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Samina Alam
Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences; https://doi.org/10.21065/1925-7430.11.1

Abstract:
Nomophobia is a term that describes a terrible feeling of being without a mobile device, or outside mobile phone communication, in today's world. It's on the rise between today's high school and college students. A number of college students are now using their mobile phones to shower. Sign and symptoms include Irritation, Panic, Nervousness, Anguish, and Inability to regulate or avoid using activities, severe disability, Depression, Anxiety, Social phobia. The treatment consisted of the use of medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and the application of evaluation tools.
Noreen Sultana, Sohail Mehmood
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 6, pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.6.30

Abstract:
Present study was conducted to examine the outcomes parental acceptance and rejection among adults. Sample consisted of 259 adults with age ranges (19-25). Convenient sampling was used. Sample was selected from different departments of university of Lahore and university of Sargodha. Four self-report measures including, Adult Version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ) Urdu version short, Warwick Edinburg Well Being Scale (SWEWS), Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and Coping Strategies inventory. Pearson correlation and regression analyses were employed for data collection. Results suggested that parental acceptance-rejection has significant contribution in determining wellbeing, depression, and coping strategies among adults. Findings have important implication in clinical, health and family psychology.
Aniqa Razi, Wahida Anjum
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 6, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.6.11

Abstract:
Experiences of multiple romantic relationships makeup and breakup among adolescents is a very common issue in this era. The rationale of this research is to know the reasons and after effects of multiple romantic relationships make up and break up among adolescence. Semi structure interview of 3 females and a male of age fifteen years to twenty-six years is conducted to collect the data
Rabea Sani, Asifa Ahmad
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 6, pp 19-29; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.6.19

Abstract:
Due to myths and misconception Pakistan has already intense opposition to vaccination specially Covid 19 vaccination among people. A web based cross sectional study was conducted in the general population of Punjab Pakistan in June 2021.The self-developed questionnaire which is based on 30 items which comprises on pre vaccination, during vaccination and post vaccination fears, myths and psychological effects.
Sahar Javaid
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 6, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.6.1

Abstract:
The present study “Study of bilingual advertisement strategy in local marking scheme” tends to explore the role of English in Pakistani Bilingual advertisements. Different persuasive techniques are used to attract both global and native consumers. Among other techniques, the technique of bilingualism has prominent position. In Pakistani media context national language Urdu is mixed with English to grab the attention of customers
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25631640.3.1

Abstract:
Liver has become a prime source for Campylobacter outbreaks and products are needed to allow processors a more efficient way of controlling foodborne pathogens. Campylobacter reductions in livers treated with a low pH processing aid (CMS PoultrypHresh), with and without a surfactant (PoultrypHresh Plus) were studied. Chicken livers (n=13/treatment group) were individually inoculated with a C. coli marker strain (107) and each dipped into sterile cups containing 100 mL of water, PoultrypHresh or PoultrypHresh Plus for 15 s, removed and allowed 5 s to drain. Each liver was placed into 50 mL buffered peptone water and hand shaken for 60 s; controls (n=10) same procedure, no treatment. Rinsates were serially diluted and plated onto Campy Cefex agar with 200 ppm gentamicin. Plates were incubated for 48 h at 42°C microaerobically, colonies counted and log transformed. Procedures were replicated 3 times. Significant reductions in treated compared to untreated for PoultrypHresh and PoultrypHresh Plus was 98.1% and 99.4%, respectively and with no change in appearance. Treating with this product may allow processors to meet rising performance standards on poultry livers.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoodnutrisci.4.1

Abstract:
Campylobacter is a major concern for poultry processors, as USDA performance standards have become stricter. This study evaluated CMS PoultrypHresh™, a low pH processing aid, and peracetic acid using consecutive and sequential dip treatments to reduce Campylobacter in thighs. Thighs (n=3/treatment group) were inoculated with a C. coli marker strain (108) and each dipped into bags containing 1 L of treatment 1 for 6 s. Thighs were allowed 5 s to drip, placed onto foil for 60 s, and dipped into treatment 2 for 6 s. After 5 s drip time, each was placed in a bag with 150 mL buffered peptone water and hand shaken for 60 s; controls same procedure, no treatment. Rinsates were serially diluted, plated onto Campy Cefex agar with 200 ppm gentamicin and incubated microaerobically for 48 h at 42°C. Procedures were replicated 5 times. Significant reductions compared to untreated using consecutive dips of PoultrypHresh™ and PAA were 98.2% and 99.3%, respectively. Treatments of PoultrypHresh™ then peracetic acid reduced Campylobacter 99.2% from untreated thighs. Peracetic acid then PoultrypHresh™ showed significant reductions compared to all other treatments (99.9% from untreated). Treating with this sequence may allow processors to meet the strict performance standards on Campylobacter in broiler parts.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25631640.1.1

Abstract:
Apple, guava and strawberry are important fruits extensively grown in Pakistan. Owing to their considerable nutritional significance, often marketed as "super-fruits". Due to inappropriate handling, transportation and processing 40-45% of the fruits are spoiled. These losses of the seasonal surplus of the fruits can be avoided by processing and preserving the fruit into different products like mixed jam, juice, nectar and jelly. Keeping in view the perishable nature of fruits, current study was designed with an objective to prepare different treatments of mixed jam having acceptable quality parameters as well as consumer acceptability. For this purpose, five treatments of jam were prepared at laboratory scale. After preliminary analysis of fruits, all the five treatments were analyzed for physico-chemical (pH, TSS, Titratable acidity, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars), and sensory analysis for an interval of 7 days during 1 month storage period. The results of different treatments of jam showed a highly variable trend. pH, non-reducing sugars and all sensory parameters showed a decreasing trend during storage. Opposite is the case with acidity, total soluble solids, as well as reducing sugars. Sensory analysis indicated that the order of preference for jam treatments was T4>T3>T2>T0>T1>T5. Study suggests that losses in fresh fruits can be curtailed by processing it into mixed jam.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoonutrsci.4.8

Abstract:
IntroductionIdentification and handling of the food spoilage, food illness and food borne pathogens is a potential risk. That is continuously challenging the food experts, businesses owners and authorities. Subsequently, the manufacturing, supplying and distribution of finished food products become a crucial task and need constant check at every step. Thus, the standard laboratory testing may potentially assure the safety and efficacy of semimanufactured foods, edible ingredients, and finished products. Particularly, it helps to equip the industry with most current methods and high-level IT developed cutting edge technology. That simultaneously protects the manufacturer and consumers by complying with foodsafety standards. [2] Hence, the food and health expert are constantly working to review and update the blueprints of food microbiology testing. That is important to meet the requirement of the indigenous food and health standards. Whereas, the nutrition and composition analysis also offer the retailers, importers and manufacturers to understand and tackle the raised concerns. That may include the testing of nutrients, vitamins and other constituents of all range of food product destined for human consumption i.e. additives, excipients, preservatives, color, flavor etc.Thus, our local government official always encourages the local Canadian businesses to adopt the current art of technology, conduct accurate and timely examination of food. The food and nutrition tests should be performed under ISO/IEC 17025 accredited institutions under accredited and rigorous quality management system.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoodnutrsci.4.13

Abstract:
Background: Aloe vera has long been used as a medicinal plant in the preparation of various gels, lotions and ointments besides its use in various food products.Methodology: The present study was carried out at the Plants Genetics Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. For the purpose of this study, an indigenous variety of Aloe vera was taken along with probiotics culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus. Aloe vera gel matrix was separated from outer cortex of leaves and media were prepared for the growth of respective probiotics cultures. Aloe vera was used in each probiotic culture against two pathogenic strains, i.e E. coli and S. aureus. In one plate, tryptone was replaced by 1% Aloe vera extract, while 0.5% and 1% Aloe vera extracts were added to other two plates. All the three probiotic cultures were separately inoculated in test tubes, which were incubated at 370C for 24 hours.Results: After incubation of 24 hours, plates were observed on the next day for the measurement of inhibition zones. Strong to medium zones of inhibition were formed against E. coli and S. aureus for all three probiotic cultures when 1% Aloe vera extract was used.Conclusions: This study revealed that the indigenous variety of Aloe vera exhibited significant anti microbial properties.
Advanced Food and Nutritional Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/advfoodnutrisci.5.1

Abstract:
Background: A non-destructive method such as a cloacal swab is very important to the poultry industry because it allows the breeder companies to determine if Salmonella is present in the valuable breeder chicks without the necessity of sacrificing any birds.Objective: To evaluate a nondestructive procedure to detect the presence of Salmonella in valuable breeder chicks.Methodology: Day-of-age broiler chicks from a commercial hatchery were orally gavaged with a marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), and then placed in isolation units with drinkers, mesh flooring and feeders. At 7 and 14 days, 10 birds were cloacally swabbed (shallow and deep). Swabs were inserted 1 cm (shallow) into the cloaca and 2 cm deep (into the colon). Each swab was immersed in 5.0 ml of buffered peptone water (BPW), then streaked onto brilliant green sulfa agar plates with 200 ppm nalidixic acid (BGSN). Tubes and plates were incubated 24 h at 370C. When plates were negative, the pre-enriched tubes were vortexed and once again plated onto BGSN. The procedure for the frozen swabs was the same, except that 15% glycerol was added to the BPW and then frozen at -20C for 14 days. They were then thawed and analyzed as above. After swabbing, the chicks were sacrificed. The ceca was removed, placed in a stomacher bag, and macerated with a rubber mallet. Enumeration of the marker strain followed.Results: When the level of the marker ST was greater than 106 CFU/g of ceca and cecal contents, detection with either shallow or deep swab was the same 94% (47/50). When the level of ST was less than 106 CFU/g, detection with either method fell to 63.3% (38/60). After 14 days freezing the swabs at -20C, the shallow method detected 50% (32/64), and the deep swab detected 64% (41/64).Conclusion: Regardless of the level of ST in the ceca, there was no difference in the detection rate between the shallow or the deep swab. Even when using low inoculum levels, a high rate of ST colonization in the ceca was reached, allowing both the shallow and deep swabs to almost all be positive at 7 days of age. Since the poultry companies may not be able to analyze the swab results on the same day as collection, we decided to evaluate if freezing the swabs for as long as 14 days would have any adverse effect on the recovery of ST. Freezing did not seem to make a difference in sensitivity. For frozen swabs the deep colonal swab yielded better results than the shallow swab. So you can freeze if you must, but doing the analysis the same day as the swabbing (unfrozen) techniques seems to be slightly more reliable.
Noreen Sultana, Kunza Aqdas, Sadaf Khan, Sohail Mehmood, Shahid Mehmood
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2020; https://doi.org/10.21065/2520-5986.5.1

Abstract:
The aim of present paper is to investigate the psychological outcomes of 21st century Pakistani movies on viewers. The most important four outcomes are as following: (a) Violent behavior (b) Sensuality and Depression (c) Stereotypes (d) Misconception about Islam and Pakistani culture. By psychologically examining the theme of the film, we can take a look at the producer’s psychological methods and analyze the performance of the theme in the film. This paper is psychological analysis of five film themes and their carriage in productions. The films under analysis are Khuda Kay Liay (2007), Bol (2011), Bin Roye(2015), Malik (2016) Waar (2013). It is inferred from this study that these films have strong psychological impact on audience’s conscious and unconscious.
Noreen Sultana, Kunza Aqdas
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205985.5.1

Abstract:
The aim of present paper is to investigate the psychological outcomes of 21st century Pakistani movies on viewers. The most important four outcomes are as following: (a) Violent behavior (b) Sensuality and Depression (c) Stereotypes (d) Misconception about Islam and Pakistani culture. By psychologically examining the theme of the film, we can take a look at the producer’s psychological methods and analyze the performance of the theme in the film. This paper is psychological analysis of five film themes and their carriage in productions. The films under analysis are Khuda Kay Liay (2007), Bol (2011), Bin Roye(2015), Malik (2016) Waar (2013). It is inferred from this study that these films have strong psychological impact on audience’s conscious and unconscious.
Sohail Mehmood, Noreen Sultana
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.5.8

Abstract:
This paper investigates the impulses, motives and conditions that are positively associated and problems, hurdles and concerns that are the obstacles in the resurgence of 21st century Pakistani film industry. It also gauges the priorities and concerns of young moviegoers and compares with the priorities and concerns of our young generation of filmmakers. To achieve this end we employed both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies and came up with following results that Pakistan’s screen to film production ratio is one of the best in the world. It is vehemently in search of its distinctive identity and plays, sometimes immaturely, with different genres are evidence to it. We see a visible drift from conventional Indo Pak Masala genre to social drama, physical reality, war movies and Wuxia. Production facilities of Pakistani film industry have been significantly improved and in terms of equipment Pakistani film industry is no more far behind Bollywood and Hollywood as it used to be even in the times of Khuda Kay Leay (KKL). Different production processes are gradually becoming worthier; cinematography, sound design and post production effects have been admired whereas viewers are critical about the standard of music, choreography, production budget, code switching, acting, script writing and screen playwright. Researchers found that most of the filmmakers complain about dearth and substandard script and screen play. Moreover, film viewers also complain about lack of originality in the script. Young filmmakers also complain about the dearth of trained human resources, who may use the modern equipment to its optimum level of output. Young viewers more or less face a paradox, they claim that they aspire to see their local culture and local social issues in Pakistani movies, they yearn to see local culture in Pakistani movies but when they are exposed to the choice to select either Pakistani film or Indian, they choose Indian movie hoping to get better entertainment value in terms of visual pleasure; a fact that requires separate in depth research about the psychology of young Pakistani film spectatorship.
Sadia Qureshi, Shama Akram
Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21065/1925-7430.10.1

Abstract:
In medical education, different teaching methods are being used, and it is believed that methods involving active learning are usually stronger, motivate learners as they can control their learning process. So, the study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional teaching augmented with interactive sessions (TT+IS) as a new teaching approach in Biochemistry teaching.
Noreen Sultana, Kunza Aqdas
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.5.1

Abstract:
The aim of present paper is to investigate the psychological outcomes of 21st century Pakistani movies on viewers. The most important four outcomes are as following: (a) Violent behavior (b) Sensuality and Depression (c) Stereotypes (d) Misconception about Islam and Pakistani culture. By psychologically examining the theme of the film, we can take a look at the producer’s psychological methods and analyze the performance of the theme in the film. This paper is psychological analysis of five film themes and their carriage in productions. The films under analysis are Khuda Kay Liay (2007), Bol (2011), Bin Roye(2015), Malik (2016) Waar (2013). It is inferred from this study that these films have strong psychological impact on audience’s conscious and unconscious
Zarmina Batool, Faisal Rasool
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.4.1

Abstract:
Women play an important role in development of a country. In Pakistan efforts are being made to empower women in almost every field of life but still in many fields of life especially in rural areas women are living in miserable conditions.
Marwa M., Elmaghrabi
Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 9, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.21065/1925-7430.1.3

Abstract:
A pneumonia or respiratory illness of unknown source was detected in China during the late 2019,[2] that was identified afterward as a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genomic material called SARS-CoV-2. World Health Organization (WHO) declared that as nCoV- 19 or COVID-19. The person to person transmission of the virus is rapid by close contact and droplets produced when infected patients talk, sneeze or cough. The virus may also be transferred by touching the contaminated surfaces followed by contacting the nose, mouth or eyes.
Taha Nazir
Volume 8, Volume 8, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21065/19257430.8.1

Abstract:
The corruption is the violence of granted authorities that destroys the basic rights. It has serious consequences on society, system and lives. It also has posed potential threats to the public health care system, complicated the situation and makes extremely difficult to control in rational manner. So, we need the anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas. They should undertake the corrective measures immediately to defeat the global health corruption. We collected the data from different professional, scientific and academic institution The research article and databases were searched from inception to get more relevant and current knowledge of this topic. The duplications deleted and titles or full texts were screened to obtain the exact professional and scientific information. Finally inferred that the corruption is an emerging global problem and potential threatening the health care system. The hug employment, large financial budget and interactions of multiple business entities provide sufficient opportunities of corruption. So the corruption is metaphorically hurting the quality of life. Therefore, we should perceive its empirical existence to verify theoretical and intuitive significance for public health. Moreover, the recently developed new paradigms may help to determine the severity of corrupt acts to reveal the likelihood of engagement and develop more effective strategy to mitigate all forms of corruption in health care system.
, Nida Taha
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.21065/19204159/10.06

Abstract:
The philosophy of patient care is a wide and complicated topic of literature. That is elaborated by different health institution to harmonize their local clinical activities. Undoubtedly, that is working successfully to satisfy patients, fulfill the requirement of clinicians and cover maximum mutual benefits within officially allocated budget. However, patient care has different comprehension in different demographic and socio-political setting. But, in general, the meaning, understanding and composition of clinical and pharmaceutical patient care may be same all over world. The pharmacists, clinicians and administration adopt, exercise and emphasize on certain parts depending upon the type of challenges, kind of patients and available health care facilities. Thus, the health care is an emerging field that always remained under consideration. The local and international experts like to work, contribute and improve it to enhance the public health. Even some time judiciary, parliament and local intelligentsia focus and emphasize to address some particular health related problems. So, we may need to elaborate the comprehension to satisfy the literature and logical need of health and medicine including identification of problems, designing treatment protocol and handling the complication of therapy. That may potentially improve the overall outcomes and maximize the patient’s benefit. After twenty five years the definition of pharmaceutical care is still unsatisfactory. The confusion remained about what this term comprises and how to distinguish it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt essential to rephrase pharmaceutical care and to answer the question: "What is Pharmaceutical Care ". The patient care is not perfectly incorporated into the health care system in most part of the world. However, pharmacy practice has shown positive attitudes toward patient care provision. Thus, an advanced working should focus to improve the understanding the concept of patient care and overcome barriers.
Zhilin Li
Advanced Calculation and Analysis, Volume 3, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.21065/2520-596x/3.1

Abstract:
The immersed interface method (IIM) ?rst proposed in is an accurate numerical method for solving elliptic interface problems on Cartesian meshes. It is a sharp interface method that was intended to improve accuracy of the immersed boundary (IB) method. The IIM is second order accurate in the maximum norm (pointwise, strongest) while the IB method is ?rst order accurate. The ?rst IIM paper is one of the most downloaded one from the SIAM website and is one of the most cited papers. While IIM provided a way of accurate discretization of the partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients, the augmented IIM ?rst proposed in made the IIM much more efficient and faster by utilizing existing fast Poisson solvers. More important is that the augmented IIM provides an efficient way for multi-physics models with different governing equations, problems on irregular domains, multi-scales and multi-connected domains. A brie?y introduction of the augmented strategy including some recently progress is presented in this article.
Qamrul Khanson, Mississauga On L5N 2S5 12-7340 Copenhagen Road
Advanced Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.21065/25205986.3.1

Abdulrahman S. Alanazi, , Niyaz Alam
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 09, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.21065/1920-4159.1000234

Abstract:
The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Morus alba L. stem bark extract in experimental model of diabetes. The animals were divided into six groups as: control group (I); pathogenic control group (II) injected intravenously (i.v.) with single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg); morus alba stem bark extract (group-III; 200 mg/kg), and group-IV (400 mg/kg); group-V animals treated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) following STZ treatment; group-VI, animals treated with bark extract per se (400 mg/kg). The results of this study showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, blood glucose level, glycosylated heamoglobin level, and reduction in glutathione and insulin level after STZ administration. These parameters were significantly (p<0.05) reversed by extracts dose dependently. The biochemical findings were also supported by histopathological studies of pancreas where STZ produced histological changes in pancreas and treatment with Morus alba stem bark extract restored these changes. Thus, we conclude that Morus alba stem bark extracts produced significant antidiabetic and antioxidant effect which might be due to the presence of bioactive components such as phenolic and flavonoid content in the extract. The study warrant the need for further evaluated in certain other models of diabetes
, Lobna M Abdel Aziz, Maha Am Mohamed
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 09, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.21065/1920-4159.1000233

Abstract:
A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for determination of atorvastatin calcium and rosuvastatin calcium in bulk and tablet forms. The method depends on the formation of colored chromogen between atorvastatin calcium and rosuvastatin calcium and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDMAB) in acidic conditions and the reaction mixture exhibits maximum absorbance at λmax 540 and 570 nm for atorvastatin calcium and rosuvastatin calcium, respectively. Under the indicated conditions, this method was linear over the concentration range of 20-160 μg/ml and 2-16 μg/ml for atorvastatin calcium and rosuvastatin calcium, respectively. The method was statistically applied for the determination of drugs in both bulk and tablet forms. Results were compared with reference methods and no significant difference was obtained.
Kamlesh Kn, Sivakumar T,
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 09, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.21065/1920-4159.1000232

Abstract:
Background: Most of the available antimicrobial drugs have developed resistance; some of them suffer from severe toxicity, side effects. So, there is a need to discover novel compound(s) which should not only be potent, but also less toxic and cost effective. Objectives: The aim of the study is to develop new synthetic antimicrobial agents (Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal) such as 3-substituted flavone/flavanone derivatives, which should be significantly potent with low toxicity. Method: An attempt was made to synthesize a newer series of 3-methyl flavanone derivatives together with the synthesis of a series of 3-hydroxyl flavone analogues. The structures of the test compounds were elucidated and established by UV, IR, H-NMR1, C-NMR13 and mass spectrometry. The synthesized compounds were subjected for in vitro antimicrobial screening using cup plate methods, followed by the determination of zone of inhibitions. Results: Two series (each 10) of 3-methyl flavanone and 3-hydroxy flavone derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the test compounds were characterized and established by various spectroscopic methods. The synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against different strains (3- Gram positive, 3-Gram negative and 2-fungal strains). Conclusion: Some of the 3-hydroxyl flavones derivatives (1b, 3b, 4b, and 5b) and 3-methyl flavanone derivatives (3a, 1a, 2a and 4a) were found to elicit potent antimicrobial activity. The study revealed that 3-hydroxy flavone derivatives were found to be most active against Gram negative, while 3-methyl flavanone derivatives were active against Gram positive bacteria.
Yeo Qq, , Chung Wl, Chen Ll
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.21065/1920-4159.1000241

Abstract:
Yeo QQ, Chong JBK, Chung WL and Chen LL-Drug Related Problems Detected During a Brown Bag Review by a Pharmacist–Initiated Octo-Pills Programme in Singapore
, Hamauchi S, Tanaka R, Shino M Yamazaki K
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.21065/1920-4159.1000248

Abstract:
Introduction: Hand-foot Skin Reaction (HFSR) often hinders completion of Regorafenib therapy. No established prophylaxis exists against multikinase inhibitor-associated HFSR and further improvement of prophylaxis for HFSR is needed. Therefore, we offer multiagent therapy to prevent Regorafenib-associated HFSR comprising topical steroid (0.05% difluprednate) ointment and 20% urea-based cream. Methods: Subjects were unresectable or recurrent colorectal cancer patients who started Regorafenib therapy between May 2013 and March 2014 at the Shizuoka Cancer Center. Electronic medical records were retrospectively examined for HFSR incidence, CTCAE v3.0 grade of severest HFSR, time of HFSR onset, rate of therapy termination, delay and dose reduction. Results: Subjects were 55 patients and median treatment time 7.1 weeks. Overall and grade 3 HFSR incidence rate in this study (73 and 22%, respectively) was lower than in the CORRECT study Japanese subpopulation (80 and 28%, respectively). HFSR (grade ≥ 2) occurred in the first cycle or later in 42 and 11% of patients, respectively. HFSR accounted for 33 and 61% of first-cycle Regorafenib delay and dose reductions, respectively, and HFSR accounted for 40 and 53% in any cycle, respectively. Conclusion: Effectiveness of prophylactic topical steroids against Regorafenib-associated HFSR was shown in this study. Therefore, this prophylaxis is applicable in clinical settings.
, Derle D
Journal of Applied Pharmacy, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.21065/1920-4159.1000245

Abstract:
Cefixime is BCS class 2/4 drug whose oral absorption is limited by its solubility and/or permeability. The use of HPBCD is proved to be better complexing agent for enhancing solubility as well as permeability of drugs. At the same time spray drying is the one step continuous drying process making it attractive technique for industrial application. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to unite the use of HPBCD and spray drying alongside with optimizing it through Design of Experiments (DOE) approach by means of Box–Behnken design for the benefit of drugs like Cefixime that needs to be redeveloped for better therapeutic efficacy. These formulations were evaluated by solubility studies, process yield and total drug content with help of independent variables like air inlet temperature, aspirator rate and pump feed rate. The optimized formulation was also characterized by SEM, FTIR analysis and in vitro dissolution study. Inlet air temperature was found to be the most important parameter for the spray dried material characteristics, followed by the aspirator flow rate whereas Feed flow rate was found less significant. The results indicate that formulation parameters are at least important than process parameters when designing a proper process for spray drying inclusion complex. The optimized formulation was also then compressed into tablet and was compared with marketed formulation where it showed comparable dissolution.
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