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South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430311

Abstract:
To strengthen the donor funding, the requesting governments should have a clear idea about the donor agencies, their priority fields and the ways to contact them and communicate with them. For this special purpose, countries are compelled to build up concise formats called “donor profiles” and to distribute this information among health organizations in the country to develop project proposals to fulfil the requirements specified in the profile of the preferred donor to ensure approval and allocation of funding for the requested project.
M. H. Ali, M. H. Zaman, M. A. Islam, P. Biswas, N. N. Karim, M. A. Kader
Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research pp 18-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i430181

Abstract:
The study was conducted for assessing water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes of groundwater sources. Total 50 water samples were collected from different locations of Nachol and Niamatpurupazilla of Chapainawabgonj and Naogaon district in January 2019 and January 2020. Water quality parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (Ec), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), total hardness (TH), alkalinity, sulphate (SO4), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), ammonia (NH4), phosphate (PO4), chloride (Cl), dissolved oxygen (DO), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were analyzed in the laboratory. All the analyzed parameters were compared with national and international drinking and irrigation water quality standards to understand the overall groundwater quality status of the study area. The study showed that the water samples of almost all the locations were suitable for consumption and irrigation.
, Assohoun-Djeni Nanouman Marina Christell, Coulibaly Bakary, Kouassi Kouassi Clément
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130397

Abstract:
Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological parameters that could contribute to the depreciation of the quality of unfermented palm sap used for infant feeding. Study Design: A survey was conducted in 20 villages and camps to determine if the practice was still current. Also, unfermented sap was produced from 5 palms by resource persons to control the quality during the days of exploitation. Place and Duration of Study: The survey was carried out from March 1st to 30th in villages and camps in Central and Central-Western Cote d'Ivoire. The production of the sap took place during one week in the village of Akpessekro. Methodology: 30 people, without distinction randomly crossed were questioned on the food consumed at the age of 0 to 6 months. Also, in the unfermented sap produced acidity, sugar content, loads of GAM, thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, yeasts and molds were determined and multiple correlations were established between all parameters. Results: In the villages and camps, palm sap is less and less used as infant food. During the first two days of palm farming, the acidity (6 < pH < 6.11) approximates that of breast milk or milk substitutes. However, after these two days, the acidity becomes high and the sugar content too low for infant feeding. In the unfermented sap, the loads of coliform fecal contamination germs are higher than the required standards. Also, the large load of lactic acid bacteria (≥1.5E+04 ufc/ml) and yeasts (1.4E+04 ufc/ml) present in the sap contribute to a depreciation of its quality over the days and when the sap is left to rest. Conclusion: The quality of unfermented palm sap as infant food is not guaranteed. This is one of the reasons why this practice is in decline nowadays.
, Christina Pacheco, Stela Mirla Da Silva Felipe, Jannison Karlly Ribeiro Cavalcante, Paulo Elesson Oliveira, Denner Silvino Da Silva, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto
International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review pp 31-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630274

Abstract:
Aims: The present study aimed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in rats submitted to strenuous exercise and in silico investigation of the biological implication of the findings. Place and Duration of Study: The in vivo experiments and analyses were performed in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Gene Expression – LABIEX of the Superior Institute of Biomedical Science – ISCB from the State University of Ceará. Between 2017-2020. Methodology: The study was performed using as subjects 2-month-old male wistar rats, which initially were submitted to 2-week adaptation training. Later the animals were separated in two distinct groups, control (C) and trained (T), where only T performed a single session of strenuous exercise, while C were not submitted to this treatment. The applied exercise protocol consisted in a running training in treadmill with speed constant increasing until the animal exhaustion which was measured by the animal refusal to keep running. After 24h, soleus muscle was desiccated and submitted to RNAseq sequencing protocols. Obtained data were statistically evaluated in R environment with EBSeq package, to characterize and predict the miRNAs and their targets were used bioinformatics tools Gene Cards, mi RBase enrichR and KEGG. Results: Two differentially expressed miRNAs were found, mir145 and mir 186, both with downregulated expression pattern in strenuous exercise. These miRNAs have a total of 1201 predicted target genes, 67 were repeated and mostly correlate to cardiovascular disease pathways, between those 5 were differentially expressed as down-regulated. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings suggest that mir186 and mir145 down-regulation profile mediated by strenuous exercise implicates in the non-alteration of the target genes expression profile, and consequently did not mediate alterations in the pathways they are evolved, which are mainly related to signaling and disorders.
, Manjusha Mahakarkar, Bali Thool
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 66-71; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32990

Abstract:
Introduction: Cervical dysplasia is a term used to describe a condition that is on the verge of becoming malignant where aberrant cell proliferation takes place on the cervix or endocervical canals surface lining. Another name for it is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can occur at any age. It has a strong relationship to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection spread through sexual contact. Case History: A case of 34 year old woman admitted in gynecology unit on date June 3, 2021, a month ago when she started experiencing pain in abdomen. It was insidious in onset, continuous type, not associated with bleeding per vaginal. Patient has previous history of five abortions. Patient underwent investigations like complete blood count, kidney function test, liver function test, radiographic investigations and colposcopy where she was found to have moderate dysplasia and chronic cervicitis. Histopathology report also indicated moderate dysplasia with chronic cervicitis. Interventions: Primarily, the pain management is necessary for such patients. Later on all further investigations and procedures performed to confirm the diagnosis and treat the patient accordingly. The aim during the treatment is to safeguard the life and further complications. Outcomes: Over this period of long course treatment, the patient significantly reduced the severity of infection and pain. Improved the daily activities, appetite and sleep. Progress of patient towards her goal of recovering as early as possible. Discussion: The patients response was quite good to treatment, however additional interventions could be used in the future for her greater improvements in disease.
, M. Santhosh Kumar, N. C. Mamatha, G. Siva Koteswara Rao, P. Chakradhar, G. Vikas Kumar
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 202-207; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2130673

Abstract:
Modern-day intensive strawberry cultivation relies on huge application of inorganic fertilizers, which not only disrupt the balance of nature but also reduce the economic efficiency; however, it cannot be eliminated at this time without drastically decreasing its production. Hence, to tackle these problems for sustainable production of crops, bio-fertilizers and organic manures are the best alternatives. The principle of this review is based on the goal of reducing synthetic fertilizers and other chemical input usage in strawberry production. The review discusses the diffuse nature of current reports in the literature concerning microbes as inputs towards a better use efficiency of fertilizers and the possibility of reducing the total amount of fertilizer usage and sustainable and quality strawberry production. Studies with bio-inoculants in combination with inorganic nutrients have proved that some inoculants such as Azotobactor, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Mycorrhizae fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium can increase the nutrient uptake of strawberry plant and increased fertilizers use efficiency. Biofertilizers in combination with inorganic fertilizers and organic manures have significant impact on plant growth (i.e., state some of the parameters here), yield (i.e., state some of the parameters here) and quality (i.e., state some of the parameters here). Likewise, organic manures improve soil physical conditions and supply all essential macro elements and microelements. These confirmations of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in strawberry.
, Jaya Pranoykumar Gawai, Tessy Sebastian, Trupti Uke, Dharti Meshram, Shabnam Sayyad, Samual Vanlalpeka
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 72-77; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32991

Abstract:
Paranoid is the most common delusion in people living with schizophrenia spectrum disorders which are present in about half of all people seeking treatment for a psychotic disorder. Schizophrenia is a persistent mental illness characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, and cognitive impairment. Capgras syndrome is a form of the delusional belief in which a person has been replaced by an imposter. It can be seen in mental disorders as well as in central nervous system diseases in the form of neurodegenerative and non- neurodegenerative diseases The Capgras Syndrome is not an unusual condition, but an infrequent one which is possibly often unnoticed. A 48- years- old woman was admitted in female psychiatric ward with known case of paranoid schizophrenia with capgras syndrome. In the present case, the treatment approach was mainly somatic therapy i.e. psychopharmacotherapy, Electro convulsive Therapy (ECT) and psychological therapy. Psychiatric nurses have to play an important role to identify the symptoms and they should think critically, take action immediately to provide care to such type of patients.
S. Nanthakumar, C. Kuralarasu, A. Gopikrishnan
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2021/v40i3031543

Abstract:
Aim: Genetically complementary parents and amount of heritability of economic traits determines the successful development of breeding population, hybrids and varieties. The studies on heterosis and combining ability are useful in formulating effective breeding strategies and selection of suitable parents for crosses in breeding program. Study Design: During the study period24 F1hybrids and their 10 parents were evaluated along with commercial check (‘Shakthi’) in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replication. Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted at Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College farm, Kalavai, Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state during summer 2014. Methodology: The experimental material consist of 24 F1 hybrids developed from six lines (EC755648, EC755653, EC 755654, IC52303, IC755652 IC111515 ) and three tester (Arakka Anamika, Parbhani, Pusa Sawani VRO 22 ). These were evaluated along with commercial check (‘Shakthi’) in a randomized block design with three replication. The observation were recorded for 14 yield and yield contributing characters. Results: The results inferred that the predominance of non-additive gene action was observed for all the traits. Among the parents, the overall study of gca effects suggested that parent EC 755648 and Parbhanikranti were significant general combiner for yield, these can be used to improve hybrids with desirable traits in future. Significant positive SCA effects were found for all the studied traits. Conclusion: Among the hybrids, EC755653 x ArakkaAnamikaand IC111515 x ParbhaniKrantishowed desirable standard heterosis percentage over the check Shakthi along with good sca effects and per se performance for yield and other important yield contributing traits, thus it can be effectively be exploited in hybrid breeding programme.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i419097

Abstract:
COVID-19-related disruption in teaching in the University of Botswana led the school to prepare new strategies for running classes and to design innovative way of instruction. The most notable change was to replace face-to-face lectures with online teaching at least partially (blended teaching and learning). This posed many challenges, especially in the teaching of science and technology subjects. In a laboratory-based discipline such as chemistry the problems encountered were especially daunting. Moreover, writing mathematical equations, chemical reactions and reaction mechanisms posed their own difficulties. The present communication provides a brief overview of how chemistry education at the University, the premier national university of Botswana, has been transformed during the last three semesters. It is based on experience of the author and as judged by the feed-back received from colleagues and the students. Admittedly, the experience is limited and much discussion is still in progress to meet the unresolved challenges. Theory classes at undergraduate levels are now mostly taught online using packages such as Moodle and MS Teams. The tutorial and laboratory sessions have faced the greatest disruptions and the instructors continue to explore ways to conduct these virtually. Online examinations were found to be limited in their effectiveness, especially in the assessment of drawing chemical structure and reaction mechanisms as well as the students’ ability in scientific writing.
Oluwalana T. Oyekale, Bola O. Ojo, Damilola E. Oguntunmbi, Oluwatoyin I. Oyekale
Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrid/2021/v8i330237

Abstract:
Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are among the commonest infectious diseases requiring hospitalization. There is an increasing resistance development of bacterial pathogens of LRTIs to the commonly prescribed antibiotics necessitating regular surveillance for these bacteria and their antibiogram. Aim: To identify bacterial pathogens of adult LRTIs, determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and suggest the best empirical treatment of adult LRTIs in the setting. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 194 respiratory samples from 194 consecutive consenting adult in-patient of a Federal Teaching Hospital were processed. Identification of isolated bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates were carried out following the standard protocol. Results: Bacteria isolation was seen in 52.1% of all specimens, highest isolation rate was from sputum (55.2%). Isolation was higher in males (54.9%) than females (48.1%) but no significant difference was seen (P=0.36). Gram negative bacteria were predominantly isolated (64.4%) and Klebsilla pneumoniae was the most common (33.7%). Eight extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were also detected. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. All MRSAs were sensitive to vancomycin. There was poor sensitivity pattern seen against most antibiotics tested. Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria were the predominant bacterial pathogen isolated, and isolates were resistant to most antibiotics tested, though, all were sensitive to carbapenems. Levofloxacin plus gentamicin, and carbapenems were the suggested first and second line empirical treatment of choice respectively for adult LRTIs in this and similar settings.
Tawalare Kiran, Chavan Sucheta, Tawalare Kalpana, Meshram Sumedh
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 182-188; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33002

Abstract:
Ayurveda, the native healthcare system of India, is a rich resource of well-documented ancient medical knowledge. Although the roots of this knowledge date back to the Vedic and post-Vedic eras, it is generally believed that a dedicated branch for healthcare was gradually established approximately between 400 BC and 200 AD. Objective of this review is to hint at preliminary understanding of ancient concept of simulation and to record the Ayurveda as trailblazer when reviewing the mile stone in the history of simulation. Literature regading simulation were collected through various search engeens like as PubMed, Medline, Google scholar. Classical text of Ayurveda Charak, Sushrut, Vagbhat and Chakrapani, Dalhan commentary were reffered to collect ancient view of simulation. Literature available was analysed critically. It was found that preliminary concept of simulation hinted in Ayurveda as imblaze in establishing the basic concept of simulation.
, Naveen P. Singh, Pramod Kumar, Rabindra Nath Padaria, Ranjit Kumar Paul
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 67-78; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030494

Abstract:
The study was carried out for ten Agro climatic zones in Karnataka state in India. The temperature and rainfall data were used for analysis from 1979-2019 which is about 40 years. Understanding spatiotemporal rainfall pattern, Rainfall Anomaly Index which is drought indicator technique was used to classify the positive and negative severities in rainfall anomalies. The RAI ranges below 0.2 are considered as dry zone. The analysis resulted that, all zones are falls in category of dry zone with range of 0.2 to 0.4. For past five years, North Eastern Transition Zone was noted maximum times falling in the range of RAI below 0.2 and near to zero. Statistical techniques like linear trend estimation, R square was used for trend estimation across annual, seasonal to identify the variation in the temperature across different zones. The meaningful statistically significant achieves when there is r2≥0.65 and p≤0.05. It was analysed that, hilly Zone experienced decreased trend in both minimum and maximum temperature in all seasons which ultimately reflected in annual temperature to decrease with high R square values.
D. Samaila, G. N. Shu’Aibu, B. A. Modu
Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science pp 17-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamcs/2021/v36i930398

Abstract:
The use of finite group presentations in signal processing has not been exploit in the current literature. Based on the existing signal processing algorithms (not necessarily group theoretic approach), various signal processing transforms have unique decomposition capabilities, that is, different types of signal has different transformation combination. This paper aimed at studying representation of finite groups via their actions on Signal space and to use more than one transformation to process a signal within the context of group theory. The objective is achieved by using group generators as actions on Signal space which produced output signal for every corresponding input signal. It is proved that the subgroup presentations act on signal space by conjugation. Hence, a different approach to signal processing using group of transformations and presentations is established.
S. Nanthakumar, K. Krithika, M. Prabhu
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030445

Abstract:
An investigation was carried out to assess the effect of planting materials on physiological parameters, cassava mosaic incidence and yield of Cassava varieties viz. H-226 and CO.2 at the Department of Vegetable crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore during September 2010 to June 2011. The experiments were laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with four treatments and three replications in two varieties. The results revealed that the tissue culture plants were found be the best in virtue of its high leaf area index, net assimilation rate, dry matter content, tuber yield (26.33 t ha-1) and least incidence of cassava mosaic virus. Among the varieties, CO.2 showed less incidence of CMD. The tissue cultured plants may be recommended to farmers to reduce mosaic disease incidence and get maximum yield in cassava.
M. H. Ali, M. H. Zaman, M. A. Islam, P. Biswas, N. N. Karim, M. A. Kader
Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research pp 28-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaar/2021/v16i430183

Abstract:
The study was carried out for investigation and analysis of long-term (45 years) monthly rainfall data of Rajshahi from 1975 to 2019 for better selection of crops and agricultural technology in this region of Bangladesh. The rainfall trend was determined using parametric and non-parametric method. Probability analysis of rainfall was performed for estimation of dry, wet, and average year rainfall. The results revealed negative trend of yearly rainfall, but it is statistically insignificant. By non-parametric method, ‘no trend’ was observed for yearly rainfall. Increasing trend of monthly rainfall during March and May and decreasing trend in other months were observed. The rainfall deficit period continued from November to March, and in some instant up to April (rainfall
, P. Muralidharan
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 104-113; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32995

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate the hydro alcoholic effect of Brahmi against propionic acid-induced behavior and memory impairment in rat model. Study Design: This includes preclinical study on Sprague Dawley rats in which Propionic acid induced and evaluation of in vivo and in vitro models were performed. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, C L Baid Metha College of Pharmacy Jan 2019 to June 2021. Methodology: We include a total of 27 adult Sprague Dawley Rats and induced propionic acid intracerebroventricular route to induce autism. Drug treatment using hydro alcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri was given in 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was compared with negative group rats and control groups. In vivo parameters like Actophotometer and marble burying test was done, In vitro analysis of Serotonin and Glutamate was estimated in the above treated groups. Results: The locomotor activity of rat was recorded individually for each animal using Actophotometer. HAEBM (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) treated rat produced an increase in the level of significance (P<0.0001) on day one. In marble burying test Rats were located for thirty minutes in a standard cage covered with 5 cm depth of wood chip bedding with ten marbles evenly spaced. HAEBM (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.001) level of burying when compared to group-II rats (P<0.01). In this research study 5HT level showed a significant (P<0.001) increase in Group III, Group IV when compared with group-II (P<0.01). Glutamate is an excitatory Neurotransmitter. Group II showed significant increase (P<0.001) in the level of Glutamate but on drug treated groups III and IV shows decrease in concentration of glutamate. Conclusion: The present study findings showed that the hydro alcoholic root extract of brahmi possesses neuroprotective activity with significant nootropic effects. The hydro alcoholic root extract of Bacopa monnieri. L showed the presence of various Gabapentin and flavonoids phenols may be the reason for its neuroprotection and memory improvement effects.
Manobharathi Vengaimaran, Kalaiyarasi Dhamodharan, Mirunalini Sankaran
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 141-157; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32998

Abstract:
Background: Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin spotted as a primary ingredient in many traditional Chinese medicines, has sparked the attention of researchers owing to its multi-targeted cytotoxicity towards a multitude of cancers. Regrettably, its true potential was bounded by its impoverished physicochemical properties. In order to fully exploit its ability, we plan to fabricate diosgenin into nanoparticle by encapsulating with biodegradable polymer chitosan. Aim: The current research intends to uncover the therapeutic potency of diosgenin encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles ([email protected]) on 7,12dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced rat mammary carcinoma by optimizing biochemical and histopathological modifications via attenuating Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) - nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factors (Nrf-2) signaling. Methodology: Breast cancer was induced with a single dose of DMBA (25 mg/kg b.wt). Orally supplied DG 10mg/kg b.wt. and [email protected] 5 mg/kg b.wt to DMBA-induced tumor-bearing rats shortly after tumor onset. After the experimental period, biochemical and histopathological studies were performed using mammary tissue sections. Furthermore, architectural immunohistochemistry was used to reveal the expression of AhR and Nrf-2 in experimental rats. Additionally, diosgenin interactions with these proteins were also evidently confirmed by molecular docking analysis. Result: We noticed that there is an elevated level of lipid peroxidative marker, phase-I detoxification enzymes, total cholesterol (TC), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) with boosted AhR expressions as well as diminished levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and Phase – II detoxification enzymes with downtrodden Nrf-2 expressions in the mammary tissues of DMBA-induced rats. On the other contrary, oral dosing of [email protected] 5 mg/kg b.wt, dramatically reverted them to near-normal tiers. Interestingly, molecular docking analyses also corroborate these insights by highlighting diosgenin's significant interactions with AhR and Nrf-2 targets. Conclusion: As an outcome of our observations, we conclude that nano-encapsulation of diosgenin is a potent targeted therapeutic candidate posing a massive impact on breast cancer than plain diosgenin.
Dilce Dos Santos Marques, Bruna Rodrigues Andrade, Dhelfeson Wyllia Douglas De Oliveira, Flaviana Dornela Verli, Sandra Aparecida Marinho
Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research pp 33-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2021/v33i2131131

Abstract:
Aims: To carry out a brief review of the literature on the theme of ostomy, focusing on colostomies. Study Design: A review study. Methodology: The papers, in English, Portuguese and Spanish were collected in Scielo database in January 2021. After reading the abstracts, a selection of papers related to the theme was made. Full-text papers that were not available were excluded. Results: Twenty papers and three books were used. It was observed that ostomized patients show changes in their routines and they also presents body changes, due to the stoma attached to the abdomen. Other problems of these patients were: discomfort with physical appearance, lack of control over noise caused by bowel movements and gases elimination, the possibility of leakage of fecal content, as well as rejection and shame of the new image. Colostomized patients need special care, such as psychological and family supports, to improve their self-esteem, as well as an orientation to colostomy devices use and their periodical hygiene, which should be provided by the multidisciplinary health team. In addition, the team must encourage the patients to avoid social isolation, in order to improve their self-esteem and quality of life. Conclusion: The use of the stoma leads the ostomized patient to a social isolation, alterations in sexual life and changes in lifestyle, which causes worse quality of life for these patients.
, Pratibha Ramani, J. Selvaraj
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 189-193; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33003

Abstract:
This study will help in determining which molecules participate in the ulceration with an integrated approach combining external and internal factors. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common condition affecting the oral mucosa. Clinically it is manifested through recurrent painful lesions. A total of 28 subjects were recruited for this systematic case-controlled study (14 Control and 14). Whole unstimulated saliva was used for measuring Cortisol and IL-1 b levels. Patients with RAS lesions exhibited an elevated salivary cortisol level as against their healthy counterparts. The mean value for salivary cortisol among RAS patients was determined to be 16.2 nM/dL as against the control group which had a mean salivary cortisol of 12 nM/dL. Overall, this study helps provide insights into the correlation of the different biomarkers and RAS patients which can eventually lead to better therapeutic options and prevent recurrence in patients.
A. Priya Dharshini, , K. Vanitha, N. Manivannan
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 79-90; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030495

Abstract:
Greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is the third most important pulse crop and drought is the most severe constraint to greengram growth and productivity. The present study was conducted to identify the drought tolerant greengram genotypes. Four greengram varieties used for standarization of drought stress using Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 6000. The effect of water stress caused by different concentration of PEG 6000 are control (0 MPa), -0.4MPa, -0.5 MPa, -0.6MPa and -0.7 MPa. Increasing PEG concentration decrease the germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weigh and dry weight of seedlings. At -0.5 MPa shows 50% seedling mortality , So control and -0.5 MPa level of drought stress was used for screening the greengram genotypes. Under PEG induced drought situations, parameters such as germination percentage, growth indices and proline content were recorded in all greengram genotypes. Compared to control, PEG induced drought stress (-0.5MPa) decrease all these parameters studied, where as drought has increased the proline content in all greengram genotypes screened. Among the greengram genotypes VGG17019 and VGG17004 posses higher germination percentage, GSI and proline content indicates high level of tolerance to drought stress.
, Baboucarr Corr, M. Mustapha, Rex A. Kuye, M. K. C. Sridhar
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030444

Abstract:
Background: Better water quality, improved sanitation and sound water resource management will improve public health and economic development in low-income countries. Water safety plan-based risk assessment and risk management from catchment to consumers are the modern and efficient approaches to safe drinking water supply established by World Health Organization. Thus, this paper aimed to assess risk from catchment level to consumers in the community of Brikama. Methods: This study report assessments of risk or hazards from catchment to consumers in Brikama Water Treatment Plant (BWTP), West Coast Region, The Gambia. The various means of data collection used include water quality monitoring, visual field inspection and questionnaire survey to explore data on where the water supply system goes wrong from catchment to consumers, so as to provide an improvement plan. Results: Overall, the day-to-day administration of services at BWTP was very impressive. The fencing of all the 17 boreholes at catchment sites has drastically reduced the risk of contamination including treatment systems and distribution lines. There are less risks observed and constant monitoring of the system was ensured. However, at the consumer end, there are some risks with poor practices associated with water handling, storage and hygiene measures at the household level. Some still use some unclean 20-liter containers to store water and indiscriminately kept drinking cups on the floor and unclean surfaces, and 50% lacked WASH knowledge related to water treatment, such as boiling and filtration at households. The overall perception of water storage, sanitation and hygiene practices could be rated moderately good. Conclusion: The overall findings of this study have shown tremendous achievement in the government's commitment to providing potable water to the people in Brikama Local Government Area. WASH education in the study area is recommended to avoid waterborne disease infections.
Asian Food Science Journal pp 137-144; https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2021/v20i1030369

Abstract:
Introduction: Particle size is one of the main variables that influence coffee brewing process and also most obvious to the consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different particle sizes on the color of ground coffee. Methods: A laser diffraction analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution of the 14 dry ground coffee samples. The particle size distribution of the roasted ground coffee samples that underwent grinding at different time periods was based on volume distribution. Color measurements of all coffee samples were made using a portable CR-400 tristimulus colorimeter and Spectra-Match software, set to L*, a*, b* mode. Color measurements were recorded for two replicates of each sample. Results: Coffee samples ground for short times of 30s, 20s and 10s, were observed to have coarser particles than those that underwent longer grinding times. The 20s and 30s grinding times did not exhibit any significant differences for the D50 and D90 particle size distributions. There was no significant difference in D50 and D90 values for Colombian 1.3, Leyenda and Tarrazu brands. It was observed that lightness (L*) as well as a* and b* were highly significantly different between the different coffee samples with P < 0.0001. The coffee samples that underwent grinding for 60s had the highest L*, a* and b* values of 30.72, +1.31 and +1.39 respectively. Colombian 1.3 coffee brand had the lowest L* and a* values of 29.8 and +0.67 respectively, with brand 1820a having the lowest b* value of +0.39. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there was no significant effect of particle size distribution of coffee samples on color of the ground coffee particles. L*, a* and b* values decreased during roasting, due to the darkening of the beans resulting from sugar caramelization and Maillard reactions.
Suchismita Prusty,
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 161-167; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130737

Abstract:
A study is done with the objective of assessing perceptions of fisheries professionals with reference to revised notification of minimum qualification being Ph.D. for Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Information has been collected from 50 Masters and 50 Doctorate fisheries professionals/students of ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai, using an online Google form and adopting quantitative and qualitative methods. Non parametric Mann Whitney U test is used to check if there is any difference between perception of Masters and Doctorate students. Study reveals that before the notification becoming a ‘Scientist’ was the first career choice of fisheries professionals, followed by ‘Assistant Professor’ and ‘Officer in State Department of Fisheries’. However, after the notification, the first choice has changed to becoming ‘Assistant Professor’ followed by ‘Officer in State Department of Fisheries’ and then ‘Scientist’. Students also perceive advantages and disadvantages of this revised notification. Acceptance of the notification is relatively lower among Masters Students, with a statistically significant difference between the two student groups.
Ivy O. Poon, , Aisha Morris-Moultry, Terrica Jemerson
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730249

Abstract:
Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of a home-based pharmacy intervention on body mass index (BMI) in a cohort of older hypertensive overweight African American (AA) patients. Design: A secondary analysis of data collected in a community-based intervention study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: AA patients, ≥ 65 years old, residing independently, with hypertension diagnosis and BMI ≥ 25. Interventions: During a 6month period, patients received 1) two in-home pharmacist-led consultations on weight management, 2) bi-weekly telephone counseling, and 3) health education strategies. Main Outcome Measures: BMIs at baseline and 6 months; stages of behavioral change in diet and exercise based on the Transtheoretical Model. Results: At baseline and 6-month follow-up, a total of 153 participants had BMI ≥ 25 and received a completed assessment of behavioral stages. Participants’ mean age was 74.2 years. A reduction of BMI from 31.7 (obese) at baseline to 29.8 (overweight) at 6-months (p=0.0008) was observed. For every stage of improvement in diet, there was a reduction of 1.24 points in BMI (p=0.008). For every stage of progress in exercise, there was a reduction of 0.77 points in BMI (p=0.013). Conclusion: Pharmacists-led in-home consultations coupled with telephone follow-ups and health education strategies may improve lifestyle and lower BMIs in this cohort. Further studies are needed to investigate these strategies on weight management in geriatric patients with chronic illnesses.
Davy Fiwa Kaoke, Emmanuel Siryabe, Djakaou Iya-Sou, Emmanuel Talla, Patrick Mountapmbene Kouotou
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews pp 21-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i130222

Abstract:
This research work reports the physicochemical potentialities of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel oil for biodiesel valorization. Balanites seed was sampling from Pitoa, Maroua and Moutourwa localities located from North Cameroon and the kernel oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. The physicochemical and the free fatty acid composition of kernel oils was determined. Among the three samples, those of Pitoa shows the higher oil yield (56.6 %). All the Refractive index of these oils were ranged in ASTM and their kinematic viscosities were small compared to the EN ISO 3104 standard. The Acid values measured were all less than EN 14104 standard and the iodine values were in accordance with EN 14111 standard, whereas, the saponification value for the samples of Maroua (139.5 ± 0.07) was higher than those of Pitoa (123.6 ± 0.04) and Moutourwa (131.5 ± 0.06) and the Peroxide values measured were lower than 10 meq/Kg. Unsaturated fatty acids were higher for the sample of Maroua (78.8 %) than those of Moutourwa (76.9%) and Pitoa (77.7 %). This research work indicate that B.aegyptiaca kernel oil obtainable from North Cameroon as higher yield (50.7-56.6%). The kernel oil shows good physicochemical properties and fatty acids profile which can be valorised as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Place and Duration of Study: School of Chemical Engineering and Minerals Industries - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ngaoundere – Cameroon work takes place between October 2020 and Jun 2021.
Amin Khattab, Fahad Dakilallah Aljohani, Roa Halawani, Heba Mahmoud Eltahir, Ahmed M. Shehata, Saleh K. Ihmaid, Ahmed Aldhafiri, Mekky Abouzied, Hossein M. Elbadawy, Najawa Mghrbi, et al.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32988

Abstract:
This is a single center, retrospective, observational study carried out in Ohud hospital, the main referral hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infections in the region of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was carried on hospitalized patients with moderate to severe symptoms, including critically ill patients in the intensive care unit mostly of them requiring oxygen or mechanical ventilator support. Medical records from 432 cases were investigated showing that the majority of infected population were adults with an average age of 48 years, where 68.3% were males and the mortality rate was 5.6%. Duration of the disease was determined as the period between the first positive and the first negative PCR results. Patients who received antibiotics or Metoclopramide showed shorter duration of the disease time course while those who received Hydroxychloroquine, Omeprazole or Calcium exhibited longer durations before obtaining a negative PCR result. Regression analysis furtherly confirmed that antibiotics administration was associated with shorter course of disease while hydroxychloroquine or omeprazole were correlated with longer duration of the disease. Antiviral drugs, however, showed no correlations to the COVID-19 duration of stay in hospital. Finally, combining antibiotics and antiviral agents did not result in a better outcome, suggesting that the use of antibacterial agents helps in the recovery of SARS-CoV-2 patients.
, Gaibriyal M. Lal
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science pp 208-214; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2130674

Abstract:
Thirty eight genotypes were subjected to genetic divergence by using D2 statistics. The genotypes were grouped into 7 clusters by D2 analysis. Cluster I consisted of maximum accessions (32) followed by cluster II, III IV, V, VI, VII consisted of only 1 accession. The inter-cluster distances were greater than intra-cluster distances, revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accessions. Maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster I (56.58) indicating that some genetic divergence still existed among the genotypes. This could be made use of in the yield improvement through recombination breeding. Highest mean values exhibited no. of seeds per plant in cluster II (198.97), days to maturity in cluster VII (93.11), harvest index in cluster V (76.15) and plant height in cluster IV (69.59). The character contribution maximum towards diversity among the accessions were seed yield per plant (18.40%), followed by harvest index (14.32%), biological yield (11.98%), no. of pods per plant (10.76%), pod length (9.80%) and no. of seeds per plant (7.56%). These characters combining with early maturity were the major traits causing genetic divergence among the accessions. It was assumed that maximum mount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters.
Alex Somuah Obeng,
Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i330259

Abstract:
Poverty is a condition in which people and communities lack the resources and basic elements necessary for a minimum standard of living. Poverty means that the level of income from employment is too low to meet basic human needs. Poor individuals or families are likely not to have sufficient housing, clean water, healthy diet, and health care. This paper examines the concept of poverty from the perspective of local actors. The study made use of a qualitative approach to data gathering and analysis. The data discussion revealed that participants interpreted poverty to mean lack of money to meet basic human needs such as food, shelter, clothing, transportation, etc. It was also understood as one’s inability to meet desired goals. Among other interpretations, death was seen as the highest form of poverty. Lack of formal education and employment opportunities, the unwillingness of some local actors to work, the disadvantaged position of women, and early childbirth were seen as the main causes of poverty. In dealing with poverty, participants suggested the creation of employment opportunities by the government of Ghana and other private agencies. Acquiring formal education and practicing good financial management were also seen as key to alleviating poverty. The study concludes that poverty is collective among the indigenes, hence has huge social connotations, covertly and overtly.
Uchenna Modestus Ezugwu, Chinedum Charles Onyenekwe, Nkiruka Rose Ukibe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Christian Ejike Onah, , Paul Isaac Emeje, Joseph Chimezie Awalu, Gabriel Ejike Igbokwe
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 78-84; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32992

Abstract:
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with altered metabolism and increased energy expenditure, this energy requirement increases significantly as the HIV disease progresses. This study aimed on the use of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as an index of energy utilization, storage and energy balance in HIV infected individuals. This is a longitudinal, prospective, case-controlled study involving seventy seven (77) HIV Sero-positive individuals newly diagnosed attending retroviral disease treatment centre of Nnamdi Azikiwe University University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) aged 18-60 years both male and female not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were enrolled in the study as test subjects and thirty six (36) apparently healthy HIV Sero-negative individuals both male and female as control subjects. ATP, GTP, ADP and AMP were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while, total Energy Balance was determined by calculation. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software application (version 21.0) and the results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The plasma ATP and GTP were significantly lower (P<0.05) in both HIV pre-treatment and post-treatment group compared with control group. Meanwhile, the plasma level of ADP and AMP were significantly lower (P<0.05) in HIV post-treatment group compared with HIV pre-treatment and control group. There was also a significant difference (P<0.05) in ATP, ADP, AMP and GTP level between HIV pre-treatment and post-treatment group. Meanwhile, the energy balance was lower (P<0.05) in HIV groups compared with control group. However, the energy balance in HIV post-treatment group was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to HIV pre- treatment group. In conclusion, the significant changes in the biochemical parameters measured suggest altered metabolism, increased energy expenditure and energy deficit/negative energy balance in HIV subjects resulting from increased energy expenditure. Hence, High energy molecules such ATP, ADP, GTP and AMP can be used to predict early energy deficit and manage energy imbalance in HIV infected individuals.
Monika, Akanksha, Snigdha Lal
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 93-103; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32994

Abstract:
Present article deals with the pharmacognostic specification of selected medicinal plants used in veterinary products for the purpose of their standardization, as evidential support concerning quality determination of plant material in veterinary medicine is scarce and there is poor documentation on primary studies of many species. The plants undertaken for the study were Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) and Tribulus terresteris (Zygophyllaceae) on the basis of their usage relevance in veterinary products. Both plants are official in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described, which will help in authentication and quality control. The observed microscopic characters of Calotropis procera leaf were rubiaceous type apostomatic stomata, epidermis, collenchymas, parenchyma, vascular bundles, palisade cells, cortical fibres and lamina, trichomes on the cuticle of lamina. Microscopic characteristics of Tribulus terrestris fruit were epicarp cells showing clusters of calcium oxalate crystals, xylem vessels, group of thin walled sclerenchymatous fibres, group of stone cells of mesocarp. Powder microscopy of the Tribulus terrestris fruit shows abundance of epidermal trichomes - simple, short, long, thick walled, multicellular covered trichomes, sclereids. The qualitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down their pharmacopoeial standards. The present study also provides the information with respect to identification and authentication of crude drug and serves as a reference point for the proper identification of Calotropis procera leaf and Tribulus terrestris fruit, thereby contributing to the scientific world of research.
Physical Science International Journal pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i730267

Abstract:
The physical community agrees that the variational principle is a cornerstone of a quantum fields theory (QFT) of an elementary particle. This approach examines the variation of the action of a Lagrangian density whose form is \(S = \int d^4 x \mathcal {L}(\psi,\psi_{,\mu}).\) The dimension of the action \(S\) and \(d^4x\) prove that the quantum function \(\psi\) of any specific Lagrangian density \(\mathcal {L}(\psi,\psi_{,\mu})\) has a definite dimension. This evidence determines the results of new consistency tests of QFTs. This work applies these tests to several kinds of quantum functions of a QFT of elementary particles. It proves that coherent results are derived from the standard form of quantum electrodynamics which depends on the Dirac linear equation of a massive charged particle and Maxwell theory of the electromagnetic fields. In contrast, contradictions stem from second-order quantum theories of an elementary particle, such as the Klein-Gordon equation and the electroweak theory of the \(W^\pm\) boson. An observation of the literature that discusses the latter theories indicates that they do not settle the above-mentioned crucial problems. This issue supports the main results of this work.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 118-140; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32997

Abstract:
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a multifaceted inflammatory syndrome of the arterial wall to which number of mediators have been implicated in lesion progression. Triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins consist of the large diversity of lipoprotein particles that fluctuate in density, size, and apolipoprotein composition. Two foremost phenotypes, on basis of size, chemical configuration, and density, of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) have been recognized i.e., pattern A, having LDL diameter greater than 25.5nm (large buoyant LDL or lb-LDL) and pattern B, having LDL diameter less than or equal to 25.5nm (small-dense LDL or sd-LDL). Small-dense low-density-lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles are produced by potential intravascular hydrolysis of TG-rich VLDL particles via lipoprotein lipases (LPLs), hepatic lipases (HLs) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). sd-LDL is more atherogenic due to its smaller size, increased penetration into the arterial wall, extended plasma half-life, lesser binding affinity for LDL receptors (LDL-R) as well as lower resistance to oxidative stress when equated with lb-LDL. The higher atherogenic potential of sd-LDL is due to its enhanced susceptibility to oxidation, owing to high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), low cholesterol and Apoprotein B (ApoB) content. An enhanced understanding of sd-LDL metabolism at the molecular level, transport and clearance may result in the development of sd-LDL as an independent predictive marker for AS events and may be used to maintain cholesterol homeostasis and prevent the succession of AS.
, Gaurav Mujbaile, Seema Singh, Achita Sawarkar, Maduri Shambharkar, Prerana Sakharwade
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32993

Abstract:
Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have proven to be effective in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders, as well as substitute for unfractionated heparin (UFH). LMWHs are a diverse collection of medicines with different biochemical and pharmacological characteristics, despite the fact that they all have antithrombotic actions. Medicine is administered into the subcutaneous tissues with these injections. Small amounts of injections are delivered by the subcutaneous approach, which involves inserting a small thin needle beneath the skin and slowly injecting the medicine. Low molecular weight heparins make up dalteparin and enoxaparin, two anticoagulants. The rights of medicine administration must be followed by nurses. For patients on LMWH medication, the most essential blood test is prothrombin time. Following administration, look for any signs of bleeding, such as occult blood in the stool, malena, bleeding gums, and skin discoloration/hematoma. The antidote for low molecular weight heparin is protamine sulphate. It is effective at counteracting the effects of LMWH. 100 units of LMWH are neutralised by 1 mg of protamine sulphate.If it's been more than 8 hours since you've given LMWH, provide 0.5 mg protamin per 100 units of LMWH.
, S. Thilakavathy
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 176-181; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33001

Abstract:
Zinc Oxide nanoparticle (ZnO) is broadly used in food packaging industry. Synthesis of ZnO includes different methods like using chemical, gas and sol gel. But it contains more toxins. Hence biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle is eco-friendly and non toxic. It acts as an anticancer, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity and so on. Trace metals like zinc, magnesium and chromium are involved in glucose metabolism and have a role in controlling blood glucose and hence in diabetic therapy. Zinc is also known to keep the structure of insulin and plays an important role in insulin synthesis, secretion and storage. Nano -ZnO is commonly utilized as additive in food. In this article we discussed about biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from Mangifera indica L. anacardiaceae extract. Synthesized nanoparticles is subjected to its characterization such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the range between 4000cm-1 to 400cm-1 and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Functional group was identified in FTIR and nature, size, composition and degree of crystallinity were determined by using X−ray Diffraction analytical technique.
, Natalia V. Ekkert, Mikhail V. Vodolagin
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 202-211; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33005

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate the Russian Federation healthcare providers’ websites compliance to legal requirements on availability of patient-oriented medicines supply information and compare the evaluation results between public and private healthcare facilities. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The evaluation of compliance to legal requirements to medicines supply information on public and private healthcare providers’ websites available on the Internet was conducted in September 2021. Methodology: The study included a simple random sample of 66 websites of Russian healthcare providers containing two groups: public (n=33) and private (n=33) healthcare facilities’ websites. The compliance evaluation was performed by checking the availability of 4 medicines lists on the websites: (1) essential medicines list; (2) list of medicines for the most expensive chronic diseases to treat; (3) list of medicines that are prescribed only by shared decision of healthcare facility medical commission; (4) list of medicines that are dispensed for certain social groups with no charge or with 50% discount in outpatient care settings. Results: The difference of availability of the first list was 90.9% (95% CI 77.7%–97.4%) vs. 33.3% (95% CI 19.2%–50.3%) on public and private healthcare facilities’ website, respectively, P<.001. The difference of that in the second list was 42.4% (95% CI 26.8%–59.3%) vs. 15.2% (95% CI 6.0%–30.1%), P<.028. For the third no statistical significance was revealed (P>.05). For the fourth list the difference was 66.7% (95% CI 49.7%–80.8%) vs. 21.2% (95% CI 10.0%–37.2%), P<.001. Conclusion: It is required to improve the supervision approaches for both public and private healthcare facilities for better patient-oriented medicines supply information provision. The problem may be solved by the implementation of a centralized government policy repository with regularly updated lists, requirements, and best practices.
Awadh Saeed Alqahtani, Hayazi Mohammed Alshehri, , Mohammed Hassan Alatawi, Wurud Muteb D. Alshammari, Ahmed SaeedAlshahrani
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 59-65; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32989

Abstract:
Rickets is a worldwide bone disease that is associated with disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and can lead to short stature and joint deformities. Osteomalacia is a major metabolic bone disease that results from a chronic and severe deficiency of vitamin D or phosphate from any cause after growth has stopped. A deficiency of vitamin D or phosphate leads to defective bone mineralization and generalized or localized vague bone pain in various parts of the skeleton and / or proximal muscle weakness. Rickets and osteomalacia are two different clinical diseases with impaired bone mineralization. Rickets occurs throughout the growing skeleton in infants and children, while osteomalacia occurs in adults after fusion of the growth plates. Rickets and osteomalacia are increasingly common in Saudi Arabia, with vitamin D deficiency being the most common etiological cause. Early skeletal deformities can occur in infants, such as soft, thin skull bones, a condition known as craniotabes. In adults, as a result of demineralization, the bones become less rigid (soft bone) with pathological fractures. The diagnosis of both diseases is based on the medical history and physical examination, radiological characteristics, and biochemical tests. Management depends on the underlying etiology.
M. Priyadharshini, D. Murugananthi, A. Rohini, R. Vasanthi
Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology pp 150-160; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1130736

Abstract:
Tea is a very indispensable beverage for Indian population as we rank the world’s largest consumer of black tea. Indian tea industry had been facing many downfalls for the past few years in terms of low price, excess supply, losing flavour and all this as a whole had affected the performance of the tea industry in India. With India being the second largest producer of tea globally, the production of tea in India can be subdivided into North India and South India. The current study focuses on the comparative analysis between North India, South India and India in terms of their trends in area, production, yield, export quantity, export price, auction price and auction quantity of tea. Compounded Annual growth rate (CAGR) was the tool used to find the trends of various variables. This study also focuses on the forecasting the production and auction prices of tea in India till 2023using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. The results of the present study areindicating that all the variables like area, production, yield, export quantity, export price, auction price and auction quantity of tea had shown a positive trend annually, except for that of North India’s export quantity. Production and auction prices were forecasted till 2023 using different ARIMA models amongst which ARIMA (1,1,0) proved to be the best fit model for study period.
, Achita Sawarkar, Madhuri Shambharkar, Pooja Kasturkar
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 114-117; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32996

Abstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. It is associated with multiple systemic features, including hematological manifestations such as anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. However, immune hemolytic anemia is extremely rare with only 3 reports indexed in medline, and one of them being due to methotrexate toxicity. Microcytic anemia is a condition in which the body's tissues and organs do not get enough oxygen. This lack of oxygen can happen because the body does not have enough red blood cells, or because the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin, which is a protein that transports oxygen in the blood. Case Presentation: A 60 year old female a known case of rhematoid arthritis and hypothyrodisam in 2013 for last past 3 years. Who presented to us with history of recurrent anemia . In march 2021, she was admitted to hospital because of palpitations and shortness of breath due to severe anemia. Results of laboratory studies were hemoglobin, 6.9 gm/dl and haptoglobin, less than 29.8mg/dl. A diagnosis of anemia was made on the basis of the laboratory findings She was transfused with 1units packed red blood cells (pRBCs) over less than 6 hours. High-dose PSL (50 mg/day) was started, and the anemia improved. The hemoglobin level increased to 7.0 gm/dl within the 1st week. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of various hematological disorders should include rheumatic autoimmune diseases among other causes of blood cell and hemostasis abnormalities. It is crucial that hematologists be aware of Treatment should be administered promptly, with rheumatological consultation.
R. M. Wayal
Asian Research Journal of Mathematics pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/arjom/2021/v17i930327

Abstract:
In this article, the Laplace decomposition method and Modified Laplace decomposition method have been employed to obtain the exact and approximate solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with the initial profile. An approximate solution obtained by these methods is in good agreement with the exact solution and shows that these approaches can solve linear and nonlinear problems very effectively and are capable to reduce the size of computational work.
C. G. Sim
Physical Science International Journal pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.9734/psij/2021/v25i630266

Abstract:
This study presents a Gluon Gravity Model, to explain the mechanism of gravity. With the development of quantum chromodynamics since 1970, Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's theory of general relativity need to be reinterpreted. Like an electric charge causes an electric field, the color charges in quantum chromodynamics were introduced into the gravitational field. The gluons mediating strong force can bring about a new color field around the strong force field owing to their color charges. This new color field of charges becomes a gravitational field in Gluon Gravity Model. This model is supported by the facts that most of the atomic mass is composed of the gluon field energy and the similarity between the two formulas of Coulomb's law and Newton's laws of universal gravitation. Additionally, it is possible to explain the gas molecular motions by applying the Gluon Gravity Model to the gluon fields within a proton.
, Agus Sachari, Achmad Haldani Destiarmand, Yan Yan Sunarya
Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i330260

Abstract:
This study aims at the formulation of a regeneration model for traditional artisans in Indonesia. The model is expected to be a solution for the degeneration problem, the declining interest of the younger generation to learn and to continue tradition art business, mainly batik. The research was conducted specifically on the community of batik artisans in Girilayu, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. This study is a qualitative one using ethnographic approach method to collect the data. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was used to design and to formulate the alternatives and to determine the right model. Furthermore, the formulation of the model was implemented and analyzed for the effectiveness as well as the impact that may occur. This study formulates a model for the regeneration of batik artisans in Indonesia. This study found some regeneration gaps in the form of inconsistency in sustainable activities of batik artisans’ generation which has caused the degeneration.
, Omokaro Obire
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130243

Abstract:
Wastewater samples from abattoirs in Bayelsa and Rivers State were evaluated for their microbiological and physicochemical properties. The microbiological parameters were analyzed using standard microbiological techniques while the Physicochemical parameters were analyzed based on the APHA standard method. The mean range of the total heterotrophic bacterial, bacterial, total coliform, total Vibrio, total hydrocarbon utilizing, total heterotrophic fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts of the wastewater were: (1.9×107to 5.2×107, 2.1×105 to 4.0 × 105, 1.0×103 to 3.1 × 103, 1.0×105 to 2.2×105, 1.8×105 to c4.1×105 and 1.1×103 to 3.2 ×103)CFU/ml respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the counts for the bacterial and fungal counts. Bacillus sp (17.32%), Escherichia coli (16.33%), Streptococcus sp (15.34%), Staphylococcus sp (14.35%), Pseudomonas sp (11.38%), Shigella sp (10.39%) Alcaligenes sp (9.9%), Vibrio sp (6.93%) and Salmonella sp (4.93%), were the bacteria isolated. The percentage of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolates were: Bacillus sp (34.28%), Pseudomonas sp (26.71%), Alcaligenes sp (20%). Escherichia coli (14.28%), Staphylococcus sp (5.71%). Among the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Geotrichum sp were found in 18.75% each while Penicillium sp recorded 23% occurrence, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida sp were found in 6.25% occurrence each but Mucor sp exhibited 8.33% of occurrence. The percentages of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi were Aspergillus sp (22.22%), Fusarium sp (16.66%), Penicillium sp (33.33%), Geotrichum sp (16.66%), Mucor sp (5.55%) and Candida (5.55%). The mean of physicochemical parameters was: pH: 6.7-9.1, EC: 156-4981, Turbidity: 11.1-149NTU, TSS: 62-239, TDS: 104-3320, NO3: 20.97-30.97, SO4: 14.5-54.6, PO4: 1.78-20.21, salinity: 41.25-2800, DO: 4.29-41.18, COD:3600-5476.0 and BOD-:1600.0-7761.4. The high microbial load and physicochemical parameters in these wastewaters is alarming and could pose serious human health and environmental challenges if the disposal of untreated wastewater continues unabated.
, J. N. Ogbulie, C. C. Opurum, E. S. Asiwe
Asian Journal of Biology pp 36-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i230183

Abstract:
The in vitro toxicity of glyphosate (Gly) and 2, 2 Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) single compound and binary mixtures was assessed against Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. isolated from Otamiri River, Imo state, Nigeria was investigated. The toxicity response was assessed using the inhibitory effect of the single and binary mixtures on isolates dehydrogenase activity; and 2,3,5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used as the artificial electron acceptor. The binary mixtures were composed using fixed ratios of glyphosate and 2, 2 Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate in ratios of 20% Gly:80% DDVP, 40% Gly: 60% DDVP, 50% Gly: 50% DDVP, 60% Gly: 40% DDVP and 80% Gly: 20% DDVP. Results obtained showed that the isolates exhibited different degrees of logistic and sigmoidal toxicity trends with areas of hormesis at low concentrations of the toxicants. Furthermore, isobolographic analysis on the toxic interaction of the mixtures presented both synergism and antagonism, based on the relative ratio of the component mixtures. Increasing concentration of glyphosate in the binary mixture caused a shift in the interaction effect from antagonism to synergism. Our findings showed that isolates exhibited tolerance to glyphosate and 2,2 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate and their binary mixtures exposure at concentration range of 0-1000mg/L; above which has deleterious effects on the aquatic organisms. It is evident that there are considerable differences in pesticide sensitivity among the bacterial species and that the presence of glyphosate and 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate in the aquatic environment may present toxicological risk to microbial diversity.
Ngela A. Muute, Benjamin Muli, Orek Charles
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330203

Abstract:
Production of common bean in Kenya is constrained by pests and diseases and to improve bean yields amongst majority small-scale farmers, appropriate management strategies should be adopted. Bean common mosaic disease (BCMD) caused by bean common mosaic virus and vectored by bean aphids and infected seeds, substantially inhibit common bean production in Kenya. An extensive and diagnostic field survey was conducted in six agro ecological zones (AEZs) of lower eastern Kenya during the long and short rains of 2018 to determine BCMD incidence (BCMD-I), severity (BCMD-S), bean aphid abundance (BAA), bean aphid incidence (BAI) and the management strategies applied by farmers. Significant (P≤0.001) variations observed for these traits between bean varieties, rainy seasons and AEZs implied that farmers could select and grow a tolerant bean variety or grow a variety either in a season or an AEZ with low BCMD and bean aphid pressure. Such included AEZ-UMSA with least mean BCMD-I (42%), BCMD-S (1.9) and BAI (11%) compared to two AEZs (LHSH & LM4) that showed BCMD-I of >70%, BCMD-S >3.0 and BAI >50%. The AEZs differences could be attributed to variations in altitudes, temperature and humidity that influences vector (aphid) movement. Of the nine bean varieties identified during the survey, Selian 14 was the most preferred by farmers (at ~35%) with relatively lower BCMD-I (~49%) and BAI (~35%) compared to the least (75% of farmers could generally identify diseased or pest-infested bean crops and stage of growth of the crop most affected. None (0%) could however identify BCMD symptoms although ~40% identified the vector bean aphids with ~26% implementing some form of aphid or pest management strategy. On management, season-driven early planting and bean intercropping were the most applied strategies (>80%), crop rotation and weed control accounted for ~71%, certified seeds at 1% and non-chemical or pesticide applications (0%). Both low adoption of certified seeds and no chemical aphid control were attributed to high costs, despite the possibility the two factors could have contributed to higher incidences and severity of BCMD in the study area as the disease is both seed and vector-borne. In summary, lack of knowledge and training among farmers on diagnosis and management of aphid-pests and BCMD, were cited as the main constraints for low bean cultivation. This study therefore recommends provision of adequate extension services and farmer training in lower eastern Kenya for improved bean yield and subsequent better family livelihoods and income.
Frial G. Abd, Lubna Abdulazeem, , Ahamed H. Rasheed, Sumaya Ayad Abdulrazzaq
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 194-201; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33004

Abstract:
Vaccination has proven to be one of the most important medical breakthroughs in history. Three important features must be present in every vaccine that is effective over time: Safety, stability, and the ability to elicit a sustained and sufficient immune response with a modest number of doses are all important requirements. To develop protective immunity against diseases, vaccinations using attenuated or dead entire animals (first generation), subunit vaccines (second generation), and RNA or DNA vaccines (third generation) have all been employed . Traditional vaccines, on the other hand, have issues such as returning to their virulent condition or only giving protection for a short period of time. As a result of these limitations, scientists have resorted to recombinant proteins, such as subunit vaccines, which target a specific portion of the pathogen. Subunit vaccines are preferred over live or inactivated whole organism vaccines because they are more pure and identified with respect to cell receptoes, have a better safety profile, and are easier to scale up. Despite their advantages, subunit vaccinations have certain disadvantages. For example, most antigens are only mildly immunogenic on their own, necessitating the inclusion of an adjuvant in the formulation.
Mohammed Salah Hussein, Sarah Jamal Almujil, Ahmed Saeed S. Banheem, Nasser Naif Alsuhaymi, Mansour Hemaid Alhelali, Dhiyaa Hassan A. Aldukhi, Khalil Rafed B. Alsaedi, Naif Mohammed Al-Wagdani, Ebtesam Ali S. Almadi, Khalid Mohammed A. Aladhadh, et al.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 212-220; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33006

Abstract:
Cardiac cirrhosis (congestive hepatopathy) refers to a group of hepatic abnormalities that develop as a result of right-sided heart failure. Cirrhosis of the liver can be induced by any right-sided pathology that leads to right-sided heart failure, which leads to increased venous congestion and pressure in the hepatic sinusoids. Because cardiac cirrhosis might be asymptomatic or diagnosed incorrectly due to other types of liver disease, determining its prevalence is difficult. The underlying heart disease, rather than the hepatic congestion and damage, is usually the cause of death in cardiac cirrhosis. The control of the underlying cardiac disease, as well as the optimization of cardiac output, are the mainstays of congestive hepatopathy treatment. Diuresis can help with hepatic congestion, but it must be used with caution to avoid causing hepatic ischemia. Hemodynamic therapy may be able to reverse the early stages of congestive hepatitis. The widespread use of heart transplantation (HT) and considerable breakthroughs in medical and surgical treatments have drastically altered the profile of CH patients. In this overview we will be looking at the disease cause, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
Nkiruka Millicent Amadi, Peter Uwadiegwu Achukwu, S. O. Onwukwe, , Nonyelum V. Anoh, Victoria I. Okpokwu
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 164-175; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a33000

Abstract:
Stomach ulceration study was carried on 25 groups (5 rats each of the groups), groups (E, E1, E2, , E3 and EC, placed on 24 hours fasting before the single dose of intra peritoneal dose administration of 5ml/kg body weight of 99% ethanol and after one hour, received daily extract of dilution doses of ((500, 1000, 1500) mg /kg) body weight and 100 mg /kg body weight cimentidine (standard drug) respectively for 7 days. Groups (EA1, EA2, , EA3 and EAC, ) were treated with the same extract doses and drug concentration for 7 days before the dose ethanol administration. Group Eand 0 served as a positive control and a negative control respectively. On day 9, target organs; stomach and intestines were harvested under anaesthetize weighed, gross macroscopically and histomorphological studied. Result of the study showed plant inhibition on ethanol induced gastric ulceration; the standard drug (cemetidine) and the mapped extract doses of ((500, 1000, 1500) mg /kg) body weight respectively showed normal organ architecture. Ulcer index study activities 70% indicating evidence of curative and preventive index range 35 to 43% showed some inhibition as seen on the gastric mucosa of the treated group. It was observed that the treatment and anti- ulceration effect of boiled aqueous leaf extract metabolites showed reduction on the histomorphological changes in the gastric mucosa and provided inhibition effectiveness of ethanol induced injury.
, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai, Neha Thomas
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 91-96; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030496

Abstract:
University of Agriculture Technology and Science, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the rabi season of 2020-2021. To investigate the Study on the Effect of various organic, growth regulators & chemicals treatments on growth, yield, and yield attributing traits in Radish (Raphanus sativus). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with Thirteen treatments and three replications. The treatments consist of FYM, NAA, GA3 KNo3, ZnSo4, KCl were subjected to study the growth, and yield parameters were recorded. The maximum field emergence percentage (93.30), plant height 30 das (23.50) plant height 60 das (89.57), plant height 90 das (148.23), days to 50% flowering (52.67), number of pods per plant (110.03), dry weight of plant (40.56), seed yield per plant (5.4), biological yield (343.3) harvest index (44.23) were observed in T7 (NAA). Whereas minimum was recorded in T0 (Control) (81.30, 21.60cm, 78.13cm, 139.83cm, 56.20%, 102.33, 32.20, 1.4, 132.20, 33.10).
, Erika Enriquez Domínguez, Adriana Rodríguez Pérez, Juan Fernando Cárdenas González, Víctor Manuel Martínez Juárez, Juana Tovar Oviedo
Journal of Advances in Microbiology pp 15-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2021/v21i1130398

Abstract:
Recently, the removal capacity of different heavy metals from sites contaminated by low-cost materials has been studied, with promising results. These adsorbents include dead microorganisms, clay minerals, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and other materials. The objective of this work was studying the removal capacity of Cr (VI) by a commercial mushroom, the macromycete Agaricus bisporus (white strain), by the Diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method It was found that the biomass removal 100 mg/L of the metal at 21 minutes, pH 1.0, 28oC, and 100 rpm. On the other hand, if the concentration of the metal is increased, the removal capacity for the analyzed biomass decreases at 28oC. 200 mg/L are removal at 60 minutes, while with 1 g/L of the metal, its removal 90.3%. If the concentration of the bioadsorbent is increased, the removal of the metal also increases, and the presence of other heavy metals does not influence in the removal of the metal, and this was desorbed 70.4%, with NaOH 0.5 N. Finally, it was observing that after 7 days of incubation, 76.2%, and 66.1%, of Cr (VI) present in naturally contaminated earth and water, were removal, respectively.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International pp 158-163; https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47a32999

Abstract:
Nowadays, major impact of researchers’ toevaluate the intensity of anxiety between Anxiety Disorder with the Patient, and theirefficacy of enlightened muscle relaxation and disorder of anxiety to the patients, intensity of anxiety amongst mental health center describe the anxiety disorder patients with correlated with the social cum geographical values. Hypothesis, nominated socio demographic variables around the difference between posttest level and pretestanxiety of disorder patients. Nearby is an important association among intensity of unease. In tangible background: Inaccurate Roy’s variation classical was cast-off for this study. Methodology: A Pre-experimental and progressive muscle and decreasetherapy by used as a posttest. 40 anxiety ailment patients were confident by successive sampling process.Hypothesis formulated between. Pre and posttest was shown progressive muscle relaxation on forty minutes trainingto the anxiety patients on 5 consecutive days. In our results suggested anxiety patients output of reduced levels of anxiety disorder on the 6th day of posttest. To evaluate the Reformist muscle slackening is non-invasive, cost effective, non – pharmacological complementary therapy to between disorder patients with anxiety and diminish anxiety. Also posttest levels varied with age, academic qualification, anxiety, social value and alcoholic addiction and its duration.
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