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A.A. Rubio, J.B. Hess, W.D. Berry, W.A. Dozier,
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 29, pp 95-105; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz032

Abstract:
Limitations in beak size of newly hatched chicks have led the majority of broiler integrators in the United States to feed crumbles during the starter period. Previous research has reported improved growth performance on birds fed micro pellets during the starter period. However, research evaluating the effects of feeding micro pellets in the grower and finisher periods of broilers is sparse. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding varying feed forms on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers during the starter, grower and finisher periods. In experiment 1, birds were fed diets with 3 feed forms: mash, crumbles, and 3.3 mm micro pellets during the starter period from 1 to 14 d (25 birds/pen; 8 replicate pens/treatment). In experiment 2, a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of 3 feed forms (mash, 4.4 mm pellets, and 3.3 mm micro pellets) and 2 amino acid (AA) densities (88% and 96% of Aviagen recommendations Ross® 708 2014) were provided from 1 to 42 d (24 birds/pen; 7 replicate pens/treatment). In both experiments, birds fed 3.3 mm micro pellets during the starter period had lower feed conversion ratio compared with those that received mash and crumbles from 1 to 14 d (P< 0.05). In experiment 2, birds fed diets with 96% of AA recommendations had higher body weight, carcass yield, carcass and breast meat weight, and lower FCR than birds fed diets with 88% (P< 0.05). These data indicated that broilers can be fed 3.3 mm micro pellets during the starter and/or during the whole production period of broilers.
M.J. Chen, Z. Fu, , X.Q. Wang, H.C. Yan,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 416-422; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez513

Abstract:
This study was conducted to explore the regulatory role of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling pathway in crop milk synthesis in breeding pigeons (Columba livia). Three groups of breeding pigeons in the lactation period (n = 30 pairs/group) were respectively injected with rapamycin (RAPA, a specific inhibitor of the target of rapamycin complex) at doses of 0 (vehicle, control), 0.6, or 1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day via the wing vein for 7 days. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) and BW of the breeding pigeons and the BW of young squabs were respectively recorded throughout the experimental period. The breeding pigeons were sacrificed to collect their crop tissues, crop milk, and serum on the eighth day of the experiment. The results showed that neither 0.6 nor 1.2 mg/kg BW RAPA injection affected BW loss or ADFI in breeding pigeons (P > 0.05), while crop thickness and crop relative weight were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the 1.2 mg/kg BW rapamycin-injected group. Simultaneously, RAPA (especially at 1.2 mg/kg BW) decreased the crude protein, αs1-casein, αs2-casein, β-casein, and amino acid contents (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Lys, His, Arg, and Pro) of crop milk (P < 0.05) and the concentrations of albumin, total protein, and uric acid in the serum of breeding pigeons (P < 0.05). Additionally, the expression of TORC1 pathway-related proteins (TORC1, S6K1, S6, 4EBP1, and eIF4E) was downregulated in the crop tissues of breeding pigeons by 0.6 or 1.2 mg/kg BW/day RAPA injection (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the average daily gain (ADG) of young squabs declined, and the mortality rate increased significantly (P < 0.05). Together, the results showed that RAPA reduced protein and amino acid levels in the crop milk of breeding pigeons and retarded young squab growth, suggesting a crucial role of TORC1 in crop milk synthesis in breeding pigeons.
, S.V. Rama Rao
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 246-255; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez469

Abstract:
Cobb 400, male broilers (n=4,752) were fed one of 12 diets, with 12 pens/diet and 33 birds/pen. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of phytate P (0.24, 0.345, or 0.45%) and 4 doses of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg). Diets were formulated with reduced Ca (0.22%), available P (0.20%), energy (80 to 120 kcal/kg), and amino acids (1 to 5%) when compared with breed requirements. Prediction equations suggested feeding dietary phytate P > 0.275, 0.295, or 0.319% reduced feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) and increased feed conversion ratio, respectively, from day 0 to 21. Supplementing phytase at 561, 1,285, or >2,000 FTU/kg resulted in the maximum FI, BWG, or feed efficiency, respectively. From day 0 to 42, maximum BWG or feed efficiency were achieved at phytate P concentrations 2,000 FTU/kg maximized tibia ash weight or percent respectively. In the absence of phytase, phytate (IP6) concentration in the gizzard was greatest in birds fed 0.45% phytate P and phytase supplementation between 1,132 to 1,285 FTU/kg resulted in the lowest IP6 concentration in the gizzard. There was no effect of dietary phytate P on the concentration of phytate esters (IP5 or IP4) in the gizzard, which were minimized at 1,208 FTU/kg of phytase. In the absence of phytase, the concentration of phytate ester (IP3) or inositol in the gizzard was greatest in birds fed 0.345% phytate P and phytase supplementation at ∼500 FTU/kg minimized IP3, whereas 2,000 FTU/kg maximized inositol, except in birds fed 0.45% phytate P, which was maximized at 202 FTU/kg of phytase. Prediction equations can be useful to determine the influence of phytase and phytate P on broiler performance, phytate degradation and bone ash.
, Lei Wang, Ajab Khan, Rui Zhao, Siang Wei, Xiaoyuan Jing
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 263-271; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez482

Abstract:
Wheat bran, while a nutritious and economic feed ingredient, contents high levels of non-starch polysaccharides which entraps nutrients and interferes digestion and absorption. To study the influence of fermented wheat bran by xylanase-producing Bacillus cereus on growth performance and intestinal microflora of broiler chickens, a total of 180 broilers (21-day-old, mixed of male and female) were randomly divided into 3 treatments, with 6 replicates in each treatment and 10 broilers in each replicate: 1) control check (CK), corn-soybean meal-based diet; 2) wheat bran group (WB), 5% of the corn were replaced with wheat bran; and 3) fermented wheat bran group (FWB), 5% of the corn were replaced with fermented wheat bran. Growth performance was determined in the period of 21- to 42-day-old. Intestinal digestive enzyme activities and microbiota diversity were analyzed on day 42. No differences were observed on growth performance among treatments (P > 0.05). The activity of amylase in the duodenum of FWB was 1.56 times higher than CK (P < 0.05). The Chao1 index of microbiota in cecum of FWB increased 24.26% compared with CK (P < 0.01). The amount of Bifidobacteriaceae in cecum of WB was 29.1 times and 15.8 times higher than CK and FWB (P < 0.05) respectively. Principal co-ordinates analysis in cecum revealed the dissimilarity microbiota among treatments. In summary, the use of fermented wheat bran to partially replace corn (5%) in diets had no adverse effect on growth performance and triggered beneficial effects such as increasing duodenal amylase activity and intestinal microflora abundance in broiler chickens. These observations support that solid-state fermentation by xylanase-producing Bacillus cereus is feasible approach to pre-treat wheat bran for feedstuff industry.
, Youn-Kyung Ham, Dong-Min Shin, Hyun-Wook Kim, Hae Won Jang, Young-Boong Kim,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 590-596; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez519

Abstract:
The disposal of by-products of duck production, including duck skin, is a serious concern as it results in environmental pollution. The objectives of this study were to investigate the optimal pretreatment conditions for swelling duck skin and their extraction methods as a novel source. Gelatin was extracted using water bath, sonication, superheated steam, and microwave extraction methods. The gelatin extraction yield and gelatin powder yield were the highest with the superheated steam extraction method. The melting point and gel strength of gelatin extracted using the superheated steam method were the lowest. The viscosity of gelatin extracted with the superheated steam and microwave extraction methods was higher than that of gelatin extracted with the other methods. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of gelatin extracted using the superheated steam and microwave extraction methods showed more intense bands than those of gelatin extracted using the other methods. Our results showed that gelatin extracted from duck skin using the superheated steam extraction method had optimal physical properties and therefore can be used in meat products.
Wenjing Wang, Chunguang Wang, Peng Zhang, Shanshan Yao, Jingru Liu, Xianghe Zhai, Tie Zhang
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 89-94; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez559

Abstract:
The study was conducted to develop a specific, simple, and sensitive method for diagnosis of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). In this experiment, the selected downstream primer was labeled with biotin and the 5' end of RAA probe was labeled with FAM by reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RT-RAA) combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD). A RT-RAA-LFD assay that could be used for detection of IBV was established after optimization of RT-RAA reaction time, reaction temperature, and primer concentration. This method did not need reverse transcription of IBV template under isothermal condition (37°C), the amplification of target gene fragments could be completed within only 24 min, and the amplification products could be visually observed and determined by LFD within 3 min. The specificity test demonstrated that there was no cross reaction with the nucleic acids of other similar common pathogens. The lowest detectable limit for IBV was 102 copies/μL, and this method was 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR (104 copies/μL), as verified by sensitivity test. The results showed that RT-RAA-LFD assay with strong specificity and high sensitivity was simple and easy to operate, and could be used for rapid detection of IBV in clinical diagnosis.
, , D. Prioriello, V. Petrecca, M. Bertocchi, M. Zampiga, G. Salvatori, G. Maiorano
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 612-619; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez556

Abstract:
A study was carried out to evaluate meat quality traits in fast-growing chickens stimulated in ovo with trans-galactoolighosaccarides (GOS) and exposed to heat stress. On day 12 of egg incubation, 3,000 fertilized eggs (Ross 308) were divided into prebiotic group (GOS) injected with 3.5 mg GOS/egg, saline group (S) injected with physiological saline, and control group (C) uninjected. After hatching, 900 male chicks (300 chicks/treatment) were reared in floor pens in either thermoneutral (TN; 6 pens/group, 25 birds/pen) or heat stress conditions (HS, 30°C from 32 to 42 D; 6 pens/group, 25 birds/pen). At 42 D of age, 15 randomly chosen birds/treatment/temperature were slaughtered and the pectoral muscle (PM) was removed for analyses. Data were analyzed by GLM in a 3 × 2 factorial design. In ovo treatment had no effect on PM weight, pH, water-holding capacity, and shear force. GOS and S birds had lighter (L*, P < 0.01) PM than C group, whereas the latter showed a higher (P < 0.05) yellowness index (b*) compared to S group. Proximate composition, cholesterol, and intramuscular collagen properties were not affected by treatment. As for fatty acid composition, only total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content and n-6 PUFA were slightly lower in GOS group compared to S. Heat stress had a detrimental effect on PM weight (P < 0.01) and increased meat pH (P < 0.01). PM from HS chickens was darker with a higher b* index (P < 0.05) and had a higher (P < 0.01) lipid content and a lower (P < 0.05) total collagen amount. Total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and PUFA were similar among groups. Significant interactions between factors were found for fatty acid composition: GOS decreased (P < 0.01) SFA and increased (P < 0.05) MUFA contents in HS birds. In conclusion, in ovo injection of GOS could mitigate the detrimental effect of heat stress on some meat quality traits.
Yanfen Ma, Shuo Zhou, Xin Lin, Weidong Zeng, Yuling Mi,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 578-589; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez545

Abstract:
N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG), can increase arginine synthesis in mammals and improve the reproductive performance. However, the effect of NCG on poultry laying performance is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of dietary NCG on development of chicken ovarian follicles. The dosage and timing for NCG administration were evaluated for its effect on follicular development. Results showed that supplementation with 1% NCG in the diet for 14 D led to accelerated development of growing follicles (over 60 μm in oocyte diameter) and significantly increased feed intake and feed efficiency. Plasma amino acids (AA) analysis showed that feeding with 1% NCG significantly increased of plasma AA levels. RNA-seq analysis revealed that NCG supplementation upregulated expression of genes related to angiogenesis and cell proliferation, but downregulated expression of apoptosis-related genes. Meanwhile, RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis validated the RNA-seq results. Moreover, NCG enhanced plasma NO level; upregulated expression of PKG-I, Raf1, and p-p38; and increased angiogenesis of the ovaries. In conclusion, dietary NCG (1% for 14 D) can promote development of ovarian follicles by increasing angiogenesis in ovaries of the chicken.
S. Sobanbua, S. Dolkittikul, M. Nakphaichit, S. Keawsompong,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 526-535; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez549

Abstract:
The gene coding for antimicrobial peptides produced by probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5 located on the cloned DNA fragment I-C46 containing 2 open reading frames I-C46-F2.1 and I-C46-F2.2 were designed for strain-specific primers P1 and P2, respectively, and assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. According to the obtained results, primer P1 has limited strain specificity. Primer P2 exhibited high efficacy and specificity at annealing temperature of 70°C while P1 annealed at 57°C causing nonspecific bands. Hence, P2 was selected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay by isothermal annealing and extension reaction at high temperature of 70°C resulting in linearity for its DNA sequences ranging from 102 to 107 target copy numbers per assay, and displaying a detection limit of 6.17 log cfu/g of cecal digesta. Using spike testing, this system was able to detect 7.88 ± 0.06 to 11.78 ± 0.06 log copy number/g of digesta, higher than cultivation assay at about 1 log cfu/g, with good correlation of 0.99. These results suggested possible detection of strain KUB-AC5 in the gastrointestinal tract of chicken to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of a probiotic strain which requires correct inclusion rates in the feed.
Q.H. Li, Z.Q. Yu,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 567-577; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez499

Abstract:
The regulatory roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways on the hypothalamic−pituitary−gonadal axis (HPG axis) of Wenchang chicks under heat stress (HS) were investigated. Additionally, the crosstalk between these signaling pathways was explored. Immunohistochemical experiments and Western blotting were employed to quantify extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38MAPK (P38). In female chicks, hypothalamic ERKs were upregulated in Weeks 1 and 2 in the HS group compared with the control group (CK), while JNK and p38 were downregulated (P < 0.05). Pituitary MAPKs were all downregulated in the HS group compared with the CK group in Week 3, but p38 was upregulated in Week 4 (P < 0.01). In the HS group, ovarian MAPKs were all upregulated compared with the CK group during Week 5, whereas ERK was downregulated in Week 6 (P < 0.01). In contrast to the patterns of MAPK expression in female chicks in the HS and CK groups, ERK in male chicks showed a completely opposite pattern in Weeks 1, 2, and 5, while p38 and JNK were downregulated in both female and male chicks under HS during Weeks 2 and 3. In the HS group, pituitary and testis MAPKs showed a pattern opposite to that observed in female chicks under HS in Week 5; MAPKs were all downregulated (P < 0.05). Thus, there are gender differences in the MAPK signaling pathways in the HPG axis in chicks, and these pathways showed plasticity. Early HS can enhance chick growth and development as well as promote developing in the MAPK signaling pathways in the HPG axis. However, after heated brooding was discontinued in chicks, long-term HS obstructed chick development and caused tissue and function injury to the HPG axis.
X. Ao,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 499-504; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez558

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, carcass traits and taste scores in Pekin ducks. A total of 1,500 fifteen-day-old ducks (820 ± 22 g) were blocked based on body weight (BW), and randomly allotted to 3 treatments with 10 replicates of 50 birds each (25 males and 25 females). The experiment lasted for 4 wk, and dietary treatments included 3 different lipid sources (soybean oil, duck fat, and palm oil), which were evaluated in corn-soybean meal diets (3250 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 16.5% crude protein for grower diet and 3350 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.5% crude protein for finisher diet). During days 15 to 28, feeding soybean oil and palm oil diets increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG), but decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) and caloric conversion compared with duck fat. During days 29 to 42, birds fed duck fat diet had higher BWG, but lower (P < 0.05) F/G and caloric conversion than those fed soybean oil and palm oil diets. Overall, feeding soybean oil diet increased (P < 0.05) BWG and final BW, but decreased (P < 0.05) F/G compared with palm oil. Birds fed duck fat diet had higher (P < 0.05) skin, subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat yield compared with palm oil. Left breast meat yield in soybean oil group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in duck fat and palm oil groups. Birds in soybean oil group had lower (P < 0.05) roasting loss, but higher (P < 0.05) comprehensive score compared with duck fat and palm oil. In summary, birds fed soybean oil diet had the best growth performance and taste scores for roasting, whereas the duck fat was better in abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield than soybean oil and palm oil in Pekin ducks from 15 to 42 d of age under the same nutritional level.
Dan Zhao, , Kenneth J. Genovese, Chuan-Yu Hsu, Jason T. Lee,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez572

Abstract:
Wooden breast (WB) results in significant losses to the broiler industry due to reductions in meat quality. While the etiology of WB is unknown, it is believed to be associated with localized hypoxia and decreased lactate levels in skeletal muscles, indicating the presence of altered lactate metabolism in WB. We hypothesized that the expression levels of the major signaling molecules that control lactate metabolism, including lactate dehydrogenases (LDHA and LDHB) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1 and MCT4), were altered in WB. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate whether there were changes in mRNA and protein levels of LDHA, LDHB, MCT1, and MCT4 in WB compared to normal breast (NB) muscles. Biochemical analysis for LDH enzyme activity in NB and WB muscles was studied. MicroRNA375 (miR-375) expression, known to be inversely associated with LDHB protein expression in human cells, was also investigated. The level of LDHA mRNA was 1.7-fold lower in WB tissues than in NB tissues (P < 0.0001). However, the LDHA protein levels were similar in WB and NB tissues. In contrast, the levels of LDHB mRNA and protein were 8.4-fold higher (P < 0.002) and 13.6-fold higher (P < 0.02) in WB than in NB tissues, respectively. The level of miR-375 was not different between WB and NB muscles. The specific LDH isoenzyme activity that converted lactate to pyruvate was 1.8-fold lower in WB compared to NB tissues (P < 0.01). The level of MCT1 mRNA was 2.3-fold higher in WB than those in NB muscles (P < 0.02). However, this upregulation was not observed with MCT1 protein expression levels. The expression levels of MCT4 mRNA and protein were elevated 2.8-fold (P < 0.02) and 3.5-fold (P < 0.004) in WB compared to NB tissues, respectively. Our current findings suggest the potential roles of LDHB and MCT4 on lactate metabolism and provide a unique molecular elucidation for altered lactate homeostasis in WB muscles of broilers.
Chang-Wen Ye, Khurram Yousaf, Chao Qi, Chao Liu,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 637-646; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez564

Abstract:
An improved fast region-based convolutional neural network (RCNN) algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of recognizing broilers in a stunned state. The algorithm recognizes 3 stunned state conditions: insufficiently stunned, moderately stunned, and excessively stunned. Image samples of stunned broilers were collected from a slaughter line using an image acquisition platform. According to the format of PASCAL VOC (pattern analysis, statistical modeling, and computational learning visual object classes) dataset, a dataset for each broiler stunned state condition was obtained using an annotation tool to mark the chicken head and wing area in the original image. A rotation and flip data augmentation method was used to enhance the effectiveness of the datasets. Based on the principle of a residual network, a multi-layer residual module (MRM) was constructed to facilitate more detailed feature extraction. A model was then developed (entitled here Faster-RCNN+MRMnet) and used to detect broiler stunned state conditions. When applied to a reinforcing dataset containing 27,828 images of chickens in a stunned state, the identification accuracy of the model was 98.06%. This was significantly higher than both the established back propagation neural network model (90.11%) and another Faster-RCNN model (96.86%). The proposed algorithm can complete the inspection of the stunned state of more than 40,000 broilers per hour. The approach can be used for online inspection applications to increase efficiency, reduce labor and cost, and yield significant benefits for poultry processing plants.
, Daniel E. Bütz, , , Maria K. Arendt, Mitchell D. Ramuta, Xiaojun Yang, Thomas D. Crenshaw, Mark E. Cook
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 374-384; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez503

Abstract:
Research has shown that methionine+cysteine (M+C) requirements may be higher when chickens are infected with Eimeria app. In a 4 × 2 factorial design, broilers (11 to 21 D) were fed one of 4 corn–soybean meal-based diets containing either 0.6, 0.8, 0.9, or 1.0% standardized ileal digestible (SID) M+C; on day 14, broilers from each diet were gavaged with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or a commercial coccidiosis vaccine (at 100 × vaccine dose) which provide a mixture of live Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts. Growth performance was recorded from day 11 to 21. Plasma and intestinal luminal samples were collected on days 14 and 21. Intestine lesion scores and fecal oocyst counts were conducted on day 21. Regardless of dietary SID M+C levels, compared to PBS gavaged broilers, the Eimeria-challenged broilers had (1) decreased (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F); (2) increased (P < 0.05) intestinal lesion scores and fecal oocyst counts; (3) increased (P < 0.05) plasma anti-Eimeria IgG, and intestinal luminal total IgA and anti-Eimeria IgA concentrations; and (4) increased (P < 0.05) levels of duodenum luminal gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as jejunum and cecum luminal IFN-γ concentrations. Regardless of Eimeria challenge, when compared to 0.6% SID M+C, broilers fed ≥0.8% SID M+C had (1) increased (P < 0.05) BWG, FI, and G:F and (2) increased (P < 0.05) levels of jejunum luminal total IgA. After Eimeria challenge, broilers fed 0.8% SID M+C had increased (P < 0.05) levels of jejunum luminal anti-Eimeria IgA compared to broilers fed diets containing 0.6 and 1.0% SID M+C. Collectively, in 11- to 21-D broilers, the growth suppression caused by Eimeria infection could not be mitigated by further increasing dietary M+C alone ≥0.8%. Further research should investigate interactions between dietary M+C and other nutrients for support of immune function and growth in pathogen-challenged broilers.
Mounira Sais, , , Miquel Nofrarías, Natàlia Majó, Rual Lopez-Ulibarri, Estefanía Pérez Calvo,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 235-245; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez466

Abstract:
This study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Muramidase 007 to broiler chickens on gastrointestinal functionality, evaluating growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, intestinal histomorphology, vitamin A in plasma and cecal microbiota. A total of 480 one-day male chicks (Ross 308) were distributed in 16 pens allocated in 2 experimental diets: the control diet (CTR) without feed enzymes, coccidiostat or growth promoters, and the experimental diet (MUR): CTR supplemented with 35,000 units (LSU(F))/kg of the Muramidase 007. Digesta and tissue samples were obtained on days 9 and 36 of the study. A lower feed conversion ratio was observed in the MUR treatment. Apparent ileal digestibility of DM, organic matter and energy were improved by Muramidase 007. It was also observed that MUR improved digestibility of total fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and content of vitamin A in plasma at day 9 (P < 0.05). Histomorphological analysis of jejunum samples revealed no differences in the villus height or crypt depth; but a higher number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes at day 36 with MUR. No differences were observed in plate counts of enterobacteria or Lactobacillus along the gastrointestinal tract, neither on the cecal short-chain fatty acids. An statistical trend was observed for reduction of cecal clostridia at day 9 for MUR. Analysis of cecal microbiota structure by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed relevant changes correlated to age. At day 9, broilers receiving MUR showed decreased alpha diversity compared to CTR that was not detected at day 36. Changes in specific taxonomic groups with an increase in Lactobacillus genus were identified. In conclusion, evaluation of the variables in this study indicates that dietary Muramidase 007 contributes to improve feed conversation ratio and gastrointestinal function in broiler chickens. Effects could have been mediated by slight shifts observed in the intestinal microbiota. More studies are guaranteed to fully understand the mechanisms involved.
G.F. Kouassi, G.A. Koné, M. Good, N.E. Assidjo,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 342-349; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez500

Abstract:
A total of 144 French selected breed (Galor) female guinea fowl (GF) of 42 wk of age were enrolled for a feeding trial of 15, 30, and 45 D duration. The birds were randomly assigned to 18 cages, each containing 8 birds. A total of 3 isonitrogenous and isocaloric dietary treatments were trialed, each diet comprising 6 replications (cages), which meant a total of 48 birds per diet. The GF were fed either a control diet C (commercial diet “FACI ponte 20”, SIPRA, Ivory Coast, usually used for all poultry species) or the diet C supplemented with 5% Euphorbia heterophylla seeds (diet E) and the diet C supplemented with 5% Hevea seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis) (diet H). Animal performance were assessed for 3 periods (days 0 to 15, 0 to 30, and 0 to 45), and egg quality and composition were assessed at 15, 30, and 45 D of the trial. The results indicated no mortality during the trial. The laying rate was the highest (43.9%) with diet E and the lowest with diet C (32.5%), the laying rate with diet H being intermediate (38.5%). Diet E containing Euphorbia seeds led to a reduced cholesterol content of the eggs. Additionally, inclusion of Euphorbia seeds and, to a lesser extent, of the Hevea seed meal in the diet led to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched GF eggs, with thereby, improved nutritional value. A sensory test did not find any difference between the 3 diets on trial.
Naiara S. Fagundes, Marie C. Milfort, Susan M. Williams, Manuel J. Da Costa, Alberta L. Fuller, José F. Menten, Romdhane Rekaya,
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 67-75; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez588

Abstract:
Imbalance in nutrients can affect digestibility of amino acids by altering gene expression of amino acid transporters. We investigated digestibility and molecular transporters of essential amino acids in chickens fed a methionine-deficient diet. A total of 40 chicks (23 D old) were randomly assigned to either a control (0.49% methionine) or a deficient (0.28%) diet until 41 D when they were sampled for Pectoralis (P.) major, kidney, ileum, and hypothalamus for mRNA expression analysis. The ileal content was collected for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) analysis. Birds fed the deficient diet had reduced growth and worse feed efficiency compared to control. The AID of methionine was similar between both groups. The AID of other essential amino acids was higher in the deficient group than control. mRNA expression of b0,+AT and LAT4 were upregulated in the ileum and kidney but LAT1 was downregulated only in kidney of the deficient group compared to control. In the P. major, SNAT1, SNAT2, and CAT1 were upregulated in the deficient group compared to control. A diet deficiency in methionine affects digestibility of essential amino acids and cysteine, but not the digestibility of methionine. The change in digestibility is reflected in the mRNA expression of amino acid transporters across different tissues.
, Kayla Hurst, Yvonne Thaxton, Gregory S. Archer, Alice Johnson
Published: 1 January 2020
Poultry Science, Volume 99, pp 546-554; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez485

Abstract:
There is limited information on the effects of stress and/or physiological manipulation on either plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) and/or heterophil: lymphocyte (H : L) ratios in turkeys. The present studies examine the effects of catching/transportation/lairage in a holding shed and shackling on plasma concentrations of CORT and H : L ratios in male market weight turkeys. Plasma concentrations of CORT were increased after transportation and lairage but not further elevated by shackling, irrespective of its duration up to 240 s. In one study, there were increased H : L ratios following catching/placing birds into transportation cages/transportation/lairage. In one study, H : L ratios declined following shackling. It is concluded that while moving turkeys from the farm to immediately before the shackling line is stressful, shackling for up to 4 min was not perceived as more stressful in turkeys. There were also differences between farms/houses for both plasma concentrations of CORT and H : L ratios.
, Breno Castello Branco Beirão, Max Ingberman, Luiz Felipe Caron
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 837-845; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz040

Abstract:
The ability of naturally-occurring low levels of food-borne toxins and environmental contaminants to alter immune function in animals has been the subject of increasing interest in recent years. A total of 96 1-d-old broiler chickens were used to evaluate the effect of feeding naturally contaminated rations with low levels (800 ppb) of T-2 toxin and the protective effect of a commercial mycotoxin eliminator on circulating and intestinal immune cells, blood biochemistry, and hematological variables. Although there were no effects on body weight, contamination with T-2 toxin lead to a significant increase in serum levels of total protein (mainly due to increased albumin levels), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and increased jejunal levels of CD3+ and Goblet cells at day 28. T-2 toxin significantly altered immune parameters, as was demonstrated by alterations in the number of circulating macrophages and suppressor macrophages, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes from mucosa, virgin cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and terminally activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes compared to uncontaminated control birds. The use of a mycotoxin eliminator partly compensated for the changes in immune cells. The importance of low levels of mycotoxins is still debatable. However, in this research, it is clearly demonstrated that T-2 toxins affects immune responses, possibly due to impaired gut barrier functioning and metabolic changes.
J. Wen, K.A. Livingston,
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6713-6720; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez386

Abstract:
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of various dietary concentrations of vitamin D3 (D3) on pullet and laying hen performance, eggshell quality, bone health, and yolk D3 content from day of hatch until 68 wk of age. Initially, 440 Hy-line W36-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments: 1,681 (control); 8,348; 18,348; 35,014; 68,348 IU D3/kg. At 17 wk of age, pullets were assigned to experimental diets with 12 replicate groups of 6 birds. At 17 wk of age, pullets fed diets containing 8,348 and 35,014 IU D3/kg had an increased bone mineral density in comparison to the control fed birds (P ≤ 0.01). Body weights of pullets fed the diet with 68,348 IU D3/kg were lower than other treatments (P ≤ 0.01). Hen-housed egg production (HHEP) of hens fed the 35,014 IU D3/kg diet was increased in comparison to control-fed hens (P ≤ 0.01), whereas HHEP of those fed 68,348 IU D3/kg diet was reduced in comparison to all other treatments (P ≤ 0.01). Shell breaking strength of eggs from hens fed 8,348, 35,014 and 68,348 IU D3/kg was increased in comparison to eggs from control-fed birds (P ≤ 0.01). Fat-free tibia ash content of hens fed any of the diets supplemented with D3 (8,348 to 68,348 IU D3/kg) was increased in comparison to control-fed hens (P ≤ 0.05). Yolk D3 content increased linearly with dietary D3 and the D3 transfer efficiency for the control, 8,348 IU, 18,348 IU, 35,014 IU, and 68,348 IU D3 treatments were 8.24, 10.29, 11.27, 12.42, and 12.06%, respectively. These data suggest that supplementation of dietary D3 up to 35,014 IU D3/kg feed maintained if not increased laying hen performance and enhanced pullet and laying hen skeletal quality as well as yolk D3 content and eggshell quality. Feeding pullets at a higher level 68,348 IU of D3 resulted in reduced growth and ultimately decreased performance of laying hens.
J.R. Liang, H. Dai, H.M. Yang, Z. Yang,
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6849-6856; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez432

Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of dietary VA supplementation on maternal and its offspring in terms of the early growth performance, antioxidant index, and tissue VA content of the goslings. Yangzhou geese aged 180 D were selected and randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups with 15 female geese and 3 male geese in each group. The geese were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 4,000, 8,000, 12,000, or 16,000 IU/kg VA. Eggs were collected from each group starting at 300 D. After hatching, 96 goslings were selected from each maternal group and randomly distributed into 2 experimental groups with factorial arrangement (6 replicates × 8 geese), including 2 levels of VA supplementations, 0 and 9,000 IU/kg. The results are as follows: (1) Different levels of maternal VA supplementation significantly affected the BW and weight gain of 7-day-old offspring (P < 0.05). The weight gain of offspring administered 9,000 IU/kg VA was significantly higher than that of offspring administered the basal diet (P < 0.05). (2) Maternal VA levels significantly affected the T3, T4, and insulin levels of the offspring (P < 0.05). (3) The GSH-PX, SOD, T-AOC, CAT, and tissue VA content of the offspring were significantly higher and MDA was significantly lower in the 9,000 IU/kg VA group than in the no VA group (P < 0.05). (4) Maternal VA levels had a significant effect on offspring GSH, GSH-PX, SOD, MDA, T-AOC, and CAT (P < 0.05). Maternal and offspring VA supplementation interact with the weight gain, tissue VA content, GSH, GSH-PX, SOD, MDA, and CAT of goslings (P < 0.05). Maternal supplementation with 12,000 IU/kg VA and offspring supplementation with 9,000 IU/kg VA was conducive to gosling growth.
, Fernando G. Perazzo Costa, Danilo V.G. Vieira, Anilma S. Cardoso, Guilherme S. Lima, Danilo T. Cavalcante, Sarah G. Pinheiro, Marcio L. Ceccantini, Baris B. Yavuz, Roseane M. Bezerra, et al.
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1150-1155; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz081

C. Peichel, D.V.T. Nair, G. Dewi, A.M. Donoghue, K.M. Reed,
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1121-1130; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz076

Abstract:
Drinking water contaminated with Salmonella could serve as a source for cecal colonization of the pathogen in birds. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a generally recognized as safe—status essential oil (lemongrass essential oil, LGEO) against multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) in poultry drinking water. Farm water with and without added droppings, litter, or feed [0.5% (w/v)] inoculated with 6.0 log10 cfu/mL S. Heidelberg was treated with 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5% (v/v) LGEO and incubated at 12.5°C or 22°C for up to 7 d. The number of viable S. Heidelberg populations was determined on d 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. At 12.5°C, all concentrations of LGEO inactivated S. Heidelberg to non-detectable levels in water alone and water contaminated with droppings or litter by d 7 (>6 log10 cfu/mL; P < 0.05). The highest LGEO concentration tested (0.5%) resulted in >5.0 log10 cfu/mL reduction of S. Heidelberg on d 7 in water contaminated with feed (P < 0.05). At 22°C, all concentrations of LGEO resulted in the reduction of S. Heidelberg to non-detectable levels in water alone by d 5 (>6 log10 cfu/mL; P < 0.05). Concentrations of LGEO ≥0.125% resulted in inhibition of S. Heidelberg to non-detectable levels in water contaminated with droppings from d 5 onwards (P < 0.05). The LGEO at the highest tested concentration (0.5%) resulted in >5.0 log10 cfu/mL reduction of S. Heidelberg in water contaminated with litter on d 7 (P < 0.05) but did not result in reduction of the pathogen in water contaminated with feed at 22°C. Results indicate the potential of LGEO against S. Heidelberg in water alone or water containing droppings or litter, indicating its efficacy as a natural disinfectant in poultry drinking water.
L.P. Miao, L.L. Li, M.K. Zhu, X.Y. Dong, H.A.M. Elwan, X.T. Zou
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6873-6879; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez443

Abstract:
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on laying performance, egg quality, tissue retention, serum biochemical indices, and serum reproductive hormones of laying hens. A total of 384 Hy-Line Gray hens, 37 wk old, were treated with sodium fluoride added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet at 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg fluorine/kg feed. The results showed that dietary F levels at 800 and 1200 mg/kg markedly decreased ADFI, laying rate, average egg weight, and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Dietary F levels at 800 and 1200 mg/kg dramatically decreased the egg quality of albumen height, yolk color, eggshell strength, and eggshell thickness, and on the 49th D, 400 mg/kg F group significantly decreased the eggshell strength, compared to those of control group. Fluoride residues in tissues of hens were increased significantly with the increase of dietary F supplemental levels (P < 0.05). Fluoride concentrations were generally high in feces, eggshell, tibia, kidney, and ovary, and the highest in feces, following with eggshell and tibia, lower in kidney and ovary, and the lowest in serum. Serum uric acid levels and alanine aminotransferase activity increased significantly (P < 0.05), and glucose, triglycerides, and phosphorus decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in response to dietary F concentration, compared to those of the control group, respectively. Dietary F supplementation at 1200 mg/kg significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the estrogen concentrations in serum, compared to those of the control group. Concentrations of progesterone in the fluoride-treated groups were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased relative to those of the control group. In conclusion, these results indicated that the excessive ingestion of F has had a detrimental effect on egg laying rate and quality of eggs by damaging the function of the liver, kidney, and ovary of laying hens.
Qiuxia Wang, Huilong Hu, Guangli Chen, Hailin Liu, Siyuan Wang, Dasong Xia, Yan Yu, Yanhong Zhang, Jinqing Jiang, Jinyou Ma, et al.
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6433-6444; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez498

Abstract:
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is still a vital etiological agent in poultry farms. IBDV outbreaks occasionally occur due to the presence of very virulent, reassortment or variant strains. Vaccine immunization has played crucial roles in IBD control for decades. However, survival pressure of IBDV from the vaccine immunization also increases the reassortments of circulating viruses. In this study, an IBDV strain was isolated from several broiler farms in Henan Province, central part of China, and named IBDV HN strain. Based on the results of RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenic analyses of VP1 and VP2 genes, the IBDV HN strain is a novel reassortment strain in the Henan region. Segment A of this strain appears to originate from the very virulent IBDV strain, while segment B comes from the other field reassortment strains. This may be the result of natural reassortant of virus circulating in the field. About 60% (6/10) of experimentally infected specific pathogen-free chickens died after 3 to 5 d post-infection with typical symptom and pathological lesions. The IBDV HN strain was prone to horizontal transmission, which poses a serious threat to the chicken industry. Further investigation on the prevalence, virulence, and evolution of HN strain IBDV will provide a foundation for the prevention and control of the disease in this region.
, Nelson A. Cox, Douglas E. Cosby, Mark E. Berrang, Nicole L. Holcombe, Cheryl E. Weller
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1255-1261; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz093

Abstract:
The ability of pre-enrichment media to buffer pH changes that occur during incubation is essential for recovery and detection of Salmonella from feed/ingredients. Depending on feed/ingredient type, the pH of the pre-enrichment media can decrease during incubation to a pH 4.0–5.0. Acidic conditions can: 1) injure Salmonella, 2) kill Salmonella, and/or 3) affect their biochemical pathways. Most strains of Salmonella produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from thiosulfate and/or sulfide on selective agars which is utilized to differentiate Salmonella from other microorganisms. The ability of isolates to produce H2S on xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 agar (XLT4) is dependent on the acidic conditions that can occur during pre-enrichment, the strain of Salmonella, and the stress status of the isolate. Enrichment media are often used to recover injured Salmonella with respect to cell multiplication but have not been examined for their ability to repair damage to biochemical pathways. In this study, isolates of Salmonella that had previously been exposed to acidic conditions and lost the ability to produce H2S on XLT-4 agar were grown in various enrichment media. After 24 h of enrichment, H2S-positive and negative colonies were enumerated. The impact of enrichment media on cell multiplication was dependent on enrichment media, incubation temperature, Salmonella strain, stress status, and H2S status. None of the enrichment media restored the ability of the isolate to produce H2S on XLT-4 agar at 24 h. After an additional 24-h incubation, (48 h total), the ability of some isolates to produce H2S was restored.
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1330-1334; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz050

Abstract:
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen for chicken and turkey, responsible for acute upper respiratory tract infection and swollen head syndrome. The disease is highly contagious and causes significant economic losses in chicken and turkey flocks, particularly when associated with secondary infections. In the present study, we performed a serological survey in chicken sera collected from Bangladesh during the period 2014 to 2016. Of 1929, chicken sera examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 1,028 (53.29%) were positive. The incidence of AMPV antibodies was higher in broiler breeder flocks aged over 41 wk. The seropositive rate was higher in Gazipur and Mymensingh district and during rainy and winter seasons. This is the first report of serologic evidence of AMPV in Bangladesh. Our results indicate that commercial poultry in Bangladesh is exposed to AMPV.
B.C. Güz, R. Molenaar, , B. Kemp, H. Van Den Brand, M. van Krimpen
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6552-6563; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez427

Abstract:
Nutrition is a crucial factor for growth and bone development in broiler chickens. Adjustments in dietary ingredients might affect bone development and consequently locomotion related problems. This study was designed to evaluate effects of dietary organic minerals (ORM), fish oil (FISH), and hydrolyzed collagen (COL) on growth performance and tibia characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of three hundred eighty four 1-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in a complete randomized block design with 4 diet groups and 8 replicates per diet group. In the ORM diet, the inorganic macro and trace minerals were replaced by their organic varieties. In the FISH diet, palm oil and soybean oil were partly replaced by FISH. In the COL diet, soybean meal was partly replaced by COL. Results showed that the ORM and COL diet groups reached a higher body weight (BW) at 42 D of age than the FISH diet group, whereas the control group was in between. The feed conversion ratio between day 1 and 42 was lower in the ORM and COL diet groups than in both other diet groups. On day 28, 35, and 42, gait score (GS), Varus Valgus deformity, tibia length (TL), thickness, femoral and metatarsal head thickness (THT), mineral content (TMC), mineral density (TMD), breaking strength (TBS), stiffness (TSF), and energy to fracture (TEF) were measured (n = 3/replicate). The ORM diet group had higher TL at day 42, higher THT at day 28, higher TMC at day 42, higher TMD at day 28, 35, and 42, higher TBS at day 42, higher TSF at day 35 and 42, and higher TEF at day 42 compared to the FISH diet group, with the COL and control diet groups in between. It can be concluded that replacing dietary inorganic macro and trace minerals by their organic varieties seems to stimulate tibia dimensions, strength, and mineral content of broiler chickens. On the contrary, FISH appears to negatively affect tibia characteristics.
S.M. Qin, W.Q. Bai, K.Y. Zhang, X.M. Ding, S.P. Bai, J.P. Wang, H.W. Peng, Y.F. Yang, C. Chen, Q.F. Zeng
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6340-6348; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez456

Abstract:
Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is a serious problem of the modern poultry industry, negatively affecting birds' welfare and health status, walking and feeding activity, growth performance, carcass quality, and economic performance of meat production. The gut microbiome in poultry with FPD has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we compared the cecal microbiomes of 8 breeding ducks with FPD to 8 control ducks (breeders with apparently healthy feet) by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed a significant β-diversity (P < 0.05) of cecal microbiota presented between healthy and FPD-affected breeder ducks. The plasma endotoxins, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and the abundance of class Clostridia in FPD-affected ducks was markedly higher (P < 0.05), however, the abundance of genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae UCG-008, and the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in FPD-affected ducks was significantly lower (P < 0.05) when compared to healthy ducks. These findings suggest when duck breeders are affected with FPD, ducks show an increased inflammatory response and a difference of structure and composition of the cecal microbiome.
O.O. Babatunde, A.J. Cowieson, J.W. Wilson, O. Adeola
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6742-6750; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez390

Abstract:
Phytase is of importance to the poultry industry because of its ability to hydrolyze phytate and release phosphorus (P) for use by poultry. However, the effect of age on phytase efficacy is not fully understood. A total of 864 day-old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of age and feeding length on phytase efficacy using growth performance, mineral utilization, and tibia ash as response criteria of evaluation. The experiment was arranged as a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 3 diets including; a positive control (PC; 0.4% non-phytate P (nPP)), a negative control (NC; 0.2% nPP) and a NC diet supplemented with phytase at 2,000 FYT/kg; 2 ages (i.e., days 14 and 22); and 2 feeding lengths (i.e., 2 and 5 D) with 8 replicates each. Birds fed the NC had decreased (P < 0.01) body weight gain and feed efficiency compared with birds fed the PC regardless of age or feeding length. Similarly, birds fed the phytase-supplemented diet had improved (P < 0.01) performance as compared to birds fed the NC regardless of age. There were no significant differences in P utilization between birds fed for 2 to 14 D or 22 D and birds fed for 5 D to both ages. However, phytase was more efficacious at day 14 than day 22 when mineral utilization was considered because the super dose of phytase elicited greater response in birds fed the phytase supplemented diet for 2 D until day 14. In contrast, percentage tibia ash improved (P < 0.01) in birds fed phytase supplemented diet for 5 D at both ages as compared with birds fed for 2 D. In conclusion, testing phytase products, even at high doses, for 2 D during the second week in the life cycle of broiler chicks, can be recommended from the results of this study.
Johanna O. Zeitz, Stella-Christin Käding, Ines R. Niewalda, Erika Most, Juliano C. De Paula Dorigam,
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6772-6786; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez396

Abstract:
This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of leucine (Leu) above actual recommendations activates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation pathways on the molecular level and supports higher muscle growth in broilers. Day-old male Cobb-500 broilers (n = 180) were allotted to 3 groups and phase-fed 3 different corn-wheat-soybean meal-based basal diets during periods 1 to 10, 11 to 21, and 22 to 35 D. The control group (L0) received the basal diet which met the broiler's requirements of nutrients and amino acids for maintenance and growth. Groups L1 and L2 received basal diets supplemented with Leu to exceed recommendations by 35 and 60%, respectively, and isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) were supplemented to keep Leu: Ile and Leu: Val ratios fixed. Samples of liver and breast muscle and pancreas were collected on days 10, 21, and 35. The gene expression and abundance of total and phosphorylated proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway of protein synthesis, in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy-lysosomal pathway of protein degradation, in the general control nonderepressible 2/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A pathway involved in the inhibition of protein synthesis, and in the myostatin–Smad2/3 pathway involved in myogenesis were evaluated in the muscle, as well as expression of genes involved in the growth hormone axis. Growth performance, feed intake, the feed conversion ratio, and carcass weights did not differ between the 3 groups (P > 0.05). Plasma concentrations of Leu, Ile, and Val and of their keto acids, and the activity of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in the pancreas increased dose dependently with increasing dietary Leu concentrations. In the breast muscle, relative mRNA abundances of genes and phosphorylation of selected proteins involved in all investigated pathways were largely uninfluenced by dietary Leu supplementation (P > 0.05). In summary, these data indicate that excess dietary Leu concentrations do not influence protein synthesis or degradation pathways, and subsequently do not increase muscle growth in broilers at fixed ratios to Ile and Val.
, Ianê Correia De Lima Almeida, Leonardo Thielo de La Vega, Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Mariana Rodrigues Borges, Gustavo Henrique Coelho Chaves, Caio César dos Ouros, , Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 930-942; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz054

Abstract:
Efficiency in poultry production is based on the balance between nutrition, intestinal health, and animal welfare. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic suppression of animal feed for growth, the animal nutrition segment has sought new alternatives to optimize production rates and, based on this concept, use probiotics—living microorganisms (beneficial bacteria and yeast) for animal health. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the production and welfare of broilers fed different doses of probiotics. A randomized block experimental design with 4 treatments and 10 replicates of 50 birds (400 birds per treatment) each was employed as follows (Table 2): group 1–negative Control (NC): diet with a mixture of chlorohydroxyquinolines as the growth promoter at all phases; group 2: diet with half a dose of probiotic (HD) and chicks inoculated at the hatchery whit 5 × 108cfu/chick; group 3–positive control (PC): diet with probiotic (dose recommended by the manufacturer) and birds inoculated at the hatchery whit 1 × 109cfu/chick; group 4: diet with probiotic (double the dose) (DD) and birds inoculated at the hatchery whit 2 × 109cfu/chick. The evaluated characteristics were performance, carcass yield and carcass parts, incidence of pododermatitis and myopathy lesions, intestinal quality, and bird welfare. The administration of the probiotic at the commercially recommended dose promotes better results in the performance, carcass yield and parts, and behavior and well-being of the birds.
C.E. Evans, J.D. Garlich, I.B. Barasch, C.R. Stark, A.C. Fahrenholz,
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 982-996; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz060

Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate bedding source and the inclusion of rolled, unheated soybeans on the growth performance of male turkeys when reared to market age. Pine shavings are the most common poultry bedding material, however recently, increased marketplace competition has significantly reduced its availability and necessitated the need for economical alternatives. Additionally, the development of new varieties of soybeans with low levels of antinutritional factors have created an opportunity for dietary inclusion with minimal processing. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of Miscanthus grass as an alternative to pine shavings litter and to evaluate 2 novel, low trypsin inhibitor soybean varieties as a potential ingredient for turkeys. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design with main effects of litter type (Miscanthus grass or pine shavings) and dietary treatment. Diets were defined based on the soy protein source: LO (novel, unheated low oligosaccharide and trypsin inhibitor soybean), LT (novel, unheated low trypsin inhibitor soybean), SBM (commercial solvent extracted soybean meal), or CB (unheated conventional soybeans). Bedding type did not affect BW gain or feed intake at market, however, a tendency for improved FCR was observed when turkeys were raised on Miscanthus grass (P = 0.073). Turkey toms fed diets containing low trypsin inhibitor soybeans had improved BW gain and feed intake with a lower overall FCR compared to turkeys fed diets containing conventional raw whole soybeans. Therefore, there was improved digestibility of the novel soybean lines. Nutrient utilization of the novel low trypsin inhibitor soybeans, however, remained inferior to diets containing solvent extracted soybean meal, which yielded the heaviest BW and lowest FCR with similar feed intake to the low trypsin inhibitor soybean diets.
Jionghan Zhuang, Gaohui Nie, Fan Yang, Huabin Cao, Chenghong Xing, Xueyan Dai, Guoliang Hu,
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6533-6541; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez477

Abstract:
To investigate Molybdenum (Mo) and Cadmium (Cd) co-induced the levels of autophagy-related genes via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in Shaoxing Duck (Anas platyrhyncha) kidney, 60 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups, which were treated with Mo or/and Cd at different doses on the basal diet for 120 d. Kidney samples were collected on day 120 to determine the mRNA expression levels of adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene-5 (Atg5), microtubule-associated protein light chain A (LC3A), microtubule-associated protein light chain B (LC3B), sequestosome-1, and Dynein by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Meanwhile, ultrastructural changes of the kidney were observed. The results indicated that the mTOR and P62 mRNA expression levels were significantly downregulated, but the Atg5 and Beclin-1 mRNA levels were remarkably upregulated in all treated groups compared to control group, and their changes were greater in joint groups. Additionally, compared to control group, the Dynein mRNA expression level was apparently downregulated in co-treated groups, the LC3B, LC3A, and AMPKα1 expression levels were dramatically upregulated in single treated groups and they were not obviously different in co-treated groups. Ultrastructural changes showed that Mo and Cd could markedly increase the number of autophagosomes. Taken together, it suggested that dietary Mo and Cd might induce autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in duck kidney, and it showed a possible synergistic relationship between the 2 elements.
Marwa I. Abd El-Hamid, Naglaa F.S. Awad, Yousreya M. Hashem, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Rahman, Adel M. Abdelaziz, Imad A.A. Mohammed,
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6281-6288; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez576

Abstract:
Among many avian mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) are recognized as the main etiological agents of respiratory diseases and infectious synovitis in chickens and turkeys causing tremendous economic losses worldwide. Therefore, proper treatment is promoted for the control of these diseases. This study was the first in Egypt to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of various antimicrobials against field MG and MS isolates recovered from chicken and turkey flocks using both conventional broth microdilution and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Totally, 47 mycoplasma isolates were recovered from 160 collected tracheal samples (29.4%). Of these, 44 MG (27.5%) and 3 MS (1.9%) were identified using conventional and molecular assays. The in vitro susceptibilities of 4 representative mycoplasma field isolates (3 MG and one MS) to 8 antibiotics and 4 essential oils were investigated. The tested isolates showed various susceptibilities to tested antimicrobials. Toldin CRD, followed by clove, cumin, and cinnamon oils were effective against both MG and MS clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.49 to 15.63 µg/mL. Similarly, tylvalosin was the most active antibiotic against MG and MS isolates with the lowest MIC values (0.015 to 0.03 µg/mL). DNA loads of both MG mgc2 and MS vlhA genes were markedly decreased upon treatment with majority of the tested antimicrobials confirming their effectiveness as was also evaluated by conventional MIC results. In conclusion, Toldin CRD and tylvalosin were found to be the most effective antimicrobials in this study. This finding highlights the importance of using these antimicrobials in controlling mycoplasma infections in chickens and turkeys.
Mokhtar Rizk Gomaa, Ahmed Ali Khalil, , Jamal S.M. Sabir, , , Marwa F. El Saied, Mounir M. El-Safty, , Mohamed A. Ali
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6289-6295; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez385

Abstract:
Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, and H5N8 circulate in Egyptian poultry and cause veterinary and public health burdens. In response, AIV vaccines are commonly used. The main objective of this study was to develop a broad, cross-protective, trivalent vaccine based on circulating AIVs in Egypt. We generated highly replicating avirulent AIVs, H5N1, and H5N8, to be used in combination with H9N2 strain for the generation of an inactivated vaccine. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this vaccine were tested. Results showed that a single immunization dose enhanced humoral immune responses giving full protection against challenges with LPAI H9N2, HPAI H5N1, and H5N8 viruses. This efficacious vaccine will reduce the cost of vaccination for poultry growers and is expected to be effective in the field as it is based on contemporary viruses currently in circulation among Egyptian poultry.
T.P. Boltz, J.W. Boney, C. Shen, J. Jaczynski,
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1226-1233; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz088

Abstract:
Feed hygienics are of ever increasing importance in providing safe feed to animals, and ultimately safe food for consumers. Salmonella has been identified as a major microbial hazard in animal feed that has been linked to illness in both animals and humans. Use of antibiotics has decreased in recent years due to policies and practices of poultry production, increasing opportunities for potential pathogens in feed to affect poultry and poultry products. New feed equipment technology provides an option to combat feed pathogens. For example, hygienisers have been suggested to decrease Salmonella associated with mash feeds due to the ability to maintain conditioned feed temperature for an extended time. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a non-pathogenic surrogate used to study reduction of Salmonella. The objective of the current study was to compare feed manufacture and Salmonella surrogate (E. faecium ATCC 8459) reduction differences between standard pelleting and more thermally aggressive pelleting utilizing a hygieniser. More thermally aggressive pelleting decreased pellet mill motor load (P = 0.02), increased hot pellet temperature (P = 0.02), and tended to increase pellet durability (P = 0.07). E. faecium ATCC 8459 colonies decreased with standard pelleting relative to inoculated mash and were reduced further with more thermally aggressive pelleting (P<0.05). Standard pelleting and more thermally aggressive pelleting resulted in a 3 and 4-log reduction in E. faecium ATCC 8459, respectively, relative to inoculated mash. More thermally aggressive pelleting utilizing a hygieniser may improve manufacture efficiency, pellet quality, and Salmonella reduction.
C. Wang, Z.L. Liu, J.J. Xue, Y.M. Wang, X.F. Huang, Q.G. Wang
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1297-1304; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz097

Abstract:
An excessively high-stocking density can adversely influence performance, health, and welfare of geese. The optimum-stocking density also should be changed with the increase of age and weight in geese. However, the corresponding density parameter is lacking in different feeding phase. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of stocking density on geese from 49 to 70 d of age. Three hundred and sixty 49-d-old female Sichuan white geese were randomly allotted to 6 stocking treatments with 6 replicate pens, stocking densities in each group were 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 birds/m2. Average daily gain (ADG) was reduced as stocking density increased (P < 0.05), and feed gain ratio (F/G) increased as stocking density increased (P < 0.05). High-stocking density significantly decreased feather cleanliness of geese (P < 0.05). Stocking density did not influence slaughter yield, breast meat, leg meat, subcutaneous fat and skin, and abdominal fat yields at 70 d (P > 0.05). High-stocking density tended to linearly decrease intramuscular fat content of breast meat (P < 0.05), while stocking density did not influence the content of crude protein and amino acids in breast meat (P > 0.05). Based on broken-line linear regression analysis, the stocking density of female Sichuan white geese from 49 to 70 d of age was 3.5 and 3.6 birds/m2 for ADG and F/G, respectively.
G.F. Kouassi, G.A. Koné, M. Good,
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1382-1388; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz079

Abstract:
Guinea fowl production is very important for some countries from a socioeconomic and nutritional perspective. Guinea fowl production is low in the Ivory Coast, even if the demand is high. In order to improve understanding of the factors impacting guinea fowl production, a survey was conducted in 2017 in 8 regions (97 farmers) out of a total of 31 regions in Ivory Coast. The aims were 1) to establish a global typology of farmers; 2) to assess the goal of their enterprise (sale or home consumption), and 3) to classify the farmers on their socioeconomic profile and guinea fowl farming system. The sampling was conducted following a snowball type design (chain referral sampling method), a non-probabilistic method where farmers were selected not from a sampling framework but from a friendship network of the farmers already part of the sample. Guinea fowl production was undertaken by persons from all social levels without distinctions due to education level. The majority of farmers were men with no formal education. They had less than 20 guinea fowl (31% of interviewed farmers) and practiced extensive farming. The majority (66%) of farmers of the survey focused on home consumption of egg and meat with sale of surplus. One of the major challenges for farmers is to control the mortality of young guinea fowl, which can be very high. The development of this breeding activity could contribute to food self-sufficiency in animal protein and contribute to the fight against poverty in Ivorian rural areas
Y.N. Zhang, R.S. Xu, L. Min, D. Ruan, H.Y. Kim, Y.G. Hong, W. Chen, S. Wang, W.G. Xia, X. Luo, et al.
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6866-6872; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez438

Abstract:
The research studied the effects of l-methionine (l-Met) on growth performance, carcass quality, feather traits, and small intestinal morphology of Pekin ducks compared with conventional dl-methionine (dl-Met). A total of 1080, 1-day-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 9 groups with 6 replicate pens of 20 birds each. During the starter phase (1 to 14 d), ducks were fed a basal diet (Met, 0.30%) or that supplemented with dl-Met or l-Met at 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20% of feed. During the grower phase (15 to 35 d), ducks were fed a basal diet (Met, 0.24%) or that supplemented with dl-Met or l-Met at 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, or 0.16% of feed. Compared with ducks fed the basal diet, supplementation with either dl-Met or l-Met increased the body weight (BW) of ducks at days 14 and 35, increased average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI), decreased F:G at the starter phase, and increased ADG over the whole 35-d period (P < 0.05). The efficacy of l-Met compared to dl-Met was 140.1% for 14-d BW, 137.6% for ADG and 121.0% for F:G for days 1 to 14. Ducks fed diets supplemented with l-Met had greater proportion of leg muscle, higher than in ducks provided with dl-Met (P < 0.05). The breast muscle proportion was enhanced with dl-Met rather than l-Met supplementation (P < 0.01). The back feathers score and fourth primary wing feather length were increased with dl-Met or l-Met supplementation (P < 0.01), and there was increased efficacy of l-Met relative to dl-Met for back feathers score (153.1%). Dietary dl-Met or l-Met supplementation increased villus height of ileal mucosa of ducks at days 14 and 35 (P < 0.01). Overall, dietary l-Met or dl-Met supplementation affected the growth performance of ducks during the starter phase, and improved the feather traits and small intestinal morphology. The efficacy of l-Met to dl-Met ranged from 120 to 140% for growth performance of young ducks (1 to 14 d) and was 153% for the feather traits of ducks (35 d).
Xiu Mei Li, Min Hong Zhang, Si Miao Liu, Jing Hai Feng, Dan Dan Ma, Qing Xiu Liu, Ying Zhou, Xue Jie Wang, Shuang Xing
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6611-6617; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez505

Abstract:
Stocking density is an important environment factor that affects the development of poultry farming, which has caused widespread concern. This study was carried out to determine the effects of stocking density on growth performance, growth regulatory factors, and endocrine hormones in broilers under appropriate environments. A total of 144 Arbor Acres male broilers (BW 1000 ± 70 g) were randomly divided into low stocking density (LSD; 6.25 birds/m2), medium stocking density (MSD; 12.50 birds/m2), and high stocking density (HSD; 18.75 birds/m2) groups, with 6 replicates in each group, and raised in 3 environmental chambers (same size) from 29-day-old to 42-day-old, respectively. The trial period lasted for 14 D with 21 ± 1°C and 60 ± 7% relative humidity, wind speed < 0.5 m/s, ammonia level<5 ppm. The results indicated that average daily food intake and average daily gain in HSD group showed significantly lower than other 2 groups (P < 0.05). Besides, the HSD group significantly reduced breast muscle yield, tibial length, tibial width, and tibial weight of broilers (P < 0.05). The HSD group increased the mRNA expression level of myostatin, and reduced the mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and myogenic determination factor 1 (P < 0.05). The HSD group significantly reduced the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in tibial growth plate (P < 0.05). The HSD group increased the serum corticosterone levels of broilers (P < 0.05), and decreased the serum IGF-1 and thyroxine (T4) levels of broiler chickens (P < 0.05) than other stocking density groups. Moreover, the serum alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing stocking density, whereas there were no significant effects on the serum 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in 3 groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, under appropriate environments HSD reduced the growth performance of broilers and this negative effect was likely associated with decreased growth of muscle and bone.
Sh. Bing, Y.T. Zang, Y.J. Li, D.Q. Shu
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6914-6920; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez454

Abstract:
Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) infection has been recognized as one of the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and is closely associated with eggs. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is an emerging environmentally friendly technology for disinfecting eggshell surfaces to remove dirt and pathogenic microorganisms. However, the efficiency of SAEW could be affected by the presence of manure. UV-based advanced oxidation processes have been studied to improve the microorganism's inactivation effect of disinfection. Therefore, in this study, the synergistic bactericidal efficacy of SAEW and UV-C light (ultraviolet lamp, λ = 254 nm) for inactivation of S. enteritidis on artificially inoculated eggshells with or without manure was evaluated, and the bactericidal efficacy of different combination treatments of SAEW and UV-C light was compared. Without manure interference, complete inactivation (reduction of 6.54 log10 CFU/g) of S. enteritidis on the surface of eggshells was achieved following a 4-min treatment with SAEW+UV at an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 20 mg/L. In the presence of manure, a 3.02 log reduction was achieved following a 4-min treatment with SAEW+UV at an ACC of 30 mg/L. Simultaneous treatment with SAEW and UV light exhibits higher bactericidal activity for eggshells than other combination process methods with UV and SAEW. The results suggest that the combined treatment of SAEW+UV is a novel method to enhance the microbial safety of eggshells.
, , K.L. Searer, W.N. Briggs, K.M. Wilson, B.M. Hargis, L.R. Berghman, L.R. Bielke
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6319-6325; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez448

Abstract:
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a pervasive enteric disease responsible for large scale economic losses within the global poultry industry. The etiologic agent of NE is Clostridium perfringens (CP), an opportunistic pathogen that utilizes numerous extracellular toxins and glycoside hydrolases (GH) as key virulence and nutrient acquisition factors. Notably, some GH, mucinases, degrade components of mucin in the gastrointestinal tract as an energy source. Targeting this mechanism may serve to reduce the incidence of disease associated with CP. Two experiments were completed that evaluated mucinase vaccine targets sourced from conserved peptide sequences of carbohydrate binding module 32 of CP mucinases. In experiment 1, 37 antigen peptides were synthetically generated and used to produce hyper-immune sera, which was then evaluated for ability to obstruct CP growth in vitro. Total CFU of CP were measured at 4, 6, and 8 h incubation to determine growth rate. Peptides 4, 5, 22, 24, and 30 were selected for further in vivo testing based on conservation or the ability to inhibit CP growth by over 50% at 6 and 8 h. In experiment 2, the aforementioned peptides were conjugated to an agonistic, CD40-targetting antibody and evaluated in vivo. Broilers were given an Eimeria maxima and CP in order to induce NE and assess vaccine efficacy. Treatments included a non-vaccinated non-inoculated control, non-vaccinated inoculated control (NVIC), vaccination with peptide 4, 5, 22, 24, or 30 (VP4-VP30), or a combination of all 5 peptides (MC). There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the percent change in BWG relative to NVIC for vaccination with peptide 22 and MC of 18.54 and 17.43%, respectively. MC vaccinated group had the lowest lesions with a mean score of 0.63 ± 0.18. These results suggest the MC combination was the most successful in alleviating overall performance losses associated with NE-infected broilers and encourage future testing of MC in the development of an NE vaccine.
, Jörg Bartelt, William Lambert, Ettienne Corrent
Published: 1 December 2019
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Volume 28, pp 1168-1180; https://doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz083

Abstract:
Three experiments were conducted to assess the digestible valine (dVal) requirements of growing-finishing Ross 308 broilers. In the first experiment, the limitation of valine in low crude protein diets was evaluated. Based on this first experiment, it can be concluded that Val is a limiting amino acid (AA) in broiler diets and when broilers are fed a CP-reduced diet with a dVal:Lys ratio lower than 80%, growth performance but not carcass composition is significantly affected. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance response to dietary digestible lysine (dLys) and to validate the adequate AA profile to be used in a dose–response experiment. A dLys content of 10.5 g/kg in grower and 8.5 g/kg in finisher diets under the applied AA profile can be considered as suboptimal for Ross 308 broilers. In the third experiment, the optimal dVal:Lys ratio for Ross 308 broilers in a dose-dependent manner was evaluated. The quadratic broken line model estimated the optimal ratio for dVal/Lys at 83.3 for average daily gain and at 84.6 for average daily feed intake over the whole fattening period. Valine is therefore a limiting AA for performance and must be controlled when dietary crude protein is reduced.
Y. Liu, X. Liu, J. Zhou, Z. Ren, X. Yang, Y. Cao
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6816-6825; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez413

Abstract:
With intensive selection for meat production in broilers, excessive fat accumulation is also accompanied and causes economic concerns. Folic acid was reported to be involved in lipid metabolism. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of folic acid in reducing abdominal fat deposition. A total of 105 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, including the control (Con), saline-perfusion group (NS), and folic acid perfusion group (FA). The growth performance, biochemical characteristics in serum, and lipid metabolism in the liver and abdominal fat tissues were evaluated. Results have shown that folic acid significantly reduced abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05) and had no effects on BW, ADFI, ADG, and FCR (P > 0.05). Serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were lower in FA group but albumin concentration was higher (P < 0.05). Hepatic ACC, SCD, ELOVL6, PI3K, LDLR, HMGCR, and ABCA1 mRNA abundance were all down-regulated in FA group (P < 0.05) when compared with the Con and NS groups, while CPT1 and PPARα were not affected. In addition, MTTP mRNA abundance was higher in the liver of birds subjected to folic acid (P < 0.05). There was no difference about TG deposition in the liver among all groups based on hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Oil Red O staining. On the other hand, ELOVL6, PPARγ, IGF1, and TGFβ2 expression were notably decreased in the abdominal fat in FA group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data demonstrated that folic acid has reduced abdominal fat percentage by decreasing hepatic lipogenesis and suppressing adipocytes proliferation and differentiation. And the inhibiting effect of adipocytes might be mediated by IGF1 and TGFβ2 down-regulation.
Z.P. Lv, S.J. Yan, G. Li, D. Liu, Y.M. Guo
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 7022-7029; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez367

Abstract:
Genistein (GEN), a type of soy isoflavones, is similar to estrogen structurally and functionally. The effects of dietary gen on the reproductive performance and bone status of breeder hens were investigated. A total pf 720 laying broiler breeder (LBB) hens were randomly allocated into 3 groups with supplemental dietary GEN doses (0, 40, 400 mg/kg). Each treatment has 8 replicates of 30 birds. The results indicated that supplemental GEN significantly improved the egg production and eggshell strength of LBB hens. Dietary GEN was deposited into the egg yolk, which decreased malonaldehyde in the follicle and egg yolk. The levels of vitellogenin (VTG), progesterone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in the serum of GEN-treated groups were elevated compared with the control group. Furthermore, GEN treatment downregulated the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein in the fallopian tube, whereas 40 mg/kg GEN treatment upregulated estrogen receptor α expression. Both the mRNA expression of VTG-II in the liver and mRNA expression of amphiregulin in the fallopian tube were upregulated after 40 and 400 mg/kg GEN treatment. In the 400 mg/kg GEN-treated group, the levels of calcitonin and alkaline phosphatase in the serum were increased compared with the control group, which was consistent with the increased levels of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia. Supplemental GEN (400 mg/kg) improved the tibia strength of LBB hens, whereas 40 mg/kg GEN had better effects on laying performance. In summary, dietary GEN could improve the egg production and quality, as well as the bone status of LBB hens during the late egg-laying period.
R. Keshavarz, , M.J. Zamiri, M.R. Jafarzadeh Shirazi, F. Saemi, M. Zhandi, M. Afrouziyeh, M.J. Zuidhof
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 7003-7008; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez331

Abstract:
Published data on the beneficial effect of short-term administration of thyroxine (T4) in broiler breeder hens to reduce the ascites incidence in their progeny chicks raises the question as to what extent might the long-term maternal administration of T4 affect the blood hematological and biochemical attributes in breeder hens. A total of 70 broiler breeder hens (47-wk-old) were randomly allotted to control or thyroxine treated (T4) groups. Pure T4 (0.3 mg/bird per day) was orally administered to T4 birds for 14 successive weeks, whereas the control group received the drinking water only. Blood samples were obtained from the brachial vein prior to the initiation of the trial as well as weeks 50, 53, 55, 57, 59, and 61 of age. Body weight was decreased but egg production was not affected by T4 treatment. Plasma concentration of T4, but not triiodothyronine (T3), was increased in T4-treated hens (P < 0.05). The total number of leukocytes and erythrocytes were also higher in T4 birds. A significant effect of time was observed for erythrocyte number and plasma cholesterol concentration (P < 0.05). The long-term administration of T4 did not affect the concentrations of serum calcium and plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, alanine amino transferase, and aspartate amino transferase (P > 0.05). However, serum concentrations of phosphorus, glucose, and alkaline phosphatase were higher in T4 hens as compared to their control counterparts. In spite of differences in circulatory concentrations of a number of traits between the experimental groups, the recorded values were within their reference ranges. Therefore, the administration of T4 for an extended period of time had no apparent adverse effect on the clinical profile in subjected hens, which may practically support the implementation of this preventative treatment as an approach to decrease the ascites incidence; however, a lower incidence rate in the progeny chicks produced from hens receiving T4 for long-term periods of time remains to be elucidated.
Peishan Li, Long Sheng, Yongguo Jin
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 7110-7117; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez424

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to establish optimal conditions for microwave-assisted phosphorylation modification of egg white. Response surface methodology was used to model and optimize the degree of phosphorylation, solubility, foaming ability, and foaming stability of egg white powder. The concentration of sodium tripolyphosphate, microwave power, and microwave time were selected as the main processing conditions in the phosphorylation modification of egg white protein. The following 3 conditions for optimal phosphorylation modification of egg white are the concentration of sodium tripolyphosphate of 33.84 g/L, microwave power of 419.38 W, and microwave time 90 s for maximum functional properties (solubility, foaming ability and foaming stability) and the concentration of sodium tripolyphosphate of 32.97 g/L, microwave power of 429.29 W and microwave time of 90 s for maximum foaming properties (foaming ability and foaming stability), respectively. We consequently succeeded in phosphorylation modification with microwave assistance and confirmed the various desirable properties of optimal phosphorylation modification.
Yang Xu, Jinlong Cheng, Xiuying Huang, Meiyu Xu, Jinling Feng, Changqing Liu,
Published: 1 December 2019
Poultry Science, Volume 98, pp 6463-6471; https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez531

Abstract:
Infectious coryza (IC), an acute respiratory disease of chickens, is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. Here, the current epidemiological status of IC was investigated in China over 5 yr (2013 to 2018). A total of 28 Av. paragallinarum field isolates were identified by PCR tests and by sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene. The pathogenicities of 4 field isolates, the efficacy of 2 commercial inactivated oil-emulsion IC vaccines and vaccines containing different Av. paragallinarum isolates were also evaluated. The PCRs revealed a high rate (51.5%) of sample positivity for Av. paragallinarum during 2013 to 2018. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most field strains fell into the same cluster and had a farther genetic relationship with the early isolates from China. Pathogenicity testing revealed that the Chinese Av. paragallinarum isolates were able to induce the typical clinical signs of IC; hence, they were clearly pathogenic to chickens. Vaccine efficacy tests revealed that the 2 commercial inactivated oil-emulsion IC vaccines we tested had low protection rates against 2 selected Av. paragallinarum isolates after a single immunization, whereas the inactivated vaccine containing the Av. paragallinarum BJ26 isolate generated a relatively high protection rate against the field isolates compared with other three tested vaccines. The results indicate that IC is currently prevalent in China, and that commercial vaccines have not counteracted its presence in this country.
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