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M. Inmaculada Vicente De Vera García, M. Inés Gabari Gambarte
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 9, pp 159-175; https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i3.332

Abstract:
The Neuroscience considers that the most resilient people maintain greater emotional balance in stress situations, which allows them to better withstand the pressure and, consequently, to experience a greater sense of control and ability to cope with difficult situations. The aim of the cross-sectional study is to analyze the preventive effect of resilience on burnout perceived by Secondary Education teachers. The sample is constituted by 334 teachers of the Province of Huesca. The data collection instruments used are: a) to measure burnout, the adaptation to Spanish (MBI-GS) of Salanova, Schaufeli, Llorens, Peiró, and Grau (2000) and b) resilience is assessed using the CD Resilience Scale. -RISC (Connor and Davidson, 2003). The correlational and factorial analysis of the information collected yields results that confirm that the personal characteristics and the resilience of the person act as preventive variables against the self-perception of symptoms of chronic stress, typical of the burnout syndrome.
Juan Pedro Martínez Ramón, ,
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 9, pp 149-157; https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i3.331

Abstract:
Bullying at university level has lacked the same prominence as in previous stages despite being a reality. For this reason, the aim of this study was to analyze the presence of victims of bullying among university students depending on sociodemographic variables as well as temporal and situational factors. To this end, the Questionnaire on Harassment among University Students (QAEU) was administered to 765 participants who were studying at a university of the southeast of Spain, both undergraduate (83.7%) and Master's or other studies. This psychometric tool collected information on sociodemographic variables, place (class or outside the classroom), and time (during group work, in class or at another time). The results showed that 35.4% of women and 26.7% of men in the group of victims of bullying were in the fourth year of a Grade. The direct aggressions occurred even while teaching (3.3% in men and 1.1% in women), also occurring outside the classroom and during group work. The conclusions derived from this study support the need for detecting and intervening on bullying among university students, as was done in previous stages. Similarly, it is necessary to design and implement both proactive and reactive programs that have a rapid impact on the phenomenon described.
Pilar Gandía Herrero, Agustín Romero Medina
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 9, pp 177-187; https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i3.333

Abstract:
The quality of academic performance and learning outcomes depend on various factors, both psychological and contextual. The academic context includes the training activities and the type of evaluation or examination, which also influences cognitive and motivational factors, such as learning and study approaches and self-regulation. In our university context, the predominant type of exam is that of multiple-choice questions. The cognitive requirement of these questions may vary. From Bloom's typical taxonomy, it is considered that from lower to higher cognitive demand we have questions about factual, conceptual, application knowledge, etc. Normally, the teacher does not take these classifications into account when preparing this type of exam. We propose here an adaptation model of the multiple choice questions classification according to cognitive requirement (associative memorization, comprehension, application), putting it to the test analyzing an examination of a subject in Psychology Degree and relating the results with measures of learning approaches (ASSIST and R-SPQ-2F questionnaires) and self-regulation in a sample of 87 subjects. The results show differential academic performance according to "cognitive" types of questions and differences in approaches to learning and self-regulation. The convenience of taking into account these factors of cognitive requirement when elaborating multiple choice questions is underlined.
, Ana Zuazagoitia, Ibón Echeazarra, Luis Mari Zulaika
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 9, pp 137-147; https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i3.330

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is the engagement of students with the practice of physical activity (AFD). Three dimensions are observed: emotional (identification), behavioural (participation) and cognitive (investment in the task). Attention is given to groups related to physical education and they are compared with similar age and degrees groups. It is considered that his engagement with the AFD will affect his classes and the involvement of their students. The general objective is to describe the engagement with the AFD, and observe differences regarding gender, age and groups. Ex post facto type quantitative methodology is used by passing the questionnaire of engagement with physical activity (IMAF) of 22 items. The total sample is 321 students, 87 women (27.1%) and 234 men (72.9%), between 19 and 45 years old, with an average age of 23.15 years (SD= 3.07). The results show that the students are very engaged with the AFD, especially in the affective dimension. Regarding gender, the involvement of men is greater and the participation of women is lower. The AFD increases until the 24 years, decreasing later. The engagement of CAFYD students is higher. The results obtained are adjusted to the theoretical framework and will allow intervention programs for each group.
Patricio Galleguillos-Herrera, Eva Olmedo-Moreno
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 9, pp 119-135; https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i3.329

Abstract:
The purpose of the current investigation is the construction and validation of the Self-Efficacy Scale (ACAES) through a deliberate sample of 1101 Chilean school students. The methodological procedure was carried out from the classic approach perspective of the theory of the test, complementing the exploratory factor analysis with the models of the structural equation modeling (SEM). The exploratory factor analysis of the 18 statements of the scale showed a structure of 3 factors, namely: confidence in the task; effort made in performing the task and comprehension of the task. The statistics associated to the instrument show a 57.037% of explained variance and a Cronbach alpha of the total scale of 0.917. At confirmatory level (SEM), the model obtained a goodness degree of global adjustment (Chi Square /gl) equal to 2.87, a RMSEA equal to 0.049, as well as, adequate adjustment index, namely, CFI=0.963; IFI=0.963 and RMSR (standardised)=0.0359. The psychometric properties account for a valid and reliable instrument for measurement of academic self-efficacy in school context, as well as, to facilitate cognitive and metacognitive processes as self-regulatory learning strategy.
Victoria Franco Taboada, Ramón González Cabanach, Antonio Souto Gestal
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, Volume 9, pp 189-200; https://doi.org/10.30552/ejihpe.v9i3.334

Abstract:
The target of the research was to find out if academic stressors perception could change according to the motivational orientation to the student’s goals. With a sample population of 468 university students, 62.4% female and 37.6% male, and an average age of 21.82 years old (DT=3.13). Through a conglomerate analysis, the research obtained five groups of approximation goals and avoidance to learning and performance. That, in some cases, combined multiple goals. Opposite to the approximation groups, with a much minor threat perception before the academic exigencies, the avoidance groups expressed a greater vulnerability to stress. Except for the learning avoidance group with a low quality perception of the stressors and a strong indifference towards all related to the academic field. The obtained results, in general, inform us that the origin of this sort of stress is not related as much with the fulfilment of responsibilities, but with the breach or absence of compromise with the work they demand. These are typical manifestations of the students orientated towards avoidance.
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