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Jan Stenis
Theoretical Economics Letters, Volume 11, pp 447-461; https://doi.org/10.4236/tel.2021.113029

Abstract:
Objectives: The Naturally Optimised Revenue Demand in Communities (NORDIC) model improves the flow of utilities through producing companies and nations. Methods: Constructed shadow costs are added to the bookkeeping systems of organisations to improve the economy, technology and environment. Results: The NORDIC model gives managers a management tool. The method provides a key indicator to assess and improve actors' performance. The case study shows how to increase the efficiency for the Swedish care, schools and welfare, Swedish: vård, skola, omsorg. Conclusions: The model shows utility for public sectors. Citizens get a better life, and improved health.
Abdel Fattah N. Abd Rabou, Kamal E. Elkahlout, Fayez A. Almabhouh, Walid F. Mohamed, Norman A. Khalaf, Mona A. Al-Sadek, Randa N. Alfarra, Lamis T. Al-Moqayed, Ashraf A. Shafei, Nedal A. Fayyad, et al.
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 11, pp 105-125; https://doi.org/10.4236/oje.2021.112010

Abstract:
The Golden Jackal (Canis aureus Linnaeus, 1758), which belongs to the Canidae family, is an opportunist carnivore in the Gaza Strip (365 square kilometers). The current study aims at giving notes on the occurrence and some ecological aspects of the species in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The study, which lasted 14 years (2007-2020), is descriptive and cumulative in its style. It was based on frequent field visits, direct observations and meetings and discussions with wildlife hunters, farmers and other stakeholders. The findings of the study show that Gazans are familiar with the Golden Jackal to the extent that a Gazan family holds the Arabic name of the animal, which is “Wawi”. The Golden Jackal was sometimes encountered and hunted in the eastern parts of the Gaza Strip, which are characterized by the presence of wilderness areas, intensive agriculture, poultry pens and solid waste landfills. Like other a few mammalian faunas, the adult Golden Jackals enter the Gaza Strip through gaps in or burrows beneath the metal borders separating the Gaza Strip from the rest of the Palestinian Territories and Egypt. Gaza zoos were found to harbor tens of Golden Jackals trapped or hunted by clever wildlife hunters using different means such as wire cages known locally as “maltash” and foothold traps with metal jaws that may cause lesions to the trapped animals. Poisoning and shooting were also common methods used to control the jackals and other carnivores causing harm to agriculture and livestock. The animal was known among the Gazans as an omnivore, feeding on wild and domestic animals in addition to plant materials, garbage and carrions. In conclusion, the study recommends the need to raise ecological awareness to preserve the Golden jackal and to adopt safe control measures for jackals and other carnivores, including the construction of protective fences for agricultural fields and animal pens.
Philipp I. Vysikaylo, Valeriy S. Mitin, Alexey A. Yakushkin
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/jsemat.2021.111001

Abstract:
The fundamental scientific problem for micro- and nano-electronics has been solved—methods for creating and investigating properties of physically doped materials with spatially inhomogeneous structure at the micro- and nano-meter scale have been developed. For the application of functional nanocomposite film coatings based on carbides of various transition metals structured by nanocarbon, for the first time in the world, we developed a new technique for their plasma deposition on a substrate without the use of reaction gases (hydrocarbons such as propane, acetylene, etc.). We have created nanostructured film materials, including those with increased strength and wear resistance, heterogeneous at the nanoscale, physically doped with nanostructures—quantum traps for free electrons. We learned how to simultaneously spray (in a plasma of a stationary magnetron discharge) carbides and graphite from a special mosaic target (carbide + carbon) made mechanically. As a result of such stationary sputtering of carbides and carbon, plasma nanostructured coatings were obtained from nanocarbides, metal nanocrystals and nanocarbon. Our design of such a target made it possible to intensively cool it in the magnetron body and spray its parts (carbide + carbon) simultaneously with a high power density of a constant plasma discharge—in the range of values from 40 W/cm2 to 125 W/cm2. Such sputtering with a change in the power or the initial relative surface areas of various parts of the mosaic target (carbon and carbide) made it possible to change the average density of carbide, metal and carbon in a nanostructured (nanocarbon and metal nanostructures) coating. The changed relative density of various components of the nanocomposite (nanostructures of carbide, metal, and carbon in the form of graphite) significantly affected the physical properties of the nanocomposite coating. The creating method of multiphase nanostructured composite coatings (based on carbides of transition metals) with high hardness of 30 GPa, a low coefficient of friction to dry 0.13 - 0.16, with high heat resistance up to 3000°C and thermal stability in the nanocrystalline state over 1200°C is developed. It is established that the presence of nanographite in the composite significantly improves the impact strength and extends the range of possible applications, compared with pure carbides. The solution to this problem will allow creating new nanostructured materials, investigating their various physical parameters with high accuracy, designing, manufacturing and operating devices with new technical and functional capabilities, including for the nuclear industry and rocket science.
Athanasios Zikopoulos, Yannis Prapas, Maria Paraskevaidi, Charalampos Siristatidis, Apostolia Galani, Orestis Tsonis, Minas Paschopoulos, Konstantinos Zikopoulos, Efstratios Kolibianakis
International Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 12, pp 424-432; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijcm.2021.1210038

Abstract:
Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumours in the reproductive system. They are proliferations of smooth muscle cells of the myometrium containing a large quantity of extracellular matrix and they are surrounded by a pseudo capsule of compressed areolar tissue and smooth muscle cells. They can cause various symptoms such as menorrhage, pain and infertility and therefore they can be a traumatic experience for several women. The treatment of choice is myomectomy. In the past, myomectomy was performed by relatively atraumatic techniques, which involved stretching the myoma from its pseudocapsule to extract the fibroid directly from the surrounding fibromuscular tissue, breaking up the fibrous bridge. Modern laparoscopic intracapsular myomectomy (LIM), however, leaves the fibrovascular network surrounding the myoma (namely the “fibroid neurovascular bundle”) intact which reduces the bleeding and/or uterine musculature trauma, and spares the neuropeptide fibers of the pseudocapsule. In this observational study, we compare the two techniques-laparoscopic intracapsular myomectomy (LIM) and conventional abdominal myomectomy (CAM) regarding the longterm uterine healing and a significantly faster healing process of the uterine incision was achieved by LIM compared to CAM.
Sepehr Akhavan Masouleh, Tracy Holsclaw, Babak Shahbaba, Daniel L. Gillen
Open Journal of Statistics, Volume 11, pp 778-805; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojs.2021.115046

Abstract:
We propose a flexible joint longitudinal-survival framework to examine the association between longitudinally collected biomarkers and a time-to-event endpoint. More specifically, we use our method for analyzing the survival outcome of end-stage renal disease patients with time-varying serum albumin measurements. Our proposed method is robust to common parametric assumptions in that it avoids explicit specification of the distribution of longitudinal responses and allows for a subject-specific baseline hazard in the survival component. Fully joint estimation is performed to account for uncertainty in the estimated longitudinal biomarkers that are included in the survival model.
Alpha Oumar Diallo, Amadou Lamarana Diallo, Carlos Othon Guelngar, Abdoulaye Toure, Ismael Dabo, Abdoul Aziz Diallo, Alimou Sinayoko
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Volume 10, pp 477-486; https://doi.org/10.4236/ijohns.2021.106042

Abstract:
Introduction: Tonsillectomy is described as one of the oldest surgical procedures according to the authors of the surgical treatise (Aulus Amida and Paul of Aegina in the 6th and 7th centuries) found in the Vatican library. The contraindication of codeine in children has changed the management of post tonsillectomy pain. The aim of this study was to assess the management of post tonsillectomy pain in our developing country context. Methods: This was a prospective, analytical study lasting 6 months (September 2019-February 2020), carried out in the ENT/CFS department of the Ignace Deen National Hospital. We included in this study all patients who underwent a tonsillectomy in the department during the study period and who agreed to participate in the survey. Results: 34 patients were included in our study, i.e. a frequency of 25% of surgical interventions. The mean age of our patients was 18.06 ± 12 years with extremes of 03 years and 45 years. Recurrent hypertrophic tonsillitis with sleep disturbances was the most frequent indication for surgery in our study, at 47.06% (n = 16). We performed an isolated tonsillectomy in 52.9% (n = 18) of cases. Analgesia was multimodal using the WHO Step I and II analgesics in 44.1% (n = 15) and 55.9% (n = 19), respectively. Pain control was satisfactory in all patients. Conclusion: The evaluation of post tonsillectomy pain is essential for optimal management. In this indication, multimodal analgesia, involving several levels I and II analgesics, provided satisfactory pain control.
Marie Josette Ndengue, Merlin Zacharie Ayissi, Pierre Marcel Anicet Noah, Fabien Betene Ebanda, Atangana Ateba
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 206-225; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.92015

Abstract:
This study examines the implementation and characterization of a polymer matrix composite material reinforced by sugarcane residues. The aim of the study is to enhance the abundantly produced sugarcane bagasse in the form of residues in the processing plants of said sugar cane. The composite material developed takes into account the size parameters and mass load rate of the reinforcement, the variations of which are between 2.5 mm and 4 mm respectively for the first parameter and 10% to 25% for the second. The load on the test tube during the test has a random orientation. The composite is polyester matrix. The cold compression moulding technique was used in the production of the various samples. Physical properties such as the rate of water absorption and the density of the composite are assessed. The three-point bending tests are carried out with the aim of inducing Young’s modulus from the elaborate samples. Analysis of physical properties shows that water absorption increases with the rate of residue load. The average water absorption rate of bagasse fibres is estimated at 8% for the 2.5 mm fiber size and 12% for the 4 mm fiber size for all composites. Mechanical characterization by bending tests reveals a fragile behavior of the samples tested. Young’s modulus decreases when the load rate of fibrous residues increases regardless of the size of the fibers.
Yanyan Bao, Shuzhen Liu
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 463-470; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.93030

Abstract:
Along with the development of humanistic psychology, the affective factors in education are gaining more and more importance. The paper introduces three major affective factors in second language acquisition, which are self-esteem, motivation and anxiety. With the expectation to play the positive role of affective factors in second language acquisition and diminish its negative influences on education, and exert the intuitive subjectivity to study, this paper analyses its application on teaching from the perspective of teachers, as well as its implication on studying from the students’ perspective.
Mohammad Albakry
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 12, pp 57-78; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbnb.2021.124006

Abstract:
Since the last two decades, restorative dentistry has been witnessing an increased acceptance of the use of the well-known all-ceramic materials for the fabrication of single dental restorations, such as inlays, onlays, crowns, anterior and posterior fixed partial dentures (PFPDs). These restorations certainly offer the potential for better biocompatibility coupled with superior aesthetic qualities, especially when compared with the conventional prostheses made from porcelain that is fused with metal ceramic restorations. However, brittleness and extreme sensitivity of all-ceramic materials to micro-like defects or cracks that are inherently present, or may grow, in their microstructure during different laboratory fabrication steps, during necessary clinical adjustments, or from post-placement chewing activity, remain major shortcomings of these dental restorations. In fact, many researchers are of the opinion that the improved mechanical properties can significantly improve the lifetime of all-ceramic restorations and result in enhanced reliability. Therefore, efforts of researchers, as well as manufacturers, have been directed towards the improvement of the mechanical properties in order to overcome such limitations. This article reviews the characterization of the most important mechanical properties that can delineate the behavior of all-ceramic dental materials upon loading. These include fracture mechanics, the brittle nature of ceramics, the relationship between microstructural features and fracture behavior, sources of cracks and flaws that may initiate a fracture and the effect of different fabrication procedures and/or clinical adjustments on the mechanical behavior of dental ceramics are also reviewed and discussed.
Yanan Zhang, Shizong Huang, Xiaowen Wang
Advances in Sexual Medicine, Volume 11, pp 73-85; https://doi.org/10.4236/asm.2021.114005

Abstract:
To explore the differences of male semen parameters in different seasons of the year, so as to explore the potential climatic factors affecting spermatogenesis and male reproductive ability, we retrospectively analyzed 21,715 semen analysis data from January 2018 to February 2021, grouped by year and season, and finally the relationships among semen parameters and semen and meteorological parameters were compared. Environmental exposures prior to 3 months were analyzed and correlation analysis was performed.The semen concentration decreased year by year (p
Israel Salgado Adame, Alberto Manuel González Chávez, Brisa del Mar Leslie Villanueva Bardales, Luis Roberto Jiménez Hernández
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 11, pp 89-95; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojts.2021.114012

Abstract:
Diaphragmatic hernias may be acquired or congenital. Among congenital hernias, the most common is Bochdalek hernia and eight out of ten Bochdalek hernias occur on the left side. They are usually diagnosed in the paediatric age group, and it is exceedingly rare for the diagnosis to be established in adulthood. Renal ectopy associated with a Bochdalek hernia is extremely rare, and very few cases are reported worldwide. We are reporting a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a right-sided Bochdalek hernia and renal ectopy. In this case, promp diagnosis and treatment could help to reduce the high risk of death in this kind of patients.
Abdou Khadre Sané, Bassirou Diallo, Aboubacry Kane, Maurice Sagna, Djibril Sané, Mame Ourèye Sy
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1478-1502; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.1210105

Abstract:
Water is the main limiting factor in the cultivation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Senegal. Thus, the selection of varieties tolerant to water stress would be an alternative solution for their production. In vitro germination, growth, total chlorophyll and proline levels were studied in five varieties of tomato subjected to increasing osmotic pressures (0, 5, 10 and 15 kPa) thanks to the PEG-8000 incorporated in an MS/2 medium for 30 days. A strong sensitivity to water stress for in vitro seed germination in the Rodeo variety (41%) is recorded at 5 kPa and maintained at 15 kPa (20.83%) while it was only noticed at 15 kPa in the other tomato varieties. The Xewel and Lady Nema varieties obtained the smallest reductions in the number of leaves of vitroplants, with 30.79% and 27.97% at 15 kPa, respectively, and the Rodeo variety recorded a reduction of 35.97%. From 5 kPa, the varieties record reductions in the number of secondary roots of more than 15%. The effect of osmotic pressures on decreasing the taproot height and length is not significant. The Xewel variety had the highest average fresh (0.483 g) and dry (0.082 g) weights of the aerial part at 15 kPa and the Rodeo variety had the lowest ones (0.308 g and 0.0501 g). The Lady Nema variety had the highest average fresh (0.171 g) and dry (0.039 g) root weights and the Rodeo variety had the lowest ones (0.086 and 0.020 g). The vitroplants of Rodeo variety recorded the highest decreases in total chlorophyll contents at all osmotic pressures and the lowest increase in proline content (53.37%) at 15 kPa. A contrario, the Xewel variety recorded the greatest increase in proline content (116.26%). Ultimately, the vitroplants of Lady Nema and Xewel varieties were more tolerant to water stress, the Ganila and Mongal varieties were moderately tolerant and the Rodeo variety was the most sensitive.
Kulathungage Hiranthi Dilrangi, Wathmini De Silva, Dharshani Mahaulpatha
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 11, pp 664-689; https://doi.org/10.4236/oje.2021.1110042

Abstract:
Maduru Oya National Park (MONP) including its largest reservoir, Maduru Oya Reservoir (MOR), has been identified with a high waterbird density. However, a limited number of researches have been conducted on waterbirds in MONP. In this study, diversity, habitat use of waterbirds at MOR and their nesting characteristics were analyzed. Bird survey was carried out using the point count method and block count method. A common ethogram was constructed to identify the behavior categories. Percentage cover of habitat types was estimated by quadrat method. A total of 30 species belonging to 15 families were recorded, including two globally threatened species and three winter visitors. Year around Shannon-Weiner index for MOR was 1.491. Little Cormorant had the highest relative abundance. Percentage coverage of grass had increased gradually from March to September with the highest in September (69.27%) while open water had the highest coverage in the other months. Significantly high number of individuals used areas of grass, open water and mud for feeding and exposed rocks, dead trees/logs for resting (One-way ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05). Four waterbird species were observed building nests. Occupied nesting tree species were Senna spectabilis (Kaha Kona), Dymorphocalyx glabellus (Weliwanna) and Alstonia scholaris (RukAththana). The number of nests observed in three layers of canopy was significantly different (p ≤ 0.05). The highest average number of nests was observed in middle layer (8.90 ± 2.67). Black-headed Ibises had high preference to nest in Dymorphocalyx glabellus (p ≤ 0.05, 3.30 ± 1.32) while Great Cormorants (p ≤ 0.05, 2.38 ± 0.74) and Grey Herons (p ≤ 0.05, 4.27 ± 2.12) in Alstonia scholaris. Little Cormorants had no significant difference in their preference for nesting trees. As a preliminary study, this can be used for future research on waterbirds and to compose management and conservation plans.
Tianya Wu, Jingxin Fu, Xinghuo Jin, Qichao Chen, Huanming Huang, Shiqi Chen, Junan Zhou, Longbiao Xu
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, Volume 10, pp 253-263; https://doi.org/10.4236/crcm.2021.1010033

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Shenmai Injection on postoperative cerebral vasospasm in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Methods: Seventy patients undergoing craniotomy for ruptured aneurysms in our hospital were selected as study subjects and randomly divided into control (n = 33) and research (n = 37) groups, they were treated with nimodipine and nimodipine combined with Shenmai injection after operation. The blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) before and at 1, 3, 7, 11 and 14 days after surgery and the incidence of cerebral vasospasm during these days were compared, and the GCS scores at 14 days postoperatively and GOS scores at 6 months postoperatively were compared between the two groups. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm, GCS or GOS scores between the two groups (P > 0.05), but the period of postoperative cerebral vasospasm in the study group was significantly shorter than that in the control group. Conclusion: Shenmai injection has the effect of shortening the cycle of occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after the operation of ruptured aneurysms, promoting patients to recover as early as possible and reducing their physical and mental burden.
Siza Mthi, Nkululeko Nyangiwe, Francisca Rumosa Gwaze, Mandla Yawa, Thobela Louis Tyasi, Sive Tokozwayo, Tanki Thubela, Mlungisi Selby Jansen, Sindisile Goni, Thamsanqa Khetani, et al.
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 646-657; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.114044

Abstract:
Body weight is a crucial trait that aids farmers in decision-making regarding vaccinations, feeding, marketing and selection during the breeding programs. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of sex and age on body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and some blood biochemical parameters (BBP) and to determine the correlation amongst BW, BCS and BBP of non-descriptive goats at Santombe communal farming system. Blood samples were collected from 33 apparently healthy goats (27 females and 6 males) aged 6 - 8 tooth with a mean BW (32.62 ± 11.39 kg) while BCS (3.17 ± 0.39) was taken by means of palpating the lumbar area, sternum and the ribs. The BCS was rated on a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being emaciated and 5 being extremely fat. The blood samples were analyzed using Cobas intergra 400 plus chemistry analyzer, Roche for biochemical parameters such as total protein (TP), urea, cholesterol (Chol), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca) with mean values of 72.79 ± 5.84 mg/l, 2.76 ± 1.16 mmol/l, 2.08 ± 0.40 mmol/l, 1.09 ± 0.09 mmol/l, 2.30 ± 0.49 mmol/l and 2.45 ± 0.12 mmol/l respectively. Sex and age had significant effects on BW, BCS and some biochemical parameters. The BW and BCS for males were significantly higher than for females. Correlation results indicated that BW had a positive relationship with BCS (r = 0.677), TP and BW (r = 0.400), Chol and BCS (r = 0.4025) and Mg and TP (r = -0.075). Age and sex had significant influences on BW, BCS and some blood biochemical parameters. Consideration of the factors can aid in determining the accurate diagnosis of the nutritional status of goats.
Gianpaolo Bei
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 09, pp 2430-2438; https://doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2021.910154

Abstract:
We discuss the problem of the generalization of Bell local hidden variable models for unstable particles as nucleons or decaying quantum bound states. We propose to extend the formalism of real deterministic hidden variables in the complex domain, in analogy with the quantum Gamow ket formalism, and we introduce a time dependent classical probability density distribution by which we implement hidden time dependence in the quantum expectation values. We suggest therefore a classical framework which may recover by asymptotic temporal limits the standard Bell stationary quantum statistical averages. Endly we discuss the possible relevance of our proposal for general non-isolated quantum systems in noninertial frames and the consequent dynamic effects of vacuum instabilities on E.P.R tests and Q.M. ensemble statistical averages.
Anthony Joe Turkson, Cynthia Ama Mensah, Esi Ahema Aboagye
Open Journal of Statistics, Volume 11, pp 720-736; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojs.2021.115043

Abstract:
This study adopted the quantitative research design to unearth hidden factors which go into graduate employability decisions. Purposive sampling technique was used to select graduates, institutions and industries within Takoradi, Cape Coast, Kumasi and Accra metropolis all in Ghana. Three different questionnaires inter-spaced with interviews were designed and used to collect data from the field according to a pre-determined stratified scheme. A total of 200 informants including 68 industries, 120 graduates and 12 institutions were used. The data was coded and keyed into SPSS version 20. Tables and Charts were used to explore the data. Principal component (PC) analysis was employed to extract hidden factors industries consider in graduate employability decisions. The PC method identified and extracted six hidden factors: ability to set SMART goals and structure actions; ability to demonstrate a willingness to embrace new systems, processes, technology and ideas; a determined, committed, resilient, and focused person; a person with passion for driving profit; ability to deconstruct a problem or situation; and clear and unprompted ability to present information to a group. These six hidden factors could explain 68.8% of the variances in graduate employability decisions. We recommend that internships be properly planned and executed with the involvement of industry players, facilitators of learning, and the ministry of trade and industries. In addition, facilitators should inculcate into students’ important traits and attributes identified in this study.
Muaz Elsayed, Mohamed Issa, Ibrahim Mahmoud, Sarah Imam
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, Volume 10, pp 264-276; https://doi.org/10.4236/crcm.2021.1010034

Abstract:
Introduction: The epilepsy classification in under developed countries faces many difficulties in reporting, work-up and management strategies. Exploring local practice in general hospitals will positively add to the welfare of patients with epilepsy. The objectives of this study were to assess the current medical practice in epilepsy work up and to study the selection of AEDs as per ILAE guidelines. Methods: This was a cross sectional-retrospective hospital based study, conducted between April and September 2016 in Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. Patients aged 18 years old and above were enrolled. Epilepsy was defined as having at least two non-provoked seizures in the least 6 months in a patient who was assessed by clinical review and electroencephalogram (EEG). Epilepsy was classified as generalized, focal or unclassified. Medications refer to all internationally licensed antiepileptic medications (AEDs) in 2016. Results: One hundred adult Sudanese patients were enrolled for this study. The most common event described during the ictal phase was tongue biting in 50% of participants followed by body stiffness in 46%. Epilepsy was classified as generalized in 84%, focal in 11% and unclassified in 5% patients. In generalized epilepsy, the MRI detected 23.3% abnormal findings higher than the CT which detected 14.8% (4/27), p value = 0.032. In focal epilepsy, the CT detected 75% abnormal findings higher than the MRI which detected 33.3%, p value = 0.02. The AEDs used were as follows: Carbamazepine (CBZ) 48%, Na valproate (VP) 33%, Lamotrigine (LMT) 2%, Levetricetan (LVT) 1%, CBZ + VP 14% and CBZ + Oxcarbazepine (OXC) 2%. Conclusion: The current medical practice in Omdurman teaching hospital should be modified to match the international league against epilepsy (ILAE) guidelines in workup, management, AEDs selection and classification of epilepsy.
Brock Christopher Ramshaw, Evgeny Alexandrovich Pakhomov
Open Journal of Marine Science, Volume 11, pp 187-213; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojms.2021.114012

Abstract:
Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the relative dietary importance of kelp-derived detritus to plankton and benthic organisms along a gradient of kelp abundance driven by recovering sea otter populations along the west coast of Vancouver Island (WCVI), Canada. The study used region-specific kelp isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) and season-specific phytoplankton isotope values to model dietary contributions of kelp-derived detritus (KDD). In general, KDD contributions were moderate to high in most plankton size fractions during the summer and decreased during the winter, particularly in the kelp sparse region. Hypothesized regional and spatial (distance from the coast) differences in kelp detritus contributions to zooplankton were not evident. Modeled estimates of the KDD contribution to benthic invertebrates were high (>40%) and independent of the organism size, among regions and between seasons, with the exception of Astraea gibberosa in the kelp abundant region. Local oceanography, natural kelp isotope signature variation, and significant overlap between kelps’ and blooming phytoplankton isotope values led to a large uncertainty in the assessed KDD contributions in benthic organisms. These results highlighted the importance of the KDD as a widespread and stable year-round food source in coastal kelp populated regions.
Bekzod J. Mavlanov, Ozodbek S. Abduraimov, Azizbek V. Mahmudov, Akmal L. Allamuratov, Odilbek T. Mamatkosimov
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1468-1477; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.1210104

Abstract:
The article analyzes the natural distribution area of the species Tulipa kaufmanniana Regel using the programs of type MaxEnt and ArcGis, the endemic of Central Asia (past, current, future). According to the results of the study, it is proved that the main distribution of the species coincides with the boundaries of the areali Tien-Shan mountain system (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan). It is noted that the climatic factors that are optimal for the species are sufficient temperature and annual precipitation.
Saeed M. Bafaraj, Awad M. Elkhadir
Creative Education, Volume 12, pp 265-277; https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2021.121019

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the curriculum of diagnostic radiology technology for a bachelor degree considering the perspectives of graduates in Sudan. Exploring the graduate’s perspective would help to know about rapid development required in the field of diagnostic radiography technology in this era, along with important suggestions for the curriculum development. The quantitative study designed is employed, and a survey of 139 Diagnostic Radiologic Technologists (DRTs) having up to date curriculum, was performed. The collected data have been evaluated using SPSS version 23.0. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed for the collected data. The results of this investigation showed that more than half of the participants i.e., 54.7% said that curriculum which they had studied in BSc of radiography keeps pace with rapid development in the field. 26.6% of the respondents suggested that curriculum needs some review to increase training hours in modern imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) and Ultrasound (U/S). The study concludes that increasing the training time and integration of students when planning curriculum can improve students’ competence in relation to diagnostic radiography technology. The integration of the curriculum review practices increases service quality to ensure safe practice.
Judy Kimaru, Henry Mutembei, John Kaunga Muthee
Agricultural Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1089-1102; https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2021.1210070

Abstract:
Hay production is a flagship project under drought risk reduction and climate change adaptation programs in pastoralism livestock systems in Kenya. For decision-makers to plan and evaluate their projects, they need localized data on hay production and supply and to understand what attitudes influence demand for hay by pastoralists. A cost-benefit analysis on 23 hay farms and a questionnaire knowledge, attitude and practice survey on 340 pastoralists in Kajiado Central were undertaken. This study provides the hay production versus hay deficit figures in Kajiado Central County. The study also measures the financial losses livestock keepers incur during drought migration and correlates these losses against livestock keeper’s decision to buy hay for their animals. The study established that the drought in 2017, Kajiado Central County had a 48% hay deficit (2,580,000 hay bales) worth about KES 902 million needed to cover three months of the severest period of the drought. At the same time, hay production and supply were 49,138 grown hay and 3292 purchased hay bales and 6177 bags of commercial feeds and forage. The study also found that 86% of livestock keepers buy hay only when their animals started dying at the severest period of the drought. Hay buying mainly occurs in drought years, and averagely for three months only. From 2005 to 2020, there have been five years of severe drought. Because hay production is a critical climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy for droughts, Kajiado needs to reduce the hay deficit by 67% (average of 2015 & 2017), disaster management planners need to align the hay supply to hay purchasing practices. In addition, decision-makers need to address the low hay supply by tackling the challenges of hay production. Furthermore, disaster management planners could use the study to determine the trigger points to start disaster response for livestock feed.
Iqbal Hossain, Tariq Masood, Akram Sultan, Rana Safdar, Hamidreza Setayesh, Lora Shimp, Soofia Younus
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 39-49; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.114006

Abstract:
Karachi, the largest city in Pakistan, having high population growth and a complex health care environment, has highest density of unimmunized (zero dose) and under-immunized children. The main reasons of low immunization coverage in Karachi were lack of governance and accountability in a duplicative and fragmented health management structure, weak and inequitable immunization services, and lack of demand and trust among people for immunization services. The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), Ministry of Health (MOH) in Sindh Province spearheaded a structured and collaborative process to develop strategies for addressing inequity in immunization services towards achieving Universal Immunization Coverage (UIC) in Karachi. The process included a situation analysis with gathering quantitative and qualitative information on the root causes of zero-dose and inequity of the immunization services. The strategies and interventions were developed with multi-layer input and feedback of the stakeholders and partners, and focusing primarily to address gaps in three program areas: governance, leadership and accountability; immunization service delivery; and building demand and trust among the people. The interventions were further prioritized for high-risk areas; identified based on maximum number zero-dose children, presence of large slum areas, measles outbreak and on-going circulation of wild poliovirus. Finally, costing for the Roadmap activities was done through consultation with partners and aligning domestic and external (donor) resources. In this paper, we have highlighted the unique process the Sindh Government undertook in collaboration with the stakeholders and partners to develop strategies and interventions for addressing inequity in urban immunization services in Karachi towards achieving Universal Immunization Coverage (UIC). Similar processes can be adapted, as a potential model, for developing strategies to achieve universal health coverage in the cities of Pakistan and in other countries.
Mohameth Mbodj, Idrissa D. Ba, Yaay Dior K. B. Dieng, Fatim Tall, Amadou Sow, Serigne T. Ndiaye, Guilaye Diagne, Khadim Bop, Pape S. Sow, Sofiatou Dieye, et al.
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Volume 11, pp 1317-1322; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojog.2021.1110122

Abstract:
Tuberculosis is a global public health problem with 10 million people developing an active form each year. The exact incidence of the pelvic form of tuberculosis is not known due to under-reporting of asymptomatic cases, vague symptomatology and lack of reliable diagnosis. We report a case of ovarian tuberculosis mimicking cancer and peritoneal carcinosis. The case involved a 15-year-old girl, hospitalized for severe pelvic pain and secondary amenorrhea. The examination showed an altered general state, a fever, a sensitive distended abdomen. The biology showed an elevation of Ca125 to 357 IU/ml. The CT scan showed a latero-uterine mass taking contrast in a heterogeneous way with an irregular and nodular thickening of the peritoneum making evoke a peritoneal carcinosis. Exploratory laparotomy found a bilateral ovarian mass with ileo-ileal, ileo-parietal and ileo-ovarian adhesions. Biopsy of the mass and the peritoneum showed a caseo-follicular gigantocellular epitheloid granulomatosis.
Mei Yuan Law
Creative Education, Volume 12, pp 494-528; https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2021.123035

Abstract:
This study aims to discover the university student’s attitude and satisfaction towards online learning during COVID-19 in Malaysia. The survey method was conducted on 97 students from a university in Kuching to understand student’s attitudes and satisfaction in four major aspects; the learning materials, assessments, communications, and technological tools used and technical support in their emergency remote learning experience. The findings of this study show that most of the students have a positive attitude and satisfaction in the online learning delivery. This study revealed that relevant implications of instructional pedagogy approach and appropriate integration of technological tools can be very helpful to ensure the continuous success in delivering learning content during this COVID-19 pandemic time.
Sara Al-Gahtani, Mohamed M. Shoukri
Open Journal of Statistics, Volume 11, pp 99-112; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojs.2021.111005

Abstract:
Background: One of the main objectives of hospital managements is to control the length of stay (LOS). Successful control of LOS of inpatients will result in reduction in the cost of care, decrease in nosocomial infections, medication side effects, and better management of the limited number of available patients’ beds. The length of stay (LOS) is an important indicator of the efficiency of hospital management by improving the quality of treatment, and increased hospital profit with more efficient bed management. The purpose of this study was to model the distribution of LOS as a function of patient’s age, and the Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), based on electronic medical records of a large tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Information related to the research subjects were retrieved from a database of patients admitted to King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2014 and December 2016. Subjects’ confidential information was masked from the investigators. The data analyses were reported visually, descriptively, and analytically using Cox proportional hazard regression model to predict the risk of long-stay when patients’ age and the DRG are considered as antecedent risk factors. Results: Predicting the risk of long stay depends significantly on the age at admission, and the DRG to which a patient belongs to. We demonstrated the validity of the Cox regression model for the available data as the proportionality assumption is shown to be satisfied. Two examples were presented to demonstrate the utility of the Cox model in this regard.
John Stephen Tenywa, Jean Bosco Ngarukiyimana, Alice Amoding Katushabe
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 69-79; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.101005

Abstract:
Background: The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of urea fertiliser application on soil reactions in a Ferralsol, with particular thrust on P sorption. Methods: Two experiments were conducted for this purpose: 1) a screenhouse pot experiment; and 2) a laboratory P sorption component. The pot (10 litre capacity plastic pots) experiment was conducted at the Makerere University Agricultural Research, Kabanyolo in Uganda, using a Ferralsol. The study comprised of four urea N (46% N) fertiliser treatments, namely, 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N·ha-1, equivalent to 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg N per pot. A completely randomised design was adopted with three replicates. Urea rates were applied in 50% split doses, one at planting and the other at 19 days after seedling emergence (to simulate farmer practice). This was followed by watering to field capacity using distilled water. Soil samples were taken at three daily intervals until day fourteen; thereafter, soil sampling was at an interval of seven days. The second urea split dose was applied at 21 days followed by soil sampling at an interval of three days till day fourteen. Thereafter, soil was sampled at seven day intervals until the end of experiment. Soil samples were analysed for exchangeable H+, Al3+, NH4+and NO3- ions. The reaction trends of the concentrations of these ions and Bray 1 P were used to structure different response curves representing the instantaneous reactions. As for the laboratory P-sorption study, treatments included the four rates of urea used in the pot experiment (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N·ha-1) and seven levels of P (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) as KH2PO4. The setup was incubated under laboratory conditions and soil samples were repeatedly taken at 10 days (after 4 days of urea incubation plus 6 days of P application). The P sorption data were fitted to Langmuir model. Results: The pot experiment revealed an abrupt drop in the concentrations of exchangeable Al3+ and H+ ions (p 0.05) within the first 6 days after urea application, accompanied by a positive surge in the concentration of NH4+ ions. This phase (6 days) was followed by a rise in the levels of exchangeable Al3+, H+ and NO3- ion concentration, which was inversely mirrored by a drop in the concentration of NH4+ ions. Consequently, the patterns displayed by the soil reactions were delineated into four phases, with Phase 1 (6 days) being characterised by urea hydrolysis reactions of deamination and ammonification, Phase 2 (10 days) being dominated by nitrification and its acidifying properties, Phase 3 being a repeat of Phase 1, both occurring immediately after urea application (within 6 days); and Phase 4 being a repeat of Phase 2. As for the P-sorption study, the effects of urea hydrolysis in a Ferralsol markedly increased soil pH and surprisingly P sorption. The contradictory P sorption behavior, despite the drop in exchange acidity was attributed to presence of divalent calcium in the extraction reagent used. Conclusion: The short term insights obtained in response to urea N application in the Ferralsol, are eye openers to future use of N fertilisers as well as strategic management of the associated acidification process which is often more costly and complicated to manage.
Nada ElBaz, Gomaa El-Damrawi, Amr M. Abdelghany
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics, Volume 11, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.4236/njgc.2021.111002

Abstract:
A new type of cerium borate glass-ceramic is prepared and studied. The microstructure and crystallization behaviors of the glass samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The microstructures of samples contain 2 are amorphous in nature. More addition of CeO2 transforms the glass to glass-ceramics without thermal annealing. The morphological change of the microstructure of these materials was followed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained results have revealed that the addition of more than 0.8 mol% CeO2 can promote nucleation and crystallization routes that are combined with the establishment of diverse crystalline phases. Glasses with lower contents of CeO2showed no tendency to crystallization. The crystals of CeO2 containing glasses were spheroid like morphology that was assigned to the three-dimensional fast growth of the well-formed structural species in the boro-apatite phase. In addition, the cerium free glass is characterized by particle-like morphology. Then the growth of spheroid species in three-dimension plays better compatibility and bioactivity behavior than that of the other types of morphology. This is may because the spherical shape has a higher surface area than that of the needle-like morphology. Accumulation and aggregation of small-sized spheres from cerium borate phases played the role of enhancing the hardness of the studied materials.
Inger Ekman, Lars Jacobsson
Open Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 11, pp 29-46; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpsych.2021.111004

Abstract:
Although common among community adolescents, self-injuring acts are mainly studied by psychiatrists and psychologists and rarely by social work researchers. The preponderance of medical research in the field has come to associate self-injuring acts with mental issues. This view has to a large extent been adopted among professionals as well as among laypeople. When examining adolescents’ unsolicited internet published narratives, this medicalization of self-injuring acts was found to have negative consequences for disclosure and help-seeking, and hence limit the adolescents’ possibilities to get adequate help and support. The main objective of this work is to study adolescents’ views on hampering factors for help-seeking for self-injuring acts and the role of medicalisation for their willingness for disclosure and help-seeking. Disclosure of self-injuring acts within the social network was described as met with demands to seek professional mental help. Seeking professional help was accompanied with fear of being perceived as crazy or diagnosed as mentally ill. Internet websites were described as value free and safe arenas giving opportunity to disclose self-injuring acts without fear of being stigmatized and labelled as mentally ill. An extended involvement of social work researchers and professionals, approaching self-injuring acts not primarily as a sign of mental problems, but as an adolescent way of trying to manage a complicated social context, could enhance finding adequate support systems. It is also necessary that the medical profession contributes to a demedicalization of self-injuring acts.
Usama I. Badawy, Abdelkhalek I. Alastal, Muain Q. Jawabrah, Raed A. Salha
Journal of Environmental Protection, Volume 12, pp 49-74; https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2021.121005

Abstract:
Nowadays our world is faced with various environmental problems. These environmental problems are caused by the increasing pollution in the world, increasing production and consumption of material goods. These problems have serious consequences for human health and also have a major impact on natural ecosystems. This paper discussed sustainable green building in terms of key principles for sustainable building, strategies and guidelines for sustainable green building, and steps for an integrated approach to green design. The study also looked at the status of green building and sustainability, as well as green building materials in Palestine. The study suggested a checklist to help assess the condition of buildings in Palestine and the extent to which they respond to the principles of sustainable green buildings, thus, contributing to help new and existing buildings to adopt a sustainable green building approach, in order to achieve the goals of sustainable green construction in terms of saving energy and resources and reducing waste, therefore, participating in preserving the environment and improving the quality of life.
Oliver Szasz, Andras Szasz
Open Journal of Biophysics, Volume 11, pp 68-132; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojbiphy.2021.111002

Abstract:
A heuristic stochastic solution of the Pennes equation is developed in this paper by applying the self-organizing, self-similar behaviour of living structures. The stochastic solution has a probability distribution that fits well with the dynamic changes in the living objects concerned and eliminates the problem of the deterministic behaviour of the Pennes approach. The solution employs the Weibull two-parametric distribution which offers satisfactory delivery of the rate of temperature change by time. Applying the method to malignant tumours obtains certain benefits, increasing the efficacy of the distortion of the cancerous cells and avoiding doing harm to the healthy cells. Due to the robust heterogeneity of these living systems, we used thermal and bioelectromagnetic effects to distinguish the malignant defects, selecting them from the healthy cells. On a selective basis, we propose an optimal protocol using the provided energy optimally such that molecular changes destroy the malignant cells without a noticeable effect on their healthy counterparts.
Yuxi Wang, Yida Chen, Yong Zhang, Zhaoxin Zhu, Tao Wu, Xufeng Kou, Pingping Ding, Romain Corcolle, Jangyong Kim
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.4236/ampc.2021.111002

Abstract:
The study of high dielectric materials has received great attention lately as a key passive component for the application of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors. In this paper, 50 nm thick Al2O3 thin films have been prepared by atomic layer deposition technique on indium tin oxide (ITO) pre-coated glass substrates and titanium nitride (TiN) coated Si substrates with typical MIM capacitor structure. Photolithography and metal lift-off technique were used for processing of the MIM capacitors. Semiconductor Analyzer with probe station was used to perform capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization with low-medium frequency range. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of MIM capacitors were measured on precision source/measurement system. The performance of Al2O3 films of MIM capacitors on glass was examined in the voltage range from −5 to 5 V with a frequency range from 10 kHz to 5 MHz. Au/Al2O3/ITO/Glass MIM capacitors demonstrate a capacitance density of 1.6 fF/μm2at 100 kHz, a loss tangent ~0.005 at 100 kHz and a leakage current of 1.79 × 10−8 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm (5 V) at room temperature. Au/Al2O3/TiN/Si MIM capacitors demonstrate a capacitance density of 1.5 fF/μm2 at 100 kHz, a loss tangent ~0.007 at 100 kHz and a lower leakage current of 2.93 × 10−10 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm (5 V) at room temperature. The obtained electrical properties could indicate a promising application of MIM Capacitors.
Ke Lyu
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 438-446; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91032

Abstract:
Due to the complexity of today’s financial market, it is normally difficult for investors to choose high-quality investment targets. However, professional calculation and analysis can effectively evaluate the risk and the performance of each stock. Hence, the investors can choose a more suitable portfolio according to their own risk preferences. In this report, eight stocks in Australian markets are selected, which are ANZ, NST, WOW, QAN, TLS, AGL, CBA and SYD. By calculating the various data for the recent 2 years from 2016 to 2018 of these stocks, four effective investment portfolios are obtained. The purpose of this research is to provide samples and methods for investors to analyze and it can help investors to choose more suitable portfolios for themselves. In this report, Excel software is used to calculate specific data and draw the curve of the portfolio opportunity set and CAL line. Besides, Capital Asset Pricing Model is used to analyze as well.
Dalia Mohamed Mostafa Mabrouk
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 425-437; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91031

Abstract:
In this paper, I embark on diving deep into the specific training model of the systematic approach to training for probing more perspectives of its governance that should connect and link its phases together. Actually this training model is applied by many organizations all around the world that require a high level of professional trained staff with a minimal standard deviation of processes. I am here concerned with those organizations seeking a better training system, while ending up being superficially satisfied with reverberating and bragging with having the SAT onboard without full awareness of the possibilities of its implementation. It is not about the system, it is about the mindsets that are flexible enough to fully grasp the ins and outs of the model they are about to use and how to harness its tools for their organizational benefit; otherwise it’s a waste of time, effort and money. In order to operate training in a systematic manner, it has to not only cover the inter related stages and processes, but also set a solid bridge that keeps and maintains the smooth landing from one stage to another along with securing the prospected outputs which conforms to both form and content. Based on my experience on the best practices of the systematic approach to training, I will here contribute my insight of the system quality control technique that may help in a well-knitted flow of processes.
Xiaojing Liu
Open Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 09, pp 378-387; https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2021.91028

Abstract:
To promote the high-quality development of Anyang City, Henan Province, talent is the core driving force of innovation, and talent gathering can play a role of 1 + 1 > 2. By using the methods of literature research and comparative study, this paper analyzes the current situation and difficulties of Talent Gathering in Anyang, Henan Province under the background of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. The results show that the current situation of Talent Gathering in Anyang needs to enhance the talent gathering effect from the aspects of industrial transformation, investment in scientific and technological innovation, regional development orientation, talent training mode, talent evaluation system, etc.
Lubomira Izakova, Dagmar Breznoscakova
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 68-79; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.131007

Abstract:
Background: Schizoaffective Disorder (SAD), similarly to schizophrenia, is a potentially chronic mental disorder that negatively affects the functioning of a patient. Various issues in everyday clinical practice often arise from its diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty. To date, there is a lack of a well-defined therapeutic algorithm used to treat the simultaneously manifesting schizophrenic and affective components. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic approaches in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders to identify the need of different treatment strategy for these diseases. Methods: In a retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic algorithms used in all patients with SAD (n = 99) hospitalized at the Department of Psychiatry, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Bratislava throughout the year 2010 and compared them with the therapeutic procedures used in all schizophrenia patients hospitalized in the same year (n = 120). Results: We found similarities between the groups of patients with schizophrenia and SAD in the number, type and length of hospitalizations and general patient management. Differences were identified in terms of the spectrum of used pharmacotherapy. For the treatment of both mental disorders, atypical antipsychotics were used the most. In the treatment of schizophrenia, we found the most frequent use of combined antipsychotic therapy, meaning oral and long-acting injectable forms. Patients with SAD mostly received antipsychotic monotherapy, but its complex effects were supplemented with other psychotropic drugs, mostly mood-stabilizers and anxiolytics. Conclusion: The results of our study show similarities between schizophrenia and SAD in terms of health care utilization, despite the fact that SAD is generally considered to be a “milder” disorder. On the other hand, this study indicates differences in the spectrum of pharmacotherapy used.
Matthew J. Ward, Brian G. Blackwell
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 11, pp 50-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2021.111005

Abstract:
Walleye (Sander vitreus) fingerling production can be enhanced when the pond substrate is altered from earthen soils to an exposed liner; however, few differences in water chemistry, prey densities, and food habits have been identified that could potentially explain this production difference. Lack of an explanation led to further comparison of walleye fingerling culture between substrate types during 2016. Two ponds of each type were stocked with 1- to 3-day-old walleye fry, but lined ponds received an additional 104,166 fry/ha and were stocked 1 or 2 days later than earthen ponds (May 10). Walleyes in lined ponds achieved a growth advantage on May 31 (+2.5 mm) and on June 6 (+3.3 mm), but lengths were not significantly different at harvest (June 15). Lined ponds increased walleye yield and number 1.8-fold while not reducing individual fish size at harvest compared to earthen ponds. Walleye food habits were generally similar between pond types with a greater number of zooplankton being consumed through June 6 followed by an increase in larval chironomid consumption at harvest (June 15). After May 30, lined ponds exhibited lower dissolved oxygen and higher ammonia-nitrogen concentrations even though earthen ponds received additional (157 kg/ha) alfalfa (Medicago sativa) meal fertilizer. Also, at this time pH declined abruptly and remained below 8.2 in lined ponds. Moreover, the enhanced production in lined ponds coincided with walleyes that exhibited an increased pelagic (δ13C) signature during the culture period (2‰ to 3.3‰ more negative). Efforts to improve production in earthen-substrate ponds should focus on increasing the pelagic signature of the food web through fertilization strategies which increase ammonia-nitrogen (≈0.3 mg/L) and decrease dissolved oxygen (≈6.5 mg/L) while maintaining a pH between 8.0 and 8.2 during the second half of the rearing interval.
Jaime Eduardo Martínez-Sánchez
American Journal of Operations Research, Volume 11, pp 62-85; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajor.2021.111004

Abstract:
In this work, for a control consumption-investment process with the discounted reward optimization criteria, a numerical estimate of the stability index is made. Using explicit formulas for the optimal stationary policies and for the value functions, the stability index is explicitly calculated and through statistical techniques its asymptotic behavior is investigated (using numerical experiments) when the discount coefficient approaches 1. The results obtained define the conditions under which an approximate optimal stationary policy can be used to control the original process.
Giulio Castelpietra, Alessandra Nicotra, Emily McGiffin, Diego De Leo
Open Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 11, pp 47-62; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpsych.2021.111005

Abstract:
Originated in Japan, the hikikomori phenomenon—as a form of individual withdrawal—has progressively widespread and gained international attention, given its psycho-social and economic consequences. In fact, hikikomori appears today as a problem that cannot be confined solely to the field of mental health. Rather, it appears as a phenomenon that concerns many aspects of modern society, intersecting with medicine, sociology, anthropology, politics, economics, culture and education. In the context of the actual loneliness pandemic, hikikomori individuals present characteristics that are examined in this article, together with suggestions for its possible management.
S. Akilandeswari, L. Jothi
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Volume 09, pp 75-89; https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2021.91006

Abstract:
Nonlinear optical single crystal of Serine Succinate (SSA) was grown from a mixed solvent of water, ethanol and methanol. Since amino acid exhibits nonlinear optical property, it is of interest to dope them in serine. The overwhelming success of molecular engineering in controlling nonlinear optical properties in last decade has prompted better initiative in crystal engineering. In the present study single crystals of serine doped with succinic acid in different ratios have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method. Grown serine succinate crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques. The cell parameters of the grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. FT-Raman spectral studies were carried out on the SAA grown material to confirm the synthesized compound and the functional groups of serine succinate single crystal were identified from FTIR analysis. The optical transparency and upper cut off value of UV transmission spectrum of SSA crystal were recorded. Fluorescence study was also carried out for the grown materials. The mechanical hardness was estimated by Vickers’s micro hardness tester. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz powder technique. Thermal properties of serine succinate crystal were evaluated with thermogravimetric, differential thermal and differential scanning calorimetric analyses. The SEM studies were also reported.
A. Wünsche
Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 63-100; https://doi.org/10.4236/apm.2021.111005

Abstract:
As starting point for patterns with seven-fold symmetry, we investigate the basic possibility to construct the regular heptagon by bicompasses and ruler. To cover the whole plane with elements of sevenfold symmetry is only possible by overlaps and (or) gaps between the building stones. Resecting small parts of overlaps and filling gaps between the heptagons, one may come to simple parqueting with only a few kinds of basic tiles related to sevenfold symmetry. This is appropriate for parqueting with a center of seven-fold symmetry that is illustrated by figures. Choosing from the basic patterns with sevenfold symmetry small parts as elementary stripes or elementary cells, one may form by their discrete translation in one or two different directions periodic bordures or tessellation of the whole plane but the sevenfold point-group symmetry of the whole plane is then lost and there remains only such symmetry in small neighborhoods around one or more centers. From periodic tiling, we make the transition to aperiodic tiling of the plane. This is analogous to Penrose tiling which is mostly demonstrated with basic elements of fivefold symmetry and we show that this is also possible with elements of sevenfold symmetry. The two possible regular star-heptagons and a semi-regular star-heptagon play here a basic role.
Tivde Benedict Verem, Igbabul Bibiana Dooshima, Eke Michael Ojoutu, Oladapo Okanlawon Owolabi, Adetunji Onigbajumo
Agricultural Sciences, Volume 12, pp 18-38; https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2021.121003

Abstract:
The study presents the effect of utilizing wheat, soy and moringa leaf flour and quality analysis of the flour. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour, soy flour and moringa leaf flour. Four composite flour, compositions were formulated such as 100% wheat flour (control) designated as sample A. Sample B consisted of 75% wheat, 20% soybean and 5% moringa leaf. Sample C consisted of 70% wheat, 20% soybean and 10% moringa leaf. Sample D was 65% wheat, 20% soybean and 15% moringa leaf. Sample E was 60% wheat, 20% soybean and 20% moringa leaf, respectively. Proximate, chemical, and functional properties of wheat, soy and moringa leaf flours were studied in composite flour variation and preparations. The present study highlighted the nutrients enrichment of flour on incorporation of soy and moringa leaf. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyse the significance of means for all tested parameters. Composite flour composition with 20% soybean was identified to produce optimal nutrient, mineral quality and yield. The addition of soybean and moringa flour in baked products has been shown in this study to improve the nutrition and health benefits of the body. It also serves as a good cut on the cost of wheat importation in communities with supply challenges.
Tonglin Wang, Anqi Xie, Dongliang Zhang, Zemiao Liu, Xue Li, Yang Li, Xia Sun
American Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 12, pp 146-162; https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2021.121009

Abstract:
Paeonia lactiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa is a variety of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and is currently the peony herb’s principal cultivar group. Here, we study the differences in aromatic components and flowers of different varieties between two groups of cultivars, providing a reference for applying natural fragrance substances of peonies, breeding fragrant flower types, and developing and using improved varieties. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), peak area normalization for each component relative to content, component library (NIST14/NIST14S) retrieval, and a literature review were used to analyze the volatile compounds in flowers of eight peony varieties, such as “Gaoganhong”, and ten comospore peony varieties, such as “Jinshanhong”. Results showed that the main volatile compound constituents in flowers of the two groups were terpenes and alcohols. Additionally, the content of eucalyptol, caryophyllene, α-Pinene, citronellol, and 3-Hexen-1-ol, acetate, (Z) was high. Peony cultivars contained linalool, (1R)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, while comospore peony varieties contained 1,3,6-octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl-, (Z)-, phenylethyl alcohol, and geraniol. In this study, the differences between the volatile components of flowers of different peony varieties were clarified, laying a foundation for further molecular biology research into the floral fragrance of peonies and the cultivation of new varieties of aromatic peonies. At the same time, it also provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of peony flower by-products.
Karahmet Enver, Isaković Senita, Operta Sabina, Hamidović Saud, Toroman Almir, Đulančić Nermina, Muhamedagić Samir
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 64-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.121006

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the hygienic properties of swabs taken from the arm and coat of workers, work surfaces, refrigerated display cases, trays and packaging materials. As well as the safe properties of samples of fresh chicken meat (wing, drumstick, chest) and chicken internal organs (heart and liver) from two butcheries. One of the goals was to determine whether education on hygienic conditions was carried out, influenced the hygienic condition of swabs and safety samples of fresh chicken meat offal. The results of the analysis showed that on the first day of sampling, the largest number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria were found in the swabs of the arm (butcher A-8.15 × 102 CFU/ml), butcher (B-17.88 × 102 CFU/ml) and the smallest in the packaging material (0.03 × 102 CFU/ml). Comparing the results of the first and thirtieth sampling day was a visible decrease in the number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae for all examined swabs from both butchers. In the samples of fresh chicken meat, the number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria during the first sampling was the highest in the drumstick samples (4.75 × 103 CFU/ml) slightly less in the samples of the wing (3.78 × 103 CFU/ml) in the butcher A, in the same time in the butcher B was 3.82 × 103 CFU/ml. Microbiological analyzes samples of the thirtieth day showed that Escherichia coli has been found in both butchers in drumsticks A-0.8 CFU/ml, B butcher 0.4 CFU/ml. and offal butcher A 0.6 CFU/ml, butcher B 0.7 CFU/ml, but less than the first day. It is important to say that education of workers in butcher shops has shown that it can improve good hygiene practices in butcher shops and safety of fresh chicken meat. Education in Good Hygiene Practice has positive impact on safety of fresh chicken meat in examined butcheries.
Yann Demarigny, Elodie Legrand, Julia Sanchez, Arnaud Hallier, Nathalie Laurent, Sami Slimani, Thierry Livache, Daniel Picque
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 90-105; https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2021.121008

Abstract:
Yoghurt is fermented milk which results from the exclusive action of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. However, a disruption of the bacterial growth can lead to significant industrial losses. Currents monitoring methods, based on the checking of the pH during the fermentation step are not always satisfactory. The NeOse Pro system, a portable electronic nose, is a mean to obtain immediately aromatic profiles. In this work, we applied this technology to the yoghurt ecosystem, a highly hydrated product. The profiles obtained allowed us to discriminate yoghurts before and after fermentation. In detail, the discrepancy between the two bacteria cultured alone was slight. It was also the case when we compared different initial bacterial ratios. However, two different mixes of bacteria led to clearly distinguishable profiles. A GC/MS analysis performed on products fermented 7 h allowed us to explain the detection of acetaldehyde by the stimulation of some captors of the apparatus. NeOse Pro is so convenient to study the fermentation of yogurt.
Aisyah Humayro, Hiroyuki Harada, Kanako Naito
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, Volume 10, pp 80-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2021.101006

Abstract:
Phosphate (PO43-) and Nitrate (NO3-) are two main nutrients that cause water eutrophication. In the other hand, the presence of PO43- and NO3- is needed for plant growth. The aims of this study are to recycle Spent Coffee Ground (SCG) modified with calcium hydroxide for adsorption PO43- and NO3-. The optimum adsorption capacity for PO43- and NO3- is 36.74 mg/L and 20.21 mg/L, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm model was suitable for PO43- and NO3- adsorption. The kinetic model for adsorption was linear using Pseudo-second order. The application of modified SCG after enrichment with PO43- and NO3- for plant growth (Raphanus sativus) showed optimum growth at a dose of 0.3% with value of germination index was 203%.
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