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Teresa S. Ortner
Communications Chemistry, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.1038/s42004-021-00521-2

Abstract:
Lithium-ion batteries suffer from declining performance when the electrolyte decomposes. Now, low-dosage cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) visualizes how the common solid electrolyte interface component lithium carbonate decomposes and how additives stabilize the interface.
, Hongcai He,
Nature Reviews Materials pp 1-17; doi:10.1038/s41578-021-00320-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Koki Ueda,
Nature Cancer, Volume 2, pp 481-483; doi:10.1038/s43018-021-00212-w

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Fuyang Qu, Shirui Zhao, Guangyao Cheng, Habibur Rahman, Qinru Xiao, ,
Microsystems & Nanoengineering, Volume 7, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41378-021-00267-w

Abstract:
Multicellular spheroids have served as a promising preclinical model for drug efficacy testing and disease modeling. Many microfluidic technologies, including those based on water–oil–water double emulsions, have been introduced for the production of spheroids. However, sustained culture and the in situ characterization of the generated spheroids are currently unavailable for the double emulsion-based spheroid model. This study presents a streamlined workflow, termed the double emulsion-pretreated microwell culture (DEPMiC), incorporating the features of (1) effective initiation of uniform-sized multicellular spheroids by the pretreatment of double emulsions produced by microfluidics without the requirement of biomaterial scaffolds; (2) sustained maintenance and culture of the produced spheroids with facile removal of the oil confinement; and (3) in situ characterization of individual spheroids localized in microwells by a built-in analytical station. Characterized by microscopic observations and Raman spectroscopy, the DEPMiC cultivated spheroids accumulated elevated lipid ordering on the apical membrane, similar to that observed in their Matrigel counterparts. Made possible by the proposed technological advancement, this study subsequently examined the drug responses of these in vitro-generated multicellular spheroids. The developed DEPMiC platform is expected to generate health benefits in personalized cancer treatment by offering a pre-animal tool to dissect heterogeneity from individual tumor spheroids.
, Daisuke Suetsugu, , Hajime Shiobara, Hiroko Sugioka, Aki Ito, , , Yasushi Ishihara, Satoru Tanaka, et al.
Communications Earth & Environment, Volume 2, pp 1-7; doi:10.1038/s43247-021-00169-9

Abstract:
The Ontong Java Plateau in the western Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest oceanic plateau. It was formed 122 million years ago by a massive volcanic event that significantly affected Earth’s environment. The cause of the magmatic event remains controversial because the upper mantle structure beneath the plateau is poorly known. Here we use passive seismic data obtained through seafloor observations, alongside existing seismic data, to determine the three-dimensional radially anisotropic shear wave velocity to depths of up to 300 km. We find that the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary is approximately 40 km deeper beneath the centre of the Ontong Java Plateau than beneath the surrounding seafloor. Based on our results and petrological and rheological constraints, we propose that the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary has deepened as a result of underplating of dehydrated residual material beneath the pre-existing lithosphere during formation of the Ontong Java Plateau by a thermochemical mantle plume.
Kristin D. Chilton
Nature Reviews Earth & Environment pp 1-1; doi:10.1038/s43017-021-00180-w

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Marouen Ben Guebila, Ines Thiele
Nature Computational Science, Volume 1, pp 348-361; doi:10.1038/s43588-021-00074-3

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Nature Geoscience pp 1-5; doi:10.1038/s41561-021-00756-7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Srinivasan Arunachalam, Tomotaka Kuwahara, Mehdi Soleimanifar
Nature Physics pp 1-5; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01232-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Michael S. Sacks, Mark Girolami,
Nature Computational Science, Volume 1, pp 313-320; doi:10.1038/s43588-021-00072-5

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Tao Chen, Wei Gou, Dizhou Xie, Teng Xiao, Wei Yi, Jun Jing, Bo Yan
npj Quantum Information, Volume 7, pp 1-6; doi:10.1038/s41534-021-00417-y

Abstract:
We experimentally study quantum Zeno effects in a parity-time (PT) symmetric cold atom gas periodically coupled to a reservoir. Based on the state-of-the-art control of inter-site couplings of atoms in a momentum lattice, we implement a synthetic two-level system with passive PT symmetry over two lattice sites, where an effective dissipation is introduced through repeated couplings to the rest of the lattice. Quantum Zeno (anti-Zeno) effects manifest in our experiment as the overall dissipation of the two-level system becoming suppressed (enhanced) with increasing coupling intensity or frequency. We demonstrate that quantum Zeno regimes exist in the broken PT symmetry phase, and are bounded by exceptional points separating the PT symmetric and PT broken phases, as well as by a discrete set of critical coupling frequencies. Our experiment establishes the connection between PT-symmetry-breaking transitions and quantum Zeno effects, and is extendable to higher dimensions or to interacting regimes, thanks to the flexible control with atoms in a momentum lattice.
Nature Reviews Materials pp 1-21; doi:10.1038/s41578-021-00314-y

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Jiao Zhao, Hao Xu,
Nature Computational Science, Volume 1, pp 309-310; doi:10.1038/s43588-021-00075-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Nature Computational Science, Volume 1, pp 299-299; doi:10.1038/s43588-021-00082-3

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Christoph Eckart Schrank, , Tomasz Blach, Katherine Carmen Michelle Gioseffi, Stephen Mudie, Nigel Kirby, , Andrzej P. Radliński
Communications Materials, Volume 2, pp 1-6; doi:10.1038/s43246-021-00156-9

Abstract:
The dehydration of gypsum to hemihydrate has been studied for decades because it is an important model reaction for understanding fluid-triggered earthquakes, and due to the global use of plaster of Paris in the construction industry. The dehydration kinetics of gypsum strongly depend on temperature and water vapour pressure. Here, we perform fast, time-resolved synchrotron X-ray scattering on natural alabaster samples, finding that a small elastic load accelerates the dehydration reaction significantly. The mechanical acceleration of the reaction consumes about 10,000 times less energy than that due to heating. We propose that this thermodynamically surprising finding is caused by geometry-energy interactions in the microstructure, which facilitate nucleation and growth of the new crystalline phase. Our results open research avenues on the fundamental thermo-mechanics of crystal hydrates and the interaction of stress and chemical reactions in crystalline solids with a wide range of implications, from understanding dehydration-triggered earthquakes to the energy-efficient design of calcination processes.
N. Sakatani, S. Tanaka, , T. Fukuhara, , , R. Honda, , , Y. Yokota, et al.
Nature Astronomy pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41550-021-01371-7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Mirco Friedrich, , , Michael Kilian, Edward Green, Carina Ramallo Guevara, , Gernot Poschet, Khwab Sanghvi, Markus Hahn, et al.
Nature Cancer pp 1-18; doi:10.1038/s43018-021-00201-z

Abstract:
The dynamics and phenotypes of intratumoral myeloid cells during tumor progression are poorly understood. Here we define myeloid cellular states in gliomas by longitudinal single-cell profiling and demonstrate their strict control by the tumor genotype: in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant tumors, differentiation of infiltrating myeloid cells is blocked, resulting in an immature phenotype. In late-stage gliomas, monocyte-derived macrophages drive tolerogenic alignment of the microenvironment, thus preventing T cell response. We define the IDH-dependent tumor education of infiltrating macrophages to be causally related to a complex re-orchestration of tryptophan metabolism, resulting in activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We further show that the altered metabolism of IDH-mutant gliomas maintains this axis in bystander cells and that pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan metabolism can reverse immunosuppression. In conclusion, we provide evidence of a glioma genotype-dependent intratumoral network of resident and recruited myeloid cells and identify tryptophan metabolism as a target for immunotherapy of IDH-mutant tumors.
Xingcheng Lin, , Nicholas P. Schafer, Kevin Ng Chau, Michael E. Birnbaum, Cecilia Clementi, ,
Nature Computational Science, Volume 1, pp 362-373; doi:10.1038/s43588-021-00076-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Benjamin S. Linhoff, Jemma L. Wadham, , Carl H. Lamborg, , , Tyler J. Kohler, Rachael Ward, , et al.
Nature Geoscience pp 1-7; doi:10.1038/s41561-021-00753-w

Abstract:
The Greenland Ice Sheet is currently not accounted for in Arctic mercury budgets, despite large and increasing annual runoff to the ocean and the socio-economic concerns of high mercury levels in Arctic organisms. Here we present concentrations of mercury in meltwaters from three glacial catchments on the southwestern margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and evaluate the export of mercury to downstream fjords based on samples collected during summer ablation seasons. We show that concentrations of dissolved mercury are among the highest recorded in natural waters and mercury yields from these glacial catchments (521–3,300 mmol km−2 year−1) are two orders of magnitude higher than from Arctic rivers (4–20 mmol km−2 year−1). Fluxes of dissolved mercury from the southwestern region of Greenland are estimated to be globally significant (15.4–212 kmol year−1), accounting for about 10% of the estimated global riverine flux, and include export of bioaccumulating methylmercury (0.31–1.97 kmol year−1). High dissolved mercury concentrations (~20 pM inorganic mercury and ~2 pM methylmercury) were found to persist across salinity gradients of fjords. Mean particulate mercury concentrations were among the highest recorded in the literature (~51,000 pM), and dissolved mercury concentrations in runoff exceed reported surface snow and ice values. These results suggest a geological source of mercury at the ice sheet bed. The high concentrations of mercury and its large export to the downstream fjords have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, highlighting an urgent need to better understand mercury dynamics in ice sheet runoff under global warming.
Jiantao Fan, Ming Chen, Zhiliang Zhao, Zhen Zhang, , Shaoyi Xu, Haijiang Wang,
Nature Energy, Volume 6, pp 475-486; doi:10.1038/s41560-021-00824-7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 14-15; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0615-y

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 39-39; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0626-8

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 8-8; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0641-9

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 37-37; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0629-5

Noor Al-Helou
BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 20-22; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0622-z

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 38-38; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0632-x

Ariana Torres-Knoop, , , Pieter D. Iedema,
Communications Materials, Volume 2, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s43246-021-00154-x

Abstract:
The association between thermo-mechanical properties in polymers and functionality of monomer precursors is frequently exploited in the materials science. However, it is not known if there are more variables beyond monomer functionality that have a similar link. Here, by using simulations to generate spatial networks from chemically different monomers with identical functionality we show that such networks have universal graph-theoretical properties as well as a near-universal elastic modulus. The vitrification temperature was found to be universal only up to a certain network density, as measured by the bond conversion. The latter observation is explained by the fact that monomer’s tendency to coil enhances formation of topological holes, which, when accumulated, amount to a percolating cell complex restricting network’s mobility. This higher-order percolation occurs late after gelation and is shown to coincide with the onset of brittleness, as indicated by a sudden increase in the glass transition temperature.
, Yuma Sakatsume, Katsuto Onishi, Rui Tang, Kazuma Takahashi, , , , Takahiro Kakuta, Tada-Aki Yamagishi
Communications Chemistry, Volume 4, pp 1-6; doi:10.1038/s42004-021-00515-0

Abstract:
Carbon materials with controlled pore sizes at the nanometer level have been obtained by template methods, chemical vapor desorption, and extraction of metals from carbides. However, to produce porous carbons with controlled pore sizes at the Ångstrom-level, syntheses that are simple, versatile, and reproducible are desired. Here, we report a synthetic method to prepare porous carbon materials with pore sizes that can be precisely controlled at the Ångstrom-level. Heating first induces thermal polymerization of selected three-dimensional aromatic molecules as the carbon sources, further heating results in extremely high carbonization yields (>86%). The porous carbon obtained from a tetrabiphenylmethane structure has a larger pore size (4.40 Å) than those from a spirobifluorene (4.07 Å) or a tetraphenylmethane precursor (4.05 Å). The porous carbon obtained from tetraphenylmethane is applied as an anode material for sodium-ion battery.
npj Computational Materials, Volume 7, pp 1-3; doi:10.1038/s41524-021-00546-0

Abstract:
While the theory of imperfections in solids is firmly established, procedures for first-principles calculations of defect quantities continue to evolve. A plethora of ad hoc correction schemes is being replaced by sophisticated self-consistent procedures that will enable more quantitative predictions of the formation energies of defect species and their spectroscopic signatures.
Achintha Ihalage,
npj Computational Materials, Volume 7, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41524-021-00536-2

Abstract:
Compositional disorder induces myriad captivating phenomena in perovskites. Target-driven discovery of perovskite solid solutions has been a great challenge due to the analytical complexity introduced by disorder. Here, we demonstrate that an unsupervised deep learning strategy can find fingerprints of disordered materials that embed perovskite formability and underlying crystal structure information by learning only from the chemical composition, manifested in $$({{\rm{A}}}_{1-{\rm{x}}}{{\rm{A}}^{\prime} }_{{\rm{x}}}){{\rm{BO}}}_{3}$$ ( A 1 − x A ′ x ) BO 3 and $${\rm{A}}({{\rm{B}}}_{1-{\rm{x}}}{{\rm{B}}^{\prime} }_{{\rm{x}}}){{\rm{O}}}_{3}$$ A ( B 1 − x B ′ x ) O 3 formulae. This phenomenon can be capitalized to predict the crystal symmetry of experimental compositions, outperforming several supervised machine learning (ML) algorithms. The educated nature of material fingerprints has led to the conception of analogical materials discovery that facilitates inverse exploration of promising perovskites based on similarity investigation with known materials. The search space of unstudied perovskites is screened from ~600,000 feasible compounds using experimental data powered ML models and automated web mining tools at a 94% success rate. This concept further provides insights on possible phase transitions and computational modelling of complex compositions. The proposed quantitative analysis of materials analogies is expected to bridge the gap between the existing materials literature and the undiscovered terrain.
Jeeban K. Nayak, Shyamal Guchhait, Ankit K. Singh, Nirmalya Ghosh
Communications Physics, Volume 4, pp 1-11; doi:10.1038/s42005-021-00603-6

Abstract:
Enhancement of magneto-optical effects in hybrid magneto-plasmonic systems has attracted considerable recent attention because of their potential for building non-reciprocal nanophotonic devices. Quantitative understanding of the fundamental origin and contributing mechanisms for the enhancement is crucial for optimizing applications. Here, we unravel different physical origins of the giant enhancement of Faraday rotation and ellipticity in a hybrid magneto-plasmonic system, namely, waveguided magneto-plasmonic crystal for excitation with transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light. With TE polarization excitation, where the surface plasmons are not directly excited, the natural weak value amplification of Faraday effects appearing due to the spectral domain interference of Fano resonance is the dominant cause of the enhancement. For TM polarization excitation, on the other hand, waveguide-plasmon strong coupling and its universal manifestation of avoided crossing plays an important role, leading to maximum enhancement of the magneto-optical effects in the avoided crossing regime.
Cheol Woo Park, , , , , Jonathan P. Mailoa
npj Computational Materials, Volume 7, pp 1-9; doi:10.1038/s41524-021-00543-3

Abstract:
Recently, machine learning (ML) has been used to address the computational cost that has been limiting ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). Here, we present GNNFF, a graph neural network framework to directly predict atomic forces from automatically extracted features of the local atomic environment that are translationally-invariant, but rotationally-covariant to the coordinate of the atoms. We demonstrate that GNNFF not only achieves high performance in terms of force prediction accuracy and computational speed on various materials systems, but also accurately predicts the forces of a large MD system after being trained on forces obtained from a smaller system. Finally, we use our framework to perform an MD simulation of Li7P3S11, a superionic conductor, and show that resulting Li diffusion coefficient is within 14% of that obtained directly from AIMD. The high performance exhibited by GNNFF can be easily generalized to study atomistic level dynamics of other material systems.
, , Clarissa Baldo,
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, Volume 4, pp 1-20; doi:10.1038/s41612-021-00185-8

Abstract:
Aerosols supply bioaccessible iron to marine biota which could affect climate through biogeochemical feedbacks. This paper review progresses in research on pyrogenic aerosol iron. Observations and laboratory experiments indicate that the iron solubility of pyrogenic aerosol can be considerably higher than lithogenic aerosol. Aerosol models highlight a significant contribution of pyrogenic aerosols (~20%) to the atmospheric supply of dissolved iron into the ocean. Some ocean models suggest a higher efficiency of pyrogenic iron in enhancing marine productivity than lithogenic sources. It is, however, challenging to quantitatively estimate its impact on the marine biogeochemical cycles under the changing air quality and climate.
Correction
Grazziela M. Sena, Shiril Sivan, ,
npj Materials Degradation, Volume 5, pp 1-1; doi:10.1038/s41529-021-00176-3

Correction
Lingxiao Yan
Nature Climate Change pp 1-1; doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01082-x

David Schilter
Nature Catalysis, Volume 4, pp 347-347; doi:10.1038/s41929-021-00628-8

Nature Catalysis, Volume 4, pp 350-351; doi:10.1038/s41929-021-00620-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , S. Johnston, Y. Tseng, M. Rumo, , S. Zohar, M. F. Lin, , R. Saint-Martin, et al.
npj Quantum Materials, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.1038/s41535-021-00350-5

Abstract:
Investigations of magnetically ordered phases on the femtosecond timescale have provided significant insights into the influence of charge and lattice degrees of freedom on the magnetic sub-system. However, short-range magnetic correlations occurring in the absence of long-range order, for example in spin-frustrated systems, are inaccessible to many ultrafast techniques. Here, we show how time-resolved resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (trRIXS) is capable of probing such short-ranged magnetic dynamics in a charge-transfer insulator through the detection of a Zhang–Rice singlet exciton. Utilizing trRIXS measurements at the O K-edge, and in combination with model calculations, we probe the short-range spin correlations in the frustrated spin chain material CuGeO3 following photo-excitation, revealing a strong coupling between the local lattice and spin sub-systems.
Maurice Weber, , Bo Li, ,
npj Quantum Information, Volume 7, pp 1-12; doi:10.1038/s41534-021-00410-5

Abstract:
Quantum machine learning models have the potential to offer speedups and better predictive accuracy compared to their classical counterparts. However, these quantum algorithms, like their classical counterparts, have been shown to also be vulnerable to input perturbations, in particular for classification problems. These can arise either from noisy implementations or, as a worst-case type of noise, adversarial attacks. In order to develop defense mechanisms and to better understand the reliability of these algorithms, it is crucial to understand their robustness properties in the presence of natural noise sources or adversarial manipulation. From the observation that measurements involved in quantum classification algorithms are naturally probabilistic, we uncover and formalize a fundamental link between binary quantum hypothesis testing and provably robust quantum classification. This link leads to a tight robustness condition that puts constraints on the amount of noise a classifier can tolerate, independent of whether the noise source is natural or adversarial. Based on this result, we develop practical protocols to optimally certify robustness. Finally, since this is a robustness condition against worst-case types of noise, our result naturally extends to scenarios where the noise source is known. Thus, we also provide a framework to study the reliability of quantum classification protocols beyond the adversarial, worst-case noise scenarios.
Nature Energy, Volume 6, pp 451-451; doi:10.1038/s41560-021-00846-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 5-5; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0636-6

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 37-37; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0627-7

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 37-37; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0624-x

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 38-38; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0630-z

BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 38-38; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0631-y

Charlotte Spedding
BDJ Team, Volume 8, pp 19-19; doi:10.1038/s41407-021-0616-x

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