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Aswant Kumar Sharma, Dhanesh Kumar Sambariya
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2380-2390;

A physical system is of higher-order and it is hectic for researchers to understand these systems in higher mathematical form. So, there is a requirement for systematic conversion of higher-order into a lower order. The lower order approximately gives the same result as that of the higher-order by preserving the important properties of higher-order. But the lower order retains some approximation error. Objective: The objective is to optimise the reduced-order by minimizing the integral square error between the higherorder system (HOS) and the lower-order system (LOS). Methodology: For the optimization process the novel harris hawk hunting behaviour is optimized. It is applied to find the unknown numerator by applying the novel algorithm. The denominator parameter is obtained by the Routh Hurwitz Array technique. Finding: The proposed technique is applied on a linear time-invariant single input single output system of higher-order which is randomly selected from the literature. To justify the proposed technique, the result obtained is compared with the result available in the literature. The comparison is based on the step response characteristics of the diminished order with original and result accessed from literature. The response indices such as integral square, integral absolute, integral time absolute errors are also compared. The error gets minimized and results improved as associated with the result presented in the literature. Keywords: Harris Hawk Optimization; Routh Array Technique; Integral square error; step response characteristics; reduced order
Ketan Soni, Kavita Sharma
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2337-2341;

Objectives: To investigate an eco-friendly method to enhance the solubility of Mefenamic acid. The present investigation was to employ these hydrotropic solutions to extract the drugs from their dosage forms, precluding the use of costlier and harmful organic solvents. Methodology: Mefenamic acid was analyzed by using UV Visible spectrophotometer (Model 1800, Shimadzu), and its solubility (poorly water-soluble drug) measured by mixed solvency method. Sodium caprylate solution was used as a hydrotropic solubilizing agent. Findings: The solubility of the Mefenamic acid drug in water was very low at about 0.2 mg/ml and the solubility of Mefenamic acid in the 20% sodium caprylate solution was 10 mg/ml. The value of percentage estimation obtained was from 98.6 (tablet II) to 98.8 (tablet I). This value is obtained near to 100% hence, we can say that the proposed method is correct. Standard deviation (0.173 to 0.346), percentage coefficient of variation (0.175 to 0.350) and the value of standard error (0.101 to 0.202) are also very low to validate the accuracy of the proposed method. Novelty: Mixed solvency concept can be utilized for spectrophotometric estimation of poorly water-soluble drugs from their bulk drug samples to avoid the use of organic solvents that provide a new, economical, environmentally friendly, safe, and reliable analytical mechanism. Keywords: Mixed solvency; solubility; hydrotropic; mefenamic acid; sodium caprylate
Piyush Pratap Singh, Laitumkhrah Nit Meghalaya
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2351-2367;

Objective: To investigate a novel chaotic system with unique features, its synchronization using nonlinear active control, analog circuit design and application to secure communication. Methods/Analysis: Dynamical tools such as dissipative analysis, instability of equilibrium points, sensitivity to initial conditions, 0-1 test, recurrence plot, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, frequency spectrum and basin of attraction. Synchronization is achieved using modified nonlinear active control technique and analog circuit design, implementation is done in NI Multisim platform. MATLAB and Multisim results are presented to meet the adequate verification of theoretical approach. Findings: A three-dimensional chaotic system with only two nonlinear terms, three parameters and a total of eight terms are proposed. The proposed system has three saddle focus type equilibria. The proposed system is topologically different from Lorenz’s and Rossler’s, Lu’s, Chen’s, and Liu’s families. Such dynamic systems are very few in the literature as per authors best knowledge. The system has basin of chaotic attractors for which first Lyapunov exponent ranges between 2.5 to 3. Frequency spectrum and large positive Lyapunov exponent result comparatively large bandwidth of the proposed systems against some well-known chaotic systems. Chaos, periodic and stable behaviors are obtained by altering the system parameters. Novelty/Application: The proposed three-dimensional chaotic system has significant chaotic behavior and broader spectrum than the six chaotic systems like Lorenz, Rossler, Lu, Chen, BG and Liu systems. Unlike the conventional active control approach, the proposed nonlinear active control does not result decoupled error dynamics. The system has significantly large bandwidth which is helpful in the masking of message signals and enhances the security of transmitted signals during communication. Keywords: Analog circuit design; Chaos; Chaotic system; Chaosbased communication; Chaos synchronization; Nonlinear active control
Pratima Rani Sardar
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2327-2336;

Objectives: To study the simultaneous removal of metal ions to understand the dynamics of the adsorption process for the assessment of the actual potential of an adsorbent in real-life applications. Methods: A one-step hydrothermal method was employed for the synthesis of nanomaterial. The hydrothermal treatment was performed at 110o C for 3 hours and calcined at 300o C for 2 hr to complete the nickel oxide nanoparticle synthesis. A systematic study of metal ion adsorption onto the nickel oxide nanoparticle was conducted to evaluate the maximum adsorption capacity and to understand the adsorption behaviour of the metal ions in presence of the others. The estimation of metal ion adsorption was done by measuring the residual concentrations using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Findings: The microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations confirmed the formation of nickel oxide nanostructures. The experimental results suggested that the adsorption process follows the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-secondorder model for metal ion adsorption in single and mixed solutions. A synergistic effect was observed for Pb (II) adsorption and an antagonistic effect for Cd (II) adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of ~650 mg/g of Pb (II) and ~475 mg/g of Cd (II) were noticed for simultaneous adsorption by the NiO nanoparticle. Novelty/improvement: The presence of more than one heavy metal ion in the wastewater is obvious, and one kind of metal ion may interface with the adsorption behaviour of the others. Further, limited studies on simultaneous adsorption of metal ions using metal-oxide nanoparticles are available in the literature. Hence, this work will provide an idea about the applicability of the NiO nanoparticle for real-life applications. Keywords: Adsorption; NiO; Heavy metal ions; Simultaneous removal
V A Anjan Babu, R Saravanan, M Raviprakash, Madeva Nagaral
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2342-2350;

Objective: To synthesize and assess the mechanical behaviour of 12 wt. % of 80 to 90 micron sized B4C reinforced Al2030 alloy metal composites. Method: Al2030 alloy with 12 wt. % of B4C reinforced composites were developed by liquid melt stir cast method. These prepared composites were subjected to microstructural characterization by SEM, EDS and XRD. Mechanical properties like hardness, tensile and flexural strength were evaluated according to ASTM standards. Findings: Scanning electron micrograph of Al2030 alloy with 12 wt. % of B4C composites revealed the thorough distribution of boron carbide particles in the Al2030 matrix. EDS and X-ray diffractometer patterns confirmed the presence of boron carbide particles in the Al2030 alloy matrix. The addition of 12 wt. % of B4C particles enhanced the hardness by 74.8%, ultimate strength by 59.2%, yield strength by 64.8% and flexural strength by 44.2% with slight decrease in ductility. Novelty: Al2030 alloy is an aerospace grade aluminium alloy widely used for industrial applications. Advanced metal composites developed with the incorporation of 80 to 90 micron sized B4C particles in Al2030 alloy helps in weight reduction of aerospace components. Keywords: Al2030 Alloy; B 4 C Particles; Microstructure; Tensile Strength; Flexural Strength; Fractography
M S Vinay, S Ranganatha, Madeva Nagaral
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2368-2379;

Objective: Aluminium and its alloys components are used in aero and space industries where in many cases trioboloading prevails. In space application, in addition to triboloading, the components should also perform in the absence of atmosphere. In the present investigation, attempted has been made to simulate the field conditions in the laboratory by sliding Al6061 alloy pin of different diameters in a vacuum at different temperatures using a vertically configured pin-on-disc test rig. Method: The pin diameters were 2, 4, and 6mm and the testing temperatures were 373, 473, and 573K. The normal contact pressure was 0.625MPa and the sliding speed was 0.5ms-1 and both were constant throughout the experiment. The coefficient of friction was monitored using a PC and the worn pin surface was studied in scanning-electronmicroscope. Findings: The result showed that the coefficient of friction at sliding temperatures 373 and 473K was found to be dependent on apparent contact area i.e., pin diameters 2, 4, and 6mm. The coefficient of friction was found to be 3.27 and 2.69 for pin diameter 2mm at temperature 373 and 473K whereas the coefficient of friction was of the range 1.36 to 0.33 for the pin of diameter 4 and 6mm. The scanning-electron-microscopic study revealed uniform plastic deformation for pin diameter of 2mm and non-uniform plastic deformation accompanied with abrasion extrusion phenomenon for the pin of diameters 4 and 6mm. The coefficient of friction at sliding temperature 573K was found to be insensitive to the apparent contact area. The coefficient of friction was in the range of 1.24 to 2.30. The SEM study revealed a large scale of non-uniform plastic deformation accompanied by abrasion, tearing of ridges, extrusion of both ridges, and entrapped wear debris. Novelty: It is a generic study for understanding the response of aluminium for tribo loading which. Keywords: Pin on Disc (POD); Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); High Temperature; Vacuum; Coefficient of Friction; Al6061 Aluminium Alloy 1
Srishti Tripathi, Rashmi Pandey, Amardeep Singh, Sunita Mishra
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2317-2326;

Objectives: To extract value added product (pectin) from banana peel, its optimisation by Response Surface Methodology and its characterisation. Method/Analysis: This study is carried out for the isolation of pectin from banana peel by using the acid extraction method, its optimization was done by using a software of design expert, version 8.0 based on three factors-Time, Ph, and Temperature. On the basis of three factors yield of a pectin was calculated and find out the optimum condition of pectin extraction. Hence, its characterization based on its equivalent weight, methoxyl content, anhydrouronic acid, degree of esterification, moisture content and ash content were also analysed to know the nature of a pectin. Findings: The most suitable condition for pectin extraction was (pH –2.5, Temperature-90°C, Time-2.5 hours) by using 0.5 N of hydrochloric acid where the pectin yield was highest obtained i.e., 23-24%. For optimization, the Central Composite Design of RSM was performed at different parameters. RSM was used to optimize the pectin at different time (1,2,3,4 hours), temperature (60,70,80 and 90°C) and pH (1.5,2.5,3.5 and 4.5) respectively. Under optimum conditions, the pectin was characterized based on their equivalent weight, methoxyl content, ash content, moisture content, degree of esterification, anhydrouronic acid. Novelity: The novelty of this study is that the pectin has been extracted with a yield of 23- 24%.As compared to other studies , the pectin was characterized based on their equivalent weight, methoxyl content, ash content, moisture content, degree of esterification, anhydrouronic acid where it was found to be 1428.57 g/ml, 9.3%, 4.57%, 12.42%, 62%, 31.68% respectively. A few studies have been done about the optimisation of a pectin from banana peel. Keywords: By-product utilization; Anhydrouronic acid; Methoxyl content; Isolation; Value added; Optimization
Ch Komali, N Murali, D Parajuli, A Ramakrishna, K Chandramouli
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2309-2316;

Objective: To prepare Cu doped Mg0:5􀀀xCuxZn0:5Fe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15,0.2 and 0.25) spinel ferrites materials and study the structure, morphology, and magnetic properties. Methods: Cu doped Mg-Zn spinel ferrites are magnetic and highly resistive materials. They were synthesized by the method of solid-state reaction and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), andvibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for their structural, compositional,morphological, functional properties. They are with spinel structure under Fd-3m space group. Their crystallite size was 44.58 nm to 31.02 nm range after calcined at 1000 oC. Their spinel structure was confirmed with FT-IR analysis, whose absorption bands were 598.84 – 580.40 cm-1 and 405.35 - 402.15 cm-1 range for higher and lower frequency, respectively. The value of coercivity is in the range 146.33 - 9.427 Oe with the variation of content. The lower values of the coercivity indicated the soft ferrimagnetic nature of the synthesized materials. Findings/ Application: Substitution of non-magnetic Cu2+ ions strongly influenced the structural and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrites. Keywords: Cu doped MgZn ferrite; XRD; FTIR; FESEM; Coercivity
T Bharathi, S Antony Vinoth, S Leo
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2284-2292;

Objectives: The objective of this study is to reduce the interference of the signals between Wi-Fi devices where the fuzzy values of the frequencies are from the closed interval [0,1]. Method: A new methodology is introduced to reduce the interference of the signals between Wi-Fi devices that is fuzzy radio reciprocal L-labeling. Findings: Here the general formula of fuzzy radio reciprocal L-labeling has been newly introduced to apply this concept in chemical graphs. Further results and discussions are also proved in this connection using the fuzzy chemical graph structure, where the distance and the frequencies between the routers of Wi-Fi connections are assigned fuzzy weights based on fuzzy radio reciprocal L-labeling, so that interference can be reduced and the signal strength is optimized. Keywords: Nano sheet; Sirpinski gasket graph ( S n ); Sirpinski like graph (S (n; 4)); g ( s) weight of lines; t (a) weight of points
Akhilesh Mishra, Hauzkhas Aurobindo Marg
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2293-2299;

Aims: To explore the role of language in the representation of students’ understanding of concepts in the oral as well as the written form through collaborative concept mapping (CCM). The study attempts to identify the nature of difficulties faced by students in the same. Method: A descriptive research design was used for the study. A school was selected purposely of which all the 28 students of a section of class IX were taken as the sample to represent their understanding of selected science concepts through collaborative concept mapping. Students formed 9 groups to draw the concept maps collaboratively. The whole process of CCM by each group was observed to identify the students’ actual understanding of the science concepts. The concept maps made by each group were examined qualitatively to compare the representation of students’ knowledge in the written form with their actual understanding. Findings: In the study language was found to play an important role in the concrete representation of knowledge in the form of a graphic organizer like a concept map also. Some concepts were identified in the study which were discussed among the group members but not included in the map due to their inability to select appropriate linking words. It was also found that technical terms and labels in science posed a challenge for students. But, in some cases CCmaps provided them a tool through which the correct comprehension of the concepts can be given a concrete form despite having the limited knowledge of language. Novelty: The study provides an insight into the application of CCM as an assessment technique by teachers to compare the students’ cognitive structures and their overt representation on paper. It has also identified a specific form of concept map by which students can represent their understanding with the limited knowledge of language. Keywords: Role of language; Collaborative Concept mapping; understanding of concepts; representation of knowledge; Science
Manabendra Maiti, Kausik Bhattacharyya, Salil Kumar Biswas, Anoarul Islam, Ayan Pradhan, Judhajit Sanyal
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2250-2256;

Objectives: To predict meteorological phenomena such as rain events from sky status during rainy and non-rainy periods. Methods: The method used here is based on brightness temperature ratio measurement at two different frequencies, namely 23.8 GHz and 30 GHz respectively, using ground based dual frequency radiometric data. The ratios of brightness temperature readings obtained by the dual-frequency radiometer at the two above mentioned frequencies are calculated for each simultaneously-taken pair of measurements. Data obtained by the authors for the year 2009 at Cachoeira Paulista in Brazil has been used for analysis. Findings: The major results obtained from the analysis of data collected over a continuous period of seven months are used to construct corresponding histograms and cumulative count graphs of brightness temperature ratios. The histograms and graphs clearly show three peak values that could be interpreted as thresholds between clear sky, cloudy sky and rainy sky conditions respectively. Novelty: The study implements detection of rain events from sky status during rainy and non-rainy periods using peak brightness temperature values obtained from graphs generated using the observation data. The outlined technique can therefore be used to clearly determine sky conditions and accurately predict rain phenomena. The ratio of brightness temperatures at the two frequencies is a unique parameter which is critical to the successful estimation of rain from sky status. The results agree well with multi-channel radiometric data obtained by other researchers at lower frequencies. Keywords: sky status; microwave; millimeter wave; dual frequency radiometer; brightness temperature; rainfall
Jose Aaron B Confesor
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2272-2283;

Objective: To design, fabricate and evaluate the new features of a portable manual rebar bender, a Hand Tool that is used for bending rebar and other malleable materials. Methods: The researcher improves on the previously available portable manual rebar bender. Experts assessed the acceptability of this bender in terms of design and portability. Furthermore, as previously stated, the study significantly improves the usefulness of the inexpensively produced bending machine for reinforcing concrete with negligible human force. Findings: The device created has a valuable impact on the construction industry’s human force due to its affordability and marketability. Also,the present tools guaranteed strength, durability, and lightness in weight. Furthermore, the portable manual rebar is made of different elements such as a center axle, stationary backup roller, and sleeve. The results after ten trials showed that the portable manual rebar bender could finish 9 mm, 20mm, and 12 mm stirrup at an average of 24.3 seconds, 26.3 seconds, and 27.7 seconds, respectively. Additional results from seven to ten trials showed the bending time for 24 seconds stirrup for 9mm, 26 seconds stirrups for 10 mm, and 28 seconds stirrup for 12 mm. Furthermore, after a series of ten trials, the instrument achieved an accurate angle bent of 90 degrees. The M= 4.77 and 4.82 are very acceptable in terms of design and portability tools based on the evaluators’ rating. Novelty: The design is novel in terms of cost, portability, and efficiency. The device can be a great help in the structures and buildings. Furthermore, the construction industry will use the portable manual rebar bender to build houses and other local infrastructure to test its effectiveness. Then, the researcher is encouraged to engage in another research to try the innovation. Keywords: Improvised; Innovative; Locally made; Device; Bender
Harsha D Neelgund, Girish G Kadadevaru
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2238-2249;

Objectives: A study on seasonal variation in zooplankton community was undertaken to evaluate the present status of water quality at Kadasgatti minor irrigation tank (MIT) located in the northern transitional zone of Belagavi district. Methods and Statistical Analysis: Water samples were collected from January 2017 to December 2017. Physico-chemical parameters and qualitative and quantitative analysis of zooplankton were carried out. Pearson correlation was calculated using SPSS, IBM Version 21 software to find out interrelationships between water quality and zooplankton groups. Findings: A total of 52 species of zooplanktons were recorded during the study period with a total zooplankton abundance of 14327 individuals with a relative abundance of 35.42%. Rotifera was the dominant group with 27 species, followed by Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda. The highest zooplankton abundance was observed in summer while minimum in post-monsoon season. Copepoda was highest abundant group during the entire study period with its maximum abundance during winter and gradually declined and reached to its minimum in post-monsoon. The presence of eutrophic indicator species like Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus angularis, Filina longiseta suggests eutrophication of the tank. Novelty: The study provides baseline data on the present status of the water body indicating that, anthropogenic activities, agricultural runoff are the main cause of eutrophication. Sustainable and holistic conservational strategies have to be adopted to protect the water body. Keywords: Cladocera; Copepoda; Eutrophication; Rotifera; Seasonal variation; Zooplankton abundance
Alvin Ho, Ramesh Vatambeti, Sathish Kumar Ravichandran
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2300-2308;

Objective: This paper explains the working of the linear regression and Long Short-Term Memory model in predicting the value of a Bitcoin. Due to its raising popularity, Bitcoin has become like an investment and works on the Block chain technology which also gave raise to other crypto currency. This makes it very difficult to predict its value and hence with the help of Machine Learning Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network Model this predictor is tested. Methodology: In this study, we have used data sets for Bitcoin for testing and training the ML and AI model. With the help of python libraries, the data filtration process was done. Python has provided with a best feature for data analysis and visualization. After the understanding of the data, we trim the data and use the features or attributes best suited for the model. Implementation of the model is done and the result is recorded. Finding: It was discovered that the linear regression model’s accuracy rate is very high when compared to other Machine Learning models from related works; it was found to be 99.87 percent accurate. The LSTM model, on the other hand, shows a mini error rate of 0.08 percent. This, in turn, demonstrates that the neural network model is more optimized than the machine learning model. Novelty: In this work, a small GUI has been created using the tkinter library that will allow the user to input the High, Low, and Open features values and then predict the next value for the coin. This paper compares the prediction outcomes of a machine learning model and an artificial neural network model. Because linear regression provided the highest accuracy compared to the other machine learning models, we used it to compare it to the LSTM model. Keywords: Bitcoin; Block chain; Crypto currency; Machine Learning; Artificial Neural Network
Njimboh Henry Alombah, Achille Ecladore Tchahou Tchendjeu, Kengne Romanic, Fran Ccedil Ois Calvin Talla, Hillaire Bertrand Fotsin
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2257-2271;

Objectives: To propose a second-order locally- active memristor, a twocomponent chaotic circuit resulting from this current-controlled generic memristor and an application in steganography. Methods/statistical analysis: Using a one-state-variable first-order memristor, a model is proposed which is obtained by modifying a locally-active memristor based on a current-controlled generic memristor. The model has two internal state variables: a voltage stored up in a capacitor and a current stored up in an inductor. With an external inductor, 3D-two-component chaotic circuit is developed. Numerical studies are made using MATLAB and confirmed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based hardware implementation. Findings: A two-state-variable based second-order memristor model is presented. The novel memristor configuration leads to the design of a simple two-component chaotic circuit. By investigating the characteristics of the memristor, it is shown that the memristor can be switched from a predominantly passive region to an active region with a wide locally-active region. An application in steganography helps to hide a secrete message inside an image. Application/improvements: The results obtained in this investigation will enrich the literature of memristive circuits, enhance the simplification of chaotic circuits and can be used to improve the memristive circuit based applications in many research domains such as secure information in telecommunications, Random Number Generation (RNG) and image encryption. Keywords: Memristor; Two component circuit; Chaos; Local activity; FPGA; Steganography
I Ananthakeshava, N J Srikanth, K Nagendra Prasad, V Vinu
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2175-2179;

Objective: To study the effects of Pranic Healing (PH) on surface tension of water. Methods: This study involved the application of the PH on water and observing the changes in the surface tension (ST) values. ST was measured in the Pranic and Control using the Capillary rise method and the data were analyzed using Mann- Whitney U test. Findings: The results showed that the ST of water reduced significantly, after 20 minutes in the PH-treated samples, when compared to control. Additionally, contact angle also reduced due to PH, showing an increase in wettability. It has given indications that the Pranic healing could be used in modulating the physical property of water. Novelty: Pranic Healing, reduces the ST of water, which would be beneficial since it directly affects the absorption of nutrients by living beings from the fluid medium. Keywords: Biofield; Complementary therapy; Energy Healing; Prana; Water
Asim Ali Khan, Ajat Shatru Arora
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2152-2163;

Objective: To design a computer aided detection system for the early detection of the breast cancer from the mammograms as it can assist the doctors in the diagnosis. Methodology: The proposed method used in the design of Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) is based the on using the textural differences of the abnormal and normal mammograms to detect the breast cancer. The Gabor Features and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features are extracted from the region of interest of the segmented mammograms using the Entropy based segmentation. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for classifying the mammograms into the cancerous and non-cancerous cases. The 35 number of normal and abnormal mammograms are taken from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) data set. The MIAS database is chosen as it carries more challenging data because it carries lot of unwanted tissues and flesh part included in it which has the intensity level more than the micro-calcifications. Findings: The classification accuracies obtained are 92.98% and 98.11% using Gabor and gray-level co-occurrence matrix features respectively. The sensitivity achieved with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix features is 100% which shows no missed cancerous case. The classification accuracy is higher using gray-level co-occurrence matrix features as compared to the Gabor features which shows superiority of these features in capturing the texture of the mammograms. Novelty: The removal of the pectoral muscle is an important pre-processing step. Only with the proper elimination of the pectoral muscle, the segmentation of the mammograms is possible. The method proposed to remove the pectoral muscle in this paper removed the pectoral muscles from all the mammograms used in the study. The entropy based segmentation and the technique of the removal of the non-contributing features outperforms other CAD systems in the literature available. These are very promising results for successful design of a Computer-aided detection system for early detection of the breast cancer that can be put to clinical trials or used for the double reading. Keywords: Breast Cancer; Computer Aided Detection System; Entropy based Segmentation; Gabor Features; GrayLevel CoOccurrence Matrix Features
Sanket Devikar, Khalid Ansari, Charuta Waghmare
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2215-2222;

Objectives: To evaluate the importance of solar-based Electrocoagulation followed by the filtration process in treating the domestic greywater, analyze each operational process’s performance process in highlighting the cost, efficiency and reuse conditions. Analysis: This research aimed to see if the continuous mode EC technique could treat Greywater (GW) with batterypowered solar energy. The EC process running on solar energy is used as a single unit method for Greywater treatment. This explores the hybrid electrocoagulation and filtration process with different electrode material combinations with a flow rate; based on this, and the impact tests are carried out on the flexibility of continuous mode, anode and cathode efficiency. Findings: In this experiment, using a combination of electrodes with different material having continuous flow find about removal efficiencies of different characteristics like COD, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended solids, pH and Turbidity with the variable in the supply of current with fix detention time. Novelty:Experimental approach based on Solar based Electrocoagulation with filtration mechanism is the new concept of approach for treating Domestic Greywater Keywords: Domestic Greywater; Solar energy; Electrocoagulation; Continuous mode; Controlled flowrate; Filtration
S Meena, D Sankaran, M Nivethithadevi
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2164-2174;

Objectives: The objective of this work is to fine tune the variant of FA (Firefly Algorithm), NaFA (Firefly Algorithm with neighbourhood Attraction) by parameter tuning such as a, b , g . Furthermore, a new variant called Step Size Modified FA with neighbourhood attraction (SSMFA-N) has been proposed in which the step size is updated during the algorithm run so that a balance between local and global search is achieved. The considered objective functions are PO and ITAE. Methods: It is well known that parameters that are considered initially for any metaheuristic algorithms are purely trial and error basis and this leads to erroneous optimized results. While analysing the algorithms, NaFA (a variant of FA) has been considered for efficient convergence and good performance. On analysing it is noticed that FA and its variants’ performances and convergence depend on Step Size(a), brightness (b ) and adsorption coefficient(g ). In both the FA and NaFA the parameters to be tuned for effective convergence are a, b and g . It is also understood that the parameter b had been done separately and the parameters a and g cannot be fine-tuned simultaneously. Therefore, in NaFA the parameter tuning for a has been done for the processes FOPDT, stable and unstable SOPDT and the new variant SSMFA-N is thus proposed. Findings: The algorithm is made to run in MATLAB and Simulink environment for three different processes such as FOPDT, Stable and Unstable Second order Process (bioreactor processes) with the objective functions of less PO and ITAE. The obtained results from all the three processes are compared with the conventional and optimization methods (PSO) and shown that SSMFA-N outperforms the conventional and optimization approaches in both the time domain and performance indices. Novelty: The novelty is the modification of step size of NaFA, which ultimately leads to a new variant called SSMFA-N. Keywords: FA; FA with neighbourhood attraction; Step size tuning; Bioreactor Process
Brijesh P Singh, Shweta Dixit
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2180-2188;

Objectives: To understand the pattern of child death (death before their fifth birthday), in this study an attempt has been made to develop a probability model. Methods: Mortality especially child death is one of the important and interesting areas for population scientists. In this paper, an attempt has been made a probability model to study the pattern of child deaths and also try to estimate the average number of children ever born. The parameters involved in the model under consideration have been estimated with the method of moments. Findings: Some real data sets from NFHS are used for checking the suitability of the proposed model. The performance of proposed model is outstanding for the considered set of data. The risk of child death in Uttar Pradesh is estimated as 63 per thousand and the estimated number of children ever born is about 7 in the reproductive life of a female. In the urban area, the risk of child death and average children ever born is estimated lower than the estimate of rural area. We observed risk of child death and the average number of children ever born is decreasing over time. Novelty: The proposed model is competent to estimate the risk of child death and the average children ever born to a female through the distribution of number of child death. Keywords: Child Death; Average Children Ever Born; Probability Model; Marginal Probability; Method of Moment
Namrata Bist, Anirbid Sircar, Kriti Yadav
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2189-2205;

Objective: This study is aimed at interpreting geochemical and geophysical data of 4 locations in Gujarat, India to understand the subsurface geothermal hotspot locations. Methods: CG-5 gravimeter was used to collect the gravity data. Data corrections were done to obtain a complete Bouguer anomaly. The depth of the dense bodies was calculated using Euler deconvolution. Also, the geochemical classification of physiochemical properties of geothermal spring waters of the locations was evaluated to assess their possible applications. Findings: In the sample region, the complete Bouguer anomaly analysis ranges between 1.99 mGal-2.23 mGal. The Euler deconvolution produced depth solutions ranging from 100 to 450 meters, which were mostly found near gravity highs, and the presence of deep structures can be deduced. These deep structures are translated as dense intruding bodies trapped by an overlying cap rock. The Geochemical analysis was done of the four samples. Based on the results of various plots such as Ternary, Durov, Piper, Stiff, the waters are graded as cationic with Na+K and anionic with Cl+SO4. The sample waters indicate suitability for drinking and irrigation at some locations. Finding these hotspots and exploiting them is of importance for these areas which are dealing with the acute water crisis. Novelty: Euler deconvolution of gravity data was first time applied for subtle geothermal trap identification in Saurashtra and Cambay basins. It has been established through this study that surface manifestation of these subtle traps are the hot springs. Systematic geochemical characterization of the hot springs progressed the nascent geothermal energy research of India. Keywords: Bouguer anomaly; Heat source; Geothermal energy; Geochemical analysis; Hot spring; water analysis
G Sivagurunathan, R Kotteeswaran, M Suresh, A Kirthini Godweena
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2223-2237;

Objective: To estimate centralized PID controller parameters for 4 outputs and 5 inputs crude distillation non-square system with RHP zeros process. Methods/Analysis: The Multi- Objective Particle Swam Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is applied to determine the PID controller parameters for the considered distillation column process. Findings: The performance of the proposed controller is compared with two centralized controller schemes, Davison’s and Tanttu and Lieslehto methods. The Integral Square Error (ISE), Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Integral of Time Absolute Error (ITAE) are chosen as performance indices. The simulation results prove that MOPSO tuned centralized controller gives the best performance when compared to other analytical techniques for both set point tracking and in disturbance rejection environment. Novelty: In practice, conventional PID controllers are tuned using classical methods, which require complex numerical calculations. In this paper, an attempt is made to fine tune the PID controller for a MIMO process using Multi Objective optimization technique and obtained challenging results as compared to conventional methods. Keywords: Nonsquare system; Centralized control; Multi Objective Particle Swam Optimization; PID controller
Ganesh S Ingle
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2206-2214;

Objectives: To determine the strength and swelling behavior of black cotton soil (expansive soil) using a shredded rubber tyre as an additive. Methods: Series of unconfined compressive strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests were carried out on black cotton soil mixed with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of shredded rubber tyres, and the results were compared with untreated soil samples. The study also investigated the influence of shredded rubber on swelling characteristics of black cotton soil by performing the swelling pressure test. Findings: From the experimental results, it is inferred that the optimum addition of a 10% shredded rubber tyre can effectively improve the strength behavior of black cotton soil. The unconfined compressive strength and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of soil stabilized with 10% of shredded rubber tyre increased by 32 % and 49.3% respectively as compared to the untreated soil. An illustration presented shows the effect of increased CBR in terms of the reduction of 18% pavement thickness. This may reduce the total cost of the project. The present study also investigated the swelling potential of Black cotton soil and it is found to be decreased by 33.33% for the addition of 15% shredded rubber soil as compared to untreated soil. Novelty: The use of shredded rubber in expansive soil increased its CBR value, leading to a reduction in 18% of pavement thickness. Hence, it may lead to a further reduction in the total cost of the project. Also, the disposal problem of waste rubber tyres is resolved up to a certain extent. Keywords: Shredded Rubber Tyre; Black Cotton Soil; Unconfined Compressive Strength; California Bearing Ratio; Soil Stabilization
K V Murali, T L Remadevi Remadevi
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2097-2105;

Objectives: To develop organic dye sensitized film electrodes from highly porous tin oxide (SnO2) thin films prepared at room temperature using the SILAR technique. Methods/Analysis: SnO2 films were fabricated by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature and its sensitization was done using the organic dye Rose Bengal (RB). The effect of sensitization on the as-grown and annealed film electrodes was investigated. Findings : Crystalline films with cauliflower-like morphology exhibit a large inherent adsorptive surface area and exhibit steady transmittance of 60-80% in the visible region. As-grown SnO2 films possess higher porosity and lower refractive index than that of the annealed films. SnO2 films have a resistivity in the range of 10-2-10-3 ΩcmΩcm. The dye adsorbed SnO2 film electrodes have much higher absorbance and cover a broad visible region compared to the bare SnO2 film electrodes. RB sensitization leads to an accelerated improvement in absorbed photon energy through the visible region of the spectrum extending from 2 to 3.75 eV. Novelty: Contrary to the sophisticated methods of preparation in the reported literature, highly porous crystalline SnO2 thin films were prepared at room temperature, using glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide by a cost-effective simple wet chemical method. Work demonstrates that SnO2 films sensitized with RB act as an excellent dye-sensitized electrode, which can absorb almost half the visible spectrum (400-600 nm) of solar radiations. We believe that this is the unique report of surface modification of wet chemically prepared SnO2 electrodes by the photo-sensitizer RB. Keywords Photo­characterization, rose bengal, sensitization, thin films, tin oxide electrodes
Marilyn Linas-Laguda
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2137-2144;

Objectives : To determine the relationships of Multiple Intelligences of College Freshmen to their Mathematics Performance among 68 first-year College students taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Mathematics of Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College (NIPSC). Methods: The researcher used descriptive-correlational design in this study. A survey utilizing the researcher-made checklist determined the relationship of multiple intelligences as the main variables used in the research. Findings/application: The results showed more females enrolled in the programs than males in the academic year 2015-2016. Most of these students were from different barangays in northern Iloilo. Out of the 9 MI, most of the students possessed existentialist intelligence because they wanted to become teachers in the future. However, the majority of these 68 respondents failed the entrance examination. But out of four campuses, Barotac Viejo Campus students have a higher performance in Mathematic class. But no significant difference between sex and MI. Furthermore, the results also exposed that if students excelled in Mathematics in high school, they were too good in college. Also, most of the respondents were good in linguistic intelligence. During problem-solving activities, most of them can read, analyze, and comprehend verbal instructions. To enhance the performance of students enrolled in BSEd major Mathematics in four campuses creates a plan to help teachers in junior high schools and senior high schools like teaching strategy and interactive approaches. Also, remedial classes are implemented for those who are not performing well in college. Keywords: Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College; Bachelor of Secondary Education (Mathematics); FirstYear; Performance; Multiple intelligences
A Thilagavathy, S Meenakshi, V Vijayabhaskar, M Dilli Babu, S Kumari, M A Gunavathie
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2145-2151;

Background: In the midst of invention of sensor mechanization, massive statistics analytics had turn out to be an innovative prototype for quick information processing. Real-time analytics are required for getting access to the information and its processing. Large populace interest in fitness care led to the improvement of health monitoring systems. Methods: This study targets toward the improvement of a cloud based fitness health care system. Here Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is used to blend the information to the server that includes STORM. The analytics are performed on the received physiological data. The non-critical information is ousted and the essential facts are saved and a notification is sent to the medical doctor. Findings: Thus, actual time analytics alongside with the cloud aid to improve the effectiveness of the proposed healthcare device by providing immediate clinical assistance to the users. A sensible selection making device for approximate reasoning that can manage the uncertainty of imperative threat for human fitness with the usage of fuzzy logic is carried out for discovering the health related problems. Novelty: In this study, an analysis to monitor the fitness hazard which is associated to Blood Pressure, Pulse rate and Kidney function is proposed. Levels of blood stress are analyzed with kidney characteristic by using Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). Under this concept, fuzzy logic system is proposed to signify the parameters which can also reason the danger for human fitness and evaluation via the usage of rule base component. Keywords: Wireless Body Area Networks; health care system; fuzzy logic
M. Meena, A. Vijayalakshmi
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2106-2110;

Objectives: To find the underlying reasons for the exponential increase in mortality rate in India due to (coronavirus disease-2019) COVID-19. Methods: The Indian scenario was analysed after the first declaration of the COVID-19 outbreak. Despite the meticulous efforts of the Indian government, the number of deaths rose gradually. Subsequently, an exponential increase was observed, and the trend was analysed cautiously to assess the shortcomings. Findings: The cause of death in the reproductive age group and change in the pattern of death in the first and second waves were analysed. A rapid increase in death might be due to not identifying individuals with comorbidity early. Due to the lack of a centralised government database, a higher death rate is recorded. Novelty: Identifying and communicating with individuals with comorbidities at the right time is essential during the pandemic. Hence, the present study emphasised a centralised database and connected the medical records nationwide to provide early warning signals for such people. In the future, it could be linked with the Geographical Information System (GIS). Keywords pandemic, comorbidity, unique ID card, vulnerable, lockdown
N Nanthini, N Puviarasan, P Aruna
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2128-2136;

Objectives: To propose a new liveness detection algorithm using optical flow to ensure the presence of actual live face into a photograph or 2D masks in face recognition biometric security systems. Methods: This work proposes an anti-spoofing model namely Sparse Optical Flow Technique with Velocity Estimation Approach (SOFT_VEA). Optical flow is an effective method for tracking objects in motion. It is adapted in this work to capture facial movements and decide the liveness state. The proposed algorithm considers real faces and two kinds of photo imposters. Findings: From the input video, the motion information of specific facial landmark points is captured by an optical flow algorithm. Then, the velocity of those landmark points is estimated via Euclidean distance. Based on this calculated velocity, the fake face is discriminated from the real face using a threshold value. The Empirical study shows that the proposed face liveness detection model is effective with an accuracy of 88% and Half Total Error Rate (HTER) of 2.45. Novelty: The proposed work is based on real face and photo imposters. The liveness detection algorithm is developed with a novel velocity estimation approach. It is very helpful for biometric security systems. Keywords Biometric security system, Liveness detection, Anti­spoofing, Facial landmarks, Optical flow, Euclidean distance
Owusu Nyarko-Boateng, Adebayo Felix Adekoya, Benjamin Asubam Weyori, Justice Ening, Isaac Kofi Nti
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2088-2094;

The general utilization of telecommunication services and the value users place on communication networks has grown exponentially in the past few decades. The dependence on telecommunication networks has become an essential factor in how people survive during a national or global crisis. Telecommunication network infrastructures such as cables, satellites, and cellular towers play an indispensable role in maintaining society’s stability worldwide when there is a major crisis. Therefore, the protection of these telecommunication assets is critical. However, there have not been any measures to protect these vital infrastructures. This colossal gap prompted the authors to write this paper. The paper is a policy framework designed as a regulatory compliance document to guide the stakeholders in ensuring the underground fiber cable is fully protected. Additionally, the paper gave a direction on how the monitoring agencies can enact laws to make the active fiber cable a critical national infrastructure. There have been a series of underground fiber cable cuts in Ghana and other low-income countries. However, the available policies are not stringent enough to prevent individuals and contractors from activities that may lead to the destruction of underground cables. Based on the lapses identified in the regulatory standards, we proposed a comprehensive policy and regulatory measures to be implemented by the mobile network operators (MNOs) and the state regulatory institutions. This paper touched on regulatory measures to protect the underground fiber cables before, during and deployment. The post-deployment management of the underground fiber cable is critical in ensuring high network performance, reliability and availablibity. The policy plan proposed in this paper has been divided into various sections to make it more convenient for reading and referencing. The paper’s novelty is the scope of work done by designing and formulating policies as guiding measures to control and mitigate the frequent fiber cable cuts. Keywords Policy Document, Critical National Infrastructure, Underground Fiber Cable cut, Policy Compliance, Policy Framework
Yogesh S Kale, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, S V Rathkanthiwar, Bhagyashree Sharma, Janhavi Ghuguskar, Kireet Deshmukh, Rushikesh Kate, Pranay Thakre
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2119-2127;

Objective: The covid-19 outbreak affected the door-to-door delivery of essentials as it was difficult to maintain “physical distancing” causing a threat to the lives of people involved in the process. We aimed to design a fully autonomous vehicle that would be capable of moving over all types of terrains without any human intervention. Overall, the primary objectives of the vehicle are to be able to navigate to a given location, to be capable of moving over all terrains & climbing staircases, capable of detecting the hurdles and obstacles coming along the way and capable of carrying a payload. Method : The Raspberry Pi is the main control unit. Closed-loop feedback algorithm has been implemented. The direction and speed are controlled using the PID. The real time video is captured using the onboard camera. IMU sensors monitor the physical orientation of the vehicle. The battery provides required current and voltage to all the peripherals. Findings : In order to make sure that the bot is moving in a straight line and not deviating from the path required, line detection has been implemented. The image frames detected by the cameras are imported into Python in BGR color format which is later converted in HSV format. The upper and lower color limits are defined. Edge detection is done using Canny Transform and Line prediction requires Hough Line Transform. Novelty: This paper presented the mechanics and sensor system design of a small-sized and affordable, yet highly maneuverable all-terrain robot. The robot size can be altered according to its use. The project proved that an autonomous all-terrain robot can be designed and built with a relatively small budget. Because of the sensors and the processing unit, it was estimated that the chosen platform should be able to carry at least 3 kg of electronics. Keywords Navigate, Raspberry Pi, Line detection, Maneuverable, Sensors
Banshanborbah Kharkamni
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2111-2118;

Objective: To determine the physicochemical properties of honey to help ascertain its quality. The properties investigated in the present work are specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content, total solids, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Methods/Statistical analysis: To determine properties of honey such as refractive index, moisture content, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, and hydroxymethylfurfural, the procedures prescribed by the International Honey Commission were followed. Specific gravity was determined using the method described by Rebiai et al. Total solids was calculated by the formula given by Amin et al. Statistical analyses were carried out in Microsoft Excel 2016, and all readings were presented as mean±standard deviation. Correlation studies were also used wherever applicable. Findings: The moisture content lies in the range (16.6±0.4) g/100g to (19.4±0.3) g/100g. The total solids of all honey samples were above 80%. The pH varies from (3.59±0.02) to (3.73±0.01). The free acidity recorded a minimum of (32.3±1.5) meq/kg and a maximum of (42.0±2.0) meq/kg. The honey samples recorded electrical conductivities between (0.51±0.15) mS/cm and (0.61±0.25) mS/cm. The HMF varies from (8.9±0.2)mg/kg to (34.2±0.2) mg/kg. All the properties that were measured were well within the range prescribed by international agencies responsible for the quality control of Honey. Novelty: Adulteration of honey is a major concern as it affects the health and well being of a person. The recent study by the Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi which reported adulteration of honey by eight household brands in the Indian market is a cause of alarm. A noteworthy feature of the current study was that it highlighted the superior quality of honey from traditional bee-keepers of Sohra, which even have the potential for export. No adulteration was detected relative to the parameters being investigated. Keywords Sohra, Bee, Honey, Physicochemical properties, Quality, Adulteration
S Pooja, S Mallikarjunaswamy, N Sharmila
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2051-2068;

Objectives: To develop image deblurring algorithm to effectively recover the original image from the captured blurry and noisy image. Methods: A novel image deblurring algorithm using adaptive priors is proposed. The adaptive priors vary the sparsity induced based on factors such as the type of blur affecting the image, image region, statistical parameters regarding the blur kernel and/or statistical predictions on the blur kernel. The proposed algorithm using adaptive priors improves the quality of the deblurred result, when compared with various recent image deblurring algorithms. Finding: the work contains a case study with regard to certain standard parameters. It is observed that proposed method is better in terms of frequency response, Peak signal-tonoise ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) values in comparison with other priors. Novelty: the proposed priors lead to the most effective results for image deblurring using the Bayesian framework. The proposed method improves the performance by 30% in PSNR and 45% in SSIM values in dB with uniform kernel size 12 * 12 and improves performance by 30 % in PSNR and 32% SSIM with a standard deviation of 3.5. The proposed method enhances the frequency response of the real-time image restoration process. Applications: Some important applications include the restoration of medical images such as MRI images, CT images where the intensity of these radiations is maintained to avoid damage to human organs. Remote sensing images captured through drones at a specified time cannot be retaken and hence restoring such images is very important. Similarly restoring images from CCTV footage, astronomical images. Keywords: Blind Image Deblurring; Maximum a Posteriori Estimation; Image priors; Regularization; Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR)
Anjali Rai, Dnyaneshwar G Kumbhar, Kailasnath B Sutar
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2069-2080;

Objectives: To perform computational studies on different combinations of plate fin arrays of different shapes for studying their performance in natural convection heat transfer. To compare the heat transfer performance of uniform notched fins with hybrid notched fins and also performance of normal notched fins with inverted notched fins. Methods: SolidWorks Flow Simulation software is used for the present computational studies. Three types of vertical plate fin arrays viz. plain rectangular fin, rectangular fin with square notch and rectangular fin with semi-circular notch are used with their seven combinations. These fin array combinations are: plain rectangular, rectangular square notched, rectangular semi-circular notched, rectangular inverted square notched, rectangular inverted semi-circular notched, hybrid rectangular square-semi-circular notched and hybrid rectangular inverted square-semi-circular notched. Findings: The highest average heat transfer coefficient of 7.82 W/m2K is found to be for inverted hybrid square-semicircular notched fin array. This value of heat transfer coefficient is about 8% higher than compared to that with plain rectangular plate fin array (7.25 W/m2K) subjected to same operating conditions. Average heat transfer coefficients for inverted plate fin array combinations are high as compared with the non-inverted combinations. Also, hybrid plate fin arrays, whether inverted or not, show higher heat transfer coefficient values as compared with uniform notched fin arrays. Novelty : Seven types of plate fin array combinations are studied computationally. SolidWorks Flow Simulation software is used very effectively for this 3D CFD analysis. The behaviour of fluid i.e. air during natural convection flow is studied using air flow velocity trajectories. Surface contours are effectively used for studying variation in surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient at all locations of fin arrays. Keywords Natural convection, plate fin array, heat transfer coefficient, CFD, heat transfer enhancement
Vaishali T Phusate
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2034-2038;

Objectives: To study the effects of glyphosate based herbicide formulation Roundup® and paraquat based herbicide formulation Gramoxone® on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Methods: Two groups of male rats were orally treated with a dosage of Roundup® (250 mg/kg) and Gramoxone® (5 mg/kg) respectively, from the 29th day of their age to 89th day. Control animals were administered with distilled water. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples and thyroid lobes were collected for estimation of thyroid hormones and histopathological changes, respectively. The function of the thyroid gland was evaluated by estimating thyroid hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine) level, and the structure of the thyroid gland was assessed by observing histopathological changes. The treated group’s results were compared with the control group. Findings: Non-significant increase in thyroid stimulating hormone and a significant decrease in thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels, as well as moderate desquamation of cells into the follicular lumen and cellular infiltration in thyroid structure were observed. Results of this study provide evidence on histopathological changes in the thyroid gland along with the decrease in thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels on exposure to Roundup® and Gramoxone®. Roundup® is less thyrotoxic compared to Gramoxone®. Applications: Ignoring the guidelines of the Insecticide Boards and manufacturer’s instructions, Roundup® and Gramoxone® formulations are indiscriminately used for immediate weed killing. The human population is exposed to constituents of herbicide formulations through the air, water, and food. In this context, the result of the present study suggests that exposure to Roundup® and Gramoxone® formulations can be a risk to thyroid damage. Keywords: Herbicide; Roundup®; Gramoxone®; Thyroid Hormones; Histopathology; thyrotoxic
Mandeep Singh, Dilbag Singh, A S Shahi
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2081-2087;

Objectives: The present experimental work investigates the effect of post weld heat treatments on the pitting, impact toughness and metallurgical properties of gas tungsten arc welded martensitic stainless steel joints. Methods/Statistical analysis: Martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 SS) cold rolled plates used as a base materials and welded using GTAW process with two filler materials (ER 304LSS and ER 410 SS for root pass and cover passes respectively). Three heat treatments namely annealing, quenching and plasma nitriding were given to the specimens. After the heat treatments the specimens were subjected to pitting corrosion test, impact toughness test, microhardness testing and microstructural examination. Findings: Pitting corrosion results under different heat treatments of the welds showed that the post weld heat treatment induces the significant variations in the pitting resistance. The maximum pitting resistance (minimum mass loss of 0.5108mg) was possessed by the weld with plasma nitriding treatment. The maximum energy absorption capacity of the welds of 62 Joules was obtained in the annealing treatment. The average microhardness values of 474VHN, 372 VHN, 492VHN and 559VHN was obtained in as welded condition, under annealing treatment, under quenching treatment and under plasma nitriding treatment respectively of the welded joints. Based on the micro-structural studies of the welded joint in as received and post weld heat treated conditions, the significant microstructural changes were observed in weld metal zones. Novelty/Applications: The present experimental study can beneficially be adopted for welding of martensitic stainless steel (AISI 410 SS) as it suggests the processing conditions to forecast the adequate pitting resistance, impact toughness and microhardness behaviour in similar service conditions. Keywords Pitting corrosion, impact toughness, post weld heat treatments, microhardness, microstructure, GTAW
E Sujatha Sujatha, R Radha Radha
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2039-2050;

Objectives: Toextract and identify the subjective information of social media user from the unstructured data. To overcome the high dimensionality and sparsity those are the two major challenges in sentiment analysis of text datasets. To increase the model performance by using possibly minimum feature sets in a text classification problem. Methods: We proposed a new filtration method which is applied for the removal of correlated features and zero importance features in addition to the various feature selection methods. The various feature selections such as Mutual Info, Lasso, Recursive Feature Elimination and dimensionality reduction, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used along with the proposed filtration to find the compelling features. This approach was evaluated using three Indian Government Schemes and these tweets were classified using Random Forest classifier. The performance was evaluated using various metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, f1_score, log loss and roc-auc. Findings: In this research, we proposed a model for selecting relevant and non-correlated feature subsets from the unstructured dataset. From this model, accuracy of 92% with the minimum log loss 0.22 was achieved through the minimum number of feature set. Improvements: This study proves that the performance of the model will be improved by overcoming those two problems (dimensionality and sparsity). Here various feature selection methods have been applied with the proposed filtration in order to minimize the number of features. The computing time and the model performance will be improved as a result of decreasing the features. And this will be more effective in case of large datasets. Even though Random Forest performs well in high dimensional datasets we need some more optimization. Keywords: Mutual Information (MI); Lasso (L1); Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE); Random Forest (RF); Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Anant Joshi, P S Shivakumar Gouda, I Sridhar, Jyoti V Vastrad, Abhilash Edacherian
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1993-2004;

Objectives: The key objective of this present article is to understand the prominence of hybrid laminates reinforced with different types of synthetic and natural fibers on mechanical and fracture toughness properties with precise apprehension to their applications in structural, aerospace, automotive, offshore, and packaging industries, etc. Various types of hybrid composites which were manufactured by different techniques are studied to understand the significance of natural fibers to enhance the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. Methods: A methodical comprehensive review has been done on the various tests used for evaluating mechanical and fracture behavior of hybrid composites using Flax, Sisal, Kenaf, Jute and Banana fibers. Certainly, the abundance of Natural fibers with low cost, eco-friendly and bio-degradable characteristics have captured the attention of the researchers across the globe. Findings: Experimental investigations revealed that the alkaline treated natural fibers demonstrated desirable mechanical and fracture toughness properties when they were used in conjunction with synthetic fibers. Developing hybrid composites using natural and synthetic fibers will be an innovative concept, which can offer a new class of composite material for primary structural applications. Novelty: This review will certainly help composite research community to explore sustainable eco-friendly hybrid composites. In addition to this, there is an ample of scope to utilize the natural fibers to develop hybrid fiber composites by partial replacement of synthetic fibers in high performance FRP composites. This assessment will also give brief comprehensive report on the performance of Natural Fiber Hybrid Composites (NFHC) with respect to their mechanical properties relative to conventional FRP Hybrid composites.Keywords: Hybrid composites; NFHC; Mechanical Properties; Fracture Properties; Bio-degradable
S Z Hussain, New Delhi Jamia Millia Islamia, Manoj Kumar
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 2005-2033;

Objective: To review different key agreement schemes which are used to establish Wireless body area network (WBAN) on the basis of identified attacks and also evaluate the schemes on performance parameters. Method: In this paper, an overview of WBAN, its architecture, difference between WSN and WBAN, IEEE 802.15.6 specifications of WBAN, attacks in the environment and security essentials are discussed at first. It further divides the key agreement schemes into four classes and provides an extensive review of the schemes on the basis of distinct parameters viz. data confidentiality, node authentication, data integrity, mutual authentication, unforgeability, unlinkability, forward/backward secrecy, scalability, freshness, dos attack and node capture attack. Schemes are searched using the keywords- (“Traditional Key Agreement Scheme” OR “Physiological Key Agreement Scheme” OR “Signal Based Key Agreement Scheme” OR “Hybrid Key Agreement Scheme” OR “Security in Key Agreement Scheme”) AND (“Wireless Body Area Network” OR “WBAN” OR “Body Area Network” OR “BAN” OR “Body Sensor Network” OR “BSN” OR “Medical Body Area Network” OR “MBAN”). The papers are shortlisted around long stretches of 2003-2021 with a focus on recent work from IEEE Xplore, Springer, Science Direct, ACM, MDPI and Google Scholar databases. Schemes are analyzed against the mentioned attacks and the result of the comparative analysis is shown using tables and chart tools graphically. Findings: The wide coverage of the schemes in this review provides in-depth exposure to the shortcomings of the different schemes against the listed attacks which will provide a road map to the researchers to develop secure schemes in the future. Moreover, maximum schemes do not consider all the three aspects of performance viz. memory efficiency, computational efficiency and energy efficiency which are the foremost parameters in resource scarce environment of WBAN. Novelty: This review is unique as it analyzes the distinct key agreement schemes under specific attacks found in the literature while other review papers discuss the general aspects of the security threats and corresponding counter measures in WBAN environment. It also provides the performance analysis of the key management schemes which are missing from other review works. Keywords: WBAN; IOT; Bio sensors; Security; Privacy; Attacks; Encryption; Key agreement schemes; IEEE 802.15.6
R Srinivasan, M Vivekanandan
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1975-1981;

Objectives: To compute the packing chromatic number of transformation of path graph, cycle graph and wheel graph. Methods: The packing chromatic number of Xpc (H) of a graph H is the least integer m in such a way that there is a mapping C: V(H)→(1,2,…,m} such that the distance between any two nodes of colour k is greater than k+1. Findings: The packing chromatic number of the transformation of the graph Xpc (Hpqr) where p,q,r be variables which has the values either positive sign (+)+ or a negative sign (-) then Hpqr is known as the transformation of the graph H such that VH and E(H) belonging to the vertex set of Hpqr and α(H), β(H) also belonging to V(H), E(H) of the graph. Obtained the values of the packing chromatic number of transformation of path graph, cycle graph and wheel graph. Applications: Chromatic number applied in Register Allocations, a compiler is a computer program that translates one computer language into another. To improve the execution time of the resulting code, one of the techniques of compiler optimization is register allocation; if the graph can be colored with k colors then the variables can be stored in k registers. Keywords path graph, cycle graph, wheel graph, packing chromatic number
An Thi Hoai Thu Anh, Nguyen Van Quyen
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1914-1928;

Objectives: To verify the energy efficiency operation of electrified trains on the certain metro line, in Vietnam by combining two solutions to recover regenerative braking energy with on-board supercapacitors and tracking the optimal speed profile. Methods: This study proposes an integrated optimization method: applying Pontryagin\'s maximum principle (PMP) finds the optimal speed profile with fixed running time and recuperating regenerative braking energy by designing the control method — Current Mode Control (CMC) to manage charge/discharge process of the on-board supercapacitor energy storage system (SCESS) tracking the optimal speed profile. Findings: With this approach, a considerable reduction in consuming energy obtained for Cat Linh-Ha Dong metro line, Vietnam has been verified by simulation results on MATLAB and MAPLE software indicating that applying PMP, the highest operation energy saving is 10.15%, but if both solutions PMP and SCESS are applied, the energy saving level increases up to 14.7% in comparison with simulation results of the case of original speed profile. Novelty: Combining two energy saving solutions simultaneously: applying PMP to determine the optimal speed profile and using super-capacitors with CMC algorithm have recuperated the regenerative braking energy. The level of energy saving is higher than other saving solutions. Keywords Pontryagin\'s Maximum Principle, Supercapacitor Energy Storage System, Current Mode Control, Energy­Efficiency Operation, Timetable Optimization
Indira P Sudha, Jyoti Singh, G S Sodhi
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1944-1952;

Objectives: To ascertain the association between digital dermatoglyphics and criminal tendency and to analyze which dermatographic pattern is found more among the criminal group. Methods: The study was conducted on 90 subjects of each group. Fingerprints of the Right Hand and Left Hand of the control group and the criminal group in the age range of 18-70 were collected using the Cummins inking method. Each Fingerprint of both the groups was compared for frequency of occurrence of Arch pattern, loop, and whorls. Arithmetical mean, percentage, chi-square was done to compute the results. Findings: Whorl patterns were found more prominently and loop patterns were less in the hands of the criminals than in the control group. The little and ring fingers showed less or nil frequency of occurrence of arches in both groups. This is supported by the study of the researchers, where it was noticed that lower frequencies of arches were found in digits IV and V and highest on digit II than on digit I occurred. Chi-square was found to be statistically significant @0.05 level of significance. The present study would help largely in controlling crime as dermatoglyphics are non-invasive, economic, and convenient to handle. Using dermatoglyphics as a predictive tool would help in providing a suitable environment for the normal growth of an individual who is ‘at risk’ due to biological interaction. Novelty: It’s a novel method to detect criminality at an early stage. Individuals at risk of becoming criminals can be checked and discouraged by providing a suitable environment. Keywords: Criminal tendency; Digital Dermatoglyphics; Biological interaction; Preliminary Diagnosis; Predictive tool; Genetics
G S Pavithra, N V Babu
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1813-1828;

Objectives: To efficiently monitor the highly confined area by using security measurement methods to enhance the lifetime of a large area coverage network. Methods : the modified nodes are included in the normal execution process of the network to calculate the efficiency and lifetime of the WSN. With the help of the simulation and analysis process, the proposed protocol is found to be more powerful to impact the sustainability of the network by prolonging the lifetime of the nodes. To perform this operation, the following parameters are considered: Area of the monitoring area, Number nodes, Sink portion, Energies of radio amplifier systems, Data aggregation, node electronics, and data packet length. Findings: The proposed optimal energy cluster routing protocol finds the best topological structural protocol to select the cluster head with optimal connectivity path with other nodes in a group. The data of energy utilization, data communication rate between nodes and cluster head, and analysis of the number of alive nodes concerning time are obtained. Novelty: the proposed Optimal efficient cluster routing protocol (OECRP) selects the cluster head by considering energy consumption, cluster sustainability, and its proper communication with other nodes. OECRP is used to develop the optimal topological structural protocol to connectivity path with other nodes in a group. Keywords Heterogeneous network, Low­energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), optimal efficient cluster routing protocol (OECRP), Network lifetime, Cluster head selection
Tousifur Rahman, Partha Jyoti Hazarika, Manash Pratim Barman
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1839-1854;

Objective: To introduce a one-inflated Binomial distribution (OIBD) and discuss its applications. Methods: Study its distributional properties, reliability characteristics, and estimation of its parameters using the method of moment estimation (MM) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). A simulation study has been conducted to see the behaviour of the MLEs. Two real-life examples are used to examine the pertinent of the proposed distribution. Findings : The proposed one-inflated binomial distribution (OIBD) provides better fitting in terms of AIC, BIC, and KS test comparison to the other known distributions. Novelty: Develop a new statistical distribution to study the count data having inflated frequency at count one, along with the different statistical properties. The practical utility of the distribution is also discussed with real-life examples. Keywords One inflated Binomial distribution, MM, MLE, KS, AIC and BIC
Madjid Belabbaci, Laboratory Of Aeronautics And Propulsive Systems In Usto Of Oran In Algeria, Zakaria Imine, Tewfik Ghomari, Bachir Imine
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1905-1913;

Objective: The aim of this article is to solve the problem of wing spar flexibility of an aluminium drone aircraft. A 200 × 30 [mm × mm] aluminium sample weighing 32 g was collected corresponding to a density of 0.53 g/cm3, a bending load of 0.77 [kN] and a deflection of 45.54 mm. The goal is to increase flexion resistance and lightness. Methods: The following procedure was used to prepare the composite: a mold made up of two glass plates 250 mm long and 50 mm wide, gel-coated to prevent sticking. The mold was placed in a bag using vacuum bag technology by means of a refrigerator compressor. The bag was then heated at 80 °C for seven hours to prepare composites of acceptable quality and viscosity avoiding air bubbles and ensuring desired thickness. The first sample was prepared by inserting aluminium powder between four layers of glass fiber. In the second sample, the inserted layer was replaced by date pit powder. The third sample was prepared by placing four layers of glass fiber and two layers of carbon fiber in the lower layer and the upper layer. It was observed that aluminium powder inclusion resulted in better mechanical properties in comparison to date pit powder. Findings: However, the mechanical characteristics of the third sample were much better than those of the other samples. Based on these observations, the first and third samples were mixed to make the fourth sample in which four layers of glass fiber between each layer were used, placing the aluminium powder plus two layers of carbon fiber in the lower and upper layers with the aim of achieving the desired mechanical properties. The latter sample exhibited high strength and better curvature, high rigidity and corrosion resistance with the possibility of creating structures that are more integrated. These properties make the aluminium powder –carbon fiber based composite suitable for a drone aircraft wing spar. The obtained composite material prepared from glass fiber, aluminium powder, carbon fiber composed of four layers of glass fiber and aluminium powder between each layer and carbon fiber in the bottom layer and top layer exhibited has high strength, better bending, high stiffness and corrosion resistance with the possibility of creating more integrated structures. The prepared sample may outstand aluminium -based aircraft wing spar. Keywords Wing spar, bending, composite materials, aluminium­carbon fiber
Bibhuti Bhusan Pani, Nimay Chandra Giri, Smruti Ranjan Nayak, Siba Prasad Mishra
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1829-1838;

Objectives: Present work envisages fault detection along with troubleshooting methodologies confirmed in solar photovoltaic workshop for grid-tied three-phase inverters. Only innovative inventions are not only necessary for the society to become advanced but also to continue the modern electrical evolution with zero carbon. Methods: Here with the help of sungrow software DSP1_20_VA_J & IDM- AC Fm ver the inverter sends a notification about the fault with a fault status code to the HMU/LCD display. As per fault severity it may completely shut down or partially operate the inverter with reduced load. After the fault rectification manually by the site operator again it restores the power and inject power to the grid. Finding: Here with the help of sungrow software DSP1_20_VA_J &IDM- AC Fm ver we find various types of faults with the nature of faults i.e. insulation fault, leakage current fault, over voltage/under voltage fault, frequency faults, temperature fault, islanding with its rectification process. The major, minor, and cautionary faults and their troubleshooting procedures are elucidated in the present study with coding of faults, and its alarm level. Novelty: In previous researches, the fault identification was not done properly; as a result the inverters are tripping frequently. The present software helps to detect fault of the inverter within 0.023 millisecond and send a message to the service engineer for rectification. The present research can be of immense help to the service engineers and field workers working on solar photo voltaic sector considering popularity of photovoltaic units. Keywords Solar power plant, Grid tied inverters, Fault finding, Trouble shooting
M Lenin Sundar, S Muthukeerthana, G Ezhilarasan
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1894-1904;

Objectives: To find the optimum percentage replacement of brickbats in concrete by performing fresh and hardened concrete tests and is incorporated into CFDS steel tube column to study its behaviour analytically. Methods: The behaviour of a double skin CFST column with brickbats partially substituting the coarse material with Brickbats. Part of the coarse aggregate was replaced with grouted class I brick bats with percentages of 5 to 25%. A study of the compressive and split tensile strength of concrete was conducted fresh and hardened tests on concrete specimens (cubes and cylinders). Performance of CFDS steel tube column partially replacing coarse aggregate with brickbats is examined analytically using ANSYS. Findings: The compressive and split tensile strength of 10 percent replacement brickbats improved by 8.5 and 13 percent, respectively, while the compressive and split tensile strength of 5 percent replacement brickbats increased by 1.67 and 6 percent, respectively. When compared to nominal cube strength, partially replace brickbats compressive strength increases gradually up to 10% brickbat replacement and then tends to decrease from 15percent brickbat replacement. When compared to different mixtures, it was discovered that adding 10% brickbats increases strength, and this amount was deemed the best mix proportion. The highest load taken by CFDS with 10% brickbats is 649.36kN, whereas standard CFDS is 705.16kN. The CFDS tube was replaced by CFDS tube, which took 1.15 percent more load than brick bats. Novelty/Applications: This research yields good result and can be adopted for the construction of tall composite buildings. This technique will be reduced the self — weight of the structure to some extent. Keywords CFDS, brickbats, concrete, confinement effect, ANSYS
H S Vasanth Kumar, U N Kempaiah, Madeva Nagaral, K Revanna
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1855-1863;

Objective: To develop and evaluate the mechanical behavior of 3, 6, 9 and 12 wt. % of B4C reinforced Al6061 alloy composites. Method: These composites were produced by utilizing stir cast process. The prepared metal composites were characterized by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis to know the distribution of particles as well as presence of particles in the Al6061 alloy. Various mechanical properties were evaluated as per ASTM standards to know the impact of boron carbide particles on the properties of metal composites. Findings: By adding B4C particles the hardness, ultimate tensile, yield strength and compression strength of the Al6061 alloy matrix was enhanced 23.9%, 15.4 14.9% and 34.7% respectively. Further, there was slight decrease in the percentage elongation of B4C reinforced composites. Novelty: In the present research Al6061 alloy with 3 to 12 wt. % of B4C composites were synthesized by novel stir casting method called as two stage reinforcement addition process. In this process 80 micron sized boron carbide particles added in two stages into the molten Al6061 alloy to improve the wettability between the matrix and reinforcement particles. Keywords Al6061 Alloy, B 4 C Particles, Hardness, Tensile Strength, Microstructure
Al-Wesabi Ibrahim, Zhijian Fang, Khaled Ameur, Ding Min, M B Shafik, Galal Al-Muthanna
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1864-1893;

Objectives: To improve the reduction of photovoltaic system\'s power output under various resistance load. Additionally, partial shaded conditions (PSCs) lead to several peaks on photovoltaic (PV) curves, which decrease conventional techniques\' efficiency and in these (PSCs), standard equations might not be implemented entirely, therefore, the mathematical model of PV array is compulsory to modify and re-establish as well as it is compulsory to apply some methods based on artificial intelligence to develop the performance of traditional techniques. Methods: This work has modified and re-established the mathematical model of PV array under (PSCs) which are recognized and verified using MATLAB/Simulink environment. Also, heuristic algorithms (Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) and Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO)) have been suggested and applied with PV system to promote output power under various resistance load, varying weather conditions and (PSCs). Moreover, these suggested algorithms can improve the dynamic response and steady-state PV systems\' performance simultaneously and effectively comparing to the Modified Perturb and Observe (MP&O) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods. Findings: The proposed methods are examined under various resistance load, several scenarios for (PSCs) and non-uniform irradiation levels to investigate its effectiveness. The results ensure that proposed tracker based on Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) can distinguish between the global and local maximum peaks of PV system effectively with efficiency of 99% comparing to other MPPT approaches. So, all approaches mentioned above are implemented to improve the output power of PV system in Yemen. Novelty: Modified and re-established the mathematical model of PV array under (PSCs) and also, proposed a heuristic algorithms (CSA) and (MPSO)) to apply with PV system to promote maximum output power under various resistance load, varying weather conditions and (PSCs) as well as to improve the performance of (MP&O) and (ANN) methods. Keywords PV Systems, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Uniform Irradiation, Partial Shading, Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA), MPSO, ANN, and MP&O
D S Somashekar, Shashikanth H Majagi, S G Dhananjaya
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1806-1812;

Objectives: To investigate the xenobiotic action of toilet cleaner ‘Harpic’ on gills and muscles of fresh water teleost common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Methods: The test organism, fingerlings of Common carp (weight: 4.5±1.3g), (length: 5.3±1.5cm) were collected form Bhadra Reservoir Project, India. Static bioassay tests were conducted in order to evaluate the acute toxicity of Harpic. In all treatments, ten fully acclimatized test organisms were held and the same was observed for experiment and placed in different concentrations of Harpic to determine LC50 values after 24 hours. Behavioral responses and mortality of the fishes were recorded at the interval of 2 hours and the alternation of behavioral characteristics was recorded. Glucose was estimated by Anthrone method. Glycogen was estimated by Kemp’s method and Protein content was estimated by Lowery’s method. Findings: The glycogen muscle (0.015mg/g) and gills (0.06mg/g), and protein in muscles (0.482mg/g) and gills (0.749mg/g) levels were found to be depleted respectively in the tissues exposure to sub lethal concentration over the control. Whereas, the glucose level in the fish tissue showed an increase in muscle (0.168 mg/g) and in gills (0.108 mg/g) on pesticide exposure in comparison with the control. The depletion of glycogen level of gills (0.06mg/g) on pesticide exposure may be due to stress condition and increased metabolism. Further depletion of protein may also attribute to spontaneous utilization of amino acids in various catabolic reactions inside the organisms in order to combat the stress condition. Gill exhibited alteration such as showed desquamation of the epithelial lining, necrosis (Telangiectasia) of the secondary lamellae, shrinkage of secondary lamellae and also showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia at the base of the secondary lamellae. In case of muscle the nuclear proliferation was observed and also seen different size of the muscle fibres, disintegration of muscle bundles, atrophy of muscle bundles, marked thickening and separation of muscle bundles. Novelty: No such works carried out on the effect on younger developmental stages of fishes which are considered to be more susceptible and vulnerable to toxicants than those of adult stages. Keywords Cyprinus carpio, Harpic, Desquamation, Hyperglycaemia, Necrosis
D Hema, S Kannan
Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 14, pp 1740-1747;

Background: Having experienced more than a year of pandemic, a variety of applications such as online classrooms, virtual office meetings, conferences, online games, Social media & Networks, Mobile applications, and many other infotainment areas have made humans live with gadgets and respond to them. However, all these applications have an impact on human behavioral transformation. It is very significant for employers to understand the emotions of their employees in the era of online office & work from home concept to increase productivity. Learning and identifying emotions from the human face has its application in all online portals when physical contact could not be achieved. Ojbective: Human Facial emotions can be learned using enormous feature descriptors that extract image features. While local feature descriptors retrieve pixel-level information, global feature descriptors extract the overall image information. Both of the feature descriptors quantify the image information, however, they don’t provide complete and relevant information. Hence, this research work aims to improve the existing local feature descriptor to perform globally for emotion recognition. Method: Our proposed feature descriptor, Patch-SIFT collects features from multiple patches within an image. This strategy is evolved to globally apply the local feature descriptor as a hybridization paradigm. The extracted features are trained and tested on an ensemble model. Findings: The Proposed Feature descriptor (Patch-SIFT) performance with ensemble model is found to produce an improved accuracy of 98% compared with existing feature descriptors and Machine learning classifiers. Novelty: This research work tries to evolve a new Feature descriptor algorithm based on SIFT algorithm for an efficient emotion recognition system that works without the need for any additional GPU or huge dataset. Keywords Classification, Ensemble, Feature descriptor, Patch­SIFT
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