira, University Tras os Montes Alto Douro (UTAD), Portugal Murtazain Raza, Subsidiary of Habib Bank AG Zurich, Pakistan Ram Niwas, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, India Roberto José Zoppolo, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (Uruguay), Uruguay Subhash Chand, Central Agricultural Research Institute CARI Port Blair, India
Ayşe Ateş, Nesrin Sis
International Education Studies, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/ies.v14n5p158

In the study, the effect of hierarchical vocabulary activities prepared in accordance with Gass’s Second Language Acquisition Model developed by Ateş (2016) on students’ written expression skills and writing anxiety was investigated. While the determined target words were taught to the experimental group with hierarchical vocabulary activities, the supervised group was kept in a regular diary. The method of the study consists of an experimental design with pre-test-post-test-measurement and supervised group. Experimental and supervised groups consisted of foreign students studying at Inonu-TÖMER in the 2017-2018 academic year. An essay was written to the students as a pre-test and a post-test, and the Writing Anxiety Scale was applied. No significant difference was found between the experimental and supervised groups of the Written Expression Rubric, which is used to score the compositions, in the pre-test and post-tests. It was concluded that the privatized instruction applied to both groups was beneficial for students’ written expressions. There was a significant difference between the experimental and supervised groups in terms of Writing Anxiety Scale pre-test scores. It was determined that the writing anxiety of the experimental group was higher in the pre-test.
Ying Liu, Xin Liu, Yibei Zhang
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p109

EFL classroom teaching in China, no matter whether it is traditional one or a flipped one, is a dynamic communicative process by using English with the aim of learning it. The interactive discourse between the teacher and the student has its own pragmatic functions, especially the feedback given by the teachers which may influence the teaching and learning efficiency. In order to provide appropriate investigation resources, a corpus of 128,223 words with 36.65 hour-2199 minute real audiovisual college EFL classroom teaching transcripts is built. Taking the data of the resources as supporting evidence, this paper analyzes the pragmatic functions of EFL classroom feedback discourse, and proposes certain pragmatic strategies of increasing interactivity, which has certain pedagogical implications for EFL classroom teaching. 
Nakhon Kitjaroonchai, Suksan Suppasetseree
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p89

The study investigated the interaction patterns of six ASEAN EFL university students when they worked in small groups on two collaborative writing tasks: a descriptive essay and an argumentative essay. Both groups were homogeneous in terms of gender and heterogeneous in terms of home countries. Data collection included pre- and posttest writing, pre- and post-task questionnaires, participants’ work on essays, their reflections, observations, and semi-structured interviews. The students worked on their essays in Google Docs, and the researcher(s) used DocuViz as a tool for visualizations of students’ collaborative writing contributions and styles. The findings showed different interaction patterns (a cooperative revision style for Group A vs. a main writer style for Group B) across the two collaborative writing tasks. While revising, both groups added and corrected their essays and employed almost the same writing change functions and language functions, which were suggesting, agreeing, and stating.
Nicholaus Mwageni, Robert Kiunsi
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p121

Green spaces in urban areas including in Dar es Salaam City provide multiple ecological, social and economic benefits. Despite their benefits they are inadequately documented in terms types, coverage and uses. This paper attempts to provide information on types, coverage and uses of green space in Dar es Salaam City. A number of methods including literature review, interpretation of remotely sensed image, interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires were used to document city greenery. The research findings show that residential greenery is made up of greenery found within and external to plots. The dominant green spaces external to residential plots were natural and semi natural vegetation while within plots were woody plants, plots farms vegetable and ornamental gardens. Distribution of greenery varied among the wards due to differences in building density and distance from the city centre. Natural and semi natural vegetation increased with decrease of building density and increase of distance from the city centre, while the number of plots with trees for shade increased with increase of building density. Only Kawe ward that had greenery above Tanzania space planning standards, the other three wards which are informal settlements had green space deficit. Three quarters of the households use green spaces for shade provision and cooling, two thirds as a source of food products and a quarter for recreation and aesthetic purposes. The study reveals that Dar es Salaam City residents invest predominantly on shade trees in their residential plots compared to other green space types.
Chris Lee
Computer and Information Science, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/cis.v14n2p109

Reviewer Acknowledgements for Computer and Information Science, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2021
Makokha Peter Wanyama, Lydia N. Wambugu, Peter Keiyoro
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p136

The main objective of this study was examine contribution of marketing reform interventions on the performance of agricultural programmes funded by the World Bank in Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya. The study arose out of the need to quantify the worth of reform packages currently implemented in the agriculture sector thorough innovative interventions. The sample size of this study was 268 respondents determined using the simplified Yamane formula of proportions. Pragmatism school of thought was the best suited philosophy to guide this study as it complemented the epistemological, methodological and axiological underpinnings desired for mixed-mode research. Results obtained showed β weight of 0.181 (F- value (0.029); ρ-value= 0.05) implying that marketing reforms contributed positively to the performance of agricultural programmes. Further analysis generated R=0.125, R2= 0.016 and adjusted R2 =0.012 indicating a better fit for the model and that marketing reform contributed to the performance of agricultural programmes by 1.6%. The analysis also generated F- value (0.029); (p<0.05) and the F-calculated (4.796) being significantly larger than the critical value (F=2.454) suggesting up to 95% chance the model’s strength in explaining it is statistically significant. These results support outcomes theory by providing documented analysis and empirical evidence to support the formulation of research-based policies and regulations. Findings from the study will therefore contribute immensely to the growth of project management discipline and agricultural marketing practices in Kenya and globally.
Stephen Lee
International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 16; doi:10.5539/ijbm.v16n5p146

Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 16 No. 5, 2021
Li-Wei Xing, Ying Duan
Public Administration Research, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/par.v10n2p1

Chinese anti-corruption struggle has achieved phased victory, the national corruption governance center has gradually moved down, and the issue of "micro-corruption" of village cadres has attracted widespread attention from the political, practical and academic circles. The standardized management system of village-level affairs is promoted and implemented nationwide as an institutional arrangement for regulating the power of village cadres and combating corruption. However, in the actual implementation process, there are problems such as passive implementation and even resistance to implementation by village cadres. The study took the L District of Y City, Shandong Province as an example, and found that the village cadres did not implement the corresponding standardized management system. The factors affecting the implementation of the standardized management system of the village cadres were investigated from the three-dimensional perspective of motivation, ability, and pressure, and then reasonable policy recommendations were put forward. Aims to give better play to the effectiveness of standardized systems.
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