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Setiawan, Humiras Hardi Purba
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies, Volume 12, pp 1-12; doi:10.15415/jtmge.2021.121001

Many organizations measure and assess organizational performance as a strategy to improve competitiveness globally, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) is a prestigious award regarding quality management created in the USA. This paper reviews 50 journals on MBNQA from various countries and found that about 48% of researchers use the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (MBCfPE) approach to measure organizational performance. We also compare MBNQA with other quality awards such as the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) and the Deming Prize to illustrate what criteria we can use in improving Business Excellent Models (BEM). In the future, we will combine this TQM with the development of the Industrial 4.0 era to get a new model for assessing organizational.
Parul Munjal, P. Malarvizhi
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies, Volume 12, pp 13-24; doi:10.15415/jtmge.2021.121002

There has been long-standing debate over whether or not firms gain economic competiveness from reducing their impact on the environment. Although ample literature is available on association between environmental performance and financial performance across various sectors, little empirical evidence is available in context of Indian banking sector. This research aims to analyze whether there is any significant relationship between environmental performance and financial performance of banks operating in India for a period 2013-14 to 2017-18. Secondary data has been collected for a sample of 83 banks operating in India. Content analysis was applied to extract information about environmental performance disclosed by sample banks followedby construction of environmental disclosure score index. Hierarchical multiple regression was applied to analyze relationship between environmental performance and financial performance after controlling for effects of size, financial leverage and capital intensity. Results exhibit no significant relationship between environmental performance and financial performance of banks operating in India. Findings of this research are expected to provide insight to users and readers of financial statements to have better understanding about the environmental practices carried out by banks. It would also contribute significantly towards decision making for policy makers in Indian banking sector to establish mandatory environmental legislations for reporting on environmental practices in order to improve non financial disclosure and financial performance in Indian banking sector.
C. Krishnan
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 7-19; doi:10.15415/iie.2021.91002

The fiscal crisis facing the economy has led to withdrawal of the state from major sectors of the economy including education. With the advent of the liberalized economic policy the private sector has been playing a pivotal role in the economic development. Higher education ceases to be the‘merit good’ and the universities are encouraged to mobilize resources by their own efforts rather than depending on government grants. This has impacted the financing of state and central universities across India. Actually, this paper evaluates the funding of state universities in India through a case study, taking into consideration the changing contours of financing higher education. The core idea of the study is to analyse the resource mobilization as well as its utilization by the selected university. The study is based on secondary data. The discussion on the funding pattern reveals that the university is highly dependent on state grants for their day-to-day functioning. Though the efforts to generate internal resources is picking up, the university has failed to address the long run financial crunch of the university. The study concludes that unless the universities explore alternative channels of resources mobilization, it would be difficult to offer quality education in this era of globalization.
Nandini Vankayala, K. Anuradha
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 49-61; doi:10.15415/iie.2021.91006

The present study focuses on the perceived stress in 353 parents, whose Children with Intellectual disability underwent training in special education schools of (Bavitha Readiness Centres), Chittoor dist., Andhra Pradesh. The overall perceived stress (scale) score was measured through family assessment scheduled (FAS) developed by NIMHANS. The concerned mean scores were computed and compared at two stages of special training given to children i.e., at the time of joining and after two years of training with a paired t-test of significance. The overall findings reveal that the overall score, as well as its four sub–scales score of parent’s perceived stress, have been reduced after providing 2 years of special training to their Children with Intellectual disability as compared to joining the school (training).
Rupa Ghosh, Sudeshna Lahiri
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 21-32; doi:10.15415/iie.2021.91003

Parenting holds tremendous significance in today’s world as quality parenting facilitates the development of social and emotional competence in a child. The present study explores the dual role of domestic workers as workers and parents. Domestic Workers work from dawn to dusk to take care of their employees’ families. The obvious question arises: who takes care of their children, back home? As a parent, Domestic workers with their odd working hours and low or no literacy rate are nowadays trying to overcome the socio-economic challenges as well as handicaps of the profession by getting involved in their children’s academics. This paper investigates the effects of the length of working hours and education levels of domestic worker parents on their academic involvement with the children. The present study uses a descriptive survey research design to find out the relationship between academic involvement and work hours. The data was subjected to appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate a negative relationship between work hours and academicinvolvement. It is also revealed that higher education level to be associated with better academic involvement. The study thus calls for further intervention by schools and the government to motivate parents. Parent-teacher meetings may be of help in this respect along with workshops and government-sponsored programs to educate the parents to support them to climb up the socio-economic ladder through their children.
Abba Salisu
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 1-6; doi:10.15415/iie.2021.91001

Background: Secondary school teacher’s turnover is one of the problems bedeviling education sector in Katsina state. The sector can hardly be improved unless the situation is changed. To change the situation the stakeholders should focus on the need to enhance secondary school teacher’s satisfaction, commitment and empowerment.Purpose: The study examines the influence of empowerment on turnover intention of teachers of public secondary schools in Katsina State Nigeria. In addition the study examines which dimension among the dimensions of empowerment best influences turnover intention of teachers of public secondary schools in Katsina state, Nigeria. Methods: Empowerment and Turnover Intention questionnaires were used to get the needed data. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data gathered using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The results show that the dimensions of empowerment significantly and negatively explain 40% of variance of turnover intention. Additionally, among the dimensions of empowerment namely; perceived control, perceived competence and goal internalization, perceived competence makes the largest contribution followed by perceived control; beta -.35 and -.31 respectively. Conclusion: the study establishes that empowerment significantly and negatively relates to turnover intention of teachers of public secondary schools in Katsina state Nigeria.
Runumi Sharma, Mamta Aswal
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 9, pp 33-37; doi:10.15415/iie.2021.91004

Bertrand Russell’s educational thoughts significantly deal with reforming education for school going children and he also supported pre-primary education. He favored early childhood education for physical, intellectual and character development. His emphasis on character development of a child shows the significance of early years of life for development of an individual. This paper aims at exploring Bertrand Russell’s thoughts on early childhood education. It is an attempt to understand the significance of early childhood education for the holistic development of the children. Though there are early childhood education is prevalent in our country, but it was not mandatory to get early childhood education till the approval of National Education Policy (N.E.P., 2020). It has included early childhood education in compulsory school education for promoting better learning and well being of a child. It is a qualitative research in which historical method has been used where data has been collected from primary and secondary sources. The finding of the study shows that Bertrand Russell’sthought on early childhood education is relevant in present Indian context for developing good values, physical and mental development as well as in future learning. This shows that the encouragement to early childhood education and Bertrand Russell’s thoughts on early childhood education would be helpful for holistic development of children.
C. H. Zepeda Fernández, Hernández Aguilar Javier Efrén, E. Moreno-Barbosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 211-217; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82028

The high time resolution detectors are relevant in those experiments or simulations were the particles to detect, have a very short time of flight (TOF), and due this it´s required that the detections times are ranged between ns. & ps.Using Geant4 software, it was made thirty simulations of coupled detectors to plastic scintillators with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) located on the scintillator’s central sides. To characterize the time resolution, it was required to quantify the optical photons that reach the Score in a certain time, which are generated by muons on the surface of the plastic scintillator. Different configurations of muon beams were simulated at energy of 1 GeV, to interact with the configuration of the scintillator material of its corresponding arrangement. The simulations were made varying three parameters: the scintillator material “BC404 & BC422”, its size, and the location of the radiation source. Fifteen simulations correspond to BC404 material & fifteen simulations to BC422 material respectively. The first five simulations consisted in varying the scintillator’s volumetric size and collocate the muons beam guided randomly distributed over it, the next five simulations differentiate from setting up a directly centered beam, and the last five simulations for guide the beam on the left lower corner of each scintillator.The best time resolution achieved was σ= 8.67 +/− 0.26 ps., reported by the detector with BC422 scintillator material which has a volume of 20x20x3 mm3.
D. Osorio-González, V. J. Muñiz-Orozco, C. P. González, M. Fuentes-Acosta, J. Mulia-Rodríguez, L. A. Mandujano-Rosas
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 177-182; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82023

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for causing the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has so far infected more than thirty million people and caused almost a million deaths. For this reason, it has been a priority to stop the transmission of the outbreak through preventive measures, such as surface disinfection, and to establish bases for the design of an effective disinfection technique without chemical components. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify the conformational alterations of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) caused by the effect of a pulsed electric field at two different intensities. We found that both stimuli, especially the one with the highest angular frequency and amplitude, modified the electrical charge distribution in the RBD surface and the number of hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the secondary structure was significantly affected, with a decrease of the structured regions, particularly the regions with residues involved in recognizing and interacting with the receptor ACE2. Since many regions suffered conformational changes, we calculated RMSF and ΔRMSF to identify the regions and residues with larger fluctuations and higher flexibility. We found that regions conformed by 353-372, 453-464, and 470-490 amino acid residues fluctuate the most, where the first is considered a therapeutic target, and the last has alreadybeen characterized for its flexibility. Our results indicate that a pulsed electric field can cause loss of stability in the Spike-RBD, and we were able to identify the vulnerable sites to be used as a starting point for the development of viral inhibition or inactivation mechanisms.
Ashwani Kumar Yadav, Basilia Quispe Huillcara, Pablo Víctor Cerón Ramírez, Modesto Antonio Sosa Aquino,
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 143-147; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82018

Radiation application in medicine offers extraordinary benefits. But radiation is like a double-edged sword, it has both benefits and associated risks on the community in contact. To justify the safety of workers and members of the public, regulated use of radiation is assessed by the radiation protection protocols. The aim of this study is to design a Computed Tomography (CT) facility with a simplified model of CT scanner, whose shielding follows the guidelines of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report No. 147. To design the study model, Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport code in MCNPX 2.6.0 was used for the simulation. Furthermore, MCNPX was used to measure the photon flux in a vicinity or the detector cell. To validate the functioning of the X-ray tube, the experimental results were compared with the X-ray Transition Energies Database of National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce. The results obtained were within 0.60% of relative error. To confirm the functioning of shielding design, radiation protection quantity, air kerma was measured at several points outside, and inside of the CT room and they were under the radiation dose recommended by NCRP, which demonstrates that the shielding design wassuccessful in blocking the radiation. The study can be used for an easy evaluation of any CT room within the framework of the model of the study.
M. D. P. Carreón-Castro, M. Caldera-Villalobos, B. Leal-Acevedo, A. M. Herrera-González
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 135-142; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82017

Chitosan is a bio-based polyelectrolyte with high potential for wastewater treatment. Chitosan can remove anionic dyes by adsorption but it has low performance in the removal of cationic dyes. In this work, we report the synthesis of chitosan-based graft-copolymers using gamma radiation. Acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) were grafted successfully onto chitosan applying a radiation dose of 12 kGy at a dose rate of 8 kGyh-1. The grafted-copolymers have improved adsorptive properties for the removal of basic dyes reaching a maximum adsorption capacity higher than 300 mgg-1. The Lanmguir’s isotherm model described satisfactorily the interaction between the grafted copolymers and basic dyes. Freundlich’s isotherm model described the adsorption of anionic dye acid orange 52. The grafted copolymers removed successfully textile dyes from wastewater of the dyeing process. The best results were obtained in the removal of direct and basic dyes. Further, poly(ethylene glycol) grafted on the copolymer conferred better swelling behavior making easy the separation of the adsorbent after dye removal. The results showed that the adsorbent materials synthesized by radiochemical graftcopolymerization are more efficient than the beads, composite materials, and blends of chitosan.
A. Chavarria, J. I. Golzarri, G. Espinosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 169-175; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82022

Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas, from the 238U decay chain, that contributes in large part of the natural radiation dose to which humans are exposed. Radon is the second cause of lung cancer after tobacco. The US-EPA considers a concentration of 148 Bq/m3 for homes and 400 Bq/m3 for workplaces as the reference level. Caves are closed spaces where 222Rn, which emanates from the surrounding minerals and rocks, can accumulate and reaches large concentrations that can represent a health risk for the guides, speleologists and visitors who spend time in these spaces. This work uses the previously recorded radon concentrations in 8 caves in Mexico and calculates the average dose range and the average annual dose for each of them with the “Wise” public domain program ( to determine the level of radiological risk with 2,000 1,000 and 500 working hours per year. Karmidas cave had the highest average 222Rn concentration with 27,633.3 Bq/m3 and for 2,000 working hours per year an average annual dose rate of 347.1 mSv/y. Los Riscos cave had the lowest average concentration with 384.7 Bq/m3 and for 2,000 working hours per year an average annual dose rate of 4.832 mSv/y. These results show that all the caves studied present values,with 2,000 working hours per year, that exceed 3 mSv/y for workplaces and must be considered by the people who work in these places. A casual tourist visiting the caves does not present any radiological risk, while guides and speleologists should consider it.
A. Meléndez-López, M. F. García-Hurtado, J. Cruz-Castañeda, A. Negrón-Mendoza, S. Ramos-Bernal, A. Heredia
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 105-108; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82012

Aspartic acid is an amino acid present in the modern proteins, however, is considered a primitive amino acid hence its importance in prebiotic chemistry experiments studies. In some works of prebiotic chemistry have been studied the synthesis and the stability of organic matter under high energy sources, and the role of clays has been highlighted due to clays that can affect the reaction mechanisms in the radiolytic processes. The present work is focused on the study of the role of Namontmorillonite in the gamma radiolysis processes of L-aspartic acid. Gamma radiolysis processes were carried out in three different systems a) L-aspartic acid in aqueous solution; b) L-aspartic acid in solid-state; and c) L-aspartic acid adsorbed into Na-montmorillonite. L-aspartic acid was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography−electrospray ionization−mass spectrometry (HPLCESI-MS). The results showed that the decomposition of L-aspartic acid considerably decreased in the presence of clay thus highlighting the protector role of clays and favors the stability of organic matter even under the possible high energy conditions of primitive environments. The principal product ofgamma radiolysis of L-aspartic acid was succinic acid produced by deamination reaction. On the other hand, when aspartic acid was irradiated in solid-state the main product was the L-aspartic acid dimer. Both radiolysis products are important for chemical evolution processes for L-aspartic acid in primitive environments.
, O. Del Ángel-Gómez, R. Raya-Arredondo, S. S. Cruz-Galindo, J. I. Golzarri-Moreno, G. Espinosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 149-153; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82019

The neutron flux of the Triga Mark III research reactor was studied using nuclear track detectors. The facility of the National Institute for Nuclear Research (ININ), operates with a new core load of 85 LEU 30/20 (Low Enriched Uranium) fuel elements. The reactor provides a neutron flux around 2 × 1012 n cm-2s-1 at the irradiation channel. In this channel, CR-39 (allyl diglycol policarbonate) Landauer® detectors were exposed to neutrons; the detectors were covered with a 3 mm acrylic sheet for (n, p) reaction. Results show a linear response between the reactor power in the range 0.1 - 7 kW, and the average nuclear track density with data reproducibility and relatively low uncertainty (±5%). The method is a simple technique, fast and reliable procedure to monitor the research reactor operating power levels.
O. Félix-Beltrán, J. E. Barradas-Guevara J. E. Barradas-Guevara, F. González-Canales
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 161-168; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82021

We realize a model-independent study of the so-called Tri-Bi-Maximal pattern of leptonic flavor mixing. Different charged lepton mass matrix textures are studied. In particular, we are interested in those textures with a minimum number of parameters and that are able to reproduce the current experimental data on neutrino oscillation. The textures studied here form an equivalent class with two texture zeros. We obtain a Tri-Bi-Maximal pattern deviation in terms of the charged leptons masses, leading to a reactor angle and three CP violation phases non-zero. These lastest are one CP violation phase Dirac-like and two phases Majorana-like. Also, we can test the phenomenological implications of the numerical values obtained for the mixing angles and CP violation phases, on the neutrinoless double beta decay, and in the present and upcoming experiments on long-base neutrino oscillation, such as T2K, NOvA, and DUNE.
, S. S. Romero González, O. Hernández Rodríguez, J. Holmes, R. Alarcon
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 121-127; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82015

Proton therapy uses a beam of protons to destroy cancer cells. A problem of the method is the determination of what part of the body the protons are hitting during the irradiation. In a previous study we determine that by capturing the gamma rays produced during the irradiation one can determine the location of the proton-body interaction, in this work we investigate if by examining the gamma rays produced it is possible to determine the body part that produced the gamma rays by the proton collision. This study uses GEANT4 computer simulations of interactions of proton-tissue, protonbrain, proton-bone, etc., which produce gamma rays, to determine the characteristics of the gamma rays produced. We then analyze the characteristics of the gamma rays to find signatures that could be used to determine the source of the rays. In particular, we study the distribution of gamma ray energies, their full-width half-maximum, energy resolution, maximum height, and total number of counts. This study concludes that it is possible to use the gamma ray spectra to determine what body part produced it.
C. Cisneros, T. Bautista, C. F. Betancourt, E. Prieto, A. Guerrero, I. Álvarez
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 197-201; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82026

Multiphoton absorption is an intensity dependent nonlinear effect related to the excitation of virtual intermediate states. In the present work, multiphoton ionization and dissociation of the formic acid molecule (HCOOH) by the interaction with photons from 532 Nd: YAG laser at different intensities are discussed, using different carrier gases. The induced fragmentation-ionization patterns show up to 17 fragments and dissociation channels are proposed. Some evidence of small clusters formation and conformational memory from the ratio of the detected products, CO+ and CO2+, on the light of the available results, it is possible to conclude that they arise from trans and cis formic acid. Our results are compared with those obtained in other laboratories under different experimental conditions, some of them show only partial agreement and differences are discussed. Following the Keldysh description it is possible, from our experimental parameters, characterize our results, in the multiphoton absorption regime.
O. Flores, B. Campillo, F. Castillo, H. Martínez, J. Colín
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 129-134; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82016

Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied by corona discharge plasma at different exposure times using air as working gas. The modification of the surface properties are characterized, those are morphology and wettability. Corona plasma treatment was found to modify the PET surface in both morphology and wettability. The corona discharge at atmospheric pressure is a heterogeneous with multiple current pulses, which generates an asymmetric pattern of erosion on the PET surface. The corona discharge treatment erodes the surface and therefore modifies the surface morphology. The roughness of the PET surface increases in the impact point of the corona discharge on the PET surface. An increase in the wettability of PET was also observed after corona discharge treatment at atmospheric pressure.
E. Pardo L., S. E. Rodil, B. Campillo, I. Dominguez, J. G. González-Rodriguez, H. Martinez
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 203-209; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82027

Coatings by physical vapor deposition (PVD) have become highly relevant due to their wide range of applications and the rapid rate of coating formation. In this work, AISI steel 1045 was coated with two layers, Ni and Co using the PVD technique. Each coating was deposited with a thickness of 1 μm. After applying the coatings, a post-treatment was applied in an AC plasma reactor using a boron nitride blank in an Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 3 Torr, 0.3 A, and 460 V at 4, 8, and 12h. The post-treatment was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in a range of 200-1100 nm. The main species observed by OES were Ar+, N2, N2+, and B+. The coatings on 1045 steel and posttreatment were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, were subjected to tribological tests to analyze wear resistance, using the Pin-on-Disk technique. The coatings on steel 1045 present remarkably better wear properties than the uncoated 1045 steel, being the sample post-treated at 4h that showed a lower wear rate.
, Mendieta-Mendoza Aurora, Montero-Cabrera María Elena, Manjón-Collado Guillermo, Galván-Moreno José Antonio
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 183-190; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82024

In arid zones, the principal water supply is from groundwater, which can present high concentration of salts, heavy metals, and radioactive elements. The aim of the study was to determine isotopic uranium concentration in groundwater samples with high concentration of salts and its association with other chemical species. Samples were taken from wells with high salt content. The 238,234U radioisotope concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation and alpha-particle spectrometry. In addition, the physical-chemical parameters were recorded in situ; whereas the dissolved ions and elemental composition were measured by UV-Vis and X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, respectively. To obtain isotopic uranium concentrations, three radiochemistry procedures were carried out. An ANOVA test was performed to compare the results from procedures, as well as an analysis of Pearson correlation was used between parameters to obtain their associations. Statistically, the U isotopic concentrations did not show differences (p-value 0.82) between procedures. 238U and 234U showed mean concentrations of 6.7 mBq mL-1 and 16.6 mBq mL-1, respectively, with an Activity Ratioby up 7.2. The groundwater under study showed high concentration of TDS, calcium, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, and nitrite. Isotopic U concentrations tend to increase with NO3>Zn>Cl>Br>SO4>Cu>T>SDT>P; meanwhile their contents decrease with T>Cl->NO2>Fe. These findings help us to understand the uranium behavior in groundwater with high salt contents as well as the influence of agricultural supplies on chemical species presents in groundwater.
L. Sajo-Bohus, J. A. López, M. Castro-Colin
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 155-160; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82020

Adverse effects of long-term exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) pose a non negligible obstacle for future space exploration programs; the high-LET-particle-rich environment has an adverse effect on human health. Concomitant to GCR we have as well solar particle radiation. Long term space exploration will rely on adequate and highly efficient shielding materials that will reduce exposure of both biosystems and electronic equipment to GCR and solar particles. The shield must attenuate efficiently heavy GCR ions, by breaking them up into less-damaging fragments and secondary radiation: biologically damaging energetic neutrons and highly charged and energetic HZE- particles. An approach to this problem is the development of shielding compounds. Shielding materials should address the conditions of different aspects of a given mission, e.g. time duration and travel path. The Monte Carlo method (GEANT4) is here employed to estimate the effects of a shielding material based on the recently developed Bi2O3-based compound (Cao et al., 2020). In the present study GEANT4 code is used to make estimations of attenuation of solar protons. The objective is to provide some insight about the effect of the new composite shield that has an intrinsic capability for dose reduction.
A. Lima Flores, R. Palomino-Merino, V. M. Castaño, J. I. Golzarri, G. Espinosa
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 109-114; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82013

The “measuring device” is one of the most reliable, efficient and economic indoor radon dosimeters that exist. This device was developed by the Proyecto de Aplicaciones de la Dosimetría (PAD) at the Physics Institute of UNAM (IF-UNAM) and consists of a transparent rigid plastic cup, a CR-39 polycarbonate sheet and a standard size metal clip that is used to hold the polycarbonate in the center of the cup. The cup is wrapped and covered with a low-density polyurethane protector in order to prevent the detector from being irradiated by ionizing particles found in the environment. In this work, an analysis was carried out that allowed to understand how the radon concentration on the polycarbonate sheet varies when its height is changed with respect to the base of the plastic cup, in order to understand what position increase the probability of interaction between radon and the surface of the detector. For the development of this work, four computational simulations were performed with the technique called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The results shows that as the CR-39 is positioned more closed to the base of the cup, the probability of interaction of the radon and the detector increase. Based on these results it is concluded that, when there is a limit in the time in which a measuring device can be placed in the zone where it is desired to quantify indoor radon, it is recommended to collocated the CR-39 at 1 cm with respect to the base of the cup.
, Caraveo-Castro Carmen del Rocío, Méndez-García Carmen Grisel, Mendieta-Mendoza Aurora, Rentería-Villalobos Marusia, Cabral-Lares Rocío Magaly
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 115-120; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82014

Uranium is a radioactive element with a special presence in the rocks, waters, sediments, soils, and plants at the state of Chihuahua. The activity ratio of 238U/234U is used to explain the uranium transport by surface water and its deposition in arid environments. In this work, the activity concentration of natural U isotopes is determined by PERALS liquid scintillation and high-resolution alpha spectrometry (AS, Canberra camera 7401VR) in the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory (LVRA) at CIMAV, Chihuahua. Uranium is extracted from soils through the scintillating liquid extractor URAEX for PERALS, with chemical recovery (CR) of 80 - 85 %, and through the ion exchange resin UTEVA + electrode position by the Hallstadius method, with CR of 85 - 90 %, for AS. The procedures of 234U and 238U activity concentration (AC) determination in soils were validated by their application to the certified reference material IAEA-375. The resulting values were in the reference range of the certified or informative values. Both procedures were applied to 6 representative soil samples, with AC of the same order of magnitude or greater, and similar CR and compatible results. Both procedures are satisfactory for the purposes of LVRA research and in general.
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 191-196; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82025

Polymers currently represent materials that are cost-effective, while its recycled nature is significant in terms of environmental protection. However, the surface properties of polymers often do not meet the demands of wettability, adhesion, and friction, among others. Atmospheric plasma treatment on the surface of polymers improves its physical-chemistry properties. In this work, a recycled nylon coating was prepared by the spin coating technique and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This coating was treated by atmospheric plasma, and Raman spectroscopy was performed to analyze the signals related to different functional groups present in the coating surface after plasma treatment. The action of plasma on the surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The contact angle results showed an improvement in surface wettability.
O. Xosocotla, H. Martinez, B. Campillo
Journal of Nuclear Physics, Material Sciences, Radiation and Applications, Volume 8, pp 97-104; doi:10.15415/jnp.2021.82011

In this investigation, we studied the influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on the surface properties of polypropylene (PP). The PP samples were treated for various durations using a gliding arc plasma source with air as a working gas. The formation of polar groups (–OH and C = O) on the PP surface after plasma treatment was evaluated and analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The contact angle was measured using polar and non-polar liquids to obtain the polar and dispersive components as well as the surface free energy of the PP before and after treatment. A sevenfold increase after treatment was observed for the polar component, while hydrophobicity decreased 73% after treatment. Finally, changes in topography were observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis before and after plasma treatment. AFM images showed that under atmospheric treatment, the PP surface underwent etching, reducing the surface roughness. Microhardness measurements of the films also revealed significant changes in mechanical properties after plasma treatment.
I. M. Badhan, S. W. Ching
Published: 29 January 2021
Creative Space, Volume 8, pp 57-66; doi:10.15415/cs.2021.82005

Urban physical context can be analyzed across three key matrixes (3-P) among others i.e. place, path, and people. So, pragmatic analysis of spatial effective performances connecting 3-P, require provoking frequency of people’s experience. Acknowledging this issue, the demand for accessible neighbourhood green (ANG) at an appropriate distance becomes the primary concern to enhance the quality of life and liveability in a city. However, with the continued urban growth and densification, the discrepancy between the demand and supply of open space continues to vary requiring adjustments to remain responsive. The real-life circumstance results in a shortage of parks and open areas in terms of demand and supply within accessible distance in Dhaka city. This paper intends to examine this issue through the case of the planned Dhanmondi Residential Area (DRA) in Dhaka. Despite having provision of multiple open spaces in DRA, visitor’s frequency varies due to age and gender group accessibility conditions and varying distances. Considering existing spatial norms set by Detail Area Plan (DAP), Dhaka structure plan (DSP), and numerous research works on Dhaka open spaces, the major inquiry posed here is whether these open spaces are appropriate for DRA or not. Therefore, the objective of this paper focuses on examining the quality of the physical environment of Neighbourhood public open spaces termed here as accessible neighbourhood green (ANG) in DRA to examine their adequacy concerning proportion and distance synchronized with the frequency of visits. The initial part of the paper focuses on conceptualizing the problem vis-à-vis the existing scenario. Surveys and interviews have been conducted to assess people’s perceptions in terms of comfort, accessibility, sociability, and user frequency aligned with proximity. The result indicates that the provision of one appropriate ANG within two or three standard blocks apart contribute to enhancing the quality of life for the city dwellers and their liveability.
Vajahat Khursheed, Mohammad Taufique
Published: 29 January 2021
Creative Space, Volume 8, pp 49-56; doi:10.15415/cs.2021.82004

Horticulture industry is backbone of the economy of the Jammu and Kashmir, it has increased spontaneously from a recent couple of decades and had immensely impacted the socio-economic conditions of the inhabitants of the Rambiara Catchment. The study aimed to identify the varied land use and land cover categories prevailing over the Rambiara catchment and attempted to study the temporal changes. Multispectral images of the Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 were brought into use by making the LULC classes through the maximum supervised classification for the images of year 1999 and year 2019. Whole the study area was classified into eight major land cover categories i.e., Horticulture, Settlement, Water, Riverbed, Dense Forests, Sparce Forests and Waste Lands. The results obtained depicted that there was a large-scale positive change observed by the land cover categories of Horticulture +172.67 percent, Settlement +112.06 percent and sparse forest by +28.44 percent. The horticulture remained the highest achiever over the last 20 years and this is because of the high cash value realized from fruits, less agricultural production obtained from crops other than fruits and also due to changing climatic.
Vedant Shrivastava
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 15-21; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81003

During the COVID-19 crisis, millions of migrants daily-wage workers and homeless people around the world are facing food insecurity. This has forced migrants to travel to their hometowns during the pandemic thereby exposing them to greater health risks and also accelerating the risk of spread of virus. Anecdotal evidence demonstrates the importance of enforcing food security and distribution policies to tide the crisis. However, the effects of these policies on containing mobility during the crisis remain unknown. This paper presents a prototype of technology enabled e-PDS (pubic distribution system) and healthcare platform to connect different stakeholders i.e. people, government, NGOs.
Jasmeet Singh, Gurmeet Singh, Gurditt Singh
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 41-45; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81007

War of humanity against COVID-19 is stretching at this stage of time. In this paper, a solution has been proposed to sanitize the narrow roads and public areas with a robotic solution. Robot design proposed in this paper can be operated using a remote and that saves human beings from direct possible face off with COVID– 19 virus.. This Semi-Automatic machine proposed in the work has a built-in thermal scanner to scan the locals and also a walkie talkie to give further instructions to the person being scanned.Robot also has a carriage section that can transport medicine and food to the infected area. With this one robot, a large area such as slums, narrow roads, schools, and buildings etc. can be covered.
Prathamesh Samal, Sutirtha Roy, Akash Chauhan, Vishu Chauhan, Vaibhav Malhotra, Shivam Pundir, Swatantra Singh, Jatin Kanojia
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 27-33; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81005

In this time of great distress brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, hand sanitization is of utmost priority to prevent the transmission of germs. We have come forth with an innovative “automated sanitization device” which makes the process of hand sanitization and temperature screening rapid, automatic and easier. The proposed automated sanitization device contributes significantly to prevent the spread of the virus and also raises awareness to increase hygiene at public places. The concept of embedded systems with various sensors attached to a PCB has been used in designing of the device. This paper addresses the methodological details of proposed automated sanitization device while focusing on its technical as well as financial expects. The proposed device is anticipated to be used at various public places like workplaces, residences, railway stations etc. working of this model, addressing both the technical as well as the financial aspect.
Sundram Singh, Aditya Garg
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 35-40; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81006

An increase in the risk of COVID-19 spread led people, industries and the government to adopt various approaches for controlling the transmission rate of COVID-19 viruses. Although each approach has its advantages, but in terms of cost-effectiveness and flexibility, one approach i.e. Arduino based sanitizing systems have played an important role to prevent the coronavirus from spreading. In the direction of this research field, a lot of researchers have exerted great efforts to control the COVID-19 outbreak. However, an automatic door handle and knob sanitizer based on IR sensor and servo motor has not been reported till date as per our knowledge. Therefore, In this paper, we have demonstrated an automatic door handle sanitizer to sanitize the handle or knob of a door that is generally used by many people in houses, hospitals, and industries, etc. The reported work has been done to prevent people from getting infected by the coronavirus. If anyone gets infected by touching the contaminated door knob of any institution, house, hospital, etc., then it will have a severe effect on the person as well as on his country. In this regard, the reported system sanitizes the door handle to remove the virus from it as the person touches the door knob. The demonstrated system contains Arduino-Nano, Servo motor, Bread-board and an IR Sensor. It can be implemented in public places such as hospitals, companies where the doors are used frequently to break the chain of COVID-19 infection.
Chaitanya Rao, Aditya Garg
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 23-26; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81004

Agriculture has seen quite a good growth due to the latest machinery being used to maximize yield and minimize cost. People around the world are starting to understand the inherent potential and scope of automation and robotics in agriculture. However, there are many problems which continue to prevail like the non-availability of labour, poor and costly machinery, etc. So there is a need to address these existing problems. This project addresses the inherent difficulties in the agricultural field. It tries to provide a remarkable solution to many of the existing problems. This project, named PHAL is a rover type bot which canperform all the basic activities included in farming. It is fully autonomous, ecofriendly machine which can perform many tasks like ploughing, sowing, irrigation, harvesting etc. Using this machine, farmers can get rid of majority of the problems, all this at a very low cost.
Yukta Chauhan
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 11-14; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81002

The main objective of this paper is to present a cost effective and efficient safety kit in order to help fulfill the scarcity of PPE kits during COVID19 pandemic. These days it is quite essential to wear safety gears like masks, gloves, face shields etc. resulting in shortage of these items at some places and the second problem is that certain sections of people cannot afford to purchase these items. This paper presents methods to create cheap yet effective safety kits at home. The kit will require easily available material like cloth bag, biodegradable trash bag, polythene bag etc. and items like gown, cap, masks, and gloves can be made using these materials.
Masud Ur Rashid
Journal on Today's Ideas - Tomorrow's Technologies, Volume 8, pp 1-10; doi:10.15415/jotitt.2020.81001

Many of the private universities of Bangladesh have decided to continue their academic activities through online off-campus learning amid concerns that traditional classes could spread the COVID-19 virus. Teaching is moving online, on an untested and unprecedented scale. There are challenges and possibilities unveiling in the technical tertiary level education like Architecture. A Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) programme need to be comprising of both theory and sessional studio courses. The learning modes are not same for these two areas. Modification and new invention of teaching methods need to be introduced to coping of off-campus class. In this study, the first-hand experience of on-line teaching in B.Arch program of the author and the similar experience of faculties of the different universities of Bangladesh are triangulated to come up with a model of off-campus class. This article finds out the systematic process of teaching method to coping of off-campus class during the COVID-19 crisis for the Architecture pedagogy. The process has three domains and four major areas. The teacher’s domain and the student’s domain are connected through the domain of virtual classroom. The four major areas are live streaming, live discourse, prerecorded lecture and assignment and feedback. A well synchronization of these areas can establish the model of off-campus class for architecture pedagogy.
Vikram R. Jadhav, J.S. Aher, A.M. Bhagare, A.C. Dhaygude
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications, Volume 7, pp 1-6; doi:10.15415/jce.2020.71001

Background: The Novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan (China) during December 2019, has spread to the rest of the world until now (July 2020). COVID-19 infections are more prevalent in developed countries rather than in the fast-developing, and underdeveloped countries. Now novel COVID-19 infection is a global health problem. In a fast-developing country like India, the incidence of coronavirus infections is increasing day by day. The fifth phase of lockdown has started in India to reduce the incidence of infection.Purpose: The purpose of this study of the impact of lockdown on the India’s environment, according to the literature survey from various research papers, news, social networking, government data (websites), etc., indicates that the lockdown helping to reduce transit in India and at the same time has a great impact on reduced pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, etc., thus improving the balance of the environment after March 2020 onwards.Methods: In this work, we have used an online method using various online sources, which has mainly surveyed some important cities in India, have also studied the factors such as air pollution, river pollution, land pollution, etc. and its impact on Indian environment.Results: According to an online survey, lockdown has had a significant impact on the Indian environment, reducing the number of vehicles on the road that improving air quality, reducing river pollution, and having a positive impact on various fields. Lockdown has been very beneficial to the environment.Conclusions: The observations from various parts of the sources show that reduced pollution has also reduced the number of patients in hospitals, mainly jaundice (yellow fever), chikungunya, typhoid, respiratory diseases, etc. This review article explains the brief analysis of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on India’s environment.
Ram Naraian, Abhishek Kumar Bhardwaj Abhishek
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications, Volume 7, pp 13–18-13–18; doi:10.15415/jce.2020.71003

The present study was aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)using the extract of oyster mushroom Pleurotuscitrinopileatus and its use in antibacterial testing. This green synthesis approach of silver NPs is very fast, simple, environmentally friendly and economical. The initial confirmation of silver NPs synthesis was observed with the alteration of the colour of the solution from colourless to wine red. The prepared nano-material was further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM revealed particle size of synthesized AgNPsbetween the range of 11-13 nm. The bactericidal efficacy of silver NPstested against Escherichia coli confirmed the lowest 50 µg/L concentration of silver NPs bactericidal. Therefore based the observations of the study silver NPsat the level of its 50 µg/L can be used for the purposes of potential water disinfection, killing of bacteria, disinfection of medical equipments, wound washings, preservation of food stuffs and in hand sanitization.
Ojah Emmanuel Onah, Kachi Jolly Babangida
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications, Volume 7, pp 7-12; doi:10.15415/jce.2020.71002

Background: Micro-organisms are responsible for the transmission of a large number of diseases. It is hard to comprehend the amount of diseases, deaths and economic losses caused by micro-organisms alone. Plants are good sources of eco-friendly and readily available antimicrobial agents. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical constituents and antimicrobial characteristics of three fractions from ethnomedicinal Icacina trichantha. Oliv. (Icacinaceae).Methods: Methanol extract from Icacina trichantha. Oliv was obtained by maceration and fractionated successively using hexane, and ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial properties of Icacina trichantha. Oliv was assessed using agar cup diffusion method on MRSA, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, C. krusei, S. dysenteriae, S. pyrogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, C. albicans, and C. tropicalis. Phytochemical screening on fractions was also evaluated using standard methods.Results: Phytochemical screening on fractions revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, and glycosides. Agar diffusion assay on fractions showed growth inhibitory effect on all the organisms except P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, and C. tropicalis. The MIC revealed that n-hexane fraction was active against MRSA, S. pyrogenes, E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. albicans and C. krusei at 10 mg/mL while S. dysenteriae was active at 5 mg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction was active against all the organisms at a concentration of 5 mg/mL except P.aeruginosa, S.typhi and C.tropicalis. Methanol fraction showed activity of 5 mg/mL against MRSA, S. pyrogenes, E. coli, S. dysenteriae, C. albicans and C. krusei except for K. pneumoniae with activity at 10 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration/fungicidal concentration MBC/MFC evaluated on the n-hexane fraction revealed that MRSA, S. pyrogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. dysenteriae, C. albicans, and C. krusei were activeat 20 mg/mL, while the ethyl acetate fraction had MBC/MFC of 10 mg/mL against all the organisms except P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, C. tropicalis. Methanol extract had MBC/MFC of 10 mg/mL against MSRA, E.coli and S. dysenteriae whereas S. pyrogenes, K. pneumoniae, C. albicans and C. krusei had MBC/MFC at 20 mg/mL.Conclusion: Icacina trichantha. Oliv. contain constituents with concentration dependent antimicrobial properties based on type of organism. The plant could be useful in the prevention and treatment of multi-resistant disease causing microorganisms.
Varsha Sharma
Journal of Chemistry, Environmental Sciences and its Applications, Volume 7, pp 19–23-19–23; doi:10.15415/jce.2020.71004

Background: Mother Nature cares for every creature on this earth but in return we failed to show gratitude and care for our beloved Mother Nature.The Phenomenon: As a consequence our Mother Earth strikes back in the form of pandemic like COVID 19. Review of literature indicated that there is a significant change in the all over state of environment during this lockdown period.Origin of the Problem: This is a time for cognitive shift in our attitudes towards nature. We have to leave the former way of treating ourselves as the highest creature of God and the only eligible one to deserve the benefits of nature but we have to follow the rule of coexistences. We have to reconnect with our environment and protect the Mother Nature.Purpose: Present paper aims to critically evaluate the issues related to the shift in attitude towards nature during COVID 19 and suggesting psychological strategies for maintaining this changed attitude. Methodology: An online survey using Google form was done to record the change in attitude towards nature in COVID-19 pandemic.Results: Findings revealed that CORONA is challenging in many ways but it provides some positive lessons like Connect reconnect with nature, Own to our approach, Respect Mother Nature, Organized planning for nature concerns, New opportunity to revive nature, Assured healthy environment for future.
Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Pradeepta Kumar Sarangi, Rajeev Gupta
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies, Volume 11, pp 49-53; doi:10.15415/jtmge.2020.112006

In almost all countries, classroom teaching has been suspended from mid March 2020 and currently no fresh dates have been announced by Governments to start the date. In view of this, almost all educational institutions in India are offering a variety of alternative teaching learning platforms to their students, whether Government run Institutions or privately run Institutions. The Institutions also conducted or planning to conduct their internal or final examinations through various platforms. In this paper, a number of online options for teaching and evaluation are discussed. The study is limited to India and discussion of software based platforms, whether web based or mobile apps based are considered. The research is limited to higher education sector specifically in undergraduate engineering education.
Puninder Kaur, Taruna Sharma, Jaswinder Singh
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies, Volume 11, pp 55-61; doi:10.15415/jtmge.2020.112007

In the recent era, the demand of the internet is increasing. The Internet is global computer network that provide the sharing of data and information. Internet is useful in every field. It modifies the way of working, living style and contributed positive impact on our life. With the raising of the demand new tools and technologies are developed. The internet is classified in various generations depends on the functionality and key features. In this paper the generations of the internet and functionality are discussed. The internet has 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 that provides internet protocols. Internet 4.0 and 5.0 are grownup and it works on wireless and sensor network devices. With the development of new generation the data rate, flexibility, Quality of service, performance and many other features are improved. In this survey focus on the features, techniques and tools provided by each generation.
Amandeep Kaur, Madhu Dhiman, Mansi Tonk, Ramneet Kaur
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies, Volume 11, pp 41-47; doi:10.15415/jtmge.2020.112005

Artificial Intelligence is the combination of machine and human intelligence, which are in research trends from the last many years. Different Artificial Intelligence programs have become capable of challenging humans by providing Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Robotics, Natural Language Processing, Face Recognition and Speech Recognition. Artificial Intelligence brings a bright future for different technical inventions in various fields. This review paper shows the general concept of Artificial Intelligence and presents an impact of Artificial Intelligence in the present and future world.
Anshu Singla, Nishu Bali, Deepika Chaudhary
Journal of Technology Management for Growing Economies, Volume 11, pp 63-67; doi:10.15415/jtmge.2020.112008

In times when everything is online, one thing which is common in every application is the use of data. Data is being generated every second, when applications are generating exponentially larger data sets every second it’s the big data which comes into effect. The major objective of this paper is to state the meaning of big data, figure out various ways as how to digest this data. Further this paper will also focus on the applications of Big Data in multiple segments: Finance, Banking and Securities and Health Care Sector .
Ashutosh Biswal, Kamakshi Raipure
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 77-85; doi:10.15415/iie.2020.82008

Productive thinking is the cognitive ability to plan, reason logically, analyse, synthesize, evaluate, and make decision to reach at the solution of the problem or we can say that it is the ability by which one can refine their creative work with critical thinking to give strength and value to it. It is a way to solve problems creatively. For this research, a model has been developed called as FIESI (Foundation, Ideation, Evaluation, Stabilization and Implication) for fostering productive thinking. Researchers conducted an experiment to foster productive thinking among VIII standard students with the help of this model as elementary level is delimited to standard VIII. Quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design was used. Two Kendriya Vidyalayas (Central Schools) were selected purposively for experiment purpose. One section of standard VIII from each school was selected as the sample for the experiment and control groups. Students of both the classes were made equivalent on the basis of a science achievement test. The equivalent groups consist of 26 students each. Researchers taught Science to the experimental group for one academic year (2019-2020) using FIESI model and the control group was taught by their regular teachers. Researchers developed and validated a productivethinking test for data collection. Data were analysed using chi-square. The finding revealed that FIESI model was found significant in fostering productive thinking among standard VIII students.
Dn Sansanwal
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 49-53; doi:10.15415/iie.2020.82005

Examination is a part and parcel of Teaching-Learning Process. In examination or tests different types of question are asked by teachers. These are Essay, Short Answer, Multiple Choice, Fill-in the Blanks, and Matching Types. These are not very suitable for Open Book Examination. Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology were developed for the research. It is a new type of question which can be used by school, College and University teachers irrespective of the subject taught by them. The objective of this research was to study the influence of Discipline, Gender and their interaction on Performance of participants on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology. The Hypothesis formulated in null form was there is no significant influence of Discipline, Gender and their interaction on Performance of participants on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology. This study was conducted on Sample of 423 Deans, Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, Research Fellows and Postgraduate students from 26 states and six countries. Data were collected online using WhatsApp and emails during Covid-19 period. The findings were: (1) Social Science participants were found to have better understanding of Research Methodology than Science as well as Humanities participants. Further Science as well as Humanities participants were found to similar understanding of Research Methodology. (2) Male and Female Participants were found to perform equally well on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology. (3) Performance on Multiple Answers Type Items in Research Methodology was found to be independent of interaction between Discipline and Gender of Participants.
Sarabjit Kaur
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 57-66; doi:10.15415/iie.2020.82006

Background: National Education Policy 2020 aims to eliminate existing disparities in access to education for children from any gender or any under-represented group. After independence, India makes considerable strides in reducing gender gaps in education, but even today the goal of gender parity in school enrolments remains elusive. India provides Universal Elementary Education to all and this commitment has been articulated through Constitution, National Education Policies and other Innovative Programmes. All these initiatives put a strong emphasis on the education of girls and some of the programmes have been started particularly to eliminate gender gaps in school education. Purpose: This paper is an attempt to review the Innovative Programmes started by the Government of India to redress the gender gaps in school education and also to analyze the impact of these programmes on female literacy rates and enrolment rates of girls in elementary education. Before analyzing the innovative programmes and their impact on educational statistics, the paper briefly assesses the status of education in the Constitution of India and also studies the national policy perspective regarding universal elementary education of girls in the country in order to provide a sound background to this study. Methods: The method of document analysis for the review of policy documents and innovative programmes has been utilized and trend analysis method has been applied to study the educational statistics from the year 1950 to 2015. Results: The female literacy rates and enrolment of girls in total enrolments for the classes VI-VIII have registered an increase after the implementation of these programmes. Conclusions: It has been observed that these community-based programmes of the country have received a lot of international recognition for their contribution towards reducing gender gaps in elementary education. So, the experiences of these Innovative Programmes can prove quite beneficial for other countries struggling with gender gaps in school education.
Ajit Mondal
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 39-48; doi:10.15415/iie.2020.82004

Background: The nitty-gritty of the teacher education chiefly rests on its curriculum implementation at institutional level, transaction in classrooms, assessment, evaluation, as well as the degree of its suitability. Thanks to the NCTE Regulations (Norms and Standards), 2014, the duration of the B. Ed. Programme has been extended from one year to two years across India from academic session 2015-16 to prepare the teachers professional and well-equipped with sound theoretical knowledge and pedagogical skills. However, the attitude of the teacher-educators and pupil teachers towards Two-Year B. Ed. Programme matters to a great extent for its assessing suitability of the new regulations. Purpose: The present study has been undertaken to review only ten selective research studies only on the attitude of the teacher-educators and pupil-teachers towards the Two-Year B. Ed. Programme, aiming at grasping their attitudinal status or trend in a single frame with a broader spectrum of views value towards the Programme.Methods: The review-based content analysis method was adopted and its approach was qualitative for analysing the attitude of the Teacher-Educators and Student-Teachers towards two-year B. Ed. Programme.Results: the entire gamut of the Two-Year B. Ed. Programme under the NCTE Regulations, 2014 is effective and more promising for preparing professional and accountable teachers from the lens of the teacher-educators. Only the student-teachers need to be oriented with prescribed theoretical knowledge base through viable pedagogical strategies as most of the student-teachers have not hold favourable attitude towards the Two-Year B. Ed. Programme. Conclusion: As a whole, the attitudinal trend among the teacher educators and pupil-students towards the two year B. Ed. Programme irrespective gender, locality, experience and types of institution hints at the pressing need to ensure that all the B. Ed. Institutions must comply with the norms and standards stipulated in the NCTE Regulations, 2014 for preparing professional and accountable teachers in the future ahead.
Chinmaya Prakash, Shubha Chandra Shubha Chandra
Issues and Ideas in Education, Volume 8, pp 67-76; doi:10.15415/iie.2020.82007

Background: In recent years, the importance of school as a stake-holder in CSR activities is gaining recognition. Companies channel financial and human resources into developing schools. School Development and Monitoring Committee (SDMC) plays an important part in the management of Primary schools in Karnataka and as such should have a role in CSR activities. Purpose: This exploratory study attempted to answer the following questions- (1) How aware are SDMC members of CSR and its role in schools (2) what is their perception of CSR in their schools? (3) Do rural and urban SDMC members differ in their perception of CSR Methods: Sample consisted of SDMC members from 50 rural and 50 urban Government run primary schools in Bangalore Educational districts. 100 SDMC members, one from each school, were interviewed using a semi structured information schedule developed for this study. Results: Management is not very clear about the nature of CSR support . However, 75% of them perceive CSR as beneficial to their schools. Rural subjects have a more favourable perception of CSR impact and they differ significantly from urban counterparts in rating ‘ how CSR has benefited students’ (t = 2.052).Conclusions: SDMC members do not clearly distinguish between support provided under CSR and support received from other sources. Overall, CSR is seen as beneficial to school by supplementing government support and helping the management. Rural schools seem to benefit more from CSR support. Though SDMC is supposed to monitor the developmental activities of the school, they are not often consulted by companies about the requirements for the school. Involving SDMC in planning, executing and monitoring would enhance the efficacy of CSR programmes.
I. O. Dada, I. A. Igbe
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare, Volume 7, pp 33-48; doi:10.15415/jmrh.2020.71003

Overweight and obesity is a risk factor to chronic non-communicable diseases. This study assessed level of overweight/obesity and blood pressure among students of a higher institution in Southwest Nigeria. This cross-section study involved 300 students of a public higher institution in Ado-Ekiti, Southwest, Nigeria. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on personal characteristics, feeding pattern and lifestyle of the students. Body Mass Index (BMI) was categorized into normal weight (BMI
Jib Acharya, Edwin Van Teijlingen, J Murphy Murphy, Basma Ellahi
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare, Volume 7, pp 1-12; doi:10.15415/jmrh.2020.71001

Background: This study explores food beliefs among poor mothers related to feeding their offspring. Mothers’ misconception of a healthy diet is one of the major causes of nutritional problems in preschool-aged children in Nepal and these beliefs and attitudes can result in the inappropriate feeding of young children. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were:• identify major barriers for recommending healthy food that are associated with existing cultures, religions and ethnic divisions;• assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about nutritious food amongst mothers;• assess health-seeking behaviour for children of low socio-economic status. Methods: Study used a qualitative focus group discussion. Fifty participants took part in seven focus groups to explore their food beliefs. The qualitative focus groups aimed to collect in-depth information around food beliefs and data were thematically analysed. Results: The study identified six key themes: (a) poverty; (b) knowledge; (c) policy; (d) beliefs about breastfeeding; (e) food beliefs: and (f) health-seeking behaviours/cultural influences. Many participants thought that illiterate and underserved populations are generally exposed due to financial scarcity, poor knowledge and strongly rooted in cultural practices, and beliefs. This study found ‘diversified views’ as a major barrier to food and health-seeking behaviours. Some groups recognised the negative effects of existing beliefs and taboos. However, the spiritual healers highlighted the importance of linking beliefs with cultural and religious norms and values. They showed the complex relationships between food and health-seeking behaviours and food recommendations with financial status and the perceived cultural practices of society. Conclusions: This study suggests that a public health approach is needed to address nutrition problems associated with behaviour and revealed major barriers which were associated with poverty, resources, and mothers’ education level.
Anurag Kanaujia
Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in Healthcare, Volume 7, pp 13-31; doi:10.15415/jmrh.2020.71002

Background: Early detection can decrease incidences of mortality related to cancer in India. Primary tests at detection centres (generally established in urban areas and mobile facilities), need to be followed by specialized cancer centric tests. This leaves a gap for discontinuation of diagnostic process. Other factors like the prevalence of Complimentary and Alternate medicine systems (CAM), availability of mainstream healthcare services, cultural and social beliefs need to be understood for new formats for diagnosis and treatment to be devised for minimizing delay in cancer diagnosis. Objective: This study was conducted in order:i. To understand role of various extrinsic factors in the development of cancer diagnostics and reason for adoption of CAM treatment strategies. And,ii. To develop a holistic understanding of these factors and their role in influencing delay in diagnosis of cancer in the Indian population. Methods: Through comprehensive analysis from a systems point of view, problems with systemic, economical, technological and socio-cultural factors emerged as reasons for slow development in the fight against cancer. Existing diagnostic and awareness dissemination networks are also analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses. Case studies on problems in early detection of cancer have pinned cognitive barriers like attitude, social practices and information to be the primary cause for low detection rates and high mortality. Interestingly, many studies point at “people’s attitude towards the disease” as a major bottleneck in adoption of mainstream medicine treatment. Results: This paper presents a review of multiple studies about factors influencing cancer diagnostics and treatment in India. Incorporating these factors, some postulates of a nascent model for development and recalibration of cancer diagnostic network are proposed. Cancer diagnostics involves tackling preconceived notions about cancer, challenging established sociocultural systems and reshaping social practices and people’s lifestyle. Public outreach programs (like camps, community events, ASHA workers and celebrity brand ambassadors) can be effective in changing attitudes in rural areas. Conclusions: CAM therapies are a group of traditional and modern medical practices that offer a pantheon of opportunities, however they can be dangerous to patients’ health if not used wisely. We support the suggestions made by other authors that an approach in integrative oncology may be effective for utilizing best of mainstream and complementary cancer treatment practices.
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