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Nelly Nainggolan, Wahyu Hidayat
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 54-59; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10641

Abstract:
Introduction: As many as 90%-95% cases of oral cancer are oral squamous cell carcinoma. In South and Southeast Asia, the prevalence of oral cancer is high. Oral cancer is ranked sixth for the most frequent malignancies in Asia with nearly 274,300 new cases occurring every year. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma is one of the main public health concerns with 1-2% incident of all cancers worldwide and is also the sixth most common malignant tumor. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus which is also known as the cause of head and neck cancer. Among all malignancies, oral cancer is one of the conditions where salivary examination can be used to detect oral cancer because it contacts directly with the lesions. The relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma has been extensively studied and shows that HPV-16 & 18 can be detected in saliva, serum or plasma samples and patient biopsies. Purpose: This systematic review aims to reveal the presence of human papilloma virus in cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions of the oral cavity by examining saliva, serum or plasma. Methods: Systematic Review was carried out using the PRISMA method. Articles with clinical trial types sourced from electronic searches were obtained through the PubMed, Research Gate and Google Scholar portals using keywords: Human Papilloma Virus, Oral Cancer, and Saliva. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that HPV is detected in oral cavity cancers, oropharyngeal, oral squamous cell carcinoma and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders.Keywords : Human Papilloma Virus, Oral cancer, Saliva
Aina Ramadhanty, Didit Aspriyanto, Beta Widya Oktiani
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 1-5; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10632

Abstract:
Background: Panoramic radiography is one of the most commonly used radiographic diagnostic tools. Panoramic radiography exposure can increase the GCF flow because of increasing vascular permeability.GCF flow can also increase in periodontitis conditions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 1, 2, and 3 times exposure of panoramic radiography to the volume of GCF in wistar rats with periodontitis. Method: This research was true experimental with post test onlycontrol group design. Thesampling technique used simple random samplingthat obtained 25 wistar rats comprising of 5 wistars from each group in which the GCF samples of each group was collected from. Results: The average number of GCF inhealthy rats groupthat was not exposed to panoramic radiographywas 0.114 µL, the periodontitis rats group that was not exposed to panoramic radiography was 0.246 µL, the periodontitis rats group that was exposed1 time was 0.286 µL, the group of periodontitis rats exposed 2 times was 0.294 µL, and periodontitis group of rats exposed 3 times was 0.374 µL. The results of the One-Way Anova and Post Hoc Bonferroni tests stated that there is a significant increase in the volume of GCF between the control group and all other treatment groups, as well as between the non-exposed periodontitis group and the periodontitis group with 3 times exposure. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography can causeincrease the volume of GCF in wistar rats with periodontitis. Keywords: Gingival Crevicular Fluid,panoramic, periodontitis, wistar rats
Lailatul Qomariyah, Fransiska Uli Arta Panjaitan
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 72-78; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10644

Abstract:
Background: Chronic periodontitis is a periodontal disease with 80% of all cases of periodontitis. The major causes are the accumulation of plaque and bacteria. The dominant bacteria in chronic periodontitis is Porphyromonas gingivalis. Treatment of chronic periodontitis can be done by scaling and root planing and supporting therapy by using mouthwash such as Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% which is the gold standard in the treatment of periodontal disease. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% has disadvantages so that nowadays research on herbal plants is being done to find alternative medicines that are more effective. Ramania (Bouea machropylla Griffith) leaf contains flavonoids that have antibacterial properties. Objective: To analyze the antibacterial effectivity of the flavonoid fraction of Ramania leaf extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis that causes chronic periodontitis. Method: True experimental study and post-test with control group design consisting of 5 treatment groups, namely flavonoid fraction of ramania leaf extract with concentrations of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%, chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% as a control positive and aquadest as a negative control. Each group was repeated 6 times. Antibacterial tests using the dilution method with inhibitory rates calculated using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and killing rates were calculated using a Colony Counter. Results: The average difference in absorbance values obtained inhibitory rates at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%. One Way Anova Test showed a significance value of 0,000 (p < 0.05). The average number of colonies after 24 hours incubation showed the results of a kill rates in the concentration group of 0.3%, 0.5%, and positive control. The Kruskal Wallis test showed a significance value of 0,000 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained at a concentration of 0.1% and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained at 0.3% concentration.Keywords: Flavonoid Fraction, MBC, MIC, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Ramania Leaf Extract.
Etis Duhita Rahayuningtyas, Indah Suasani Wahyuni, Irna Sufiawati
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 79-84; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10645

Abstract:
Background: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SSJ) is a hypersensitivity reaction that is often triggered by drugs but this case is rare. These reactions result in uncontrolled keratinocyte damage to the skin and mucosa throughout the body, including the oral mucosa, and are often life-threatening. The use of high doses of corticosteroids is a treatment that is often given but it can trigger secondary infections of fungal and viral in the oral cavity. Purpose: This case report discusses the management of oral manifestations and secondary infections in SSJ patients, and becomes guidance for health professionals. Case: A-42-years-old male patient was consulted from the Department of Dermatology and Venereology (DV) due to oral pain and eating difficulties. The severity-of-illness-score for toxic-epidermal-necrolysis (SCORTEN) was 1. Erosive serosanguinous crusts, tend to bleed were found on the lips. Intraoral clinically presented wide erosive lesions and multiple ulcers, accompanied by a pseudomembranous plaque, and teeth decay. Hematologic examination showed an increase in leukocytes, neutrophil segments, monocytes, SGOT, urea, and creatinine as well as decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocytes, MCHC, protein, and albumin. Anti-HSV1 IgG increased almost 6 times than normal values. The patient was diagnosed with SJS with oral involvement, secondary infections of pseudomembranous candidiasis, and herpetic stomatitis. Case Management: Systemic therapy given were intravenous dexamethasone, ranitidine, calcium, and cetirizine, from the DV Department, while hydrocortisone lip ointment, Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12%, and Nystatin oral suspension for oral problems. The lesions progressed in 24 days. Conclusion: Oral secondary infections may occur in SJS patients due to high-dose corticosteroid therapy.Keywords: Herpetic Stomatitis, Oral Manifestation, Oral Secondary Infection, Pseudomembranous Candidiasis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.
Annisa Fitri Yuniar, I Wayan Arya Krishnawan Firdaus, Rahmad Arifin
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 31-36; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10637

Abstract:
Background: Candida albicans is the main microorganism that causes denture stomatitis, thus denture soaking in cleansing solution is needed to protect them from Candida albicans contamination. The 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate is one of denture cleansers that induce side effects at prolonged use. An alternative ingredient that can be used as a denture cleanser is ulin stem bark extract. Objective: To determine the effect of ulin stem bark extract at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentration on the growth of Candida albicans on acrylic resin denture plates. Method: True Experimental with post-test only with control group design was employed under 7 treatment groups consisting ulin stem bark extract at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentration, 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, and aquadest in a total of 28 samples. Acrylic resin samples that had been exposed to Candida albicans weresoaked in respective treatment for 15 minutes. Results: The average of Candida albicans colonies on acrylic resin denture plates after soaking in ulin bark extract at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentration, 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, and aquadest were 29.5 CFU/ml, 13.0 CFU/ml, 0 CFU/ml, 0 CFU/ml, 0 CFU/ml, 0 CFU/ml, and 155 CFU/ml. Based on Mann Whitney test, there was no significant difference when ulin stem bark extract at 60% concentration was compared to 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluoconate. Conclusion: Ulin stem bark extract at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% concentration have been proven to reduce Candida albicans colonies on acrylic resin denture plates, and the 60% concentration is equivalent to 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate.Keywords: Candida albicans,Eusideroxylon zwageri, Heat cured acrylic resin. Ulin stem bark extract.
Della Isnadya Noor, I Wayan Arya Krishnawan Firdaus, Beta Widya Oktiani
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 37-43; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10638

Abstract:
Background: Chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease caused by bacterial colonization of dental plaque. Bacteria that play a role in chronic periodontitis is Porphyromonas gingivalis. One of mouthwash that reduce the number of P.gingivalis colonies is chlorhexidine 0.2%. Long term use of chlorhexidine 0.2% can cause some side effects to the oral cavity, so we need an alternative mouthwash from natural ingredients that can reduce the side effects of chlorhexidine 0.2%. Ulin bark extract contains phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, terpenoid, and saponin which can be an alternative base for mouthwash besides chlorhexidine 0.2%. Purpose: It is to analyze antibacterial effectivity of ulin bark extract on the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: This study was using true experimental research and post-test only with control group design, that used 9 treatment groups with 4 replications, that were 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentrations, chlorhexidine 0.2%, and sterile aquadest against P. gingivalis. The total samples were as many as 36. Result: One Way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Games Howell tests showed that the average absorbance values has a significant difference, then Kruskall Wallis and Post Hoc Mann Whitney tests showed the number of colonies with significant differences. MIC in this study was at 5% concentration and MBC was at 20% concentration.. Conclusion: Ulin bark extract with 40% concentration has an absorbance value equivalent to 0.2% chlorhexidine and 20% concentration has a bactericidal effects equivalent to 0.2% chlorhexidine against the growth of P.gingivalis.Keywords:Antibacterial, Dilution method,Porphyromonas gingivalis, Ulin Bark Extract.
Dewi Puspitasari, Diana Wibowo
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 44-49; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10639

Abstract:
Bioactive composite resin is the newest restorative resin material which has good mechanical and aesthetic properties. In the oral cavity, the restoration is degraded due to exposure to acids, one of which is exposure to asthma drugs. Properties of composite resins that can be affected by degradation include surface roughness. This study aims to analyze salbutamol sulfate exposure to the surface roughness of bioactive resins. The research method used was pure experimental design with post test-only with control design. The study used 39 specimens of bioactive resin (8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness), divided into 3 treatment groups, namely the 400µg salbutamol sulfate exposure group, the 800µg salbutamol sulfate exposure group and the artificial saliva control group with treatment every 24 hours for 7 days, subsequently the specimens are tested with the surface roughness of the composite resin using a surface roughness tester. The highest surface roughness value was found in the 800µg group (8.23 ± 0.98 µm), followed by 400 µg group (5.43 ± 1.16 µm) and the lowest in the artificial saliva group (2.63 ± 0.82 µm). There were significant differences in all treatment groups. The exposure of salbutamol sulfate affects the surface roughness of the bioactive composite resin, a higher number of exposure doses indicates a higher surface roughness value.Keywords: bioactive composite resins, salbutamol sulfate, surface roughness
Huda Ainani, Rahmad Arifin, Ika Kusuma Wardani
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 100-105; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10649

Abstract:
Background: Partial edentulism is the process when single or multiple teeth is missing from the alveolar socket and it may become an indicator for oral health. Partial edentulism can occur since the age of six and the aging factor increases the risk. Partial edentulism can be caused by some factors including: ages, gender, economic level, education level, knowledge level, and the etiology of the tooth loss. Purpose: To describe the distribution of partially edentulous pattern from RSGMP Gusti Hasan Aman’s patients in Banjarmasin. Method: This study was including patients from RSGMP Gusti Hasan Aman between the age of 17-45 years old in Banjarmasin using purposive sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to determined patient knowledge on oral health with Kennedy classification for the partially edentulous pattern. Result: Kennedy Class II was the most frequent edentulous pattern observed on the upper (37%) and the lower jaw (39%). In particular, the adolescent group had the highest percentage (43%) of partial edentulism based on age. Women had the highest percentage (57%) of partial eduntulism based on gender. Respondents with moderate economic status had the highest percentage (35%) of partial edentulism. Respondents that have high school or above education level were the highest percentage (87%) identified with partial edentulous. The most common etiology that identified with partial edentulous was the caries (52%). Conclusion: It can be concluded that Kennedy class III is the most confronted partially edentulous pattern among patients at RSGMP Gusti Hasan Aman in Banjarmasin.Keywords: Partially Teeth Loss Pattern, Kennedy, RSGMP Gusti Hasan Aman
Raden Harry Dharmawan Setyawardhana, Sherli Diana, Muhammad Rezky Gunawan
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 20-24; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10635

Abstract:
Background: Dental and oral health problems according to Riskesdas (2018) in Indonesia is 57.6% and South Borneo is almost 60%. High level of damage in South Borneo is caused by the people still consumption of river water as a source of clean water. Caries can be treated by restoration of tooth, one of them is water settable GIC.. Objective: Knowing the effect of water settable GIC immersion in river water and PDAM water to diametric tensile strength. Method: This study used a true experimental laboratory research method with a post test only design with a control group design on 27 samples which were divided into 3 groups immersion. Result: This research shows that the mean of diametric tensile strength in group 1 (7.15 MPa), group 2 (8.42 MPa), and group 3 (10.54 MPa). The One Way Anova statistical test shows the value of (P <0.05) which means that there is a significant difference in the value of the diametric tensile strength of each treatment group. Conclusion: There is an effect on the decrease in the value of the diametric tensile strength after immersion of water settable GIC in river water and PDAM water.Keyword: Diametral Tensile Strength, GIC Immersion, River Water.
Christine Anita Wardaningrum, Endang Wahyuningtyas, Titik Ismiyati, Sri Budi Barunawati
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 106-110; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10650

Abstract:
Background: Clefts on the lips and palate are common cases to be found frequently in the field of dentistry. This gap connects the oral cavity and the nasal cavity so that it interferes with the nutritional intake in patients. The age and size of the oral cavity in patients become particular challenges for prosthetic rehabilitation. Another challenge lies at the impression procedure, because it is an essential part in the making of obturator. Objective: To provide information on the management of patient with cleft palate using feeding obturator from acrylic material. Case: A 13-months-old male patient arrived at Prof. Soedomo Gadjah Mada University Dental Hospital with his parents and was seeking for prosthetic therapy to cover the cleft on his palate because it had been muddling with food and beverage intake. Patient had undergone cheiloplasty surgery and further arranged for palatoplasty procedure. Intraoral examination exhibited a cleft extended from hard palate, soft palate, and uvula. Case management: Upper jaw impression was performed for individual tray fabrication, followed by impression procedure in an upright straight position until the patient bawled. The impression result was casted to construct an obturator using acrylic heat cure material. Fitting surface was covered with soft liner. Treatment result showed that the obturator was retentive, stable and able to assist the nutritional intake in patient. Conclusion: Acrylic feeding obturator can recover the condition in patient with cleft palate and improve nutritional intake as well as body weight to prepare patient for palatoplasty surgery.Keywords: Cleft Palate, Feeding Plate, Obturator
Devi Rosalinda, Dewi Puspitasari, Muhammad Yanuar Ichrom Nahzi
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 65-71; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10643

Abstract:
Background: Surface resistance between composite resin and dentin is currently one of the problems of restorative materials. Failure ofcomposite resin are still being reported in clinical studies with failure rates ranging between 5-45% based on observations for 5-17 years. Bioactive composite resin is a new type of composite resin that has mechanical and chemical properties similiar to teeth. The use of resins, bonding materials, drying time of the solvent, and type of solvent also affect the shear bond strength Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of air drying time bonding (self-etch) with ethanol as a solvent on the shear bond strength of bioactive composite resins. Methods: This study used 32 non-carious maxillary premolar teeth that were fixed using acrylic resin. Fiber glass with a diameter of 3 mm and thickness of 3 mm were fixed to dentin surface and applied using bioactive composite resin were divided into 4 treatment group, i.e. the group without air drying, 20 s, 40 s, and 60 s. Shear bond strength test using Universal Testing Machine. Results: One Way Anova and Post Hoc Bonferroni test showed significant differences with p=0,002 (p<0,05). The average shear bond strength value of the lowest bioactive composite resin in the group bonding without air drying with a value of 6.381 ± 2.818 MPa and the highest shear bond strength value of the bioactive composite resin in the 60 seconds bonding air drying group with a value of 11.873 ± 2.931 MPa. Conclusion: The air drying time of the bonding affects the shear bond strength of the bioactive composite resin.Keywords: Air drying time, bioactive composite resin, bonding, ethanol, shear bond strength.
Rahmi Khairani Aulia
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 85-89; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10646

Abstract:
Composite resins are currently the most popular restorative material in dentistry. This is due to good aesthetics and maximum conservation ability. Behind these advantages, there are disbenefits of composite resin materials, such as polymerization shrinkage, which can lead to restoration failure. Various attempts have been investigated to reduce the shrinkage incidence of composite resins, one of which is the technique of placing the restorative material into the cavity. The restoration filling technique is recognized as a significant factor in shrinkage stress. By using a special filling technique, the polymerization shrinkage damage stress can be reduced. There are several techniques in performing composite resin fillings, including bulk and incremental techniques. These techniques have their respective advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this literature review was to compare the physical properties of composite resin restorations with bulk filling and incremental techniques. Physical properties that being studied include polymerization shrinkage, stress shrinkage, degree of conversion, bonding strength, water resorption, color stability, and temperature increase. Comparing the two techniques, composite resin with incremental filling technique has superior physical properties compared to bulk technique. From the comparison of the two techniques, the composite resin with incremental filling technique has superior physical properties compared to the bulk technique, especially in higher conversion which causes lower shrinkage stress. This situation makes the incremental technique provide better bond strength, water resorption, color stability, and lower temperature rise.Keywords: Bulk, Composite Resin, Incremental, Physical Properties, Restoration, Restoration Technique
Akhmad Aufayed Ma’Rifatullah, Diana Wibowo, Aulia Azizah
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 6-12; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10633

Abstract:
Background: South Kalimantan experienced dental and mouth problems with a prevalence of 59,6%, so did Barito Kuala Regency with 68,66%. Malocclusion is a dental and oral health problem related to the disharmony between jaws and teeth. Many cases of malocclusion occur in children aged 12-14 years by 15,6% in the form of crowded teeth in South Kalimantan. Malocclusion is a factor that can cause food debris to stick to the interdental area between the crowded teeth, thus forming plaque accumulation. Plaque is the primary etiological factor that influences gingival status. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relationship between the severity of malocclusion and gingival status in students aged 12-14 years at SMPN 5 Marabahan. Method: This study used analytic survey research with cross sectional research design. The research population was all students of SMPN 5 Marabahan aged 12-14 years who born in March 2005 - January 2008, amounting to 88 people. The minimum sample size which determined by the proportion estimation formula was 47 people. The used sampling technique was simple random sampling technique with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The distribution frequency of the study showed mild malocclusion of 55,3% and mild inflammation of 57,4%. Spearman analysis test results on the severity of malocclusion based on Mal I and gingival status based on GI showed a significance value of p = 0,045 (p < 0,05). Conlclusion: It could be concluded that there was a relationship between the severity of malocclusion and gingival status in students aged 12-14 years at SMPN 5 Marabahan.Keywords:Gingival Index, Gingival Status, Malalignment Index, Malocclusion, Permanent Tooth Occlusion Stage 2.
Amalia Noviyanti, I Wayan Arya Krishnawan Firdaus, Rahmad Arifin
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 13-19; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10634

Abstract:
Background: Streptococcus mutans is plaque-forming initiator bacteria. Plaque on the surface base of denture can cause color changing, bad breath, inflammation, and infection called denture stomatitis. Denture hygiene must be maintained by denture soaking in 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate. However, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconatethat used incessantly can cause side effects such as the changing of denture color and the fading of denture base pigmentation. The ironwood stem bark extract can be an alternative for denture cleanser material. Objectives: To analyze the effect of ironwood stem bark extract on the growth of Streptococcus mutans on heat cured type acrylic resin denture plate. Methods: True experimental laboratories research was used with post test only control group design using 9 treatment groups which are 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentration of ironwood stem bark extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and aquadest. The treatment was performed with 3 times repetition resulting in 27 total samples. Antibacterial activity was measured by calculating the bacteria colony number. Results: The 5% and 10% concentration of ironwood stem bark extract were effective in reducing Streptococcus mutans with30.3 CFU/ml and 10.3 CFU/ml average colony number. The ironwood stem bark extracts with 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentration are effective and equivalent to 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate against Streptococcus mutans with 0 CFU/ml average value. Conclusion: The 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% concentration of ironwood stem bark extract is equally effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconatein killing Streptococcus mutans,exhibiting potential to be an alternative for denture cleanser material.Keyword: 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate, ironwood stem bark extract, acrylic resin denture plate heat cured type, Streptococcus mutans.
Noor Khalishah, Beta Widya Oktiani, Rosihan Adhani
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 25-30; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10636

Abstract:
Background: Aggressive periodontitis is a disease that is mostly suffered by young patients with minimal local factors. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 8% in Indonesia, where Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans bacteria are presented as dominant bacteria in this disease. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative bacterium that is sensitive to flavonoids. Ramania leaves are natural substances which contain flavonoids. Flavonoids in ramania leaves can be applied as an antibacterial substance. Objectives: The objectives of this research are to determine and analyze the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration of flavonoids extract from ramania leaves at the concentration of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%, and analyze the antibacterial effectiveness on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: True experimental design with pre and post-test with control group design was applied in this study. Antibacterial test using broth and agar dilution method was performed in a total of 5 treatment groups with 6 repetitions. Results: All exract at 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% concentration demonstrated the ability to inhibit bacterial growth, and the minimum bactericidal concentration was found at 0.5% concentration. Result test for One way ANNOVA on minimum inhibitory concentration and Kruskal wallis test on minimum bactericidal concentration exhibited significant value of less than 0.05 presenting significant differences in some groups. Conclusion: Minimum inhibitory concentration of ramania leaves flavonoid extract is effective on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at the concentration of 0.1% and minimum bactericidal concentration of ramania leaves flavonoid extract is more effective at the concentration of 0.5%.Keywords: Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans, Aggressive Periodontitis, Dilution Method, Flavonoids, Ramania Leaves.
Dinda Rizkia, Irham Taufiqurrahman, Renie Kumala Dewi
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 96-99; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10648

Abstract:
Background: Ramania leaf (Bouea macrophylla Griff) extract gel has secondary metabolites in the form of flavonoids, steroids, phenols and terpenoids which have a role as antioxidant. They will protect the body from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing endogenous antioxidants SOD, CAT and GPX, so that wound healing will not be inhibited and the process of collagen synthesis can run smoothly. Objective: To analyze the effect of ramania leaf extract gel that was applied topically with 5%, 10% and 15% concentration on collagen fibers density in incisional wound of male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) on the 7th and the 14th day. Method: This research is a pure experimental study with a posttest-only control group design, using 24 rats which were divided into 4 groups: the treatment groups given ramania leaf extract gel of 5%, 10%, 15%, and the control group given placebo gel. The application of the extract gel was done once within 24 hours. The collagen level was measured with a spectrophotometer on the 7th and the 14th day. Results: Two-Way ANOVA test results on the 7th and the 14th day of each group showed a significant difference with p=0.000 (p<0.05). The Bonferroni Post-hoc Test showed a significant difference with p<0.05 between the placebo gel group and the groups of ramania leaf extract gel of 5%, 10%, 15% on the 7th and the 14th day. Conclusion: There is an effect of ramania leaf extract gel on collagen fibers density with the most effective concentration of 15%.Keywords: Antioxidant, , Collagen, Ramania Leaf Extract Gel
Wulandani Liza Putri, Erwin Siregar, Haru Setyo Anggani
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 111-116; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10651

Abstract:
Back ground:Strepococcus mutans colonization around orthodontic bracket is the common thing that may commence the development of white spot lesion.Objectives: This research is to analyze antibacterial effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and chitosan nanoparticles in orthodontic adhesive resin toward Streptococcus mutans colony. Methods: This research was conducted at RSKGM University of Indonesia on August 2019. Thirty extracted premolars were randomly allocated into three groups. Bracket was bonded to each specimen using orthodontic adhesive resin (Transbond XT) that was incorporated with titanium dioxide/chitosan nanoparticles. Each sample was submerged in bacterial suspension and was incubated for 24 hours. Streptococcus mutans colony around orthodontic bracket was counted with Total Plate Count methodandthen analyzed using statistical analysis. Results: There is no difference in Streptococcus mutans colony around orthodontic brackets among three treatment groups. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of orthodontic adhesive resins incorporated with titanium dioxide nanoparticles did not differ from orthodontic adhesive resins incorporated with or without chitosan nanoparticles. This is depicted from the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies around the orthodontic brackets.Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, Orthodontic adhesive resin, Streptococcus mutans, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Isyana Erlita, Rahmatillah Rahmatillah, Sherli Diana
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 50-53; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10640

Abstract:
Background: This research is an experimental study to determine the physical properties of propolis extract as an alternative material in pulpcapping treatment. High sorption value is the main cause of pulpcapping treatment failure. Purpose: to analyze the sorption value of propolis extract in water and artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: Thirty disc-shaped zinc oxide propolis (15 mm x 1 mm) specimens were stored in the incubator at 37ºC for 24 hours. The discs were weighed, dehydrated, and weighed again. Immediately after weighing, the discs were immersed for 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days in 50 mL of distilled water and artificial saliva at 37ºC and then weighed for second time (sorption value). Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA for data processing in the water and artificial saliva immersion group, then the Independent T-Test for inter-group immersion in water with artificial saliva. Results: There were differences in the sorption value of zinc oxide propolis with ZnOE (positive control) in water and artificial saliva between immersion times of 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days. There was no difference in the sorption value of zinc oxide propolis between the water and the artificial saliva immersion group. Conclusion: The sorption value of propolis extract, both in water and artificial saliva immersion shows a high sorption value. This indicates that the propolis extract has not met the criteria as a pulpcapping material in terms of its physical properties, namely absorption of water (water sorption).Keywords: Propolis extract, Pulpcapping, Sorption
Afif Surya Adena, Endang Wahyuningtyas, Intan Ruspita
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 60-64; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10642

Abstract:
Background: Edentulism post tooth extraction is an undesirable state among patients, specifically with the involvement of anterior dentition. Immediate denture in cases of anterior teeth extraction is a selected treatment to recover aesthetic and phonetic function. This treatment shows an impact on psychological stability and improves patients’ confidence level. Objective: This case report provides information on the management of immediate removable partial denture for maxillary and mandibular teeth. Case: A female teacher suffered from tooth loss of 26, 28, 36, 46, 47. Tooth 11, 14, 21, 22, 31, 32, 41, 42 were not supported with adequate periodontal tissue and presented with level 3 tooth mobility. Patient expected the teeth to be removed and managed with prosthodontic appliance, yet disfavoring the stage of edentulism because her profession demanded high social performance. Case management: The treatment for this case includes immediate removable partial denture with acrylic material in upper and lower jaw. Denture was fabricated prior to the extraction of tooth 11, 14, 21, 22, 31, 32, 41, 42, and inserted promptly. The insertion result showed good occlusion, retention, stabilization, and tissue adaptation of denture. It also demonstrated good aesthetic result. On 24 hours control post insertion, wound closure was gradually established with the presence of redness. A week after insertion, wounded tissue had been fully covered and redness had been diminished. Conclusion: Immediate removable partial denture provides good aesthetic and function. Patient was satisfied with the treatment because it improved her appearance without experiencing any period of edentulism.Keywords: Aesthetics, Edentulous, Extraction, Immediate Removable Partial Denture.
Bima Ewando Kaban, Dahlia Riyanto, Adiastuti Parmadiati, Desiana Radithia, Bagus Soebadi
Dentino : Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi, Volume 6, pp 90-95; doi:10.20527/dentino.v6i1.10647

Abstract:
Infection of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 causes medical problems throughout the world. HSV-1 infection often affects the oral regions and HSV-2 infection is the most prevalent cause of genital ulcerations. It is possible for HSV-2 to cause oro-labial herpes and HSV-1 to cause genital herpes. Primary HSV infection usually affects children or adolescent, whereas adults usually experience infection more frequently due to viral reactivation. Objective: To discuss the management of Primary HSV-1 and HSV-2 Infection which appears simultaneously in adults. Case report: a 33yearold female patient came to hospital with multiple painful ulcers in her tongue, buccal and labial mucosa, preceded by prodrome, followed with eruption and outbreak of vesicles on her skin. The first laboratory examination confirmed a high titer of reactive Immunoglobulin M (IgM) of anti-HSV-1 and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-HSV-2. She was diagnosed to have Primary HSV-1 and HSV-2 Infection and treated with oral Acyclovir and Chlorine dioxide mouthwash with good healing. The clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and management of primary herpetic stomatitis are discussed. Conclusion: Correct diagnosis and treatment can restore well-being, avoid secondary problems for patients, and prevent the use of inappropriate drugs.Keywords : Herpes Simplex Virus, HSV-1, HSV-2, Management, Primary Herpes Infection
Dewi Nur Mayasari, Rahkman Ardi
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 34-40; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.02.003

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kebutuhan rekognisi dan karakteristik demografi kebutuhan rekognisi dengan pelaku narsisme pada pengguna Instagram. Perilaku narsisme merupakan perilaku yang memperkuat dan meningkatkan kekaguman pada diri sendiri yang dapat memberikan status sosial, pujian, dan daya tarik. Narsisme memiliki kebutuhan yang kuat atas ketegasan orang lain terhadap keunggulan yang dimiliki untuk diakui. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode survei. Pengumpulan data menggunakan skala perilaku narsisme berdasarkan Skala Narq-s (Narcissism Admiration Rivalry Questionnaire Short) yang diadaptasi dari model NARC (Narcissistic Admiration Rivalry Concept). Dan untuk mengukur kebutuhan rekognisi digunakan skala yang dibuat oleh peneliti lain berdasarkan dimensi kebutuhan rekognisi. Penelitian ini melibatkan 191 pengguna aktif Instagram dan berusia 19-35 tahun. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan teknik statistik regresi linear pada aplikasi statistik progam Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versi 16.0 for Windows. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat korelasi positif kebutuhan rekognisi dengan perilaku narsisme pada pengguna Instagram dan terdapat perbedaan karakteristik demografi terhadap pelaku narsisme pada pengguna Instagram, yang artinya kebutuhan rekognisi berpengaruh terhadap perilaku narsisme. Kebutuhan rekognisi berkontribusi terhadap perilaku narsisme sebesar 41,2%, sedangkan sisanya dipengaruhi oleh variabel lain diluar variabel kebutuhan rekognisi. Disisi lain hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa tingkat narsisme pada penelitian ini termasuk sedang.
Siti Aisah, Ruseno Arjanggi
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 79-85; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.03.007

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara lingkungan kerja dan persepsi keadilan kompensasi dengan loyalitas kerja karyawan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif korelasional. Populasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh karyawan produksi garmen. Dengan sampel sebanyak 187 karyawan produksi sebuah perusahaan garmen di kota Semarang. Metode pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan pada penelitian ini terdiri dari 3 skala, yaitu skala loyalitas kerja yang terdiri dari 25 item besar,skala lingkungan kerja yang terdiri dari 18 item,skala persepsi keadilan kompensasi terdiri 36 item. Analisis data menggunakan analisis regresi ganda menunjukkan ada pengaruh simultan antara lingkungan kerja dan persepsi keadilan kompensasi dengan loyalitas kerja karyawan. Temuan penelitian ini mengindikasikan peran dua variabel lingkungan kerja dan persepsi keadilan kompensasi dalam memprediksi terbentuknya loyalitas kerja karyawan.
Nadia Khairina, Rizka Halida
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 86-94; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.03.008

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kebutuhan rekognisi dan Sepertinya tidak ada hari tanpa pemberitaan terkait perilaku tidak etis yang dilakukan oleh politisi, selebriti, atlet profesional, atau pimpinan suatu perusahaan besar. Telah banyak intervensi yang digunakan untuk mengurangi munculnya perilaku tidak etis, Namun, pelanggaran-pelanggaran atau perilaku tidak etis masih terjadi dan bermacam-macam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1) peran identitas diri dalam mempengaruhi penurunan intensitas perilaku tidak etis, (2) peran kehadiran orang lain yang diuntungkan dalam meningkatkan intensitas perilaku tidak etis, serta (3) pengaruh identitas diri terhadap intensitas diri ketika adanya kehadiran orang lain yang diuntungkan (penerima manfaat). Dengan desain penelitian 2 (identitas diri: priming & non-priming) x 2 (manipulasi pembayaran: individual & dyad). Partisipan berjumlah 200 orang (laki-laki: 58 orang). Penelitian menggunakan soal matematika sebanyak 20 soal. Unethical behavior akan dihitung berdasarkan klaim jumlah jawaban benar yang dituliskan oleh partisipan dari persoalan matematika yang mereka kerjakan. Hasil penelitian akan dianalisis dengan multiple regression. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa aktivasi identitas diri memiliki pengaruh dalam menurunkan intensitas perilaku tidak etis. Namun, aktivasi identitas diri menjadi meningkatkan intensitas perilaku tidak etis ketika adanya kehadiran orang lain yang diuntungkan.
Ivan Muhammad Agung, Herdiyan Maulana
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 5-19; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.02.001

Abstract:
Bencana kabut merupakan salah satu masalah yang sering terjadi pada bangsa Indonesia khususnya di Pekanbaru, provinsi Riau Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji peran atribusi dan respons emosi terhadap menyalahkan dan kepercayaan pada pemerintah dalam kabut asap di Provinsi Riau, Indonesia. Partisipan penelitian 101 mahasiswa di Pekanbaru. Hasil analisis Partial Least Square-Path Modeling (PLS-PM) menunjukkan secara umum model atribusi-emosi fit dengan data. Selanjutnya, proses atribusi kontrol dan niat berkorelasi positif dengan emosi dan menyalahkan terhadap pemerintah. Selain itu, menyalahkan juga secara signifikan memediasi hubungan antara atribusi dan kepercayaan, tetapi gagal memediasi emosi dan kepercayaan. Temuan penelitian ini memberikan informasi penting tentang mekanisme atribusi psikologis dan ekspresi emosi dalam menjelaskan bagaimana menyalahkan dan kepercayaan kepada pemerintah terjadi, khususnya dalam bencana.
Ferdiana Suniya Prawesti, Nono Hery Yoenanto
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 66-78; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.02.006

Abstract:
Slow learner merupakan siswa yang mengalami kegagalan dalam situasi belajar akademik pada tingkat yang sama dengan siswa lain dan merupakan salah satu jenis siswa berkebutuhan khusus. Siswa slow learner hampir dapat ditemukan di seluruh sekolah baik sekolah inklusi maupun sekolah non inklusi. Adapun layanan pendidikan bagi siswa slow learner di sekolah non inklusi kurang optimal dikarenakan guru di sekolah dasar non inklusi belum memiliki keterampilan dalam mengajar siswa slow learner, sehingga selama ini guru menyamakan cara mengajar siswa reguler dan siswa slow learner yang menyebabkan siswa slow learner kurang bisa mengikuti pelajaran dan tertinggal dengan siswa reguler lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pelatihan strategi pembelajaran Shaw untuk meningkatkan keterampilan guru mengajar siswa slow learner. Teknik pengumpulan data berupa soal pengetahuan dan pedoman observasi. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah pretest-posttest control group design dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 12 guru dan analisis data menggunakan teknik Uji T-test. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan rerata antara kelompok yang diberikan pelatihan Strategi Pembelajaran Shaw dengan kelompok yang tidak diberikan pelatihan Strategi Pembelajaran Shaw, hal ini berarti kelompok eksperimen memiliki perubahan yang signifikan dibanding dengan kelompok kontrol.
Yoga Aji Nugraha, Arum Etikariena
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 41-51; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.02.004

Abstract:
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi corrupt intention berdasarkan theory of reasoned action (TRA). Artikel ini berhipotesis bahwa hierarchy culture dan dark triad personality memengaruhi corrupt intention. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan corrupt intention scale (2009), the dirty dozen scale (2010), dan organizational culture survey (consistency) (2006). Menggunakan online surveys kami berhasil mendapatkan partisipan sebanyak 93 pegawai dari berbagai lembaga pemerintahan di Indonesia. Analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis multiple regression. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa (1) hierarchy culture tidak signifikan memengaruhi corrupt intention (β = 0,00; p < 0,05); dan (2) dark triad personality signifikan memengaruhi corrupt intention (β = 0,24; p < 0,01). Temuan lainnya yaitu status kerja sebagai variabel kontrol (β = 1,81; p < 0,05) juga signifikan memengaruhi terjadinya corrupt intention. Faktor tersebut mampu memprediksi varian corrupt intention sebesar 35%, F(4,85) = 16,64, p <0,01. Temuan penelitian ini dapat memberikan bukti bahwa faktor eksternal pegawai seperti budaya di organisasi dalam hal ini hierarchy culture bukan menjadi faktor yang menentukan munculnya corrupt intention, namun yang lebih menentukan adalah faktor internal pegawai yaitu dark triad personality.
Nugraini Aprilia
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 52-65; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.02.005

Abstract:
Keterikatan yang terjalin antara guru sekolah dasar dengan siswa menyebabkan rendahnya keinginan para guru sekolah dasar untuk tidak bekerja saat mengalami masalah kesehatan atau kelelahan kerja. Keterikatan tersebut mendorong tingginya prevalensi presenteeism dengan banyak konsekuensi negatif yang mengikutinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat pengaruh task significance, perceived supervisor support, dan conscientiousness terhadap presenteeism Guru Sekolah Dasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah Guru Sekolah Dasar di Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung. Responden pada penelitian ini adalah sebanyak 177 Guru Sekolah Dasar. Alat ukur yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah skala likert. Pada penelitian ini presenteeism sebagai sebuah takaran produktivitas ketika bekerja dalam kondisi sakit diukur dengan menggunakan Work Limitation Questionnaire, sementara task significance diukur menggunakan Job Diagnostic Survey, perceived supervisor support diukur mengunakan sub-perceived supervisor support scale, dan dimensi conscientiousness diukur menggunakan The Big Five Inventory. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisis regresi berganda dengan bantuan program IBM SPSS. Hasil analisis data menemukan bahwa terdapat pengaruh task significance, perceived supervisor support, dan conscientiousness secara simultan terhadap presenteeism guru sekolah dasar.
Gyonneseva Yoskias Wirahana, Gelora Mangalik, Yulius Yusak Ranimpi
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 20-33; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.02.002

Abstract:
Menua bukanlah suatu penyakit, melainkan proses penurunan daya tahan tubuh dalam menghadapi rangsangan dari dalam dan luar tubuh. Perubahan yang dialami lansia terjadi pada ranah fisik dan juga psikis. Dalam hal perubahan status gizi pada lansia lebih disebabkan karena adanya perubahan lingkungan, kondisi faali dan status kesehatan termasuk kondisi psikologis. Pemilihan makanan adalah perilaku yang beragam yang dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor, seperti psikologis, sosial, dan ekonomi. Penelitian ini mencari apakah ada hubungan antara kondisi psikologis, perilaku makanan dan status gizi pada lansia. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif dengan teknik analisa korelasional. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan form SQ-FFQ untuk mengetahui perilaku makan lansia, instrumen psikologis Geriatric Depression Scale dan Geriatric Anxiety Scale untuk melihat kondisi psikologis pada lansia, dan perhitungan IMT untuk melihat status gizi pada lansia. Teknik sampling yang digunakan adalah populasi sampling dimana semua populasi lansia dijadikan responden dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Cikampek Selatan, Kabupaten Karawang, Jawa Barat. Hasil perhitungan dengan menggunakan rumus korelasi r kuadran dengan hasil χ²hub = 8,029 < 12,6 pada responden pria dan χ²hub = 6,225 < 15,5 pada wanita yang dapat diartikan bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara status psikologis lansia dengan status gizinya, tetapi status psikologis mereka secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi pemilihan makan, dan juga pemenuhan makannya. Di samping itu, penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang dimiliki oleh responden dalam hal status psikologis, pola makan, dan juga pemenuhan zat gizi baik itu berdasarkan jenis kelamin, dan tempat tinggal.
Jurnal Ecopsy, Volume 8, pp 1-4; doi:10.20527/ecopsy.2021.04.010

Abstract:
Psikologi lingkungan menurut Steg et al. (2019) adalah disiplin ilmu dari cabang psikologi yang mempelajari keterkaitan antara manusia dan lingkungan (buatan dan alamiah). Ini artinya psikologi lingkungan berusaha menjelaskan pengaruh lingkungan buatan dan alamiah pada aspek perilaku, perasaan, dan pikiran manusia. Berbagai topik yang diteliti pada bidang ini seperti perubahan iklim dan perilaku, bencana dan kondisi psikologis, perilaku pada setting lingkungan kerja, perilaku pro-lingkungan, perilaku manusia pada lingkungan urban, perilaku pada setting lingkungan sekolah, dan lain-lain. Bidang kajian dan topik-topik riset inilah yang saat ini menjadi fokus kajian di Jurnal Ecopsy. Pada catatan editorial ini, saya sebagai ketua editor baru di Jurnal Ecopsy akan menyampaikan perkembangan psikologi lingkungan di Indonesia, penegasan Jurnal Ecopsy sebagai jurnal pelopor di psikologi lingkungan, dan perubahan baru pada jurnal.
Putri Dwi Mei Kartini, Gunardi Djoko Winarno, Dian Iswandaru, Agus Setiawan
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 56-64; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10469

Abstract:
One of the tourist destinations in Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park in Lampung, which has a variety of butterflies, namely the Gita Persada Butterfly Park. Research development needs to be done so that this park gives visitors satisfaction and the sustainability of butterflies. This study aims to study how visitors perceive tourism activities. The method used through direct observation and closed interviews containing questionnaires with aspects of assessment of facilities and shuttles, accommodation, infrastructure and tourist attractions. The data obtained were analyzed using One Score One Indicator and analyzed using a Likert Scale. The results of the study show that the facilitation and service aspects, as well as infrastructure, are classified as normal, while the tourist objects are classified as good. Visitors' perceptions stated that repairs should be made to the parking area, construction of counters, gift shops, information signs, tourgues, camping ground, homestays, tree houses and photo booths.
Basir Achmad, Sulaiman Bakri
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 166-172; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10491

Abstract:
The research aimed to analyze the growth response of belangeran (Shorea balangeran) seedlings on the water of palm oil empty bunches and dolomite lime. The research used a method of a completely randomized design, with the treatments: dolomite lime water, oil palm empty bunch water, and peat swamp water as a control. Based on the ANOVA, the treatment had a very significant effect on the increase of height and diameter of the seedlings. The dolomite lime water increased the seedling height of 9.434 cm, followed by oil palm empty bunches with height increase of 6.800 cm, and peat swamp water/control with the increase of 5.434 cm. Based on the LSD test, the height increase by dolomite lime water treatment was very significantly different from the height increase by oil palm empty bunches water and the height increase by peat swamp water. The water treatment of empty oil palm bunches increased diameter of 0.156 cm, followed by dolomite lime water with the increase of 0.147 cm, and peat swamp water with the increase of 0.128 cm. Based on the LSD test, the increase in diameter by the oil palm empty bunches was very significantly different from the diameter increase by the control, but was not significantly different from the increase diameter by the dolomite lime water. It is advisable to mix peat swamp water with dolomite lime with a concentration of 100 grams/200 liters or oil palm empty bunches with a concentration of 5 empty bunches/200 liters of water before using it to water the belangeran seedlings.
Rio Rahmad Akmal, Gunardi Djoko W, Trio Santoso
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 173-180; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10492

Abstract:
Ecotourism usually has an educational value packed in the form of natural beauty and is in the countryside. Lampung has many potential ecotourism, one of which is located in West Coast district. This research was conducted in March 2019 to April 2019 in Pahmungan Village, central Coastal district, West Coast Regency, Lampung province. The Pekon or the village of Pahmungan has an area of 2,600 ha, Pekon Pahmungan is located at 5 ° S and 103 ° E and is 4 km from the centre of the district government, 32 km from the county capital, and 287 km to the provincial capital. Data collection methods used are methods of surveys, interviews, and GIS while the method of data analysis used is a qualitative descriptive method. The purpose of this research is the development of tourism potentials and make the route of ecotourism Intermap in Pahmungan village. The tools used in this study are GPS (Global Positioning System), Camera, Compass, Laptop, and ArcGis application. The object in this research is the ecotourism object that exists in Pahmungan village that will be obtained through the observation of field surveys and interviews with local communities. The results of this research are reflected in the mapping of tourist interpretation lines in which the mapping is an ecotourism pathway that includes various tours in the village Pahmungan. Ecotourism in the village of Pahmungan is not well managed but there are already several community who began to build the development of tourist destinations especially the waterfall tourism, with the program interpretation programs can support the development of Ecotourism and provide comfort for visitors.
Ludia Siahaya, Febian F. Tetalay, VanTri Eluwar, Patriarex Polhaupessy, Chrisalfa L. Louhenapessy
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 65-74; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10470

Abstract:
The research about Agathis potential and Etnobotany at Education Forest aimed to get data of Agathis sp potential and etnobotany in the Education Forest, Agriculture Faculty, Pattimura University at Honitetu Village. The method used was quantitative descriptive method and qualitative description. To obtain Agathis potential data, a survey technique was carried out and continued by analyzing the data using the Important Value Index to determine its ecological potential. To determine the economic potential of timber forest products by calculating the volume of wood per hectare and non-timber forest products by calculating the dammar yield obtained. Etnobotany data were collected through interview techniques which were then analyzed and described. Based on the Importand Value Index (IVI), the ecological potential of Agathis increases its dominance value at a higher growth rate. At the seedling level, Agathis occupies the 9th position, at the stake level occupies the 8th position, at the pole level occupies the 5th position, and at the tree level occupies the 2nd position. The economic potential of Agathis timber forest products based on of the volume of wood is 1.000359 m3 / ha. The economic potential of Agathis non-timber forest products for 40 trees can be obtained 120 - 240 kg per 3 months or Rp 4,800,000 to Rp 9,600,000 per year. Gum resin in daily life is used as a fire starter (“tompong api”), torch (lighting) at nihgt, glue (adhesive) and sold as a source of community income. Effort to maintain its sustainability through “Sasi Gereja” and conducting cultivation using natural extraction by individual communities.
Giga Piancita, Indriyanto -, Duryat -
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 101-109; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10482

Abstract:
Natural agarwood takes a long time to be formed in nature, therefore an improvement technique was required in order to increase the productivity of Agarwood. One of these techniques was Bioserum injection into the Aquilaria malaccensis. Bioserum is a nutritious liquid necessary for fungi to live, grow and produce the agarwood. The purpose of the research was to determine the best Bioserum dosage, the best time of Bioserum reacted, and the best interaction between the two factors in the formation of agarwood. Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD) with two factors, namely the dosage of Bioserum and time of Bioserum reacted in the Aquilaria malaccensis, was employed as the research design. The dosage of Bioserum applicated was 0 ml, 2 ml, 3 ml, and 4 ml with 3 replications. The time of Bioserum reacted in the Aquilaria malaccensis was 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. The results showed that the best dosage of Bioserum to form the agarwood was 4 ml/hole. The best time of Bioserum reacted in the Aquilaria malaccensis to form the agarwood was 3 months. The best of interaction between of the two factors to form the agarwood was the Bioserum dosage of 4 ml with the time of Bioserum reacted of 3 months.
Adi Saputra, Daniel Itta
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 244-251; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10501

Abstract:
The research location is in Maburai Village, Murung Pudak District, Tabalong Regency, South Kalimantan Province, rubber land that uses the rubber agroforestry system as the object of research. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of rubber agroforestry in order to increase the income of rubber farmers. The method used in this study to find respondents is by using the Accidental Sampling method. Based on the results of the research that has been carried out, the role of rubber agroforestry is divided into 2 parts, namely, rubber plants for sale, and intercrops play a role for sale, self-consumption, and taken by land owners. The contribution from intercropping was only 4 people who sold the intercrops in the form of fruit, the largest income from the intercropping was Rp. 12,000,000 with a percentage of 19% of the total income of Rp. 63,200,000. There are two factors that affect the agroforestry system, namely internal factors based on farmers' experience, motivation to carry out the rubber agroforestry system, land area, number of plants other than rubber, and types of plants other than rubber, while external factors are the absence of support by rubber agro-forestry extension agencies in Maburai Village, and community leaders.
Rangga Putra Firmansyah, Eko Priyo Purnomo, Aulia Nur Kasiwi, Delila Putri Sadayi
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 94-100; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10477

Abstract:
This study aims to see how the programs of the Heart of Borneo (HoB) and the actions taken by the HoB in forest conservation in Kalimantan. Forest is an area that is overgrown with dense trees and as a place to live flora and fauna that live without human intervention. Forests are the key to the survival of creatures on earth, including humans, because they can affect many things that include life and sustainability. One organization that cares about forests is the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the organization formed by WWF to protect Kalimantan's forests is the Heart of Borneo. The purpose of the Heart of Borneo itself is to preserve and maintain the rainforest areas in Kalimantan for the welfare of present and future generations. The method used in this study is a descriptive qualitative research method in which the researcher seeks to describe a phenomenon, event, and event that is happening which is then described as there where the researcher tries to describe the Heart of Borneo program in Kalimantan. The results of this study indicate that forest destruction that occurred in Kalimantan is very worrying. The damage was caused by large-scale forest clearing wich changed its functions to the coal mining, the conversion of forest land to oil palm agriculture functions that damage the living ecosystem of flora and fauna. Previously, Kalimantan forest were very beneficial for human life and the flora fauna that live in it.Through the Heart of Borneo program, it seeks to protect the remaining forest in Kalimantan to remain sustainable and function properly
Susilawati -, Syam’Ani -
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 131-139; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10487

Abstract:
Forest and land fires are a common phenomenon in several regions of Indonesia. It is assumed that most of the forest and land fires originate from human activities. This study aims to statistically test the spatial correlation between the number of hotspots or the frequency of forest and land fires, to the distance from various types of landuse in the Riam Kanan sub-watershed. The data used in this study are landuse and hotspot data. The spatial correlation analysis in this study was conducted using Euclidean Distance and single regression. Euclidean Distance is used to measure the flat distance between the fire location and the location of human activities. Meanwhile, single regression is used to measure the correlation between the number of fire occurrence points and the flat distance from the location of human activities. The single regression models used are linear, power, exponential, logarithmic, and polynomial. The results showed that the frequency of forest and land fires had a very strong spatial correlation with human activities, especially in the sub-watershed area of Riam Kanan. So it can be stated that the frequency of forest and land fires does have a strong correlation with human activities. The lowest spatial correlation is the distance from the rice fields, and the highest spatial correlation is the distance from the river. However, the number of hotspots increases drastically the more distance it is from the road, and almost approaches zero the farther the road is. Thus, although the spatial correlation with roads is not as high as other land uses, this drastic increase in the number of hotspots indicates that road accessibility has a strong contribution to forest and land fires.
Fonny Rianawati, Zainal Abidin, Muhammad Naparin
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 23-29; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10465

Abstract:
This study aims to study the characteristics of briquettes from rice straw and rice husks in the form of moisture content, density, ash content, flight substance content, and heating value with different mixing variations in an effort to overcome the occurrence of deep forest / land fires to control forest or land fires in wetland areas by innovating and utilizing technology of straw and rice husks from post-harvest waste. The test results showed, the characteristic values are not much different for each mixing variation and are still below the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) No. 1-6235-2000, namely The heating value ranges from 2729.33 - 3492.14 cal/g (SNI ≥ 5000 cal/g), bonded carbon content ranges from 2.3524 -12.5870% (SNI ≥ 77%), ash content ranges from 27.3367 -29.8367% (SNI ≤ 8%) and the moisture content ranges from 18.2130 -28.8903% (SNI ≤ 8%). This is presumably due to the large content of the adhesive used, the pressing and drying processes that cause high water content, because high water content will cause a low calorific value. Low heating value will cause a large amount of ash content which causes a low value of bound carbon. However, overall charcoal briquettes from rice husks and rice straw can be applied to the community as a technological innovation that can be used in the use of post-harvest waste in an effort to control forest and land fires with land processing without burning.
Badia Roy Ricardo Nababan, Sugeng P. Harianto, Agus Setiawan
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 30-42; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10466

Abstract:
University of Lampung (Unila) is one of the Green Open Space (GOS) in Bandar Lampung City which has vegetation. Vegetation in green open space has a role as a wildlife habitat for example birds. Various bird species can be indicators of the quality of open green space at the University of Lampung. This research was conducted to determine the diversity of bird species and as an indicator in determining the index of green space quality at the Unila Campus. Research is conducted from November 2016 to March 2017 and December 2018. The study was conducted at the Unila Campus which is divided into eight blocks. An inventory of the diversity of bird species carried out with concentrated observations in eight blocks. The value of diversity of bird species uses an analysis of shannon-wienner heterogeneity index value and the quality of green open space through the calculation of green space quality index values. Based on the results of the study there were 20 species of birds on the Unila campus. The diversity index of bird species is classified as moderate (H '= 2.74). The GOS quality index at the Unila Campus is 59.2 with the intermediate category.
Efratenta Katherina Depari, P.B.A. Nugroho
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 110-118; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10484

Abstract:
Kayu Bawang (Dysoxylum mollissimum Blume) has long been used for carpentry and furniture. However, the cultivation of this plant has not been done well. The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Kayu bawang growth to sapling stage in open and shaded conditions. Planting Kayu bawang as object of the research has been executed since March 24, 2016 on open and shaded condition. The observed variables included diameter, height and leaf chlorophyll of the plant. The measurements were made up to 2-year-old plants. The effectiveness of Kayu bawang growth in open and shaded conditions was tested using the t-test. The results showed that the diameter of Kayu bawang in open condition was 8.91±1.87 cm and in shaded conditions was 5.42±1.67 cm. The height of Kayu bawang in open conditions was 433±70 cm and in shaded condition was 283±100 cm. The chlorophyll of Kayu bawang in open condition was 57.6±5.3 and in shaded condition was 53.8±4.0. Statistical analysis for the three variables showed that the growth of Kayu bawang at the sapling stage in open conditions was more effective than in shaded conditions.
Samsul Bakri, Rommy Qurniati, Rahmat Safe’I, Rudi Hilmanto
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 191-203; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10494

Abstract:
Social capital of agroforestry’s community needs to be developed to enhance their productivity. It is because the physical capital has generally been very intensively utilized, as in Karang Rejo Village, Jati Agung Subdistrict, South Lampung Regency. This study aims to model [1] Total household income [Y-tot] as the function of 5 groups of variables (demographics, sources of income from other sectors, physical capital, social capital and access to information, and to model [2] the network as function of accessibility to information. A survey of 25 households was conducted in August 2019, to collect data of total income, demographics, physical capital (land tenure, ownership of motorbikes, cattle, goats, and chickens), accessibility (to cultivated land, to the village center, and to sub-districts), social capital performance (norm strength, trust, and network), access to information (participation in extension, watching TV habits, and cellphone signal strength). The ordinary least square was applied to build both for the Model [1] and Model [2]. The results showed that: [1] The total income [Y-Tot] can significantly be increased through the addition of physical capital as well as access to information (especially participation in extension), and [2] The elements of social network capital can be developed through the use of motorbikes, increasing community participation in extention, and reducing the frequency of watching TV.
Aldha Alfian Noer Dwi, Abdi Fithria, Kissinger Kissinger
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 88-93; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10476

Abstract:
Mangrove forests in South Kalimantan have been converted into fish ponds, settlements, ports and other uses. The condition of damaged mangrove forests is very alarming. The purpose of this study is to formulate a development and conservation strategy for mangrove forests in Jorong District. This research uses interviews, direct observation in the field to analyze the factors that cause mangrove damage, descriptive analysis through the In depth interview approach with key information about to formulate a strategy for developing and conserving mangrove forests in Jorong District. The results of changes in the distribution and extent of mangroves decreased from 2010 (2.324 ha) to 2020 (1.665 ha). The dynamics of mangrove damage are caused by mining activities and oil palm company expansion. The formulation of the strategy is socialization to the community related to the development of mangrove forests that contribute to high biota, the concept of developing mangrove ecotourism to improve the living standards of the poor, applying the pattern of developing mangrove forests for the common good.
Egidius Naitkakin, Latief Mahir Rachman, Yayat Hidayat
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 119-130; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10486

Abstract:
The upstream of a watershed is a buffer zone and it protects the whole watershed. The degradation of a watershed is caused by uncotrolled uses of the land and exploitation of the nature resources such as forest, land, and water. It causes the changes in the carrying capacity of the watershed, especially in biophysical aspects. This research aims to study the watershed biophysical condition in Ciujung Hulu Watershed, Banten Province. Biophysical condition analyzed using Forestry Minister Regulation P.61/Menhut-II/2014 for degraded land class, land cover percentage, and Erosion Hazard Index. The condition of the land, such as degraded land, vegetation cover, and erosion index, analyzed using modification of Forestry Minister Regulation Perdirjen BPDAS PS Nomor P.4/V-SET/2013. The result of the study showed that the percentage of degraded land, vegetation cover percentage, and erosion index were 25,85% (severe degraded land), 9,77% (very low covered), and 30,89 (Very high).
Dina Naemah, Eny Dwi Pudjawati
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 158-165; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10490

Abstract:
One of the forest uses other than wood and the environment is a source of medicinal ingredients. Medicinal substances of natural origin are simplicia. Simplicia is simple plant material, not mixed with other plant parts, for example seeds, leaves, tubers, roots and stems. Communities around the forest area are an important source of information to determine the benefits of plants used for treatment, such as identification of plant species, plant parts used, and processing methods. The purpose of this activity is to inventory the types of medicinal plants and analyze their benefits. The method used is the analysis of vegetation at three locations, secondary forest, grass (Imperata cylindrica) land and plantation forest. Data obtained from the field and interviews with the community. There are 16 species of medicinal plants at all growth levels in the study site. The largest level of mastery of Vitex pinnata species (trees and poles, saplings and seedlings) and undergrowth is that of Imperata cylindrica. Diversity index of medicinal plants is in the low to moderate criteria. The part of the plant that is used the most is the root.
Sesilia Maharani Putri
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 212-221; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10496

Abstract:
Plant diversity in Protection Forest is an important factor that considered to support the sustainability function to protected the area. Plant diversity is a form of the species association that could be the indicator forest vegetation stabillities. This research aims to analyze the plant diversity in Bengkunat Protection Forest. This research was conducted between March-April 2019 at the 4,470 ha area with the sampling intensity 0.02%. Data were collected using grid line method that consisted of 34 sample plots. Data were analyz using Shannon Index (H), Richness Index (R) and Evenness Index (E). This study found 92 species at the research area. Dipterocarpus haseltii was the most dominant species based on Important Value Index (IVI) of 34.1%. While the average for other types of IVI is only 2.9%. The other dominated species were Polyalthia lateriflora, Dacryodes rostata and Dillenia excelsa. The forest species diversity index (H) was classified as moderate at 1.7, the Richness index (R) was classified as a high level of 30.4 and the evenness index (E) was classified as a high level of 0.9. Based on this research, Bengkunat Protection Forest diversity has a moderated value with the high diversity potential richness and evenness.
Ratih Rinda Ningsih, Irwan Sukri Banuwa, Slamet Budi Yuwono
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 75-87; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10475

Abstract:
The khilau is one of sub-watershed of the sekampung watershed. The area was very important due to its function as catchment area which is also located close to TAHURA (great forest park ) Wan Abdurrachman, there for sub-watershed khilau plays a very strategic role in the preservation of biodiversity and climate change. The study aims were to analyze the carbon determine the total carbon dioxide uptake and oxygen release in the khilau sub-watershed. The carbon stored was extimated by using allometric equation the biomass tree. The biomass expantion factor was employed estimated of biomass. The carbon conten multiplication with the value of the conversion of carbon elements to carbon dioxide, while for the oxigen release was estimated by multiplying the value of carbon squestration by the conversion value of carbon atoms to oxygen based on atomic weight. The result showed that carbon stored in the forest was 141,69 tons/ha, it was greater than agroforetry (75,33 tons/ha), shrubs (24,74 tons/ha), annual plant (11,13 tons/ha) and paddy fields (3,45 tons/ha) with a total area of forest 52,22 ha, agroforestry 457,86 ha, shrub 28,74 ha, annual plant 84,8 ha and paddy fields 2,36 ha. The total carbon dioxide absorbtion was 159.832,73 tons and oxygen release was 426.220,61 tons.
Sri Wilujeng, Ina Darliana, Raizal Fahmi Solihat, Tatang Rohmat
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 149-157; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10489

Abstract:
In the recent years, there is a significant increase on economic value of coffee as trade commodity. On that note, the most frequently used cultivation practices for coffee in Indonesia is coffee agroforestry system in private forest. However, there are still some constraints in the system development due to the traditional farmer limited knowledge of coffee cultivation practices. In this study we conducted preliminary observations on the coffee cultivation practices used by the traditional farmers to determine the steps needed to improve the coffee quality and sustainability. We study the effect of plant-spacing and shading on the growth of juvenile plant of coffee (Coffea arabica Lin.) from Sigarar utang variety. The observation was carried out in private forest of Cimarias village Sumedang district for 1 (one) month. We used the combination of 2,5m x 2,5m and 3m x 3m for plant-spacing with kayu afrika (Meisopsis eminii Engl.) as shade and without shade. This experiment used Completely Randomized Design experiment with 10 replication for each treatment, with juvenile height (cm), stem diameter (mm), and the quantity of productive primary branches as data. Then data were analyzed using Anova, Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) 0,05, and Pearson Correlation. From the result, the best growth of juvenile plant of coffee tree was showed on 3m x 3m spacing with shade. However, the growth shown has not reached the potential of the coffee from Sigarar utang variety as supposed to in accordance with the environmental condition of the crop. This analysis also supports the prediction of low-productivity because there is positive correlation between juvenile height and the quantity of primary branches, and between stem diameter and the quantity of primary branches.
Lesly Latupapua, J. F. Sahusilawane, D. Joktery
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 181-190; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10493

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the types of butterflies in Sahulau Village, Teluk Elpaputih District, Central Maluku Regency. To achieve these objectives, the method used, namely the variable circular plot (VCP) method, observations are made at each point made in each path. The distance between the center point of one plot with another plot is 150 m with a radius of 50 with a length of track that is adjusted to the study location. Catching butterflies was carried out on the entire area of the observation circle and recorded all species found, the butterflies were captured using a net then the captured butterflies were wrapped in papilot paper and placed in a specimen box before identification. The results showed that there were 28 species of butterflies spread over 5 families, namely, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Peridae, Lycanidae and Hespiridae, with a total of 107 individuals. Dominant types were from the family Nymphalidae with a percentage of 39%, Papilionidae 29%, Peridae 21 %, 7% Hespiriidae and the least found family is Lycanidae with a percentage of 4%. From the results of data analysis, the diversity index of 3,191 (H ') and the species wealth index of 5,778 (D) were classified as high, while the Domination Index of 0.046 (C) was classified as low.
Kristian Hadinata, Daniel Itta
Jurnal Hutan Tropis, Volume 9, pp 222-232; doi:10.20527/jht.v9i1.10499

Abstract:
Murung Raya District in the middle of the island of Borneo makes this widest district in Central Kalimantan quite isolated. Population centers are separated by hills and mountains. Its natural resources are abundant and have not all been utilized, including coal and gold. This study aims to identify the ecological potential, analyze the management system and determine the performance of forest management by Dayak Siang Communities in Muwun Village, Tanah Siang Subdistrict, Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. The method used was the interpretation of satellite imagery, sampling techniques, interviews, observation, documentation and performance analysis. The performance value of Forest Areas in Muwun Village, Tanah Siang Subdistrict, Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan, if viewed in terms of area was not good because 57 ha of natural forest has a level of performance worth 172 with less good category, then in rubber plantations and mixed plantations with an area of 217 ha with a performance value of 315 was very good with a very good category. It can be said that forest management in the Forest area in Muwun Village, Tanah Siang Subdistrict, Murung Raya District Central Kalimantan was less successful because it appeared that around 80% of the forest was ecologically very high on rubber farms and from NTFPs, natural forests have less performance value because the level of community’s awareness to maintain and manage natural forests was still minimal. This happened because they have obtained permission from the Murung Raya Regional Government for forest management on the reason that the local community considered the forest as a source of livelihood to survive.
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