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Amir Ali Khushk, Zhang Zengtian, Nasir Aman
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 35-49; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i2.223

Abstract:
Purpose: This study investigated the role of job pressure in the relationship between organizational politics and turnover intent among faculty members in universities in Pakistan. This study also assessed the impact of politics at the workplace among faculty members in the universities of Pakistan Methodology/Approach/Design: This study was performed in Pakistan, using primary data collected through a questionnaire. The total number of participants was 270. A convenient sampling technique was employed for selecting the sample. The majority of the respondents were from the Punjab province followed by Sindh province, KPK, and Baluchistan. Two independent variables perceived organizational politics and job stress, and one dependent variable, Turnover intention, were considered for this research. Reliability analysis and multiple regressions were used as data analysis in this study. Results: The independent variable i:e Perceived organizational politics selected for the research is found to be positive and significant with relation to the dependent variable i:e Turnover Intention. This means the management can predict the turnover intention of employees by taking into consideration the variables such as organizational politics, and mediating variable- job stress. Practical Implications: The practical implication of this research will help the management to control the effects of politics in the organization on the job of faculty members and design policies and training to engage and deal with the stress caused by organizational politics and retain the employees and decrease the turnover rate in universities. Originality/Value: This is one of the few studies that evaluate the effect of politics on turnover intention due to job stress in the context of Universities. This is important for both academia and scholars alike. Numerous studies recently paid attention to the impact of work politics on turnover intent. Thus, this analysis would aggregate the variable of past studies along with job stress, to check the effect on turnover intention.
Peninah Jepkogei Tanui, Harrison Katana, Geoffrey Alosi, Lynda Khahenda, Vincensia Emmanuel Adhiambo
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 16-34; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i2.222

Abstract:
Purpose: The study aimed at examining the mediating role of corporate diversification between ownership structure and financial performance of listed firms in Kenya. Methodology/Approach/Design: As guided by explanatory research design, 65 listed firms from 2003 to 2017 were targeted. However, panel data of 35 firms were considered after excluding suspended and delisted as far as the study period is concerned. Results: The panel regression analysis finding indicated that corporate diversification positively and significantly mediated between institutional ownership and financial performance (β = .005, p-value = .000). Furthermore, there was a negative but statistically significant mediation effect of corporate diversification between foreign ownership and financial performance (β = -.0019, p-value = .023). These mediation effects existed despite the direct effect between institutional and as well foreign ownership and financial performance being statistically insignificant. Practical Implications: The study, therefore, suggested to the management of listed firms to ensure proper implementation of corporate diversification as it transmits the effect of ownership structure on financial performance. More importantly, policymakers are suggested to streamline taxation of foreign investors, tackle malpractices in the firm leading to embezzlement of investor funds. Future studies need to enlarge the scope to incorporate unlisted firms as well as firms listed in different stock exchanges in East Africa. Other types of ownership structure as managerial, family and state need to be analyzed. In addition, other forms and measures of corporate diversification could be investigated by future researchers. Originality/Value: To attain the main objective, the study used panel regression analysis and path diagrams to examine the effect of ownership structure on financial performance via corporate diversification.
Peninah Jepkogei Tanui, Bramwel Murgor Serebemuom
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 65-77; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i2.235

Abstract:
Purpose: The study tested the hypothesis about the relationship between corporate diversification and financial performance. Moreover, moderating effect of firm size on the relationship between corporate diversification and financial performance of listed firms at Nairobi securities exchange (NSE) in Kenya was tested. Methodology/Approach/Design: The study was informed by market power and resource-based view (RBV) theories. To test the hypotheses, secondary panel data were collected from 35 listed firms at NSE from 2003 to 2017. Results: From panel regression analysis output, there was a significant positive (β = 2.225, p value = .000 < .05) relationship between corporate diversification and financial performance. Furthermore, firm size had a negative and significant (β = -.155, p value = .031<.05) moderating effect in the relationship between corporate diversification and financial performance. Practical Implications: The study thus concluded that firm size had a buffering effect in the link between corporate diversification and the financial performance of listed firms in Kenya. The findings of the study could be relevant to policymakers in drafting policies that affect diversification strategies of firms. For further research, the study recommended an increase of scope, other measurement approaches, analysis of corporate diversification from different perspectives other than product, and controlling for board characteristics. Originality/Value: The study while controlling the age of the firm tested the moderation effect of firm size in the relationship between corporate diversification and financial performance.
Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-15; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i2.216

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of accounting students in Saudi Arabia on the extent of incorporating IFRS into accounting curricula in undergraduate accounting programs in Saudi universities after the mandatory implementation of IFRS in 2017. Approach/Methodology/Design: This study is cross-sectional and a questionnaire was used to collect data from accounting students in Saudi Arabia regarding the extent to which IFRS are incorporated into accounting curricula in undergraduate accounting programs in Saudi universities. The sample of the study included 132 accounting students from the largest and oldest three Saudi universities. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: The findings of the study revealed a weakness in students' awareness of IFRS due to the weakness in incorporating IFRS into the accounting curricula. The majority of students indicated that they do not have a separate course on IFRS, and if this course is included in the study plan, it is an elective course and not a required course. The textbooks that they study from in the university are old textbooks and therefore, do not include accounting treatments according to IFRS. Also, teachers do not mention the IFRS when explaining the topics included in the accounting courses. Practical Implications: The study has implications for Saudi universities. Based on the results of the study, Saudi universities should update curricula in undergraduate accounting programs so that IFRS are incorporated into accounting curricula. Accounting students will have careers where global transactions and interactions are common, so they need to be familiar with IFRS. The incorporation of IFRS into accounting curricula increases the ability of Saudi universities to provide graduates who can obtain job opportunities and succeed in the workplace after graduation. Originality/value: Accounting students are prospective accountants, so they should be aware of the IFRS they will use in preparing and auditing financial statements after graduation. Therefore, it is important to explore the universities' response to the adoption of IFRS by incorporating IFRS into the accounting curricula to provide a graduate who can implement these accounting standards after graduation.
Dedi Hariyanto
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 50-64; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i2.228

Abstract:
Purpose: The study aims to examine the effect of trading volume, market capitalization, and firm size in explaining return on vultures in selected companies in Indonesia. Methodology/Approach/Design: The population is 131 JII forming companies in IDX between December 2009 – May 2010 to December 2019 – May 2020. All data is transformed into standard form because the model used is path analysis. The corresponding regression of equation 1 is the Random Effect model and the corresponding Regression equation 2 is the Fixed Effect model. This study uses panel data analysis; the Chow test and Hausman test are also used. Data is processed using statistics EViews software. Results: The results of the equalization test 1, trading volume has a significant negative effect on the return of shares. The results also show that the market capitalization has a significant negative effect on the return of shares, and consequently the size of the company has a significant negative effect on the return of shares. Hasil testing for equalization 2, trading volume has a significant effect on vultures, while market capitalization has no significant effect on vultures. The size of the company has a significant effect on vultures, and the return of the company has a significant effect on vultures. Practical Implications: This research is limited to the variety of indices and varieties of securities that become populations and samples. Future research can be developed by focusing on indices and securities as well as the development of other variables in the behavioral finance section in addition to herding. Originality/Value: This study differs greatly from previous studies in emerging markets in contributing to literature from a new direction in exploring investor returns and herding.
Ritwik Ghosh
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 71-78; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.247

Abstract:
In this paper, I argue that Greek poetry is a living tradition characterized by a diversity of voices and styles and that Greek poetry is a vital part of contemporary World Literature. The diversity of voices in contemporary Greek poetry gives it both aesthetic value and political relevance. Greek poetry, as it survives translation into a number of languages, including English, gives us a model for the successful translation of texts in both World literature and Comparative literature. A thematic analysis of some poems is presented in this paper. The aim is not to chronicle the contemporary Greek poetic production but to show how Greek poetic tradition continues to expand beyond national boundaries.
Amitrajeet Mukherjee
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 45-54; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.221

Abstract:
This paper explores Thomas De Quincey’s seminal text Confessions of an English Opium Eater, examining the artistic vision of the writer and locating the author and his text within the context of the growing British Imperial project in the early 19th century. By locating the substance of his addiction, opium, within the economic, political, and cultural discourses that were developing in Britain at the time, this paper aims to deconstruct the ambivalent relationship that De Quincey, and by extension large segments of British society, had towards an imagined construction of the Orient. By analyzing the Gothic elements of De Quincey’s text, I argue that these images of the East are the signs of growing Orientalist discourse. They squarely locate Romantic tropes within the narrative of British Imperialism. In addition to exploring the fissured imagination of Asia that marks De Quincey’s work, this paper also briefly analyzes the psychological aspects of De Quincey’s contemplation of his addiction and presents a brief account of the role, opium played within the Romantic movement of the early 19th century. Through De Quincey’s opium-induced hallucinations, I attempt to analyze a mode of reflecting and presenting the sublime which was intrinsically linked to an imagined East that revisits the intersection of discourses of art, lived experiences, and the cultural and political anxieties of the era in which the primary text was produced to create a glimpse of the larger discursive function of De Quincey’s confessional memoir. This paper can thus be read as an intervention to re-engage with the links between Romantic aesthetic imaginations and the colonial enterprise of Empire building in the early 19th century.
Saima Akter
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 79-87; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.219

Abstract:
This article aims to present a re-reading of Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House from a feminist perspective. Ibsen’s play is a pioneering feminist play, and he is credited for creating the first real feminist character in the history of theatre. The central female characters are analyzed, and the article also addresses the attitude of society towards women and how they struggle to prove themselves. Feminist literary criticism and feminism constitute the conceptual framework of the paper. In this play, Nora Helmer is under the illusion that her married life is perfect and that she owns what she deserves. Torvald, her husband calls her a ‘twittering lark’, ‘squirrel’, ‘song-bird’, and she is pleased with it. However, her illusion shatters when she faces the reality of finding herself being treated like a doll. As soon as she realizes that there exists an individual self of her, she revolts. She leaves the house, challenging the social institutions which contribute to women’s subjugation. Nora protests against the ill-treatment towards her by society for her willingness to get her right back, for her self-respect, and for finding herself.
Balogun Sarah, Murana Muniru Oladayo
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 55-70; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.255

Abstract:
This article attempts a comparative analysis of code-switching and code-mixing in the Nigerian music industry, using the lyrics of Flavour and 9ice as a case study. Although the English language is the national language in Nigeria and the language used by most of the musicians for the composition of their songs, and due to the linguistic plurality of Nigeria, most of these musicians tend to lace their songs chunks of words and phrases from their mother tongue or at least one of the three major languages in Nigeria, which are Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba. The Markedness Model by Myers-Scotton (1993) is used as the framework to interrogate the switching and mixing in the codes used by these selected musicians and we find that while most code-switching is done in three languages – English, Nigerian Pidgin and the artist’ first language (mother tongue) – their mother tongue plays the prominent role. Code-switching or code-mixing in these songs, therefore, becomes a depiction of the Nigerian state with its diverse languages and it provides the links between the literates and the illiterates thereby giving the artiste the popularity desired. The study concludes that the unique identity created by code-switching and code-mixing in the Nigerian music industry has a positive influence on music lovers, helping artists to achieve wide patronage and reflecting the ethnolinguistic diversity of the Nigerian nation.
Priyanka Basu
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 31-44; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.254

Abstract:
The paper explores how multiple personality disorder and schizophrenia are represented in selected Hindi films (Karthik Calling Karthik. Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Aparichit, Madhoshi) and how they affect the attitudes of the common people. Psychoanalytic theory is employed to analyze the concept of mental illness as depicted in these films. The protagonist in the films is a sufferer of either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or mental illness, and these psychological states are central themes. After analyzing the films, it could be stated that Bollywood has moved beyond presenting religious rituals as a cure to mental illness. Psychiatrists gained importance in Hindi films, successfully representing some of the symptoms of multiple personality disorder and schizophrenia. However, the films just mention the treatment procedures and presented them as an easy method. Hence projecting the treatment of mental disorders in Hindi films remains less serious and fictional. Filmmakers should research and investigate the real patients, their families, and doctors before making films on mental illness.
J.R. Sackett
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-15; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.220

Abstract:
With the passing of Richard Murphy in 2018, Ireland lost its last poet of the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy. Yet his poetry often displays the poet’s sense of unease with his background and features attempts to reconcile Ireland’s colonial history with feelings of guilt and self-consciousness as an inheritor to the gains of the British imperialist project. A dedicatory poem to his aging father who had retired to what was then known as Southern Rhodesia (modern-day Zimbabwe), ‘The God Who Eats Corn’ draws parallels between Irish and African colonial experiences. Yet far from celebrating the ‘civilizing’ mission of British imperialism, Murphy deftly challenges and questions the legitimacy of his family legacy. I argue that rather than reinforcing the poet’s image as representative of the Ascendancy class, ‘The God Who Eats Corn’ reveals sympathies with the subject peoples of British imperialism and aligns Murphy with a nationalist narrative of history and conception of ‘native’ identity. For this reason, the poem should be considered a landmark of modern Irish poetics in its articulation of trans-racial anti-colonial solidarity.
Lavanya Dalal
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 16-30; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i3.203

Abstract:
Trauma Studies and Prison Narratives have emerged over the past few decades as the most significant fields in the humanities. There has been a significant discussion regarding the psychological effects of incarceration; however, literature examining prison as a site of trauma is unusual. Focusing on Iftikhar Gilani's My Days in Prison (2005) and Yvonne Johnson and Rudy Wiebe's Stolen Life: The Journey of a Cree Woman (1998), the article analyzes how prison narratives represent prison as a violent space that inflicts trauma in its characters. These prison narratives represent Yvonne Johnson, the prisoner in Stolen Life, and Gilani as victims of acute psychological trauma faced due to the sheer viciousness of the prison system. The article also concentrates on how the prison experience is both similar and different in Canada and India.
Zikrah Zikrah, Mohammad Tariq, Hafiz Mohammad Arif
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-13; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i2.174

Abstract:
This paper aims to study Samih al-Qasim as a Palestinian resistance poet and to analyze his act of resistance against the Zionist agenda, his poetic imagination about Palestine, and the impact of colonization over the land. The paper also discusses Al-Qasim’s optimistic thoughts about the future of Palestine and the possible solutions for the Palestinian historical issue. A critical analysis of Samih al-Qasim’s resistance poetry is presented, focusing on his response to the Israeli narrative regarding Palestine. Through his poems, al-Qasim asserts and justifies the Palestinian cause. His poetry is counter-narrative, embodying considerable resilience and emitting rays of hope.
Refat Aljumily
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 50-63; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i2.205

Abstract:
The 1821 translation of Goethe’s Faustus is not signed by the translator. We know who translated Friedrich Schiller’shistorical dramas ThePiccolominiand The Death of Wallenstein, for example, not because the translator identified himself as Coleridge but based on evidence from within and without. This article offers a three-part review to ‘Faustus’ from the German of Goethe translated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge’ (Oxford University Press, 2007), edited by Frederick Burwick and James C. McKusick. It argues that there is no definitive evidence during Coleridge’s lifetime or for centuries after his death that Coleridge was acting as an anonymous translator of Bossey’s text as Faustus.
Kanhaiya Kumar Sinha
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 29-40; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i2.211

Abstract:
The present paper aims to produce a detailed account of the term ‘pragmatics’ and explore, by presenting and reviewing different models, its role in literature as it appears to be evident in different linguistic approaches to the study and analysis of literary genres. It is a fact that various pragmatic approaches such as speech act theory, conversational implicature, politeness theory, and relevance theory are developed mainly in relation to spoken interaction, yet, as some studies suggest, they offer invaluable insights to the study of literary texts. Consequently, the paper also strives to shed some light on the relationship these two terms – literature and pragmatics – enjoy so that their commonalities can be unmasked. It also tries to explore how pragmatics may help find out the ‘context’ and ‘meaning’ of literary discourse.
Suraiya Sultana
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 41-49; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i2.225

Abstract:
Charles Baudelaire employs the notion of flaneur as an idle wanderer and a passionate observer of the city life in the context of nineteenth-century Paris. Walter Benjamin in the twentieth century revisits the same notion in a slightly different manner. For Benjamin, flaneur, on the one hand, can be overwhelmed by the phantasmagoria of the city life and can develop a ‘shock experience' and on the other hand, can respond to the stimuli of the urban ambiance and can exhibit instrumental means of thinking to cope with the altered environment. In this circumstance, the latter, as Benjamin argues, is also evocative of the prospect of the flaneur’s conversion into a commodity. Following the argument of Walter Benjamin, the present paper aims to analyze the mobility and transformation of the central character, Christopher, in Julian Barnes’s novel Metroland (1980). This paper also reinforces that the character’s transformation is influenced by the societal structures as propounded by the structural Marxists like Louis Althusser.
Miniature Malekpour
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 14-28; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i2.224

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to look at the major socio-political shifts and stages that Iranian women have experienced from the establishment of the 1907 Constitution until the recent 2018/2019 White Wednesday Campaigns, which saw women take to the streets and remove their hijab as a means of protest against the current government. By examining the role of different veiling practices throughout the last century, this study situates our current scenario, in which women are using their smartphones to organize and make a statement politically, and considers its implications on Iranian society through the role of social-media and Cyber-Feminism.
Niranjana G, Bhuvaneswari G
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 64-67; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i2.206

Abstract:
Book Review: Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, ‘Arranged Marriage Stories’, Anchor, 1996, 320p, ISBN-13: 978-0385483506 Reviewed by Niranjana G, Research Scholar, VIT Chennai, Bhuvaneswari, Assistant Professor, VIT Chennai
Salim Mohamed Al Khreem, Mugahed Al-Khadher
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 30-41; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.178

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess nurses’ perception of medication errors nurses in Maternity and Child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among 72 nurses in Maternity and child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through a questionnaire, consisting of two parts: Part 1 covers demographical data, which includes age, gender, educational level, and years of experience and place of work in the hospital. Part 2 of the questionnaire consists of (23) questions about the nurses' perception of the causes, reporting medication error, and perceptions of barriers to reporting medication errors. Data were analyzed by using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Results: The results of the study indicate that most of the participants had a good perception of the causes of medication errors. Nevertheless, the data analysis showed that many of the participants had reporting medication errors. More importantly, the participants indicated that there exist multiple barriers to reporting medication errors. Two-thirds of them had moderate barriers to concerns over the consequences of reporting. More than half of them had minor barriers to blaming nurses if patients are harmed, while, about one-quarter of them had major barriers to fear of punishment. There was no statistically significant relationship between the studied nurses’ perception of the causes of medication errors and their characteristics (P value > 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that nurses at Maternity and Child Hospital in Najran city, Saudi Arabia, Had a good perception of the causes of medication errors. In addition, there was no statistically significant relationship between the participants’ reporting medication errors and their characteristics except age and years of experience.
Hawar M.H. Zebari, Hoger M. Hidayet, Assel. A. I. Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar Hussein, Reski Pebriani, Nurhaedar Jafar, Wahiduddin, Healthy Hidayanti, Burhanuddin, Ummu Salamah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 19-29; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.128

Abstract:
Purpose: The normal behavior of goat kids is influenced by painful husbandry procedures such as ear tagging, with kids reducing peripheral temperature and increase restlessness. The present study was designed to elucidate that pain caused by ear tagging affects peripheral temperatures and behavioral observations in Karadi kid goats. Study Design: Experimental Study Design. Subjects and Methods: Nineteen native black goat kids, aged 10-14 days, were used in this study as a sample. Eye and nasal temperatures were recorded before ear tagging process (control) and after ear tagging 5 times in 30 minutes. In addition, the behavior of each kid was observed for 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after ear tagging using focal sampling recorded with instantaneous time sampling to measure the duration and frequency of each behavior of the kids. Results: It was revealed that peripheral temperatures were significantly decreased for both eye (P
Konan Kouassi Serge-Olivier, Bleyere Mathieu, Yves Bénarèce Tra Dje Bi, Soualio Kamagate, Paul Angoué
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 10-18; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.217

Abstract:
Purpose: This article aims to evaluate the effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and some blood biochemical composition of male Japanese quail. Study Design: Qualitative Descriptive Design. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred, three week old apparently healthy male Japanese quail were used in this experiment. The birds were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 3 replicates of 20 birds for 21 days of experimental period and placed in cages, measuring 100 cm (length) x100 cm (width) x 80 cm (height). Group A was fed on diet 1 containing 18% crude protein, Group B was fed on diet 2 containing 20% crude protein, Group C was fed on diet 3 containing 22% crude protein, Group D was fed on diet 4 containing 24% crude protein and Group E was fed on diet 5containing 26% crude protein. All groups were subjected to similar management practices. Results: The findings showed that growth performance parameters significantly improved as dietary crude protein level increased. However dietary protein level beyond 22% has no beneficial effect on growth. Biochemical examination results demonstrated that the crude protein level in diet was not significantly affected the blood glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus and liver enzyme activities (ASAT and ALT). However, we noticed a significant effect (P
Sharaf Alawdi, Ajay B. Solanki
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 50-64; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.213

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this article is to present a review of mucoadhesion drug delivery systems. The review covers the mucoadhesive concepts, polymers used, theories and mechanisms of mucoadhesion, and factors affecting the mucoadhesive dosage forms. Study Design: An extensive review was carried out on mucoadhesion formulations, applications, mechanisms, theories, and polymers used in these dosage forms. Results: Mucoadhesive drug delivery system can interact with the mucus membrane, which covers the mucin molecules and mucosal epithelial surface. This interaction leads to an increment of the dosage form residence time at the site of absorption and hence increasing the bioavailability, efficacy of drugs, and improving therapeutic outcomes. Polymers are used to provide muco-adhesion of the dosage form, enhancing drug release pattern, solubility and dissolution of inadequately soluble drugs. Conclusion: Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were found to be the best alternative approaches for the traditional dosage forms to enhance bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs and to avoid GIT degradation and first pass metabolism of some drugs.
Ferdiana Casanova Daulay, Sudiro Sudiro, Asriwati Amirah
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 42-49; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.218

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aims to analyze infection control prevention management on nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital. Methods: An analytical survey was employed with a cross-sectional design. The population included the nurses who served in the in-patient rooms of Regional General Hospital (RSUD) Rantauprapat with a sample of 64 participants. The data was collected using purposive sampling. For data analysis, univariate, bivariate analysis with chi square and multivariate logistic regression tests were used. Results:The results showed that there is a relationship between infection control prevention management and nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital in 2020 with the results of the chi-squares-p = 0.0001 test. In addition, there is a relationship between infection control prevention management based on policy / SPO on nurses’ compliance in implementing hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital in 2020 with the results of the chi-square sig-p = 0.001. The most dominant variable that affects nurses' compliance in implementing hand hygiene is supervision because it has the greatest regression coefficient (B), which is 2.444 with an Exp (B). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that regular supervision and training serve as the most effective option in infection control prevention management. Moreover, nurses’ compliance with the implementation of hand hygiene in the in-patient rooms of Rantauprapat Hospital has a direct relationship with good infection control prevention management.
Nosaiba Ahmed Hussein Abdelseed
Journal of Scientific Research in Medical and Biological Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-9; doi:10.47631/jsrmbs.v2i1.149

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term glycemic control by glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and to assess knowledge about the diabetic regimen. The results of glycemic control in this study were compared with the results of a study conducted in 2018 that targeted almost a similar population. Study Design: A Cross-Sectional Study. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in October 2012 to December 2012 in a major referral Diabetic Centre. Diabetic children aged 8 to 18 years old who were attending the referral diabetic clinics were included in the study (n = 90). Knowledge of diabetes management was evaluated by using a semi-structured questionnaire and HbA1c results were obtained from medical records, available for only 71. Later, these Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c results were compared with the results of a recent study carried out among Sudanese diabetic children and adolescents in 2018. Results: Out of 71 diabetic children 78.9% were of poor glycemic control with mean HbA1c 10.36±2.14. On the other hand, the majority had good knowledge about the diabetic treatment including insulin administration, its storage conditions, and also the effect of exercise on blood glucose. However, almost 18.8% of studied participants did not know hypoglycemia symptoms, and about 11% of these patients were unaware of hypoglycemia management. Conclusion: The study has indicated that a significant percentage of studied diabetic children and adolescents had poor glycemic control. Although children’s knowledge about insulin therapy was good, further study must be conducted to investigate factors related to glycemic control among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
, Rebecca Folake Bank-Ola, Ifeoluwa Alao-Owunna
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-16; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.152

Abstract:
Purpose: This study investigates the effectiveness of health-aid in Nigeria, with focus on child health outcomes. In particular, the study aims to examine whether health aid has yielded significant gains in child health in Nigeria. Methodology/Approach/Design: Secondary data on neonatal, infant and under 5 mortality as well as measles and DPT immunization were used. The stationarity of the variables was ascertained using the augmented Dickey-Fuller and Philip-Perron unit root tests. In order to confirm the presence or otherwise of long-run relationship among the selected variables, Johansen cointegration test was carried out and the obtained coefficients and p-values indicate evidences of long-run relationship. Finally, the study used the fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) estimator to examine the effects of aid targeted at children health on the various child health outcomes. Results: The results suggest the existence of long-run relationships between health aid and child health indicators, with aid having reducing impacts on the mortality indicators and a positive correlation with child immunization coverage. Also, public health expenditure, literacy rate and urbanization rate are negatively correlated with measures of children mortality and positively correlated with the measures of immunization coverage. Except for infant mortality, economic growth proxy by GDP growth rate has insignificant effect on child health. Practical Implications: Sustained improvement in children health is the core objective of aids aimed at children’s health, and findings of this research will serve as a framework for health policymakers in understanding the contributions of health aid inflow to specific indicators of child health in Nigeria. Originality/Value: This study makes a number of contributions to the ongoing discussion on the effectiveness of health-specific ODA in Nigeria. Despite the inconclusiveness of the health aid-health outcomes literature, this study has shown that children health aid has led to improvement in children health in Nigeria. While previous studies have focused on child mortality indicators, this study examined the effect on various measures of children health including children immunization coverage.
Cao Liang, Salman Ali Shah, Tian Bifei
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 68-80; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.212

Abstract:
Purpose: This study is carried out to study the relationship between FDI and economic growth of developing countries. Approach/ Methodology/ Design: The study used data from 2000 to 2019 for 113 developing and transition countries. The study used Hausman fixed effect and instrumental variables two stage least square region to trace the results. Findings: The result of the study found a positive relationship between FDI and economic growth. An increase in FDI inflow will result and upsurge in economic growth of developing country. The relationship between unemployment and economic growth is found negative. The overall results show that FDI and economic growth has a positive relationship in developing countries. Practical Implication: This study used annual data of pre pandemic. It is concluded in the study that future studies have to check the impact in post pandemic scenario. Originality/Value: Though the relationship between FDI and economic growth is studied widely in different studies. As mentioned that COVID-19 pandemic changed the world economic situation there is much more aspects of FDI and economic growth is remaining to study. The issue of FDI and economic growth for a cluster of 113 countries is addressed in this study.
Ibrahim El-Sayed Ebaid
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 17-27; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.193

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) implementation on the quality of financial reporting of commercial banks in Saudi Arabia. The quality of financial statements was measured using qualitative characteristics of accounting information i.e., relevance, faith representation, understandability, comparability and timeliness. Approach/Methodology/Design: This study is cross-sectional and a questionnaire was used to collect data regarding the effect of implementing IFRS on five of the qualitative characteristics of the accounting information, including two of fundamental characteristics: relevance, faithful representation and three of the enhancing characteristics: understandability, comparability, and timeliness. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The population of the study includes all the 12 commercial banks listed in the Saudi Stock Exchange. Findings: The finding of the study reveals that the quality of financial reports which is measured through qualitative characteristics of accounting information (relevance, faith representation understandability, comparability and timeliness) was improved significantly after implementing IFRS compared with the period prior to the implementation of these standards. Practical Implications: The study has implications for standards makers and users of the financial statements of banks in Saudi Arabia. Results of the study confirm the positive effect of implementing IFRS on the qualitative characteristics of accounting information, which is the basis for decision-making. These results are evidence in support of the transition plan to implement IFRS approved by Saudi Arabia Originality/value: The benefits of implementing IFRS have undergone many studies in developed countries, especially Europe. Little is known about these benefits in developing countries. The study adds to this limited body of studies by examining the effect of implementing IFRS in Saudi Arabia as one of the developing countries.
Dauda Moses, Aniekan Elijah Asukwo, Muhammed Adamu Yusuf, Isaac John Ibanga
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 28-39; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.214

Abstract:
Purpose: This study investigated female enrolment into electrical/electronics engineering trade in technical colleges of Adamawa State in order to suggest ways of augmenting it for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2016-2030. Approach/ Methodology/ Design: Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample of the study comprised of 38 teachers and 140 parents. A 50-item Female Enrolment in Electrical/Electronics Engineering Trade (FEEET) Questionnaire was developed by the researchers and used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by three experts from the Department of Electrical Technology Education, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State. Reliability co-efficient of 0.81 was obtained for the instrument using Cronbach’s Alpha reliability method. Mean statistic was used to answer the two research questions while z-test statistics was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings: The findings of the study revealed that inadequate knowledge on female participation in electrical/electronics engineering trade, hazards involved in working with electricity, and poor gender policy implementation among others were factors affecting female enrolment into the programme. Establishment of electrical/electronics engineering trade skill acquisition centres for females and provision of starter packs for female graduates of electrical/electronics engineering trade among others were strategies identified for improving female enrolment into the programme. Practical Implication: The study has practical implications for achieving sustainable development goals in Nigeria. A sustainable financing scheme for the female trainees of electrical/electronics engineering trade should be established in order to boost their interests in the programme. Originality/Value: The study identified that inadequate knowledge on female participation in electrical/electronics engineering trade, hazards involved in working with electricity, societal perception about electricity, cultural sanctions on women, early marriages, and poor gender policy implementation are the main factors that affect female enrolment in technical colleges in Nigeria.
Bhola Khan
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 47-56; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.197

Abstract:
Purpose: In this article attempt is made to develop a composite food security index for some selected countries of the Economic Community of West-African States (ECOWAS), e.g. Nigeria, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. The study also aims to study the stability property of the indicators of composite food security index. Approach/ Methodology/ Design: For constructing a composite food security index for ECOWAS, one can use the basic methodology already developed by IFAD but in a modified form. This study is also based on IFAD methodology but with one more additional variable that is political stability index and assigned weight on the basis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Findings: This composite index is an improvement over all the other food security index developed by others eminent economists and institutions from time to time. This index consists of six indicators such as food availability, food production, self-sufficiency of food, inverse relative price index, child survival index, and political stability to construct the composite food security index of ECOWAS. Political stability is an additional indicator in the index of ECOWAS. With the help of this index, the trends, stability and situation of food security index in region are discussed and analyzed from 2001 to 2018.After careful analysis of composite food security index of ECOWAS, one can find out that It has quite impressive and improving gradually. Practical Implication: This study provides strong suggestion about how these five indicators of composite food security index provide an overview for the selected countries to secure their level of food security in their respective country. Originality/Value: After the careful analysis of the collected data, it can be concluded that the composite food security index plays an important role to understand whether food security index is improving in respective countries or not.
Tushar Rameshbhai Ajmera
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 40-46; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.188

Abstract:
Purpose: The main aim of this article is to find out the working capital management and its impact on profitability in Tyre Industry of selected companies which are listed on stock exchange in India. Approach/ Methodology/ Design: For the study, a time span of 8 years from 2011-12 to 2018-19 is considered, and based on it, any relation of net profit margin ratio and working capital components like current ratio, quick ratio, inventory turnover ratio, working capital turnover ratio is considered. The sample is selected based on higher market capitalisation during the study period. Regression analysis is also employed to investigate the impact of WCM on corporate profitability. Findings: The major findings of this study indicate that the profitability of Balkrishana was good compared to the other companies. The working capital of Ceat shows highly positive working capital management, whereas Apollo shows negative working capital management. These results were identified with the help of accounting tool as Ratio analysis and statistical tools as Regression analysis and ANOVA test for selected data. Practical Implication: The study examines the scenario of tyre industry with the help of working capital management in selected companies. The results of the study could be an indicator of the performance of the selected companies. Originality/Value: This paper provides some key insights to health and efficiency of the selected companies. The working capital ratios are indicative of good working capital management, leading to identifying issue in financial management and eventually improving the performance of the tyre industry.
Sabina Šehić Kršlak, Nerman Ljevo
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 81-91; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.215

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Purpose: The goal is to research how tourism companies encourage organizational creativity and thus gain a competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is to answer the question of whether the competitive advantage of tourism companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be improved by encouraging organizational creativity. Approach/ Methodology/ Design: For collecting data, a survey questionnaire was developed. The survey questionnaire was distributed electronically to tourism enterprises in Bosnia and Herzegovina. An econometric analysis is employed in order to prove the positive correlation between creativity and competitive advantage of tourism companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Findings: The results of the research showed that in order to achieve a competitive advantage, companies can manage creativity by encouraging: individual creativity whose existence is conditioned by the ability to think creatively, intellectual capacity, motivation and freedom of decision of employees. Based on the obtained research results, team creativity can be realized when employees develop a tendency to share knowledge, have confidence in the team, and that the organization ensures a free flow of information. Practical Implication: A model of creativity and innovation is proposed in this study. Based on the results of the study, the model could be applied to other transition countries in the region. Originality/Value: A special contribution of the paper is the model of integrative creativity to tourist companies.
Kazeem Fasoye, Abiodun Sunday Olayiwola, Kehinde Elizabeth Joseph
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and Administrative Sciences, Volume 2, pp 57-67; doi:10.47631/jareas.v2i1.177

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Purpose: This paper examined the potential of domestic industrial output on economic growth in Nigeria. Approach/ Methodology/ Design: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model procedure was employed for data analysis. Findings: The results revealed that the contribution of the domestic industrial output to economic growth was appalling which was necessitated by the worrisome image of “Made-in-Nigeria” goods. It was also showed that the results that domestic industrial output and domestic savings have positive relationships with real gross domestic product (RGDP) in the long run. This implies that a rise in the level of each of domestic output and domestic savings necessitated an increase in real gross domestic product (RGDP). Practical Implication: The implication presented in this study is related to the concerned authorities. The results indicate the need for diverse domestic production in order to achieve a healthy competition in the industrial sector in the country. Originality/Value: The study innovates by employing various statistical tools for exploring the effect of domestic industrial output on economic growth. The significant contribution of this study is in identifying that domestic production in Nigeria has been lagged behind in terms of output performance in the economy.
Hamissou Ousseini
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 160-171; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.201

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Purpose: This paper presents some empirical insights about the effect of the LMD system (Bologna Process) on practices at an English as a foreign language (EFL) program in a Sub-Saharan African (SSA) country. The study aimed at examining the dominant pedagogical practices and changes caused by the new system. Methodology: Based on a qualitative case study methodology and a theoretical framework that draws from Stenhouse (1967; 1975), classroom observation data, interviews, and documents were collected and analyzed thematically. Results: The analysis has revealed the predominance of lecturing through dictation and practices of summative assessment. These practices are contrary to the principles of the LMD system. This has been interpreted as a resistance from educators to use the new modes of teaching and assessment favored by the socio-constructivist and student-centered approach brought by the LMD system. Practical Implications: Considering the theoretical perspectives underpinning the study, the findings suggest the predominance of practices that are not favorable to English language learning. The study has certain implications for the implementation of LMD, stressing the need to redesign LMD practices based on empirical procedures that strives to understand the foundation of educators’ resistance to change. Originality/Value: The study makes a contribution about the application of Western educational tools to other contexts and raises the need for understanding the contextual teaching cultures prior to reform endeavors.
Wu Jidong, Kaniz Fatema, Joyce Yeboah
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 80-98; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.129

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Purpose: This study assessed the effects on the Listening Comprehension of Different Non-native English Accents on Chinese Learners of English. The study aimed to determine, first of all, the reaction of Chinese learners of English to different non-native English accents. Second, it sought to investigate the differences in the difficulties that Chinese learners of English face while listening to English spoken with accents native (Chinese English accent) or non-native. Third, the study attempted to find out the relationship between English spoken with the native Chinese accent and/or non-native English accents and listening comprehension. Methodology/Approach/Design: The sample included 16 participants majoring in International Education of Chinese Language. They were selected randomly for the study. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed to collect and analyze data. Results: The findings revealed that non-native English accent plays a more important role than the native English accents in listening and comprehension. The findings also revealed a listening comprehension advantage for test-takers who are familiar with accents, in this case, the Chinese non-native English accent. Practical Implications: For a better understanding of the teaching and learning process of English as a foreign language, learners or listeners need to assess the influence of non-native accents on their listening comprehension to find better ways in improving their listening skills. This study contributes significantly to this field. Originality/Value: This study employed multi non-native accent including African English accents. It attempted to contribute significant value in this field as most of the teachers who teach English globally are non-native English Speakers and they, in essence, have considerable influence on the learners’ listening comprehension.
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 99-118; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.195

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of student-faculty interaction, supportive environment, and effective teaching practices on students’ perceived learning gains at the Faculty of Science in a francophone university in Lebanon. Approach/Methodology/Design: This study used a mixed research method design, including semi-structured interviews with five administrators, and a student engagement survey based on the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). The sample consisted of one Dean, four Chairpersons, and two-hundred eighty-six undergraduate students. We conducted thematic analysis for the qualitative data obtained from interviews, and Spearman’s rank correlation analysis on the quantitative data obtained from the survey. Findings: The interview results with the dean and chairpersons revealed that having clear communication with students about their learning outcomes, offering a supportive environment and a structured advisory system were important elements to engage them in their learning experience. Findings from the students’ survey showed that clearly explaining course objectives and giving feedback on tests or homework are essential teaching practices that enhance students’ learning gains. Responses also showed the significant influence of a supportive environment measures on students’ academic and personal development, in particular, encouraging social interaction and helping students handle their non-academic responsibilities. Practical Implications: This study can be a reference for other Francophone universities that are not acquainted with the NSSE survey, widely used in Anglophone universities to promote student learning. It could contribute in reviewing the effectiveness of teaching practices, student-faculty interaction, or other academic and social support services. Originality/Value: This research paves the way for further research that could include other disciplines in the selected university or include other Francophone universities in Lebanon with emphasis on interactive teaching practices that effectively engage students in the University’s life.
Violla Makhzoum, Amine Berri, Zeinab Ajami
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 16-30; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.120

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Purpose: This research study aims to examine the role of effective digital communication skills in the success of the distance learning process in the private universities in Lebanon. It also addresses the role of the teacher in motivating the students and acting as a facilitator to bridge the digital divide. Approach/Methodology/Design: To achieve the goal of this research, a descriptive approach was adopted. Six private universities were selected as a sample for the study and they were selected randomly. A questionnaire was developed as a tool for data collection. To verify the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, we used the Cronbach coefficient test (Cronbach’s alpha). The researchers distributed 300 questionnaires to respondents from the selected private universities. Only 137 teachers responded, or (45.6%) of the total questionnaires distributed. For statistical analysis, the researchers used SPSS version 20.0. Findings: The results of the study revealed that private universities in Lebanon were ready to handle online teaching during the CoViD-19 pandemic. The respondents indicated their ability to handle the newly- emerging digital technologies to tackle crisis. It is found out that the arithmetic average rate related to the extent of the role that the teacher plays in the success of the distance learning process is (3.80)with a “strong” degree. The arithmetic average rate of the teacher's possession of the skill of effective communication was (3.69), with a “strong” degree. As for the teacher’s role in the process of motivation, the average of the arithmetic mean was 3.59 with a “strong” degree, but it is closer to an “average” than to a “strong” degree. Practical Implications: The study presents various implications for different stakeholders; it principally addresses a crucial recent issue, and thus serves as a source for teachers and administrators. The results of the study open new venues for further research on online learning. Originality/value: The success of online learning is dependent on digital literacy. The familiarity with the new technological means that emerged during 2020 contributes to the success
Arinzechukwu Victor Okanya, Deborah Ahuoiza Vincent, Asogwa Japel Onyekachi
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 119-129; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.141

Abstract:
Purpose: The study identified the rationale for material selection in landscaping for checking intrusion in public and private primary schools in Nsukka urban, Enugu state, Nigeria. Methodology/Approach/Design: A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions guided the study. The population for the study was 102 respondents comprising 82 public/private school teachers and 20 builders. Due to the manageable size of the population, there was no sampling as the entire population was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was a 25-item questionnaire derived from literature reviewed. The instrument was validated by three experts from the Faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to determine the reliability of the instrument and a reliability coefficient of .85 was obtained. The data collected for this study was analyzed using mean and t-test. Results: The findings revealed some rationale for material selection in landscaping for checking intrusion in public and private primary schools which includes; the durability, maintenance, aesthetic and cost of each landscaping material; the initial and ongoing costs, the availability of the material to be used and the life cycle assessment considerations such as material performance, and impact on the environment and the ability to reuse the material. Practical Implications: The results of the study might be of interest to school principals and builders. The study reflects the common perceptions about landscaping to prevent intrusion into schools, and hence of practical implications to concerned education authorities in Nsukka urban, Nigeria. Originality/Value: The study identified the effects of poor landscaping in public and private primary schools which include; exposure of schools to risk of attacks, theft and exposure of schools to ecological problems such as flooding, erosions, deep gullies and a degrading environment.
Arinzechukwu Okanya, Japel Asogwa, Ike Onyedikachi
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 172-186; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.143

Abstract:
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the Effect of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on the Performance of Building Technology Lecturers in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Methodology: Three research questions guided the study in which survey research design was used. The entire population of the study was 216, comprising 84 building technology lecturers and 132 higher technical officers from six tertiary institutions in Nigeria. A 38-item questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument at a coefficient of 0.89. A total of 216 copies of the questionnaire were administered and 210 copies were retrieved, representing a 92% return rate. The data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. Results: The study found out that there exist 5 items on how the indoor air quality (IAQ) affect building technology lecturers’ performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions, 5 items on how thermal comfort affect building technology lecturers’ performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions, 7 items on how building acoustics affect building technology lecturers’ performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions and 6 items on how ergonomics affects building technology lecturers’ performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The study also found 6 items on challenges of installing Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), facilities and 10 items on the ways of providing and improving Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Practical Implications: Lecturers’ role on monitoring and maintenance of IEQ in offices could be enhanced through appointment of Desk officer in each faculty of the tertiary institutions. The Desk officer will liaise between the lecturers and maintenance unit of the institutions on IEQ issues. Originality/Value: The study concluded that improved indoor environmental quality has a tremendous impact on lecturer’s performance, comfort, workspace utilization and overall productivity.
Thang Van Nguyen, Endale Tadesse, Wang Muhua
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 143-159; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.127

Abstract:
Purpose: The study had the fundamental purpose of investigating perceptions of justice and its impact on work motivation among university lectures in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methodology/Approach/Design: A quantitative research approach was employed with survey questionnaire as a data collection tool. To achieve the study objective, 416 lecturers who work at public and non-public universities in Hanoi were included in this study. The correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were applied to measure the relationship between the lecturers' perceptions of justice and their work motivation. Results: Findings indicated that perceptions of justice in payment, recognition, opportunities for promotion, the attitudes, and treatments of leaders had a significant and positive correlation with lecturers' work motivation. The study also showed that Vietnamese lecturers are more concerned with non-monetary than monetary compensation, such as promotions, training, and professional development opportunities. Practical Implications: This study presents implications for Vietnam’s higher education authorities. The results might be of interest for any project aiming at motivating faculty and improving their working conditions. Originality/Value: The originality of the study is in the exploration of perception of justice and its effect of lecturers’ motivation. It is recognized that providing a justice/fairness based environment will ensure that schools can motivate their lecturers.
Layal Temsah, Nehme Safa
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 56-79; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.180

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of a self-instruction intervention received by teachers on the reasoning and communication skills of sixth and fifth graders. It comprised training elementary science teachers to integrate the Five-E Inquiry-based-computer-simulations. Approach/Methodology/Design: A mixed-methods quasi-experimental design was employed in this study to investigate the effect of the intervention on students’ reasoning and communication skills from the results of tests, interviews, and observations. The sample included five private schools in the region of Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Participants included 434 students and 10science teachers. Qualitative data were collected from the interview replies of ten science teachers, and 22 pre-post observations. Quantitative data were collected from the pre-post-test results in reasoning and communication over a sample of 434 students from grades five and six. Findings: The integration of the Five-E Inquiry Model-Computer-Simulation-approach enhanced students’ reasoning skills particularly at the levels of “Analysis”, “Interpretation” and “Conclusion”. Post-test results indicated a significant improvement in students’ reasoning and communication skills. Teachers tackled written communication skills more through writing laboratory reports, and the post-test results for written communication showed significant improvement. Therefore, there was a statistically significant difference between post-test scores of the experimental schools and those of the control schools. Practical Implications: The study will contribute to the proper integration of computer simulations in an inquiry-based learning environment to enhance elementary students’ reasoning and communication skills in science. Originality/value: This study responded to students’ lack of reasoning and communication skills and teachers’ lack of technological pedagogical knowledge. The study provided instructional strategies for the proper integration of computer simulations based on the Five-E instructional model that enhanced students’ reasoning and communication skills.
Erlie Pinoliad
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 31-55; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.167

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of contextualization in teaching Philippine short stories in English to students’ reading comprehension and the relationship between students’ reading interest and their comprehension levels. Approach/Methodology/Design: The study is experimental in design. It employed the Z-test and utilized a structured survey questionnaire in collecting the data. Seventy-two (72) Grade 7 students of Lila National High School in the school year 2018-2019 had the Frustration level of reading comprehension based on the Phil-IRI results conducted before the experimentation took place. Contextualized teaching instruction and learning activities were utilized by the experimental group during the discussion of the three Philippine short stories in English. Findings: The study revealed that (a) both the experimental and control groups had the average interest level towards Philippine short stories in English, (b) in the Phil- IRI comprehension result, both the experimental and control groups’ level of comprehension is in the frustration level in three comprehension test categories namely literal, inferential, and evaluative/critical, (c) in the formative comprehension test results, the experimental group’s comprehension level increased to instructional level where in the literal and inferential test levels, the group is classified under independent level and instructional level in evaluative/critical. On the other hand, the control group’s comprehension level fell under instructional in the literal and inferential test levels and remained frustration under evaluative/critical. Practical Implications: The study has practical implications for literature teachers. The findings will assist the literature teachers especially those who are handling Philippine Literature subjects. In addition, an Action Program is proposed to improve reading comprehension in Lila National High School, Philippines. Originality/value: The study is different from existing researches since it focused on the contextualization in teaching Philippine literary pieces, particularly short stories to increase students’ interest in learning and improve comprehension.
Alaa Abdelghaffar
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 187-196; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.192

Abstract:
In addition to providing a comprehensive summary of the main topics covered in the book "Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Exploring regional and country-specific potentials", this review presents a critical evaluation of the book's main arguments where impartial evidence was most needed but severely lacked.
Samir Al Jumaily
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 1-15; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.208

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Purpose: The main objective of the study is to help Cambridge IGCSE students to develop their acquisition abilities as well as linguistic knowledge of figurative language to figure out the context-dependent meaning. Approach/Methodology/Design: This is a type of qualitative study on how Cambridge IGCSE students can develop their analytical thinking skills to understand figurative language through using context clues theory in order to figure out the meanings of idioms and expressions used by authors. Findings: A lot of progress in the use of figurative language was noticed. At the end of the course, students’ megacognitive skills highly improved and turned the students optimistic, after being frustrated at the beginning, to achieve the IGCSE Exams confidently. The study points out the necessity of teaching this type of language since students may encounter it in the Cambridge IGCSE Exams. It also focuses remarkably on the difference between literal and nonliteral language, and since these two are related to semantics and pragmatics, the scope of the study extended to cover the difference between the two. Practical Implications: Through TBD, periodicals help college students develop their listening and writing skills, raise awareness on problematic language areas, and avoid biases in analyzing texts. Originality/value: Through designing some sample lessons, the study tries to assist teachers to get immensely engaged in teaching different aspects of figurative language and how to approach teaching it.
Abubakar Baba Yerima
Middle Eastern Journal of Research in Education and Social Sciences, Volume 2, pp 130-142; doi:10.47631/mejress.v2i1.153

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Purpose: The study investigated the effects of reflective inquiry teaching method on students’ academic achievement in domestic installation modules in technical colleges of Yobe State, Nigeria. Methodology/Approach/Design: The study is quasi-experimental in design. A pre-test and post-test were conducted for both control and experimental groups. Two classes from four Technical Colleges were selected to give a sample size of 88. Electrical Installation and Maintenance Work Trade Achievement Test (EIMWTAT) was used to generate data for the study. The instrument was validated by three experts in the Department of Electrical Technology Education, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. To determine the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach’s Alpha was used and a reliability coefficient of 0.91 was obtained. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using t-test at 0.5 level of significance. Results: The study revealed that reflective inquiry teaching method improves student academic achievement when compared with the demonstration teaching method. It further revealed that reflective inquiry teaching method is not gender biased as both male and female students performed effectively in domestic installation. The study concluded that when students are taught domestic installation using reflective enquiry method, they performed better than when taught using conventional method. Practical Implications: The results of the study may have implications for teaching staff in Technical Colleges of Yobe State, Nigeria. Based on the results of the study, the reflective method can be applied in the teaching and learning of domestic installation, industrial installation and electrical installation and maintenance works in technical colleges. Originality/Value: The study innovates by experimenting with the effect of reflective inquiry in teaching Domestic Installation Module in Technical Colleges of Yobe State, Nigeria. From the analysis, the reflective inquiry was found effective in teaching domestic installation as students’ academic achievement was significantly high. By this, the use of reflective inquiry in the teaching of domestic installation, which is now being introduced, is highly commendable.
Muniru Murana Oladayo, Hafsat Abdulwahab
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 13-23; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i1.160

Abstract:
Every good piece of writing, fictional or otherwise is marked by a good introduction. This initial part is the primary provider of the reader’s first impression that sustains the reading. The introduction as well as the other parts of a written or spoken text is essentially realized through specially selected language. In prose fiction, special selections and patterns are the hallmarks. This paper explores the devices of style deployed by Usman in the creation of the introduction to Hope in Anarchy. It involves an intensive reading of the first chapter of the novel to unravel its artistic underpinnings for creating and sustaining the interest of the reader in the story. This thorough reading follows a general but careful reading of the entire text to establish the writer’s preoccupation and general tone. Excerpts from the introductory chapter form the data, and the analytical framework is linguistic stylistics. The analysis reveals that the novelist annexes contrastive lexical and syntactic devices, adjectives and adverbs of varied types and semantic nuances and morpho-phonological choices to introduce and delineate characters, develop events and create suspense. The paper concludes that both the novelty and typicality of the narrative derive from these stylistic constructs.
Aminur Rashid
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-12; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i1.164

Abstract:
Deep into the novel, an inarticulate sense of unease in the psyche of Henry Park is explored being extremely disturbed, and an outcast. Trapped being in American-Korean identity, he has got his impression on his wife, Lilia beings ‘emotional alien’, ‘yellow peril: neo-American,’ ‘stranger/follower/traitor/spy’. In addition, she speaks of him being a ‘False speaker of Language’ because Henry looks listening to her attentively; following her executing language word by word like someone resembling a non-native speaker. In fact, the cultural differences between the Korean-American and the Native American bring tension around the ways the English language is used.
Haruna Alkasim Kiyawa
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 34-45; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i1.199

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This paper aims to explore the female readers reading experiences, views and feelings of Hausa romance novels found in most of the northern part of Nigeria. This article also examines some criticism and accusations against the readership and content of the Hausa romance genre. The study applied the Transactional Reader-Response Theory of Rosenblatt’s (1978) as guide by selecting 7 female readers within the age ranges between 22-26 years from 2 book clubs to participate in the study. The findings revealed that all the readers individually were able to reveal their varied responses, beliefs, and experiences on the value of the romance novels which challenged the assertion made by the literary critics and traditional society that the books have no relevance in their life activities which supported their arguments and personal interpretive reading stance towards the Hausa romance genre. The finding yielded four themes were emerging: (a) promoting literacy development; (b) resistance to the traditional marriage system in society; (d) enlightening females on social inequality. These findings provided empirical support for the application of the Transactional Reader-Response Theory of Rosenblatt (1978) outside classroom contexts to understand the role of African romance novels towards female social transformation.
Victor Ntabo, George Ogal Ouma
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 2, pp 24-33; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v2i1.163

Abstract:
The study undertakes a metaphoric analysis of the animal metaphors in Miriri’s Ekegusii pop song “Ebunda” (a donkey) to reveal meaning. The meaning of the animal metaphors in the song might be elusive to the majority of the fans because metaphor is principally a matter of thought and action which is often situated in a specific context. The study employed the descriptive research design to describe the metaphors as used in the song. First, four coders (including the researchers) were employed to identify the metaphors in the song through the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit. Secondly, the metaphors in the song were classified into animal metaphors based on the levels of the principle of Great Chain of Being metaphor (GCBM). The animal metaphors in “Ebunda” were then explained using the Conceptual Metaphor Theory. The study reveals that animals are stratified source domains used to effectively conceptualize human beings as highlighted in the song. In addition, the animal metaphors in “Ebunda” are used on a cognitive basis to reveal the perceptions Abagusii (the native speakers of Ekegusii) have about some animals in society. Metaphors are crucial ways of communication and are best explained using the Cognitive Linguistics paradigm.
Bethany Marie Cabantac-Lumabi
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 1, pp 44-54; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v1i1.148

Abstract:
Purpose: This study is an attempt to understand how Millenials use backward speech on their Facebook statuses and how their lexicon is incorporated into a grammar of novel items in English in the Philippines. Methodology/ Approach: Facebook statuses with the two trending backward speeches such as “lodi” and “werpa” are the inputs of this study since they top the list of more than 20 Tagalog slang words for everyday use of modern Filipinos. Through the Optimality Theory (Mc Carty, 2007; Prince & Smolensky, 2004) process and lexical analysis, these backward speeches were classified by literature as speech disguise, joke, and euphemism, while the hashtags are basically tags used to categorize conversations between users. Findings: Despite its limitations, the results of the study describe and record a different form of Philippine English on Facebook that occurs from the optimal satisfaction of conflicting constraints. Evidently, the #werpa and #lodi are more contemporary and considerable internet slang (e.g. backward speech) for Philippine Millenials, who are active on posting their Facebook statuses to enhance group exclusivity. Its meanings are based on the context of the Facebook posts rooted in social connections. This unrestricted form of grammar of Facebook users in the Philippines is moving around the social world for years because of its consistent use online. Conclusion: As the English language form changes more quickly, technologies continue to develop and allow the transmission of new set of Philippine slang to pass from Millenials to the future digital natives. The interest of the study on lexical trends reveals optimal aspects of grammatical phenomena which identify and order words based on their growing use.
Talha Yousaf, Khair Ul Bashar
International Journal of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Volume 1, pp 37-43; doi:10.47631/ijecls.v1i1.147

Abstract:
Purpose: This paper presents an allegorical exploration of Walter de la Mare’s The Listeners. It dwells on the presentation of the human conscience in the poem. Methodology/ Approach: A literary analysis with focus on allegory. Findings: The Listeners by Walter De La Mare is a poem built on controversial grounds. The claimers have their own ambiguous theories. Some explored it for musical aspects other for gothic elements. The allegorical aspect of the poem is ignored not that they deny it, but because it has many meanings to give. Apart from the eerie effects, the character of “The Traveler” and “Phantom Listeners” arise questions and suggestions. The nearest meaning these characters attract is towards a human being. Struggles between vice and virtue; and the inner evil and restless conscience within. Conclusion: The confession of the author It concerns me a bit now that what was really the intended meaning. It has left the poem opened for critics and readers to explore more. Yet a clue is found when it is said that the Creator is not worried about death but about conscience.
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