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, N. K. Gabler, G. C. Shurson
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 31, pp 485-496; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2015-01444

Abstract:
Two experiments were conducted in growing-finishing pigs to determine the DE and ME (Exp. 1, 96.3 kg of BW) and NE (Exp. 2, 45.4 kg of BW) content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (C-DDGS), and to refine or develop DE, ME, and NE prediction equations based on chemical composition of C-DDGS. Composition of the 6 C-DDGS sources varied (ash, 4.71 to 5.63%; CP, 29.65 to 32.21%; ether extract, 6.99 to 13.34%; NDF, 38.27 to 39.58%; total dietary fiber, 31.12 to 32.81%; DM basis), with the determined DE ranging from 3,836 to 4,038 kcal/kg of DM, ME from 3,716 to 3,893 kcal/kg of DM, and NE from 2,107 to 2,310 kcal/kg of DM. Regardless of the range in C-DDGS composition and the resulting DE, ME, or NE value, no chemical parameter measured (GE, CP, starch, total dietary fiber, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, ether extract, or ash) was significant at P ≤ 0.15 to be retained in the regression model to predict DE, ME, or NE content in the C-DDGS sources evaluated. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of several nutritional components were also measured for comparative purposes but were not included in the prediction model. On average, the C-DDGS used in these studies contained 3,931, 3,793, and 2,207 kcal of DE, ME, and NE per kilogram of DM, respectively. These results suggest that C-DDGS composition and subsequent DE, ME, and NE can be highly variable and that a wider range in ingredient chemical composition and DE, ME, and NE values, as well as more C-DDGS sources, appear to be necessary to generate energy-prediction equations than used in the current experiments.
, N. K. Gabler, G. C. Shurson
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 31, pp 497-503; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2015-01445

Abstract:
A field-scale study was conducted to determine whether formulating diets containing corn, soybean meal, soybean oil, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles (C-DDGS) on an equal NE basis would affect pig performance. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME of these same diets (Exp. 2) and the same C-DDGS sample (Exp. 3) used in Exp. 1 to generate data to support results obtained from the field trial. In Exp. 1, 3 barns, each containing 48 pens and 20 pigs per pen (2,880 pigs) were used. Diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20, and 30% C-DDGS, with calculated dietary NE and standardized ileal-digestible Lys being equal across all C-DDGS levels. The NE values (kcal/kg as is) used in feed formulation were corn, 2,557; soybean meal, 1,960; soybean oil, 7,544; and C-DDGS, 2,284. Diets were additionally formulated to meet or exceed the amino acid and mineral needs according to the NRC (2012) recommendations. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.10) noted for pig ADG, ADFI, or G:F among pigs fed the different C-DDGS levels when evaluated on d 28 (36 replications per treatment) or on d 39 (24 replications per treatment due to scale calibration error in one barn). In addition, there was no effect of dietary treatment on DP (P ≥ 0.10), suggesting that the estimates of NE used for feed formulation were relatively accurate. When the complete diets were fed to pigs in metabolism crates (Exp. 2), apparent total-tract digestibility of DM, ether extract, NDF, and phosphorus, and dietary DE and ME, increased with increasing C-DDGS levels (P ≤ 0.05). In Exp. 3, the ME in the C-DDGS used in Exp. 1 and 2 was determined to be 3,682 kcal/kg of DM, which was similar to the formulated value of 3,702 kcal of ME/kg of DM. Overall, the data suggest that the NE levels used for corn, soybean meal, soybean oil, and C-DDGS were relatively accurate given that pig performance and DP were unaffected by C-DDGS inclusion level. Differences in apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary DM, ether extract, NDF, and phosphorus could be directly related to digestibility differences in these nutrients, C-DDGS compared with corn, soybean meal, and soybean oil. These results support the formulating of diets on a NE basis, which is especially important in using alternative feedstuffs in swine feed formulation.
C. M. Strong, J. H. Brendemuhl, D. D. Johnson,
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 31, pp 191-200; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01351

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of elevated dietary citrus pulp (DCP) on the growth, feed efficiency, carcass merit, and lean quality of finishing pigs. Over a 49-d trial period, pigs (n = 40) were fed 1 of 4 diets: a corn–soybean meal control diet (CON; n = 10) or the same diet with DCP replacing 15% (n = 10), 22.5% (n = 10), or 30% (n = 10) of the total diet DM. Pigs fed the CON and 22.5% DCP diets had greater (P < 0.02) G:F than pigs fed 30% DCP. Fat over the LM received greater (P < 0.04) lightness values in animals fed the CON diet than those consuming either 22.5 or 30% DCP diets. Pigs fed CON or 15% DCP exhibited lower (P ≤ 0.03) lean redness scores than lean from pigs fed 22.5 or 30% DCP. When evaluated objectively, bellies from CON-fed pigs were firmer (P < 0.01) than all other dietary treatment groups, but bellies from CON- and 15% DCP–fed pigs garnered greater (P < 0.04) subjective firmness scores than pigs fed 22.5 or 30% DCP. Belly thickness at both the blade and flank ends decreased with increasing DCP, whereas pigs fed the CON diet exhibited the thickest (P < 0.03) bellies. Overall, DCP inclusion above 15% of the diet DM appeared to be economically detrimental to overall production because of negative effects on growth performance and pork belly quality.
, C. R. Heuer, P. M. Crump
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 31, pp 137-145; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01356

Abstract:
Forage preservation through fermentation can result in substantial DM and economic losses. The objective of this research by the use of meta-analysis was to determine whether fermentation end-product measures and forage parameters were capable of predicting forage DM losses following ensiling. The data set was built by searching a database for “forage,” “fermentation,” and “dry matter loss.” The data set contained 405 means from 43 peer-reviewed research reports. Forage DM losses (% of original forage DM) ranged from 0 to 28.6% with a raw mean of 6.2%. Report, forage biology, fermentation treatment, fermentation length, DM, pH, lactic acid, and acetic acid parameters were related to natural logarithm DM loss using a mixed-model approach. Parameters were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects and linear interactions. Report was classified as a random effect. The resulting model had a 1.403 mean natural logarithm DM, R2 of 0.813, and root mean square error of 0.418. Forage DM (%), acetic and lactic acid, pH, fermentation length, and forage biology were related to losses. Fermentation treatments tended (P < 0.10) to differ. Forage pH × lactic acid, DM × fermentation treatment, DM × forage biology, and lactic acid × forage biology all exhibited interactions. Forage DM, biology, fermentation, and treatment parameters were capable of describing most DM-loss variation across a range of published research reports (P ≤ 0.01). The final model described here has utility to predict forage DM losses due to fermentation and may be useful to diagnose problematic fermentations and assess opportunity costs.
Senorpe Asem-Hiablie, , Robert Stout, Jasmine Dillon, Kim Stackhouse-Lawson
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 31, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01350

Abstract:
An assessment of the sustainability of beef production in the Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas region requires information on their production practices. A voluntary survey was conducted for ranches and feedyards in the region along with site visits to gather information on production practices. Responses to the survey along with site visits represented 0.8% of the cows maintained and 9% of the cattle finished in the region, with a wide range in size and types of operations. Most characteristics of cow-calf and stocker ranches did not vary much across states, but there were differences in cow stocking rates and forage production from the wetter east side of the region to the drier, semiarid conditions of the west side. Average stocking rate decreased from 2.4 ha/cow (1.3 ha/stocker) in the east to 15.7 ha/cow (4.6 ha/stocker) in the west, and more forage was harvested in the east along with greater use of fertilizers. The largest feedyards were located on the west side of the region; no other consistent differences in feedyard management were found across the region or among states. Two feedyards in central Kansas produced a major portion of their feed, whereas most of the others appeared to manage just enough cropland to dispose of feedyard runoff and minor amounts of manure. The information gathered is being used to develop representative operations for a comprehensive life-cycle assessment of the economic and environmental sustainability of beef cattle production in the region.
A.N. Hristov, K. Heyler, E. Schurman, K. Griswold, P. Topper, M. Hile, V. Ishler, E. Fabian-Wheeler, S. Dinh
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 31, pp 68-79; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01360

, , N. Mullis, Z. Wu, S. J. Taylor
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 30, pp 649-656; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01339

Abstract:
Thirty-six lactating Holstein cows were used in a randomized design trial to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental calcareous marine algae on performance and select metabolic indices of health of Holstein cows in early lactation. Treatments included no supplement (NEG), 204 g/d of sodium bicarbonate (POS), or 87 g/d of calcareous marine algae (AB, Acid Buf, Celtic Sea Minerals). Beginning at 14 ± 4 DIM, all cows were fed NEG for 2 wk before being assigned randomly within parity and calving date to treatment for the following 10 wk. An interaction of treatment and week was observed for DMI, which was lowest during wk 1 and greatest during wk 9 and 10 for POS compared with NEG and AB. No differences were observed for yield of milk, components, or energy-corrected milk. Milk protein percentage tended to be greater for NEG compared with NEG and AB. An interaction of treatment and week was observed for efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk/DMI) because efficiency was greatest for POS during wk 1 compared with all other treatments, but was greatest for AB during wk 8 to 10 compared with NEG and POS. Concentrations of MUN were greater for AB compared with NEG, but not different from POS. Serum glucose concentrations were greater for NEG compared with POS and AB. No differences were observed in concentrations of other serum metabolites or enzymes. Supplemental calcareous marine algae supported similar performance but improved efficiency of milk production during the wk 8 to 10 of the trial compared with diets with or without sodium bicarbonate.
M. J. Duckworth, A. S. Schroeder, D. W. Shike, D. B. Faulkner,
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 30, pp 551-560; https://doi.org/10.15232/pas.2014-01314

Abstract:
Three experiments tested the effects of feeding CaO as part of the TMR or as CaO-treated corn stover (CS) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism of cattle. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 162) were fed 1 of 3 diets containing 20% CS and 40% modified wet distillers grains with solubles: untreated CS (UCS), treated CS with 5% CaO (DM basis; TCS), and dietary inclusion of 1% CaO (DM basis; DC). Feeding DC or TCS decreased (P < 0.05) DMI, final BW, HCW, and back fat compared with feeding UCS. Feeding TCS decreased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with feeding UCS. In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 138) were fed 1 of 3 diets: UCS, TCS, and 40% corn silage (DM basis; SIL). Feeding TCS decreased (P ≤ 0.05) DMI, and final BW, and back fat compared with feeding UCS and SIL. Heifers fed UCS had similar (P ≤ 0.05) ADG, DMI, and marbling score as heifers fed SIL; however, final BW and G:F were decreased (P ≤ 0.05). In Exp. 3, steers (n = 5) were fed in a 5 × 5 Latin square; diets were UCS, TCS, DC, SIL, and a control of 50% cracked corn. Feeding TCS tended to decrease (P = 0.06) ruminal pH when compared with UCS. Steers fed UCS had the least (P ≤ 0.05) DM digestibility and steers fed the control had the greatest. Treating CS with CaO effectively increased digestibility; however, it did not improve cattle performance. Feeding cattle untreated, ensiled CS resulted in ADG and G:F comparable to feeding corn silage.
Terry Klopfenstein, Rick Stock, Robert Britton
The Professional Animal Scientist, Volume 1, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.15232/s1080-7446(15)32447-5

Abstract:
The primary cost for supplemental protein is for that portion of the protein which escapes (or bypasses) rumen digestion. Therefore, economical use of protein sources requires good estimates of protein bypass. This can be done by intestinal digesta collection or by animal growth, in order to adequately interpret estimates of bypass from growth studies, protein must be shown to be the first limiting nutrient and protein sources must be compared at levels below the animal’s requirement. Growth studies conducted using these criteria give bypass estimates similar to intestinal collection trials. High bypass protein sources can be effectively used in supplement formulations. Through the use of soybean meal equivalent values, supplements equivalent in feeding value to soybean meal can be formulated. Urea is used as an inexpensive source of rumen ammonia thus reducing the cost of the supplement containing bypass protein. Supplements containing bypass protein and urea can be supplied to producers at a lower cost than more traditional “all natural” protein supplements.
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