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Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 61-76; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8762

Abstract:
Poultry farming is one of the fastest growing segments of the agricultural sector in Garhbeta, Midnapore. It has become a source of revenue for individual farmers. However poultry farming is associated with various environmental pollutants that causes environmental risk like airborne bacteria, pathogenic microorganisms into the environment and food chain. Poultry production is quickly becoming more intensive, geographically concentrated, vertically integrated and link with global supply chain. In Garhbeta, Midnapore area broiler poultry sector has a great potential for providing employment opportunities to the unemployed youth, rural women, small and marginal farmers. Here huge poultry waste managed by land disposal, resulting in environmental problems and odour is very local issue and waste almost attract flies, rotten and other pests that create local nuisances and carry diseases. At improper disposal of poultry carcasses contribute huge water quality problem specially in this areas. This paper present the poultry farming procedure and waste generation from poultry farm which is a significant matter of our environment and management of these waste is also a great challenge for those poultry farm.
C. Yaswanth
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 124-128; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8755

Abstract:
The present study intended to know the pesticides usage pattern by cotton and chilli farmers in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. For the study Kurnool district was purposively selected as it occupies first place in gross area sown in Andhra Pradesh. Among the crops cultivated in Kurnool district, cotton and chilli were selected as the pesticide’s consumption is high in these crops. The collected data was analyzed by using percentage and frequencies. From this investigation it was found that 92.5 per cent of the sample farmers used Monocrotophos 36% SL for cotton and used as the first spray of insecticide in cotton to control sucking pests by every farmer. In chilli Pendimethalin 30% EC by 97.5 per cent by sample farmers as it controls annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 50-53; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8757

Abstract:
Till now Coronavirus (COVID-19) has taken ~ 0.43 million lives and infected ~ 7.6 million people and the process is continuing. Face masks and regular hand-washing are the two main ways to help prevent the transmission of Coronavirus. But wearing face masks and regular hand-washing have not sufficient to stop the transmission of Coronavirus. This leads a modification needed for the procedure of prevention from Coronavirus infection. Thus the knowledge about spreading and infecting mechanism by the Coronavirus is desired (Garai, 2020). Instead of using soap and alcohol base sanitizer NaHCO3 solution can used for hand-washing to prevent from Coronavirus infection. As NaHCO3 is very cheap and less hazardous than soap and alcohol base sanitizer so this change will be economically profitable and environmentally safer (less hazard). NaHCO3 solution can also be used as nasal drop and gargle solution for the protection of nose mucus and mouth saliva from Coronavirus infection. Thus NaHCO3 solution give extra protection from Coronavirus infection when it used with mask (Garai, 2020). Beside that considering the biological immovability of NaHCO3 (mainly in human blood plasma), it is strongly recommended to use NaHCO3 for the treatment of Coronavirus patients too.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 86-100; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8761

Abstract:
Whitefly is a serious threat to the cotton production. To find out the most suitable control measure a field experiment was conducted at District Layyah, to compare the efficacy of different pre-tank mix insecticides., viz. Legand (spiromesifen + abamectin), Actify (Isoprocarb + etiprole), Bila (Pyriproxyfen + acetamaprid), Best Guard (buprofezin + nitenpyram), Jeera (Pyriproxyfen + acetamaprid), Rugra (nitenpyram + chlorfenapyr), Editor (acetamaprid + ibiocydam), and Concept Plus (acephate + phenoxaprop) on BT-886 and Non-BT (Shahkar) cotton varieties. Maximum population reduction of adult whitefly after first application of insecticides was found in Legand on BT and Non-BT cotton crop exhibited, 24.37 and 37.66 after 2 days, 53.08 and 55.31 after 4 days and 73.29 and 68.17 after 6 days respectively. Maximum population reduction of nymph whitefly was found in Legand on BT and Non-BT cotton crop exhibited 33.85 and 34.07 after 2 days, 55.10 and 54.49 after 4 days and 74.66 and 75.28 after 6 days respectively. Maximum population reduction of adult whitefly after second application of insecticides was found in Legand on BT and Non-BT cotton crop exhibited, 24.56 and 39.57 after 2 days, 30.29 and 55.97 after 4 days and 71.34 and 69.62 4after 6 days respectively. Maximum population reduction of nymph whitefly was found in Legand on BT and Non-BT cotton crop exhibited 34.07 and 40.52 after 2 days, 54.49, after 4 days and 75.28 and 74.92 after 6 days respectively.
Mohammed Suleiman
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 111-117; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8735

Abstract:
Investigation on the Reproductive Biology of Bagrus bayad in Jibiya Dam from Katsina State, Nigeria was carried out from July – December 2019 using standard procedures. One hundred and sixteen (116) samples of B. bayad were harvested and collected during the study period in order to determine sex ratio, fecundity and Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) of the fish species. Results indicated that the male:female sex ratio was 1.3:1 which was not significantly different from the hypothetical 1:1 (p>0.05). It was also found that the GSI of B. bayad was highest in July (0.23) and lowest in October (0.12). The relationship between fecundity and ovary weight was positively significant (p<0.05). Similarly, there was a significant positive relationship between fecundity and body weight as well as between ovary weight and age (p0.05). It is recommended that comparative study on the stages of maturity of male and female B. bayad in Jibiya Dam be investigated.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 169-172; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8772

Abstract:
A field experiment was carried out during rainy (Kharif) season of 2019-20 at the research farm of AKS University, Satna, Sherganj, Madhya Pradesh. The treatments comprised twelve mechanical and chemical weed control treatment as detailed in chapter III. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. An uniform dose of 25 kg N and 50 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O/ha was applied through urea, SSP and MOP, to all the experimental plots. Moongbean var. Shikha was sown on 13 July, 2019 keeping a seed rate of 25 kg/ha and row spacing of 30 cm. The plant to plant spacing of 10 cm was maintained by thinning. The weedicides were applied with or without hand weeding once or twice as per treatments. The crop was harvested on 17-23 September, 2019. Amongst the mechanical and chemical weed control method (IWM), hand weeding twice (weed-free condition) proved the best which enhanced significantly higher growth, yield attributes, yield and seed protein of green gram. The seed yield was up to 0.80 t/ha, net income up to Rs.29805 /ha and seed protein 24.46 %. Thereafter each of the herbicides applied along with hand hoeing proved for better than herbicide applied alone. Quizalofop-p-ethyl 700 g/ha with hand hoeing proved better than other three herbicide with hand hoeing. Therefore looking to the labour problem for hand weeding quizalofop + hand hoeing may be adopted to gain maximum benefit from green gram.
Urooj Fatima Chaudhry
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8750

Abstract:
From many years, global cotton production suffers from waterlogging stress. Climatic variation and heavy rainfall conditions with poor internal soil drainage mechanism limits the growth and development of cotton crop due to waterlogging. It reduced the soil oxygen which causes the severe yield losses and sometimes even failure of a crop. Indeterminate growth habit of cotton plant makes it able to adapt this stress by activation of the escape, self compensation and quiescence mechanism. The reduction of biomass, development of adventitious roots and accelerated growth mechanism, all are associated with adaption and tolerance mechanisms. Waterlogging significantly affect the cellulose and sucrose content of fiber in cotton. Sodic soils also exacerbate the waterlogging stress because these soils already suffer by aeration stress. Different growth stages are effect differently but flowering and boll setting stage is more sensitive to waterlogging conditions.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 173-179; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8773

Abstract:
Objective: With the COVID-19 pandemic there was a major lockdown world-wide which halted human activity to a total pause giving rise to a new term never known previously “Anthro-pause”. During this anthro-pause there were various reports of rare animal sighting in urban areas. Some of the reports were true and some was far away from reality thus demand for detail study. Methods/findings: Man-animal conflict has resulted in mammoth destruction and aggravated mass extinction. A careful study of the pandemic driven anthro-pause has given a rare chance to study the impact of human intervention on wild life scientifically with realistic observations and data. This study will help to provide insight to address previously intractable questions like is it the urban structures or humans himself that have impacted the wild life. The learning will pave future understandings on how by minor changes to our lifestyles and transport networks can potentially have significant benefits for both ecosystems, human wildlife coexistence.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.156

Abstract:
Reseаrсh study wаs соnduсted tо аnаlyze the effeсts оf Асасiа hоney аnd Аlоe verа gel оn lасerаted wоund induсed in rаbbits. Fоr this рurроse, а tоtаl оf 30 heаlthy mаle аdult rаbbits were seleсted аnd divided intо 3 grоuрs (А, B аnd С). Surgiсаl wоunds were induсed in аll rаbbits with the helр оf shаrр blunt sсissоr аnd eасh rаbbit frоm аll grоuрs wаs рre-mediсаted by аdministering аtrорine sulрhаte @0.035mg/kg bоdy weight thrоugh s/с rоute hаlf аn hоur рriоr tо surgiсаl interventiоn. Аnimаls were аnesthetized by tоtаl раrenterаl (intrаmusсulаr) аnesthesiа using а mixture оf ketаmine (35mg/kg) аnd xylаzine (5mg/kg). Rаbbits оf grоuр А were treаted with Асасiа hоney, аррlied twiсe dаily, grоuр B rаbbits were treаted with Аlоe verа gel tорiсаlly twiсe dаily while grоuр С served аs соntrоl аnd treаted with stаndаrd treаtment рyоdine. Wоunds were рrорerly соvered with sterile bаndаges tо reduсed mаximum infeсtiоns аnd the effiсасy оf these treаtments wаs evаluаted in terms оf their effeсts оn heаling time, wоund соntrасtiоn, рeriоd оf eрithelizаtiоn, tensile strength, histораthоlоgy аnd wоund index. Wоund соntrасtiоn rаte wаs higher in bоth grоuрs (А аnd B) аs соmраred tо the grоuр С (Соntrоl grоuр) аnd inсreаsed wоund соntrасtiоn were оbserved оn dаy 10 аnd wаs соmрleted оn 20 dаys. In саse оf eрithelizаtiоn, deсreаsed рeriоd оf eрithelizаtiоn wаs оbserved in grоuр А аnd B аs соmраred tо the С grоuр (соntrоl grоuр). Heаling time wаs lоwer аnd stаtistiсаlly signifiсаnt аs соmраred tо the соntrоl grоuр (grоuр С). Grоuр B wаs signifiсаnt аs соmраred tо the grоuр С. Wоund index vаlues were reduсed in bоth grоuрs А аnd B аnd grоuр С wаs higher wоund index vаlues оn dаy 15 аnd vаlue wаs 1.78 аs соmраred tо the оther treаtments grоuрs. The vаlues оf grоuр А аnd B wаs nоn signifiсаnt аt dаys 20 аs соmраred tо the соntrоl grоuр. Grоuр С wаs higher рeriоd оf eрithelizаtiоn аs соmраred tо the оther twо grоuрs А аnd B.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 152-157; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8770

Abstract:
The experiment entitled “Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and shelf life of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Pusa Ruby” was conducted during Rabi season of the year 2020-2021 on experimental farm of Department of Horticulture, AKS University, Satna (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replicated 13 treatments viz., T1: Control, T2: Pseudomonas (50%) + NPK (50%), T3: Azotobacter (50%) + NPK (50%), T4: Azospirillium (50%) + NPK (50%), T5: Pseudomonas (25%) + Azotobactor (25%) + NPK(50%), T6: Pseudomonas (25%) + Azospirillium (25%) +NPK(50%), T7: Azotobator (25%) + Azospirillium (25%) + NPK(50%), T8: Pseudomonas (50%) + Azosirillium (25%) + NPK (50%), T9: Pseudomonas (50%) + Azotobactor (25%) + NPK (50%), T10: Azotobactor (50%) + Azospirillium (25%) + NPK (50%), T11: Azotobactor (50%) + Pseudomonas (25%) + NPK (50%), T12: Azospirillium (50%) + Azotobactor (25%) + NPK (50%), T13: Azospirillium (50%) + Pseudomonas (25%) + NPK (50%). The results reveal that increase in Composts level had significant response on vegetative growth yield and shelf life of Tomato. The treatment the T13-Azospirillium (50%) + Pseudomonas (25%) + NPK (50%) was found superior in growth yield with quality corrector. In this investigation the treatment T13-Azospirillium (50%) + Pseudomonas (25%) + NPK (50%) was found suitable for cultivation in winter season for better yield (29.76 t/ha) and maximum shelf life (9.93 days).
Nishant Kumar
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 136-140; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8760

Abstract:
The quality and the composition and of the beer is not only depend on the qualities of the raw materials used, but also on the technology used to make it. Each and every brewing step plays an important role in quality of final product. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of changes in profiles of mashing and wort boiling on the final beer. It was observed that change in mashing steps greatly influences the extract content and prolonged boiling lead to increase in color and bitterness of final beer.
Malak Turki Al- Rawily
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8722

Abstract:
This study examined to identify bacterial contamination of shopping carts handles from different supermarkets and large stores in Sakaka. A total of 30 samples were collected from shopping carts, 15 samples before and 15 samples after wiping the handles with disinfectant wipes, some of bacteria isolated from shopping carts and baskets before using disinfectant wipes are: Gram +ve bacteria are S.aureus , S.hominis , S.pettinkoferi and Micrococcus spp and some of isolated Gram –ve bacteria are Gardenerella vaginalis and pseudomonas. Isolated bacteria after using disinfectant wipes are Corynebacterium matruchotti, S.cohnii and Pasteurella pneumotropica they show high sensitivity to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Moxifloxacin and Rifampin.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 43-49; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8747

Abstract:
Haemocytes in insects mediates the cellular responses like phagocytosis, encapsulation and clotting which signifies the immunological functions of any insect. In the domesticated variety of silkworm B.mori five types of haemocytes have been identified in all the stages. The most abundant cell was found to be plasmatocytes followed by Granular cells. Spherule cells and Oenocytoids were found to less during IV and V instars and least or absent in all other stages. Haemocytes found be to fluctuating before and after spinning. Plasmatocytes and granular cells decreased gradually with respect to number of days in pupa. The total haemocytic count increases gradually in the silkworm larval stages and found to be maximum at the last instar and least during adult stages where the role of haemocytes is not required because they die after laying eggs.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 9-25; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.151

Abstract:
Cotton is the world's most important source of renewable fiber, and it is largely utilized in the textile industry to make clothes. In contrast to the ovule epidermis, cotton fibers are single cells that have differentiated from it, making them an attractive model system for the study of polyploidization, production of cell wall and elongation of cell. Plant hormones, that are present in very small low quantities in the plant, play essential roles in a variety of developmental processes, and new research has found that hormones play a critical role in controlling cotton fiber formation, as well as other developmental processes. For example, it has been demonstrated that the exogenous administration of hormones can stimulate the start and development of fiber cells. However, there is currently a lack of a thorough knowledge of phytohormones that regulate the formation of fiber. This paper focuses on latest developments in the understanding of the roles of different phytohormones involved in fiber development, including brassinosteroid, gibberellin, cytokinin, auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid. This paper reviews the discovery of genes associated in hormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways, as well as the methods by which these phytohormones control the commencement and elongation of fiber cells in cotton. All of the hormones involved in fiber formation are beneficial; however, cytokinin and abscisic acid are detrimental. Auxin, gibberellin, brassinosteroid, ethylene, jasmonate, and strigolactones are among the hormones involved in fiber development. A complete analysis of the function of phytohormones in cotton fiber development is our goal.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 36-39; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.150

Abstract:
Optimistic and sustainable supply of nutrients to soil affects crop productivity and crop quality. In the present investigation, effects of Zinc (Zn), Sulphur (S), and Manganese (Mn) was observed on growth and quality attributes of onion (Allium cepa L. cv. NasikRed), belongs to family Alliaceae. For this, micronutrients were applied to soil in 8 combinations including 1 control (having no micronutrient). soil application of micronutrients ZnSO [email protected] 10 kg/ha + CuSO 4 10 kg/ha + MnSO 4 @ 10 kg/ha in combination with 50 kg N, 40 kg P 2 O 5 and 40 kg K 2 O per hectare before transplanting the onion crop is the most beneficial treatment for obtaining higher vegetative growth and quality of onion bulbs resulted high net income and maximum benefit of per rupee invested. However, for low input technology soil application of ZnSO 4 @ 10kg/ha + recommended dose of NPK can also be followed.
, India Uttar Pradesh
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 129-135; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8759

Abstract:
The pigment content in Blue-green algae is a specific feature of each species. The pigment variation is specific features among microalgae. The paper aim to analyze cyanobacterial extracts of different Usar soil of Azamgarh and Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. The main object here is the importance of the blue green algae especially because of the pigments present in this class of algae. Pigments from natural sources are gaining more importance mainly due to health and environmental issues. Algae contain a wide range of pigments. Three major classes of pigments are chlorophylls, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) and phycobilins (Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin). Our present study investigates the efficiency for phycobiliprotein pigment production from four different cyanobacteria Hapalosiphon sp., Phormidium sp., Anabaena sp. and Nostoc sp. The harvested and dried biomass was subjected to extract pigments using different solvents. Thin Layer Chromatography was performed from extracted pigments using Acetone as extraction solvents. And running solvent especially for phycocyanin pigment was optimized and concluded that Petroleum ether and Acetone in the ratio of 7:3. This paper presents the information about the natural pigments of cyanobacteria and how they can be extracted and identified using different procedures and spectrophotometry. It emphasizes that the principal algal pigments are Phycobilins, Chlorophylls and Carotenoids.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 39-42; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8725

Abstract:
The effect of introgression of the temperate maize population BUGARD on the grain yield of a low-yielding tropical maize population well appreciated for the quality of its grains, NCP80, was studied. NCP80 was crossed with BUGARD to obtain the F1. The BC1 obtained by backcrossing the F1 to NCP80 was random mated thrice. The tropical parent NCP80 and the BC1 (NBN) were evaluated in two tropical locations using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Introgression of the temperate population BUGARD into the tropical population NCP80 significantly increased grain yield. The resulting population, NBN, appeared, moreover, significantly earlier than NCP80 and not significantly different from it for resistance to rust, tropical blight and maize streak, ear height, husk cover and harvest index. NBN may, further, be improved for resistance to maize streak and grain yield by recurrent selection.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8738

Abstract:
Agriculture peasants lost their agricultural economic power of agricultural labor due to some short of adverse effect on agriculture labor, like privatized seeds, privatized inputs and inaccessibility credit, overwhelmingly corporate controlled farming. The agriculture economic power slips from hands of peasants to corporate body. Indian agriculture system transforming towards conventional farming to organic natural farming, not even Indian agrarian society most of the developing and developed economies approximately more than 154 countries switching from conventional to organic natural farming. Natural farming is certainly much superiority than conventional farming. Simply we can say less expansive, it saves energy, conservation of bio diversity, fewer residues in food and many others. Hence, a comprehensive study dealing with the economics of organic farming and conventional farming covering different agro-climatic conditions is felt necessary. As such, the present Study addresses itself to fill in this gap by examining the Economics of Natural Farming vis-à-vis Conventional Farming in A.P. In recent years, it is moving towards “Natural farming” with growing consciousness on health and environment damages. It is not viable yet. In this backdrop, the study seeks to address economic viability of organic and natural farming and it’s empirically, to examine the status and trends of ZBNF in Andhra Pradesh. to assess and analyze the economic feasibility and economic efficiency of zero budget natural farming.
G. B. Bhosale
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 158-162; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8766

Abstract:
The present study explored characteristics of farmers using the information and communication technology (ICT) for seeking agricultural information. The study was conducted in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state during the year 2020-21. Two districts namely, Parbhani and Hingoli were selected randomly from Marathwada region. Two talukas from each selected district and four villages from each talukas were selected randomly for the study. From each selected village, ten farmers those having mobile phones with internet facilities and engaged in agricultural operations were selected randomly, in this way total 160 respondents were considered for the study. An Ex-post-facto research design was followed for the study. Data was gathered using a well-structured interview schedule created with the study's objectives in mind. The collected data was analyzed, classified and tabulated. Statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of correlation were used to interpret findings and draw conclusions. The detailed analysis of profile characteristics of farmers indicated that majority of the farmers were medium aged (55.63%), educated up to middle school level (44.38%), small land holder (41.87%), medium size family (60%), medium level of annual income i.e. Rs. 41,233 to Rs. 3,19,268 (87.5%), medium farming experience (60.63%), medium level of innovativeness (36.25%), medium level of social participation (51.25%), medium level of mass media exposure (50.63%), medium level of scientific orientation (55.62%), medium level extension contact (54.38%).
Cheikh Atab Diédhiou, Département De Biologie Animale Université Cheikh Anta Diop De Dakar
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 118-123; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8749

Abstract:
Since chemical insecticides favor the emergence of resistance and have disastrous consequences for the environment, we became interested in an alternative control method against Spodoptera frugiperda, more respectful for the environment. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of the bio-insecticidal effects of plants extracts and oil of castor against the fall armyworm in the laboratory. The laboratory bioassays consisted of evaluating the toxicity of the castor plants extracts and oil by contact and ingestion on fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda using a leaf dipping method. It emerges from this study that the mortality of the larvae treated with the bio-insecticide and the control solution varies significantly and that the mortality rate was 100% for dose 1; 85% for dose 2 and 70% for dose 3. The mortality rate for the control solution is 10%. These results testify to the good larvicidal activity of the organic insecticide based on oil, leaves and unripe seeds of castor bean on the fall armyworm.
Ali Ammar
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 8-30; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8741

Abstract:
Cumulative heat with resulting alterations to weather unfavorably disturb plant development, resultant in disastrous damage in wheat output. With one degree increase in temperature, wheat growth is projected to decrease by 6%. Comprehensive summary of morpho-physiological replies to wheat for temperature pressure might assist expressing suitable approaches in temperature pressure wheat yield development. Moreover, penetrating to conceivable managing approaches might elevate output and sustainability of rising wheat. Main conclusions after this review is follows: (1) temperature pressure meaningfully decreases kernel sprouting and seedling development, turgidness of the cell, water use competence of the plant; (2) During cellular level, temperature pressure interrupts cellular purposes over making unnecessary sensitive oxygen types, foremost towards oxidative pressure; (3) main replies to wheat for temperature pressure comprise improvement to senescence of leaf, decrease in photosynthesis, defusing of enzymes of photosynthesis, production of oxidative losses to chloroplasts; (4) temperature pressure too decreases number of grains and size via upsetting ounce setting, translocation of integrates and period and development proportion of grains; (5) actual methods to manage temperature pressure in wheat comprise screening accessible germplasm beneath field hearings and/or retaining marker aided assortment, claim to external protectants for seeds or plants, mapping quantitative trait locus discussing temperature confrontation and breeding; (6) Well combined genetic and agronomical organization choice might improve wheat acceptance for temperature. Though, achievement to apply numerous methods for temperature pressure organization needs better understanding of temperature acceptance topographies, molecular cloning, and description of genes. General achievement to multifaceted plant temperature pressure administration depends on intensive exertions to crop modelers, molecular biologists, and plant physiologists.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 163-168; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8768

Abstract:
The experiment entitled “Efficacy of different types of Composts on growth, yield and quality parameters of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) cv. Kashi Pragati” was conducted during Rabi season of the year 2020-2021 on experimental farm of Department of Horticulture, AKS University, Satna (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replicated 12 treatments viz., T0: Without compost (Control), T1: 100% Vermicompost + 100% Biogas slurry compost, T2: 100% Vermicompost + 100% Mushroom Spent compost, T3: 100% Biogas slurry compost + 100% Mushroom Spent compost, T4: 100% Vermicompost + 100% Biogas slurry compost +100% Mushroom Spent compost, T5: 100% Vermicompost + 50% Biogas slurry compost, T6: 100% Vermicompost + 50% Mushroom Spent compost, T7: 100% Biogas slurry compost + 50% Vermicompost, T8: 100% Biogas slurry compost + 50% Mushroom Spent compost, T9: 100% Mushroom Spent compost + 50% Vermicompost, T10: 100% Mushroom Spent compost + 50% Biogas slurry compost, T11: 50% Vermicompost + 50% Biogas slurry compost +50% Mushroom Spent compost. The results reveal that increase in Composts level had significant response on vegetative growth yield and quality of Okra. The treatment T4-100%Vermicompost +100% Biogas slurry compost +100% Mushroom Spent compost was found to be the best treatment among the different treatments with growth, yield and quality for Okra under satna condition.
G. S. Mandal
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 146-151; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8763

Abstract:
Correlation Study with Path analysis was performed on 29 Lentil Genotypes to determine direct and indirect effect of some morphological as well as Biochemical parameters on Yield. Following traits were studied: Root Nodule number, Nodule weight, Primary Root Length, Secondary root numbers, Root Fresh and Dry weight, Plant Height, Pods per plant, Days to 50% Flowering, 100 seed weight, Leaf chlorophyll content, Seed Carbohydrate with Starch content, Seed Protein content and Yield. Considering both genetic Advance and GCV, it was observed that selection for the following characters viz. Plant Height, Pods per plant, Days to 50% flowering, 100 seed weight, Seed Protein content & Yield will be rewarding. Seed Yield per plant showed significantly Positive correlation with the following traits: 100 Seed weight, Pod number per plant, Plant height and seed starch. Negative association with yield was found for Days to 50% flowering. Path coefficient study revealed that there was a strong positive direct effect of 100 seed weight and Pod no. per plant along with Leaf Chlorophyll content on Yield. Hence, direct selection only for Pods number and 100 seed weight will be rewarding as these characters also gave higher heritability % along with high Genetic advance. Plant height gave strong negative direct effect on yield, but it gave a positive correlation due to high indirect effect in association with pod number. It may be due to short winter span of West Bengal which results into forced maturity of the crops. So short plants with higher pod numbers will be desirable for higher yield in short winter span condition.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 141-145; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8771

Abstract:
The experiment entitled “Effect of Organic Manures and inorganic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Quality and Economics of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cv. Paraiso” was conducted during Rabi season of the year 2020-2021 on experimental farm of Department of Horticulture, AKS University, Satna (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replicated 12 treatments viz., T1: Control, T2: 100% NPK, T3: 100% NPK +100% FYM, T4: 100% NPK + 100% VC, T5: 100% NPK + 50% FYM, T6: 100% NPK + 50% VC, T7: 100% NPK + Bioinoculant, T8: 100% NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC, T9: 100% NPK + 50% FYM + Bioinoculant, T10: 100% NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC + Bioinoculant, T11: 75% NPK + Bioinoculant + 100% FYM, T12: 75% NPK + Bioinoculant +100% VC. The results reveal that increase in nitrogen and Bioinoculant level had significant response on vegetative growth yield and quality of Broccoli. The treatment (T10) with 100% NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC + Bioinoculant was found to be the best treatment among the different treatments with growth, yield and quality as well as maximum gross return for broccoli under satna condition.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 101-110; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8764

Abstract:
Bone loss and osteoporosis with the resultant increase in fracture risk should be major concerns for patients and health care providers. As the population ages, the long-term effects of osteoporosis including pain, loss of independence and institutionalized care will become more prevalent. Efforts to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis should start with proper education about a healthy lifestyle, including optimal calcium and vitamin D and exercise in adolescence. This education should continue throughout life, with emphasis during times of increased bone loss such as the menopause transition. This paper reviews the cornerstone of bone health; calcium and vitamin D. Although dietary sources of both nutrients are available, most people do not receive adequate amounts for proper bone health. In addition, the heightened awareness of damaging effects of sunlight has limited vitamin D synthesis from the skin. Fortunately, supplements are available that can supply the body with amounts necessary for bone health.
Nojood Rheel Al-Rawily
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 77-85; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8739

Abstract:
This study aimed to compare the occurrence of potentially nasal Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of both female medical students and non-medical students at Al-Jouf University and its resistance & sensitivity of methicillin antibiotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 females’ volunteers. Students including 15 medical students and 15 non-medical students. Specimens were taken from the subjects by a sterile moistened swab, which inserted into each nostril in turn, to a depth of approximately 1 cm, and rotated five times. Then the specimens were subjected to bacteriological examination, isolated S. aureus were subjected for further identification by biochemical tests. Then methicillin antibiotic test sensitivity and resistant were performed on isolates. We found that S. aureus in both samples medical and non-medical with 60% ,and methicillin resistant S. aureus in each samples medical and non-medical with 66.7% as Statistical analysis demonstrated.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 46-52; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.152

Abstract:
Home gardens aid to improve food availability, ecology, job opportunities, social conditions for outstanding production, contributing to the conservation of diversity and maintenance of plant genetic resources and ecosystem. The objective of this review is to know about the major crops, vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, and cash plants materials and women's participation in home garden agroforestry practices in Bangladesh. The various species of home gardens are nutritionally and economically valued as they fulfill a demand. Women are more engaged than men in home garden activities. Common vegetables, fruits contain significant amounts of protein, sugars, salts, calcium, iron, vitamins, minerals, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, potassium, calcium, zinc, magnesium, and iron. The common medicinal plants are using plant parts such as fruit, leaf, bark as treatment of dysentery, cough, fever, and other diseases. The flower plants improve beautification in the home and also contain the aesthetic value. The profit plant helped in the economic sector. The responsible bodies should undertake positive actions like promoting specific study plans in the home garden to ensure biological balance to improve the capacity of women communities to manage and maintain home garden diversity.
, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Chhindwara (M.P.)
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 59-62; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.155

Abstract:
A ‘Smart Village’ will provide long-term social, economic, and environmental welfare activity for village community, which will enable and empower enhanced participation in local governance processes, promote entrepreneurship and build more resilient communities. At the same time, a ‘Smart Village’ will ensure proper sanitation facility, good education, better infrastructure, clean drinking water, health facilities, environment protection, resource use efficiency, waste management, renewable energy etc. There is an urgent need for designing and developing ‘Smart Village’, which are independent in providing the services and employment and yet well connected to the rest of the world. The Smart Village concept will be based on the local conditions, infrastructure, available resources in rural area and local demand as well as potential of export of good to urban areas. The present paper examine motivation behind the concept on ‘Smart Village’ is that the technology should acts as a catalyst for development, enabling education and local business opportunities, improving health and welfare, enhancing democratic engagement and overall enhancement of rural village dwellers. In the Indian context, villages are the heart of the nation. So we can achieve socio economic development of the Nation by enlarging the concept of smart villages on improving pattern.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.145

Abstract:
Basic soil composition, or more precisely, soil organic matter, soil clay mineralogy and soil texture have been in the core of most infrared spectroscopy research for soils. Of course, nutrient availability, soil structure, soil microbial activity and soil fertility have also been a major subject of interest over the past two decades. The determination of soil nutrients is now becoming a routine work at large scale to gain high yield. The large number of soil nutrients determining techniques are used. The current paper presented that among tested techniques, Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a best technique which has been used widely with minimum time, low in cost, ecofriendly and rapid determination of chemical, physical properties and organic matter present in soil. Obviously, this useful technique can be used to estimate properties such as mineral composition, SOM, water, percentage of carbon, nitrogen and clay content. It could be used directly in soil mapping, for monitoring soil, for making inferences about its quality and function, and making geomorphological interpretations of its distribution. The development of most accurate and trustworthy NIRS approaches are required.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.154

Abstract:
As anthropogenic activities rise over the world, representing an environmental threat, soil contamination and treatment of polluted areas have become a worldwide concern. Bioremediation is a sustainable technique that could be a cost-effective mitigating solution for heavy metal-polluted soil regeneration. Due to the difficulties in determining the optimum bioremediation methodology for each type of pollutant and the lack of literature on soil bioremediation, we reviewed the main in-situ type, their current properties, applications, and techniques, plants, and microbe’s efficiency for treatment of contaminated soil. In this review, we describe the deeper knowledge of the in-situ types of bioremediation and their different pollutant accumulation mechanisms.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 40-45; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.153

Abstract:
Inter cropping which is also known as mixed cropping has ability of increasing usage of nutrient and water efficiently, enhancing crop productivity, and plasticity to abiotic and biotic stress resulted by change in climate. In this agroecological farming method, two or more crops are cultivated together on the same farm area. Cereal with legume is a common combination. Crop selection is not profitable unless characteristics useful in intercrops, such as intercropping in legume and cereal cultivars, are considered. Inter cropping can result in enhanced soil fertility and structure, improved weed suppression, the conservation of soil moisture, and comparatively better control of diseases and pests, resulting greater yield and increased profitability. The biggest benefit of intercropping systems is the fact that they combine above-ground and below-ground benefits: these benefits include both short and tall plant components, which helps them to harness sunlight for photosynthesis, as well as deep and shallow rooted plant components, which assists them in using water and nutrients for crop production. Intercropping is popular in areas of the world including China, Mali, Indonesia, India, Ethiopia, and Niger due to its high growing popularity in agriculture. General & Specific Combining Ability principles in hybrid breeding have been applied for crop combinations and cultivars, and their impacts are recognized as General/ Specific Mixing Ability. The other considerable advantages of intercropping include greater land use efficiency, competitive ability towards weed, favorable exudates from the component legumes, and greater yield stability which cannot be achieved in monocropping. Plant breeding enables intercropping systems to better use their genetic diversity by conducting plant breeding research and harnessing this variability to cross-crop adaptability. High labor inputs in harvesting, higher cost of maintenance and reduction of the main crop are some disadvantages of intercropping.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.149

Abstract:
Brassica is the second-largest oilseed crop after Soybean. The total production of Brassica in the overall world is 71 million tons. In Pakistan, its total production per unit area is very low. Biotic and abiotic stresses mainly affect the brassica crop. In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of crops seeds before their ripening. The pod wall shatters and breaks apart when it loses its hydration and cells split in a dehiscence zone organized at a suture between the edge of the lignified pod and the vascular tissue replum. The degeneration of middle lamella and loss of cellular cohesion in the dehiscence zone are the main reasons for pod shattering and seed losses. Grain yield losses in Brassica vary from 10 to 25 percent due to shattering. More than 400 kg has-1 or 12% seed losses can be occurred due to pod shattering under unfavorable conditions. Insect pest and disease damage also accelerate ripening and pod shattering. The main breeding techniques for developing rapeseed grain yield potential are a good knowledge and application of the morphological, physiological, and genetic basis of grain yield. Modern technologies, such as embryo rescue, marker-assisted breeding, and novel variation (mutation), may make it much simpler to introduce new rapeseed types having shattering tolerance than traditional methods. Thus, an overview of anatomical and physiological aspects and genetics of shattering is presented in the context of recent advances in molecular genetics and several agronomic managements to avoid shattering in Brassica.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 257-261; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8744

Abstract:
Roselle (Hibiscus subdariffa L.) has been used in number of dishes, beverages and conventional remedy of diseases for centuries. It is popular for its edible fleshy calyces and leaves that are used for making salads, tea, juices, jams, jellies, icecreams and many other products. In many countries of the world fresh calyces of roselle are harvested to produce pro health drink due to its high vitamin C and anthocyanins contents. But in bangaladesh roselle leaves and calyces are used as vegetables and its fibre is used as jute substitute. Roselle is also famous for its high nutritional and medicinal values. Nutritional analysis of calyces of roselle showed that they are high in calcium, iron, niacin, and riboflavin. It is also a source of antioxidants, anthocyanins which acts as free radical scavengers and inhibit lipid per-oxidation. Roselle is a multipurpose crop and has great potential to increase the income of farmers, producers, processors by fetching high market price both from export and local market.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 7-9; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.5206

Abstract:
A 6 year old murrah buffalo weighing around 350 kg was presented with the complaint of lacerated wound in the vagina resulted after horn gore injury since eight hours. The area around the injury was debrided and wound was flushed properly with normal saline followed by washing with povidone iodine (5%). After stabilizing the animal, lacerated wound was closed in routine manner. The buffalo had an uneventful recovery.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 48-53; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8696

Abstract:
A field experiment entitled, “Evaluation of rabi onion genotypes for storage characteristics (six month period)” was conducted during rabi season, 2017-18 at “Scheme for Research on Onion Storage”, Department of Horticulture, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri. Dist. Ahmednagar (Maharashtra) India. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Block Design with seventeen genotypes and one check variety i.e. N-2-4-1 treatments replicated three times. In storage studies results indicated that, the minimum storage losses (Sprouting losses (%), Rotting losses (%), PLW losses (%) & Total losses) were recorded by the genotypes T7, T11 and T10.The minimum sprouting losses (after 6 month storage) was recorded in genotype T11 (1.41 %). It was followed by genotype viz. T7 and T10 (1.51 %). The maximum sprouting losses (after 6 month storage) was recorded in genotype T17 (4.06 %). Rotting losses (after 6 month storage) ranged between T11 (3.19) to T4 (7.46) per cent. The minimum PLW loss was recorded in genotype T7 (14.98 %), followed by genotype viz. T11 (15.64 %), T10 (15.85 %) and T6 (17.16 %). The maximum PLW loss was recorded in genotype T17 (33.26 %). The minimum total losses (after 6-month storage) was recorded by genotype T11 (21.34 %). While the maximum total losses (after 6-month storage) was recorded in T4 (36.49 %). Considering the above results, it could be concluded that, among the seventeen genotypes T7 (RHROR–7), T10 (RHROR–10) and T11 (RHROR–11) found promising for further evaluation.
Kuril Sanjeet
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 64-72; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8690

Abstract:
The worldwide catastrophe that has erupted in response to the transmission of COVID-19 has sparked a number of concerns regarding the effect of the lockdown on people with mental health issues and unhealthy lifestyle. The dataset provided here is an evaluation of the mental anguish reported by persons in India after lockdown was implemented as a strategy to stop the spreading of the Coronavirus. The data was gathered by an online survey that included a 9-item socio-demographic question and perhaps even the implementation of the quick summary of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 items) created by the University of Michigan (Goldberg, 1972). The data was collected between May 6th and 15th, 2020, during India's third stage of lockdown. The Google documents comprising the study's questions were distributed to the general community via emails & social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook. As a result, individuals who took the time to fill out the completed questionnaires were counted as survey respondents. The information is useful for determining the extent and severity of psychological suffering experienced by Indians throughout the COVID-19 crisis. It could also be beneficial to the country.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 97-104; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8703

Abstract:
The present investigation has been done on the basis of qualitative and quantitative data collected from primary sources and explored the health and nutritional status of tribal agricultural labourers. Majority of the respondents from Kattunaikan and Paniya communities washed their hands irregularly, while comparatively better habit of washing hands regularly was observed among the Kurichiya. Considerable number of respondents did not take timely vaccination, more than half of the male and female agricultural labourers did not consult physician on illness, irrespective of gender, majority of the respondents used tribal medicines over modern medicines, majority of the tribal people use water drinking without boiling and only a minor section had latrine facility in their houses. There was no significant difference between the three communities in the consumption of fruits and cereals, while, majority of the respondents of the three communities, consumed vegetables on regular basis. No regular intake of milk was among the three communities. Only a minor population among the respondents consumed pulses and fish/meat regularly. The ignorance about the severity of many medical conditions and problems of affordability to modern medical facilities expose the tribal communities to health risks and eventually leading them to high morbidity and mortality situations.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 110-118; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8699

Abstract:
Climate change has emerged as a major man-made global environmental problem, characterized by an increase in the earth's air temperature as a result of large-scale emissions of greenhouse gases. Agriculture and climate change are intrinsically linked in different ways, since biotic and abiotic stresses are primarily caused by climate change, all these factors have a detrimental effect on a region's agriculture. Agriculture is affected by climate change in various ways, e.g., heat stress at the reproductive stage, shortening of growing season length, pests or microbes, modification in weeds, and increase in CO2 level. The challenge of changing global climate has driven the scientists' interest, As a result of these changes, global crop production is suffering and global food security is in danger. The current study sheds light on the impacts of climate change on agriculture, as well as the consequences for food security.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 10-22; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8679

Abstract:
Among the basic needs of life, food possesses ahead of everyone else as it nourishes us and able to stand which leads further activity. Tamil Nadu state is self-sufficient in food production and Nutrient availability assessment also shows the same but the consumption pattern shows inverse pattern to availability because consumption is directly related with income, education, taste and preference, cultural, ethical and etc. Food consumption patterns of rural Tamil Nadu shows that high demand of Public Distribution System (PDS) observed in earlier and gradually decreased over year. Vitamin Thiamine is coming under severe inequality category in rural areas of Tamil Nadu for both 61st and 68 rounds. Goal programming was effectively optimised the nutrient requirement with least cost and optimised to higher level of nutrient status.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 23-26; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8687

Abstract:
Gestational diabetes and dietary management with split meal technique was studied with 90 sample which were collected through purposive sampling. Among 90 GDM patients were categorized into 2 equal groups I.e, Experimental group and control group. Control group consists of (n=45) and Experimental group also consists of (n=45). Anthropometric measurements, Biochemical assessment, and Diet survey were taken as parameters. Positive results were obtained in Experimental group. Significant decrease observed in weight, BMI, blood sugar and urine sugar in Split meal technique group. The results were decreased (from160.11 to 133.36 mg/dl in fasting blood sugar, 2.25 - 0.35 mg/dl urine sugar, 67.58- 64.11 kg in body weight).
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 202-216; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8721

Abstract:
Being economically important for natural fiber, seed cotton and protein, cotton demand is increasing rapidly. With the ever-growing population, there is an ultimate need to increase the cotton production to meet this demand of man and livestock. Different Flavonoids, which are compounds that have antioxidant properties, serve an essential role in sustaining plant function and health. Flavonoids operate largely as photo protectors and phytoalexins, influencing the phytohormone auxin transport that affects the plant structure. Cotton production is also linked to the flavonoids as they play a great role in plant protection and vigor. Flavonoids play a critical role in response to abiotic stress. Leaf reddening in cotton and fungal infection resistance is attributed the flavonoids. Flavonoids also take part in the development of fiber and its color, maintenance of plant health and it’s defensive mechanism. With an increasing interest in the biological functions of flavonoids as well as advancements in isolation and classification techniques over the last two decades, the numerous flavonoids known in the cotton plant have risen dramatically. The capacity to regulate flavonoid expression in plants offers a chance to change defense mechanisms and growth. Genetic engineering techniques offer different methods that improves certain characteristics of cotton to further boost its output. This study aims to summarize existing findings on the prevalence and dispersal of flavonoids in cotton as well as to examine the historical research on flavonoids in cotton as well as potential paths for future research on this plant species. This review enlists the flavonoid profile studied by many scientists in the past and their distribution in cotton plant which consist of 52 flavonoids divided into 7 groups.
Ajay Singh Kaurav
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 131-135; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8658

Abstract:
Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucoma (L.) R. Br.], belongs to family Poaceae (section Paniceae), is the world’s hardiest warm-season cereal crop with the annual rainfall of 150 mm to 1000 mm.Maximum mycelial growth was recorded in potato dextrose carrot agar medium (86.33 mm) followed by Pearl millet Potato dextrose agar (83.67 mm), potato dextrose agar (78.33 mm), Pearl millet carrot dextrose agar (71.67 mm), Pearl millet potato agar (68.33 mm), Carrot dextrose agar (60.67 mm), Pearl millet grain potato dextrose agar (58.33 mm), Oat meal agar (51.67 mm), Pearl millet dextrose agar (51.67 mm), Calcium carbonate agar (42.67 mm), Malt agar (41.00 mm), Water agar (37.33 mm), Pearl millet grain dextrose agar (35.33 mm), Pearl millet agar (30.00) and Yeast extract agar (28.33 mm) while minimum growth was recorded in Pearl millet grain agar (27.33 mm).
, Raipur Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 140-144; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8673

Abstract:
This study attempted to guide the farmers and planners for reliable and specific information concerning the prices of Groundnut in the Northern Hills agro-climatic zone of Chhattisgarh. The time series data of prices was taken monthly from January, 2010 to March, 2021 (135 months) and it was used to forecast the prices for upcoming 24 months i.e. April, 2021 to March, 2023. The time trend analysis of prices of groundnut were found sharpely increasing over the study period. The price remains almost similar over the year as indicated by seasonal indices. On the basis of lowest MAE, MAPE, RMSE and AIC, out of the seasonal ARIMA models we got, ARIMA (1,1,1) (0,0,2) [12] was best identified fitted model for predicting prices of Groundnut. The data analysis is done by using R ().
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 174-179; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8710

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted at College Agronomy Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during summer, 2019 and 2020 comprising four intercropping treatments i.e. pearlmillet sole, pearlmillet+greengram, pearlmillet+cowpea, pearlmillet+clusterbean and three fertility levels viz., 75 % RDF, 100 % RDF and 125 % RDF. Among the different intercropping system examined, sole pearl millet (I1) accumulated significantly less content of N and P in pearl millet grain and straw as compared to intercropping with pulses treatments. Pearl millet + green gram (I2) recorded significantly higher N and P uptake by pearl millet straw than other intercropping systems. The sole pearl millet (I1) was at par with pearl millet intercropped with green gram (I2) had significantly higher K content and uptake in pearl millet grain and straw. In case of fertility levels, nitrogen and phosphorus content and uptake in pearl millet grain and straw were recorded significantly higher by application of 100 % RDF. Significantly higher N, P and K uptake by pearl millet grain and straw in pooled results were produced by treatment combination of pearl millet + green gram (I2) intercropping along with 75 % RDF (F1).
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 193-201; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8723

Abstract:
Present experiment was conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at the research farm of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (JNKVV), Jablapur, Madhya Pradesh to study the performance of rice under various rice-based cropping systems. Total 12 rice-based cropping systems viz., rice followed by wheat, chickpea, onion-green gram, berseem, potato-sesame, gobhi sarson-black gram, vegetable pea-sesame, potato- ground nut, gobhi sarson- sorghum, gobhi sarson- okra, French bean and marigold-sesame were studied during the study period. The performance of rice was assessed by monitoring growth attributes (plant height, effective tillers, panicle length, weight of panicle, sterility percentage etc.), yield attributes (grains per panicle, test weight etc.) and grain yield. The results revealed that, among the various cropping system studied the performance of rice crop was found statistically superior under rice-wheat and rice-chickpea cropping sequence. The poor performance of rice crop was observed under rice-berseem followed by rice-marigold-sesame cropping system.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 224-229; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8727

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2019-20 at Research Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, SGT University Gurugram. The experiment was laid out in split block design with four varieties WH 283, RAJ 3765, WH 1105, NABI Black Wheat and six integrated nutrient management treatments viz. T1: 100 % RDF (150 kg N + 60 kg P + 25 kg ZnSo4 ha-1), T2: 90% RDF+10% Bio-Fertilizer (Rhizobium + PSB), T3: 80% RDF+ 10% (VC) + 10% Bio-fertilizer (Rhizobium + PSB), T4: 70% RDF+ 20 % (VC) + 10% Bio-fertilizer (Rhizobium + PSB), T5: 60 % RDF+ 30 % (VC) + 10% Bio-fertilizer (Rhizobium + PSB) and T6: Control. The highest growth parameters were recorded with WH 1105 followed by WH 283 and Raj 3765. The lowest growth parameters were recorded with NB black. The treatments were replicated thrice. The maximum growth parameters viz., plant height (93.8 cm), numbers of tillers in running meter (81.4) and dry matter accumulation (982.2g) per square meter were recorded with the application of 100% RDF and minimum at T6 at maturity.
Dua-E- Zainab, Asma Zafa, Sidra Sohail, Sharjeel Haider, Bushra Rehman, Muhammad Saqlain Shah, Muhammad Nauman Aslam,
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 27-40; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.143

Abstract:
In light of declining freshwater supplies and soil salinization, it is critical to evaluate the ability of halophytic plant species to grow in semi-arid and arid environments, where crop plant production is significantly reduced. Soil salinity is a major agricultural issue in Pakistan, with alt-affected soils alone covering over six million hectares and more than 70% of tube-wells in saline areas pumping out salty water. Quinoa is a crop with seeds having a variety of nutrients in it as well as it’s seed are gluten-free with good agronomic, morphologic and biochemical characteristics and has a great potential to grow under combative climatic conditions; this property of quinoa makes it an excellent crop especially in the countries where adverse climatic conditions exist. It is a pseudo-cereal and is adaptable to different environmental needs, and has a great potential to deal with various abiotic stresses. Quinoa grows well under arid to semi-arid conditions where salinity and drought are common problems. Several studies have been carried out to elucidate the mechanisms used by quinoa to cope with high salt levels in the soil at various stages of plant development, but further research is still needed. Despite several recent researches on quinoa abiotic tension, much detail remains undisclosed. The present review discusses the quinoa adaptation towards salinity and drought stress.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.140

Abstract:
Cotton grey weevil is becoming a primary pest of agricultural and horticultural crops all over the world including Pakistan. The various management strategies such as chemical, biological and cultural have been adopted against this pest throughout the globe. The previous published literature was reviewed with the aim to evaluate the best strategy among all strategies to control the pest. Male is shorter as compared female with approximately 6.0 to 8.5 mm length. Adult feed on the leaves and cause huge crop losses. The current reviewed literature concluded that chemical control can give quick control of adult due to their fly ability while control of pupae, larvae and eggs is difficult due to their location in or on the soil. The excessive use of chemicals to control pest can caused mortality of other biological fauna. To avoid the excessive application of chemicals, biological and botanical control should be promoted and applied that will prove best option against the current pest.
Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Biosciences, Volume 9, pp 266-275; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-2845.8632

Abstract:
Navsari district of rainfall was shows highest increasing rainfall trend obtained September and negative January, July, October, November and December. The regression slope of the yearly time series is about 12.35 mm/36 years. Maximum temperature shows the highest increasing trend in month October, followed by December and August. The month highest decreasing trend was noticed that January, followed by February and July. The regression slope of the yearly time series is about 0.025°C/36 years. Minimum temperature highest values of the slope (0.109°C/36 year) with high value of regression Slope of determination (0.111°C), the annual Kendall’s tau statistic (0.492°C/36 year), the Kendall Score (310). All the month January to December shows increasing trend. The highest increasing trend found that November, followed by March and July, respectively. This finding shows that all the month shows increasing trend with the range between 0.308°C to 0.390°C. In case of RH-I the highest increasing trend shows September, followed by April and June. Similarly decreasing trend was found that January, followed by February and October, respectively. Relative humidity-II increasing trend was found only at the September month 0.084%, the increasing trend was detected in January to August and October to December, respectively. The strongest trend in the Bright sunshine hour’s decline of all month’s average daily sunshine hours was for the Navsari district. No significant trends were detected in all months and seasons for all weather elements. A similar trend was found in Sen’s slope and regression slope all the months for all the weather elements.
Current Research in Agriculture and Farming, Volume 2, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.18782/2582-7146.138

Abstract:
Sporophyte plants with many gametophytic chromosomes are called haploid plants. These plants can be produced naturally or through in vitro or in vivo induction techniques. Double haploid (DH) can be obtained by doubling the number of haploid chromosomes spontaneously or artificially. They are homozygous, and this homozygosity will be realized in the life cycle of a generation using the DH production system. This production system is used to correct heterosis. Easy to interact with the DH population. DH can be used as parental inbreds of new varieties or self-pollinated plants or cross-pollinated plants. Haploids can be used to isolate mutants, especially if the mutant allele is not diploid. If the haploid is transformed immediately after the chromosome is copied, the plant can be obtained step by step. By combining biotechnological means with conventional methods, the important goal of improving cultivated plants can be achieved in a short time. This article analyzes the various developments in the field of haploid species related to economically important ornamental species.
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