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, Margaret Stevani
International Journal of Arts and Humanities Studies, Volume 1, pp 23-32; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijahs.2021.1.1.4

Abstract:
The Covid-19 had changed the causal relationship of the responses about the effective planning of competency, academic, mental health, and technology usage from government, teachers, and students in Indonesian schools. The primary objective in this research was to investigate the problems, the solutions, and the impact of macro level (policies, strategy, and official curricula from Indonesian government), meso level (Indonesian teachers in K12 schools), and micro level (Indonesian students K12 schools) during COVID-19 pandemic and Indonesian online learning policy by comparing K12 Indonesian schools. The study was a qualitative method of the phenomenological approach. The sample of this study was 272 teachers and 3988 students of Indonesian K-12 schools in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The data was obtained through an online survey by using google form and Circular Letters from the Indonesian government by using newspapers. The findings proved that Indonesian teachers and students agreed with the effectiveness of online learning training programs and activities to improve competency and academic progress even though there were some barriers to technology usage. All these findings proved that the transitions of macro, meso, and micro levels in institutional to society-wide level had demonstrated digital pedagogy and students' learning decision-making process changed the organization of Indonesian school management.
International Journal of Arts and Humanities Studies, Volume 1, pp 36-44; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijahs.2021.1.1.6

Abstract:
This research study aimed to describe the lessons which students learned from joining webinars. This utilized qualitative- narrative analysis methodology and involved six informants through purposive sampling based on inclusion criteria. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions using semi-structured interviews and written reflection based on Gibb's reflective model were employed to gather data. The data were transcribed, analyzed, compared, and rigidly categorized into different themes to provide a backbone of the narratives. Lessons that students learned from joining webinars were 1. Simple, yet deep descriptions, 2. Humble, yet genuine feelings, 3. Objective, yet, heartfelt evaluation, 4. Patchy, yet holistic analysis, 5. Innovative, yet personal conclusions, and, 6. Firm, yet purposeful actions. The findings of this study have significant implications on social studies teachers, curriculum planners, and school policymakers in considering the importance of webinars in teaching and learning in the new normal.
International Journal of Arts and Humanities Studies, Volume 1, pp 14-22; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijahs.2021.1.1.3

Abstract:
Despite the daily efforts to cope with life's economic challenges, most Ghanaians are financially insecure. This has made pursuing lifelong ambitions more difficult. Given these realities, it is reasonable to believe that financial literacy and consumer financial stability will be a successful strategy for promoting economic stability. This stems from the realization that financial literacy is supportive in making informed financial decisions at both the household and macroeconomic levels. A high human development index score indicates that persons who make up the country's population are in good health. As a result, linking household decisions to broader policy outcomes becomes increasingly vital. This research aims to find a link between financial literacy and consumer financial stability as well as their relationship with macroeconomic stability. Financial literacy has a significant association with economic stability as measured by citizens' welfare. This discovery has several ramifications for financial literacy initiatives. In addition, consumer financial wellness has an insignificant positive impact on national economic stability. Nonetheless, it demonstrates how a financially sound consumer can boost aggregate demand by spending more, impacting job creation and macroeconomic growth. The Probit-Regression Model facilitated data analysis using a participant population of 960 across eight studied regions in Ghana. This study believes that national governments should take the favorable correlations between financial literacy and consumer financial stability on the one hand, and national economic stability on the other, seriously. As a result, policy efforts should consider the relationship between microeconomic actions and macroeconomic outcomes since the former is observed to influence the latter.
International Journal of Arts and Humanities Studies, Volume 1, pp 08-13; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijahs.2021.1.1.2

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss temporality in Charles Dickens’s novel Great Expectations and Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. Temporality is an integral element in a literary text that greatly reflects the style an author adopts to represent the narrative framework and thematic concerns. However, there is a distinction in how traditional novelists and modern novelists deal with temporality. The events in Great Expectations are presented in a chronological order built on cause and effect. On the other hand, the narrative in Mrs. Dalloway is presented using the “stream of consciousness”; in the thoughts and feelings of the characters. Nonetheless, in Great Expectations, chronological order offers the plot unity and comprehension. It is also crucial in developing the theme of formation and development of the protagonist. In contrast, in Mrs. Dalloway, the experience of temporality is offered and shared by most characters. The reader is required to examine this experience to form a perception of the narrative structure and the themes of the novel. Therefore, this paper makes a comparative analysis between Great Expectations and Mrs. Dalloway to highlight the distinction between how traditional novels and modern novels deal with temporality to present the narrative and embody their authors’ concerns.
International Journal of Arts and Humanities Studies, Volume 1, pp 33-35; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijahs.2021.1.1.5

Abstract:
This article explores the perplexities revolving in the vicinity of Orientalism. It tries to discern, dissect, and (re)view Orientalism and its role in shaping today’s world, more importantly, the binomial ambivalence of the West versus East connection. Said’s work, Orientalism, is going to be the locus of this article. In his book, the author tries to describe how the West perceives and represents the East. Through the author’s journey in the U.S., where he spent most of his life, he noticed that the West considers the East a one homogenous and static body. Edward Said’s stance on the separation of the world into two entities and the postcolonial project did not go unnoticed. In this article, the author’s work is analyzed in relation to his critics such as Ahmed Aijaz, Bernard Lewis, Samuel Huntington, and others.
International Journal of Arts and Humanities Studies, Volume 1, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijahs.2021.1.1.1

Abstract:
This paper assesses whether there is an appropriate relationship between the cultural context of consumer behavior and cultural anthropology. While these two fields are not seen as identical, they are often related to similar constructs such as attitudes, behavior, beliefs, cultural influence, and the influence of reference groups. People of the same culture behaving in an organized way. To be very specific, cultural anthropology is mixed up with the cultural context of consumer behavior to some extent. Cultural anthropology and consumer behavior are conceptualized as problems to be understood at varying levels of complexity, from individuals acting alone to large groups of people. Surveys of 235 people were conducted, who are also members of a model organization. This study finds out how the two areas of cultural anthropology are related to consumer behavior’s cultural aspect. Toward this end, this paper illustrates ways in which the perspective of cultural anthropology can be applied to cultural issues of consumer behavior. A relational model was also proposed.
Bo Wang
Journal of World Englishes and Educational Practices, Volume 3, pp 01-09; https://doi.org/10.32996/jweep.2021.3.10.1

Abstract:
As most English teachers discovered in China, the sound /aɪ/ is frequently pronounced like /e/, which can be considered a typical example of China English. However, even speakers are aware of this phenomenon, they tend to still pronounce the sound as /e/ unconsciously. Gender and ideology differences may be two of the factors causing this issue. This paper first distinguishes the pronunciation difference between gender by comparing the /aɪ/ pronunciation of the participants who are undergraduate students from a university of northern China. Then it elicits their ideology to China English accent by conducting a semi-structured interview. The results show that there is no significant difference between male and female participants in the pronunciation of /aɪ/, and almost half of the participants think there’s no problem to have a China accent, but only two of them show an awareness of World Englishes. Finally, reasons and implications are discussed and necessary suggestions are provided.
, Basim Yahya Jasim
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, Volume 3, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.32996/jhsss.2021.3.10.2

Abstract:
Memory Strategies (MSs) and Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) have been studied in many studies through the years. The purpose of the current study is to shed light on the fundamental role of Memory strategies and Vocabulary Learning Strategies suggested in vocabulary teaching and learning. Thus, the study has presented a comprehensive overview of both strategies by selecting the most prominent ones. In addition, it offered a thorough demonstration of vocabulary background in general and vocabulary in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in particular. The research question states: Can Memory Strategies (MSs) and Vocabulary Learning Strategies(VLSs) be integrated and applied in teaching and learning vocabulary? In conclusion, the study tries to make it clear for the reader, teachers, and learners, that merging (MS) and (VLS) can be utilized for this objective. The implication of the study lies in providing the reader with a grounded platform for selecting what is suitable in a teaching/learning setting.
, Fidoline Ngo Nonga, Ali Madi, Antoine Leblois, Mabah Tene Gwladys Laure
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, Volume 3, pp 22-33; https://doi.org/10.32996/jhsss.2021.3.10.3

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of farmers' perceptions on the decision to adapt to climate change in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. Based on a random draw from 721 farm households. This research shows that 98.6% of respondents in the study area reported having observed significant changes in climatic conditions. In addition, 89% of farmers have adopted at least one strategy to deal with these changes. Heckman's model shows that pessimistic perception about future climate precedes farmers' decision to adapt to climate change. The results also show that gender, membership of a farmer organization, religious beliefs, age, and sources of information are the main determinants of producers' perception and decision to adapt to climate change.
Bidhya Shrestha, Tara Lal Shrestha, Dipankar Senehang, Bibechana Sharma Timsina
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.32996/jhsss.2021.3.10.1

Abstract:
This article aims to explore the foundational and functional phases of the Khuwalung resistance movement. It is based on grey literature documents. To synchronize the significance of an indigenous movement, the first part of this study briefly presents the context of the hegemonic ideology of the ruling elite persisting in Nepal with reference to Khuwalung. The second part covers the phases of the resistance, which look far more constrained as a counter-resistance. The last part presents potential insights related to Khuwalung for transforming this counter-resistance into an organic indigenous movement in Nepal.
International Journal of English Language Studies, Volume 3, pp 07-13; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijels.2021.3.10.2

Abstract:
A central theme in second language acquisition is Interlanguage, an idea grounded on the concept that the human brain activates an innate psychological structure in a second language learning process. It is a system that is constructed by second language learners. There is a distinct language system in second language learners’ utterances which is quite different from the native speakers (Selinker 1972, p. 209-241). Interlanguage varies under diverse contexts, e.g., one domain of IL can be different from another one in terms of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. However, interlanguage can cease developing or fossilize, in any of its developmental stages due to the complexities a learner faces in acquiring a second language. According to Mitchell et al. (2013, p.60), under the platform of interaction, feedback, modified input, negotiation for meaning, and modified input come together to facilitate second language acquisition. It is evident from this point that Feedback and Negotiation are interrelated. This paper proposes to discuss these two subjects under the umbrella term interaction and argues the role of both of them on interlanguage development, concluding with an analysis of these techniques and the pedagogical implications.
, I Ketut Darma Laksana, I Nengah Sudipa
International Journal of English Language Studies, Volume 3, pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijels.2021.3.10.3

Abstract:
The phenomenon of using language in cyberspace or social media has indeed a trend with various contemporary applications, with the aim of being more effective and efficient in communicating. The benefits of technology cannot be reached by its advantages and besides that, it also cannot be ignored from the negative side. It is possible that with various applications, it is easy to spread fake news text on social media. The text of fake news on social media, information in this study is used as a data source and at the same time used as an object of study on Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, and other media accounts. The aim of this study was to describe in depth the problem of the phenomenon of the spread of fake news texts on social media, this is adjusted to the problems raised in this study. The purpose is to find out and analyze the language criteria used in hoax text news texts on social media. This research was a type of qualitative descriptive research. By using van Dijk's version of the critical discourse study theory as a theoretical framework with the aim of revealing the phenomenon of language use in depth, both micro and macro, with the point of view of discourse as a text, social cognition, and context. Furthermore, methods and the techniques of data collection in this study. As the first step by way of observation, the next step was documentation that was supported by instruments in the form of questionnaires and analysis tables. Based on the results of data analysis, several things were found as follows: (1) criteria for hoax news texts on social media, consisting of (a) fake news texts on S social media are only humorous; (b) have low modality (c) motivation to want to cheat relatively (d) have incomplete information (e), not high plagiarism. Thus all of these things are indeed true empirically that the condition of the text of hoax news on social media is as described previously. All of this has become a widespread discussion regarding the concept of hoax news itself.
, Junilyn Tingson
International Journal of English Language Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijels.2021.3.10.1

Abstract:
This study aimed to explore how the teachers address the reading comprehension difficulties of students in Printed Modular Distance Learning (PMDL) amid the prohibition of the traditional face-to-face session during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used the semi-structured interview to gather in-depth data from the four Junior High School English teachers who are handling the students in the PMDL. Consequent to the pandemic, the researcher gave interview guide sheets and used audio recorders to document the responses accurately. This study utilized thematic analysis. The study showed that teachers managed to ascertain or find out students' reading comprehension difficulties through assessment scores or task outputs then verified through the background of the students from their previous English teachers. Moreover, teachers guide the students who adopt PMDL in improving their reading comprehension skills by keeping open communication and close collaboration with the parents or guardians and providing reinforcement activities.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.1

Abstract:
The teaching of grammar during classroom meetings is entirely different from the grammar instruction in the new normal. The learning and teaching atmosphere has been more challenging in the contemporary time because people want to be safe and secure as they do transactions. The widespread threats of the pandemic forced humanity to observe mandatory policies and protocols in work, school, and home. Development of language skills is a long time thrust by which ESL teachers carry among their schools. In the Philippine setting, both private and public school teachers share common problems in a different context and situation. The importance of grammar skills can be reflected on the various tasks and activities performed by people in the worksite, academe, and industry. As such, language teachers confront the issues and challenges in the actual ESL classroom where students are expected to learn and master grammar skills among others. Not all students have a good language facility as shown by poor performance in the English language assessments. Some students dislike inclusion of grammar lessons in the curriculum for fear of being unable to participate in the class and produce outputs. This paper aims to identify and describe the challenges (in the time of pandemic) experienced by language teachers on the teaching of grammar in the local Philippine context. Before the study culminated, the researcher has decided to get the views of experts and experienced ESL teachers about this problem and/or issue. It is a fact that has been observed and proved by many teachers not just ESL area but other majors that having grammar competence can help both students and professionals to achieve their goals and perform communicative tasks in the workplace. Results of the study provided insights and tips on how language teachers can make grammar teaching effective and relevant despite changes in setting and environment.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 01-06; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.1

Abstract:
The institutionalization of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in the Philippines through the Department of Education order no. 74. series of 2009 outlining aspirations for a culture-centered mother tongue-based instruction is positioned to focus on the acquisition of language content and allow the learners to experience a theoretically based, well-planned educational program that provides a strong foundation for literacy using the cognitive skills and comprehension of academic content from day one. However, the dynamic process of teaching and learning brought many factors contributing to the implementation of the program as the key language policy of the Philippines. With this, the researcher examined the extent of program implementation through the use of qualitative and quantitative data. The study employed validated and standardized survey instruments and used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to analyze the gathered data, and it applied descriptive analysis to determine the level or degree of implementation. Also, the perspectives of language teachers were taken into account to ensure a better view of the panorama as they are the end-users. Findings suggested that (1) the policy has been implemented to a great extent by the teachers; teachers have a good grasp of the program. Also, (2) teachers are providing relevant and responsive delivery of instruction in order to capitalize the learner's capability.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 07-10; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.2

Abstract:
There is no doubt that agism is an important topic of study, especially in academic circles, as we aim to build towards a more inclusive and equitable environment for those whom we benefit. In the succeeding annotated bibliography, a list of resources that can aid in the teaching of aging to undergraduates, particularly, although not exclusively, in the context of general education or humanities coursework, and specifically, in the discipline of composition studies is put forward. These resources include content on why agism is important as a topic, its importance in the university classroom, and ideas as to how this can be done most effectively. To achieve this, this annotated bibliography draws from evidence in research related to gerontology, educational psychology, and social justice pedagogy, amongst other areas. It is hoped that this paper can serve as a guide to academics interested in educating and empowering their students to become more aware of this major form of discrimination
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.4

Abstract:
It is the dream and aspirations of every nation to achieve development. Hence, the policies and laws of any nation whether developed or developing is geared towards achieving development in every sector. To promote socio-economic development globally, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals were signed (SDGs). The SDGs are the seventeen goals set and signed by the 193 UN member nations in 2015 and agreed to be achieved by 2030. They represent a shared commitment by all member countries of which Nigeria is one to promote and ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and life-long learning opportunities for all, good health and well being for all, gender equality and empowerment of women and girls among other time-bound goals through partnership. Before the SDGs were the eight Millennium Development Goals which were signed in 2000 by 189 heads of state to eradicate inter alia hunger and poverty, diseases, gender inequalities etc. Four years after the 2015 target of the MDGs and four years into the SDGs 2030 target, there is still gender disparity in access to quality education between the boy-child and the girl-child in favour of the former in many countries including Nigeria. This paper therefore examines and tries to find answers to the following questions: (a) how do respondents perceive girl-child education? (b) What factors pose the greatest challenge to gender parity in access to quality education and training in Nigeria? The paper concludes with cogent recommendations.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.5

Abstract:
During the covid 19 pandemic, online learning, and its terms are not strange things in East Nusa Tenggara. The establishment of Learning from home was started from March to June 2020 to prevent the spread of Covid-19. This research is a case study of eleven English teachers who serve in certain areas around East Nusa Tenggara; five teachers of Senior High School/Vocational School, five teachers of Junior High School, and one Elementary School teacher. Its purpose was to describe the methods in the English teaching-learning process in a pandemic situation. The data of this descriptive study were obtained through WhatsApp non-facial interviews and analyzed by reducing and categorizing similar results. The results showed that the teachers applied two methods, both offline and online. From March to June 2020, the teachers managed their classes in the online process by using some applications. Whereas, in the Uneven Semester 2020-2021, the safe areas return to face-to-face learning in limited learning duration. The most prominent obstacle in online learning was the limitation of gadgets since the students did not have adequate tools. Financially, parents' income has decreased for they could not meet the needs of internet data packages. Students who returned to their hometown also experienced problems regarding network services. These conditions cause more obstacles to teachers in managing online classes. Therefore, teachers implemented several strategies to solve these obstacles by creating a WhatsApp group or arranging them into small groups based on their locations and there were students with smartphones to browse for materials or send the assignments. In addition, students were allowed to consult and collect the assignments at school based on scheduled agreements. The situation continues to Even Semester 2020-2021 and gradually turned to limited face-to-face meetings at school in the Uneven Semester 2021-2022.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 77-93; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.8

Abstract:
Modular learning is the current learning modality of primary education in the Philippines where traditional teacher-student practice has now been shifted to mother-child since mothers are the immediate assistants of their child in modular learning. Therefore, they play essential parts in their children’s education. More so, this learning modality is applicable in all given subjects, including the Mother Tongue (MT). Whereas MT modules will be solely assisted by mothers regardless of the mothers’ MT. The objective of this study is to determine the struggles and coping mechanisms of mothers not speaking the MT in assisting their child in the MT subject. Moreover, this study utilized a qualitative-descriptive design which included semi-structured interview. More so, purposive sampling was utilized to determine the respondents of this study. The total number of respondents is 10 and are all mothers. The respondents’ age ranged between 24-35 years old. It was discovered from the interviews that difficulty in understanding Chavacanowords on the module, difficulty in comprehending instructions on the module, lack of educational pictures, difficulty in translating to the child’s Mother Tongue, difficulty in facilitating learning, difficulty managing child’s behavior and struggle in implementing time management became their primary struggles in assisting their child in the MT subject. It is also important to note that mothers were still able to assist their child despite of these challenges through seeking assistance from native Chavacanospeakers, from someone who has more knowledge in Chavacano, from the teacher, using the translation provided as reference, searching on the internet, repetitive teaching, practice through conversation, involvement during discussions, translating Chavacano to their mother tongue, materials from the teacher, recording of classes, use of infographics, providing positive reinforcement and letting family members to assist.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 53-66; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.6

Abstract:
The increasing demand for the implementation of an alternative learning scheme to aid the sudden setback in the field of education has been one of the most debated topics among the government and educational sectors worldwide. With the impossibility of face-to-face learning, the government had to devise an attainable learning substitution plan which resulted in the birth of online education. This study is one of the few studies that seek to determine the challenges and strategies used by freshman language learners in online education in the midst of a pandemic. Furthermore, a descriptive-qualitative design was employed in the study. Hence, the data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The respondents for this study were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique. On that account, the respondents were handpicked in consideration to the inclusion criteria. Moreover, in depth individual interviews were conducted to seven respondents, five females and 2 males. To analyze the data, thematic analysis was utilized. The challenges that emerged in the study are the following: High-cost internet access, less social engagement and inactive class discussion, unfamiliarity of the new learning modality, internet connectivity, stress inducing school-works, lack of technological resources, location-related stressors and unpredictability of power outages. The paper concludes with the four emerging themes concerning the strategies freshman language learners use in online education and how those strategies aid the aforementioned challenges.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 40-52; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.59

Abstract:
The sudden shift from face-to-face instruction to online-based learning was prompted by the urgent necessity to continue the delivery of instruction amidst the COVID outbreak. Since all the country’s institutions have opted to close schools and universities, students in both urban cities and rural towns have had to adjust to the new standard. Hence, this research study employed a descriptive-qualitative research design and conducted in-depth interviews to determine the challenges and coping mechanisms of language learners studying online in rural areas. Moreover, responses were transcribed and analyzed through thematic analysis. The participants of the study were seven language learners, two males and five females who study online in rural areas. It was discovered from the interviews that among the challenges encountered are problems with internet connectivity, lack of comprehensive discussion of lessons, less interaction among peers/classmates, rare opportunity to enhance speaking skills, and absence of feedback mechanism. It was also found that students’ coping mechanisms include relocating to places known to have a greater internet access, disregarding public distractions, studying independently, reserving battery, and asking support from peers.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 18-33; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.3

Abstract:
The COVID-19 outbreak brought unprecedented challenges in the academe. Educational institutions transitioned to distance learning primarily through online and modular learning. Moreover, with the rapid development of online learning, one of the concerns in the field of online education is regarding students’ motivation to learn and to stay engaged in an online environment. Thus, this present study aimed to determine the motivations and amotivations of language learners in online language learning. The participants of the study include seven language learners, who were selected through a purposive sampling method. A descriptive qualitative research design was employed, and individual in-depth interviews were conducted to gather the data. The responses were transcribed and analyzed through thematic analysis. Furthermore, it was found out in the interviews that the motivations of the respondents in learning English online include learning in a convenient set-up, creating a room for independent learning, utilizing online learning tools, apps, and resources, developing technological competence, watching multimedia videos for learning, and exploring the features of the educational applications. On the contrary, the limited interaction, less interactive activities, poor and unstable internet connectivity, less student participation, lack of comprehensive discussion of the lesson, rare opportunity to enhance speaking skills, absence or delayed feedback from the teacher, inconsiderate teachers towards students’ situation, and the fact that online language learning can trigger procrastination and unproductivity are found to be the amotivations of the respondents in learning English online.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 67-76; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.7

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many activities to be halted including education. Educational institutions are now closed and operating online to ensure the safety of the students and the teachers. Students are now learning online and modular mode. Thus, it has caused the students and teachers to encounter bumps in learning. Hence, this led the researcher to find out and examine the perceptions and challenges that prospective language teachers experience when learning online. The researcher utilized the thematic analysis method to reveal the perceptions and challenges experienced by prospective language teachers in online learning. The data for this study were obtained from the interviews that were conducted with the respondents. It was revealed that there were a number of challenges that the respondents experienced which include poor internet connection, physical distractions, lack of motivation and power interruptions.
, Rosalva Quito, Louis Macías
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 11-31; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.11.3

Abstract:
Reading represents a significant skill for knowledge acquisition. Nevertheless, many people cannot read properly, which may entail a serious limitation to their study, work, or other aspirations. The purpose of this research work is to determine the reading comprehension level and reading speed of English language students at the University of Cuenca, Ecuador, as well as the impact of sociodemographic factors and the use of reading strategies on these levels. The participants were 400 students who were taking English courses during September 2019 to February 2020 semester. The students completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, took reading tests to determine their reading speed and comprehension, and then completed another questionnaire on reading strategies. The results show a high level of reading comprehension in English but a below-average reading speed, in part due to certain external factors. Given these results, research-based intervention is highly recommended to improve reading levels.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 07-17; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.2

Abstract:
Believed to be a practical solution to eliminate the possibilities of any learning gap to befall, the adaption of online learning specifically the implementation of the synchronous mode of teaching and learning has been practiced in various universities in the arena of education amidst the covid-19 outbreak. In light of this, the present study sought to investigate the different perspectives of would-be language teachers towards synchronous learning. Moreover, this investigation aimed to determine the challenges encountered by the students during the course of learning. The participants of the study were seven students in the tertiary level taking a bachelor’s degree either in English or Filipino. Essentially, a descriptive qualitative research design was employed and individual in-depth interviews were conducted. Furthermore, thematic analysis was utilized to analyze the data gathered. With reference to the findings of this study, it has been noted that the respondents perceive synchronous learning differently, which includes both positive and negative remarks. In addition, internet connectivity issues, limited interaction in virtual platforms, technical difficulties, distractions in the environment, and lack of gadgets were the evident challenges experienced by the students during synchronous learning sessions.
Journal of Learning and Development Studies, Volume 1, pp 34-39; https://doi.org/10.32996/jlds.2021.1.1.5

Abstract:
Despite being competent in the English language, pre-service teachers struggle a lot when it comes to public speaking. Their ability to deliver and speak competently is hindered by speaking anxiety. The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of speaking anxiety among pre-service teachers and identify how pre-service teachers cope up with speaking anxiety. This study was administered to 7 pre-service teachers using a convenience sampling technique from a reputable public state university in Southern Philippines. The findings showed that speaking anxiety among pre-service teachers is caused by the fear of committing mistakes, having high expectations from the audience, nervousness, and lack of preparation. Additionally, the techniques used by pre-service teachers to cope up with speaking anxiety include preparing an outline, practicing before the actual speech, and boosting one’s self-confidence. Research revealed that speaking anxiety can be eased by employing techniques such as exposure to speaking engagements, preparation, and believing in oneself.
, Isdaryanto Iskandar
Journal of Mechanical, Civil and Industrial Engineering, Volume 2, pp 07-16; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmcie.2021.2.2.2

Abstract:
XXX is one of the pioneers and market leaders of building materials companies in Indonesia. Looking at the performance over the last five years PT. XXX is experiencing a decline in production capacity, although judging from the market share its products are still quite attractive to customers. This means that PT. XXX failed to grow its business even in an effort to maintain it, while the building materials industry continued to grow. The problem is how this can happen and what steps a company must take to return its business conditions for the better. The purpose of this study is to get an overview of the strategic aspects of the company with the SPACE Matrix Model and its dimensions including; financial strength, competitive advantage, industrial-strength, and environmental stability. By calculating the average value of each aspect, then the result is used to determine the position of PT. XXX in the SPACE Matrix. Based on the results of the study, the strategic position of PT. XXX is in the Competitive Quadrant. Therefore, the recommended strategy is integration strategy, intensive strategy, or collaboration (joint venture). By using the recommended strategy, it is hoped that PT.XXX will be able to restore its business viability and return to being the market leader in building materials products.
, Isdaryanto Iskandar
Journal of Mechanical, Civil and Industrial Engineering, Volume 2, pp 01-16; https://doi.org/10.32996/jmcie.2021.2.2.1

Abstract:
Pellets are compressed feed, compacted through a mechanical process. Pellets can be molded in the form of lumps and small cylinders with different diameters, lengths, and levels of strength. The right moisture content value will maximize the quality of the pellets and increase the value of the Pellet Durability Index(PDI). Many factors affect the moisture content in the feed such as changing the steam pressure configuration, adding moisture to the mixing process, changing the retention time configuration, and other methods. The method tested was to provide variations on the configuration of retention time and steam pressure on the Pressure Reducing Valve (PRV) which aims to determine the increase in moisture content in the feed. Variations of retention time configuration tested were 50 seconds, 55 seconds, 60 seconds, 65 seconds, 70 seconds with variations in the Steam pressure configuration in the test were 1.4 bar and 1.6 bar. The test results prove that the retention time of 65 seconds with a steam pressure of 1.4 bar is the best configuration with an increase in moisture content of 2.67% with a difference in moisture content of bagging to the mixing of -0.46.
, Samina Naz, Rizwana Yousaf, Muhammad Ali Shahid, Shahnawaz Shahid
International Journal of Linguistics Studies, Volume 1, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijls.2021.1.2.2

Abstract:
Language considers a form of social practice in Critical Discourse Analysis, and it is frequently used in political discourse written, verbal and visual including public speeches. This paper examines the Prime Minister of Canada's press conference speech, held at the House of Commerce on June 8, 2021 (https://www.rev.com/blog, 2021), in the aftermath of a Muslim family's murder in Ontario's London. The Three-Dimensional Model of Fairclough has been used to investigate the implicit/explicit power displayed in PM Justin's speech, as well as the display of power at the textual, discursive, and societal levels, in the context of the speech's two key themes: anti-Muslim hatred and Islamophobia. The study examines speech using a qualitative approach and addresses power within the discourse as well as the power behind the discourse. The findings show how language reflects political leaders' ideologies and how social behaviors can shape and be shaped by speech. The Prime Minister skillfully employed language to convey the ideological divides between Muslim communities and the western communities. After drawing the line of demarcation, he urged world leaders to take steps to resolve their differences to achieve global harmony and peace. This study enables the general public to comprehend Justin Trudeau's position on prevalent intolerance and the ideology of Islamophobia, as well as its effects.
International Journal of Linguistics Studies, Volume 1, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijls.2021.1.2.3

Abstract:
Through proud historical development, the Vietnamese language has overcome all obstacles to become a rich and beautiful language, with a unique identity and full of potential. In the international arena, in all fields of activities, Vietnamese has equal status with all other languages. The process of integration and development will inevitably entail contact and mutual influence between cultures, including languages. On the positive side, it has contributed to enriching the lexicology of the national language, especially new terminologies in the fields of science and technology, make more diverse forms of communication, and in some ways, it shortens the gaps to more developed cultures and civilizations. However, in terms of culture, it can also cause negative effects, that is, chaos, tension in Vietnamese disguise. This paper reports the current status of the Vietnamese language in the midst of Western trends in Vietnam. Data were collected from historical documents and daily news from popular sites of Vietnamese mass media.
Saddam H.M Issa, Fares H A Awadh
Journal of Psychology and Behavior Studies, Volume 1, pp 17-25; https://doi.org/10.32996/jpbs.2021.1.1.3

Abstract:
To get a better understanding of the psycholinguistic approach to language, a wide range of sources were examined in the present research. Language and its cognitive approach were explored in this study from many perspectives. The capacity to learn a language is one of the most complex and distinctive human traits, and no one knows why it happens. It is hard to pin down exactly what bilingualism means since it is such a broad concept. The research of psycholinguistics made important discoveries, such as the need to have language information to utilise language and the mental processes involved. To better understand how two languages (L1, L2) are processed, this article discusses why only a few methods combine behavioural and imaging testing. Therefore, bilingualism cannot be considered a full attribute since no one can be granted a complete or minimum degree of proficiency in a second language.
, Olivier Ndamwize Mbaw
Journal of Psychology and Behavior Studies, Volume 1, pp 30-40; https://doi.org/10.32996/jpbs.2021.1.1.5

Abstract:
This study was conducted in the Philippines, the world's Business Process outsourcing capital. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the lived experience of leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in selected BPO firms. This research report used a qualitative method based on descriptive phenomenology research design to analyze BPO personnel lived leadership experience, specifically front-liners and managers’ experience from Taguig City, Makati City, Pasay City, and Pasig City within Metro Manila. We used an open-ended questionnaire to collect data from respondents. Five major themes emerged: (1) strengths development, (2) Communication and Innovation (3) Trust and respect (4) Delegation and Employee empowerment (5) Reward and Correction. According to the study's premise, most BPO companies in the Philippines practiced a combined transformational leadership and transactional leadership style. To keep employees happy, managers and BPO businesses can adopt a variety of leadership styles. The most popular and researched leadership style is transformational leadership, which stresses intrinsic motivation and employee development. Transactional leadership is task-oriented and focuses on the needs of the followers. Laissez-faire managers, on the other hand, stay out of the way. Job satisfaction is a pleasant or good emotional state caused by job evaluation. Workplace happiness is unaffected by transactional leadership remedial actions. The results show that employees are satisfied when their leader develops their skills, communicates and encourages innovation, builds trust and respect for others, delegates and empowers employees while recognizing top performers, and respectfully corrects mistakes. However, a definite correlation between leadership styles and employee job satisfaction requires more investigation.
Iskandarsyah Siregar
International Journal of Linguistics Studies, Volume 1, pp 37-42; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijls.2021.1.2.6

Abstract:
Sociolinguistics is a linguistics science that seeks to express the values of life that are revealed in language. Sociolinguistics is stuck in the study of language, which is purely empirical. This assessment can be observed when sociolinguistics only comes to the study of language, which reveals the linguistic system. It is essential to point out the other side of sociolinguistics that has not been explored, namely the aspect of language meaning. In this case, epistemology tries to challenge the existence of sociology concerning the role and function of sociolinguistics itself. Through literature study, Hermeneutics and heuristics are consistently and consistently used as the basis for the research method in this case. It can be concluded that sociolinguistics must begin to view language as a form of culture that becomes a social system and acts as a tool for human development.
Noor Shahariah Saleh, Siti Fatimah Murtaza, Nurshila Umar Baki
International Journal of Linguistics Studies, Volume 1, pp 01-10; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijls.2021.1.2.1

Abstract:
Studies have revealed that first language has significant impacts on learners’ second language development. Utilizing L1 in the writing processes such as translation method and direct writing is a conventional strategy used by low proficiency level L2 learners. However, there is a lack of studies that determine the quality of writing influenced by L1 transfer. This study aims to provide a comparative analysis on the use of cohesive markers as a result of the use of Malay in English written text via translation and direct composition. The writing quality in terms of content, organisation and writing style of a group of students with low, intermediate and advanced proficiency levels from a secondary school in the district of Tangkak, Johor was scrutinised. Data were collected via two different topics of writing tasks using direct composition and translation writing process. The first topic involved English direct composition while the second topic employed direct Malay composition which was then translated into English. The results of the study indicated that English essays of direct writing showed less variety of cohesive markers as compared to Malay essays due to the lack of L2 writing skills. The learners apparently generated more ideas in their native language as well as utilized their L1 cohesive markers into L2 composition via the translation writing process. Nevertheless, the similarities and differences of cohesive markers in Malay and English help teachers to understand learners' organisation of Malay and English essays.
, Oualid Amzaourou, Harroudi Yassine, Saga Mouhatti
Journal of Psychology and Behavior Studies, Volume 1, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.32996/jpbs.2021.1.1.1

Abstract:
University students are particularly vulnerable to numerous mental health issues suffering from elevated levels of depression, anxiety, fear, and stress compared to the general population. The Covid-19 pandemic has negatively affected Moroccan university students' psychological status. This study aims at investigating the impact that Covid-19 has on Moroccan university students' mental health during the lockdown period. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the three-month quarantine period (April, May, and June 2020). An online survey was used to collect data from 560 students (n= 560) from five universities in Morocco. The results show that students experienced moderate to high levels of depression and anxiety and severe levels of stress during the lockdown period. Indeed, the findings also revealed that having a relative or acquaintance infected or died and/or being afraid to be infected by Covid-19 is the main predictor in increasing the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. As university students face the risk of high levels of psychological distress particularly during these circumstances, it is of utmost importance to create monitoring services within universities to reduce the potential amplified burden that these traumatic events can have on the students.
, Muhammad Junaid, Muhammad Usman Haider, Rabia Hashim, Muhammad Akram Khan
International Journal of Linguistics Studies, Volume 1, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijls.2021.1.2.4

Abstract:
This paper is based on the Critical Discourse Analysis approach to explore Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi’s speech at the UN in 2021 in a sociopolitical context. The researchers, by applying Fairclough’s 3D model, investigate Arab Israel community reflection through textual or stylistic strategies in speech and explore the level of Islamic ideology reflected in Shah Mehmood Qureshi speech through linguistic choices. The study further explores the representation of stylistic features in a speech that depicts the political and socio-cultural relationship between Palestine and the Israeli community. Findings of the study suggest that Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi used different devices like textual and stylistic to give his ideology more explicatively. The sophisticated manners of ideology are propagated through the speech with all its prerequisites. It was syntactically well organized and produces a thematic message that was based on religious sociocultural and political discrimination and biased as well as inequality in cohesion. The expressive speaker values and relational indications were ordered according to the situation.
Mary K. Lonyangapuo
International Journal of Linguistics Studies, Volume 1, pp 29-36; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijls.2021.1.2.5

Abstract:
Hyman and Mchombo (1992), Babye (1985), (Myers 1987), (Rice 2000), and Hyman (2002 & 2003) have shown that there is affix ordering in Proto-Bantu languages that obeys the 'CARP' (Causative-Applicative-Reciprocal-Passive template). Drawing data from Lubukusu, a Bantu language, the current study analyzes affix ordering of class-changing morphemes, arguing against the templatic morphology that most researchers have shown to be dominant in Bantu languages. The current study uses Bybee’s (1985) principle of iconicity (principle of relevance), where it is proposed that affixes closer to the verb stem are more 'relevant' to the verb than to the rest of the sentence and those affixes further away are less relevant. Based on Baybee’s relevance principle, the study argues that there are various affix ordering orders in Lubukusu, which are semantically motivated. The data that are used in the analyses are self-generated and verified by three native Lubukusu speakers who are competent in the language. Findings show that as much as Lubukusu obeys the templatic morphology, the same is violated in various morpho-semantic contexts. The study recommends more studies on affix ordering in the Lubukusu language based on other existing frameworks that have been tested on languages rather than those from the proto Bantu family.
P Arora,
Journal of Psychology and Behavior Studies, Volume 1, pp 08-16; https://doi.org/10.32996/jpbs.2021.1.1.2

Abstract:
The present study aims at studying the impact of social media on socio-emotional well-being of children. The methodology used here was random sampling through snowballing technique. A sample of around 50 children aged 11-18 years was collected to understand their responses about their own socio-emotional well-being. The results of the study showed that people use social media for different reasons, but they also face a variety of challenges, from physical health to mental health issues, the most prominent of what is needed is gratitude, resilience, calmness, compassion, and the pursuit of hobbies, fitness, and one's own peace of mind and happiness.
Journal of Psychology and Behavior Studies, Volume 1, pp 26-29; https://doi.org/10.32996/jpbs.2021.1.1.4

Abstract:
This paper presents the researcher's perspectives on the place and value of learning assessment tools that are applicable to the current situation and the traditional settings where students would like to grow and improve. The researcher decided to examine and cover various materials that could identify, explain, and capture the purposes of assessment and the tangible benefits students can get from it. Even the teachers can do self-assessment from the results of the test and through their own conscious and mindful practices. Further, this perspective article covers and explores the roles of relevant curriculum design and appropriate assessments in the teaching and learning environments.
, Mohammed Larouz, Khadija Anasse
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 194-201; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.19

Abstract:
This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between two variables: critical thinking skills and argumentative writing skills in Moroccan Preparatory Classes of Higher Engineering Schools (Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles) ( CPGE), Omar Ibn Khattab Meknes . The participants were the 2nd year Maths and Physics (MP) students in CPGE, Omar Ibn Al Khattab Meknes. 60 students participated in the study from a total number of 120 students. The research adopted the correlation design to measure the degree of association between two variables using the statistical procedure of correlation analysis. In this regard, a critical thinking test (AssessmentDay Practice Test Experts, 2018) was administered to test students’ critical thinking skills. Then, the students were asked to write an argumentative essay about social networking and creativity. To analyse the collected data, the study resorted to SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Science, version 23). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to investigate the significant relationship between critical thinking skills and argumentative writing. The result of the research displayed that the correlation coefficient is 0. 941, which means that the two tests are positively correlated and the correlation is very significant. The result of such correlation displayed clearly that critical thinking and argumentative writing have a positive relation.
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 90-94; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.10

Abstract:
All literary works hold the traces of their authors at various levels. With this idea in mind, all literary translations should enable the target reader to have an insight into the kind of thinking patterns, tastes and choices that guide the daily life of people in foreign cultures. On this basis, it is of paramount importance to preserve the local flavour of the translated text so that the target reader knows him/herself better through contacting the cultural Other. To this end, I deem it crucial to opt for a translation method that is likely to preserve the local flavor of the home culture and trigger the target reader’s enthusiasm to discover the Other along with his/her writings. Foreignization can be adopted as a translation strategy in this regard to facilitate an adequate encounter with the cultural Other via his/her literary production. It is worth noting that any investigation of the source text, including its cultural environment, gives a place for a deep and satisfactory understanding of it. Relatedly, when the home culture is sufficiently studied and comprehended, the target reader gets to know more about it and learns to be tolerant of differences.
Sameer Hamdan, Omar Abdullah Al-Haj Eid
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 42-49; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.5

Abstract:
The study aimed to identify swearing using body parts in the Jordanian setting as a social phenomenon used by male university students. The corpus of the study included (100) male university students. A socio-pragmatic approach was adopted to analyze the data. The study employed Simak Libat Cakap technique in addition to the qualitative method to analyze the data of the study. The analysis of data showed that the face was the most frequent body part used in swearing followed by the head. The main findings revealed that swearing is dominantly used to express a socio-pragmatic function of angriness, especially when swearers feel angry with their disputers. Swearing functions as a vehicle for releasing tension and anger and proved to be powerful in exchanging insults. The study concluded that swearers usually do not mean what they say. Swearing mostly includes non-literal meanings like idioms. Therefore, it should not be interpreted literally; otherwise, it will lose its connotative meaning.
Lisbet Situmorang, As’Liyanti Nor, Karenina Amanda Stephanie Pattinasarany, Stevent Resma,
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, Volume 3, pp 01-08; https://doi.org/10.32996/jhsss.2021.3.9.1

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of assertiveness and empathy on students' prosocial behavior at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Mulawarman University. This study uses quantitative methods using multiple regression analysis to determine how much influence and predictive ability the two independent variables have on the dependent variable. In this study, the subjects in this study were 100 students of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Mulawarman University, using the accidental sampling method. Data collection methods used include assertiveness, empathy, and prosocial behavior scales. The collected data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 21.0 for the windows program. These results indicate a significant difference between assertiveness and empathy to prosocial behavior.
Emad Alsoufi, Ali AbuSeileek
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 179-193; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.18

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the general trends, description and focus of research about the effectiveness of using games strategy in English language teaching and learning. That is, it investigated the strategies used, instrument, year of publication, publication type, participant, design of the study, skills and areas analyzed in the study, and length of text in studies about the effectiveness of games method. The study used a meta-analysis research design in data collection and analysis. The sample of the study consisted of 70 journal articles, conference proceedings, and graduate theses and dissertations published between 2000-2018. The instrument of the study was a meta-analysis checklist. The descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages were used to find differences between the different features. The findings revealed that strategies used in this study and, the feature games (regular) method had the highest frequency. Moreover, the test instrument had the highest frequency in the sample studies analyzed. However, the year 2016 obtained the highest frequency for the year of the study. The type of publication got the next highest frequency in favour of conference proceedings. This was followed by the participant type and level features (EFL learners, school, and 16 participants and more) in the study sample. The experimental design of studies about games strategies received a high frequency. There was also the frequency for skills and areas in studies about games strategies in favour of reading. The feature games are more effective than other methods and the text length of 11 to 20 pages (2,645-4,729 words) category had the highest frequency. Finally, several related recommendations were introduced to the researchers, curricula designers, supervisors, and English teachers.
, Ramya Devi Bommanaboina
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, Volume 3, pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.32996/jhsss.2021.3.9.3

Abstract:
In the Indian context, an academic study program at the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) comprises a mixed group of learners coming from various social-economic, education, and a wide range of linguistic backgrounds. These learners secure admission into various engineering programs at IITs, having qualified for the Joint Entrance Exam (JEE), a national-level competitive exam. To qualify for this exam, students prepare rigorously, even at the school level. The JEE exam tests students’ knowledge in the core subjects such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Aptitude and Reasoning; hence, students seem to focus more on these core subjects but not on the English language. These learners vary widely in their English language proficiency level in terms of oral and written English proficiency. It is believed that the level of language proficiency of learners has a direct influence on their academic performance in the program in which they are admitted. Therefore, the study aims at diagnosing 405 engineering students’ competence of English language skills at the entry-level undergraduate engineering study programs of Bachelor of Technology at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar. A diagnostic test that comprised the components of English language skills was designed and administered to 405 students. The results were analyzed and interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively. It was found that the majority of the students who performed well in the test had better education backgrounds. For the students who performed poorly, the study recommends possible implications besides some remedial measures.
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 233-241; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.24

Abstract:
The current paper has been developed to examine the complexities of metropolitan subjects’ blasé attitude and bloodless life as portrayed in James Joyce’s “A Painful Case” and Yusuf Idrīs’s “Qāʿ al-Madīna” [“The Bottom of the City”] short stories. The paper aims at analyzing the impact of metropolis on its bloodless characters’ mental health and perception of self through the unpacking of the blasé attitude which emerges in Georg Simmel’s famous study “The Metropolis and Mental Life.” Using Simmel’s study as a tool to analyze the two short stories, the paper will comment on and compare the manner in which the Irish and the Egyptian urban texts decipher the code of their modern metropoles to interpret in what ways Simmel’s insights illuminate our understanding of the dilemma of the metropolitan subject. In this paper the urban and literary theory will complement each other in shedding light on the emergence of new forms of socialization. The paper reaches the conclusion that the overall image of the metropolis portrayed in the two short stories was constructed through the mutilated sensibilities of the metropolitan subjects that have become dispirited by the routine of their daily lives. The two protagonists – Mr. Duffy and Mr. Abdallah - end up living like strangers who maintain minimal comunication with others due the cold and unfeeling rationality they adopt to protect themselves against the overstimulation of their dehumanizing metropoles.
, Hellalet Nadia
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 222-232; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.23

Abstract:
This research paper reports an experimental study geared to examine the effect of teaching reasoning fallacies on the critical thinking ability of a group of Moroccan university students. In a random assignment post-test design, 40 subjects took part in the study treatment. While the subjects in both experimental groups (n 20) received treatment on how to avoid and spot fallacies in arguments, the control group was involved straightway in taking the pre-test and the post test (with no prior assistance) for comparison purposes. After the treatment -which consisted in having the experimental group (n 20 subjects) receive training on the meaning of 15 reasoning fallacies and reinforcements tasks on how to identify them in statements and how to avoid them when they speak or write - all the subjects answered a twenty item multiple-choice test and 5 of them responded to structured interview to identify their attitudes. The final scores were then subjected to descriptive as well as referential statistics (independent and paired samples T-test) for between-group comparison purposes. The results reveal a significant facilitative and positive effect of reasoning fallacies training understudy, particularly when compared to the control condition. A follow-up investigation through an independent simplest-test) attested to the fact that the training resulted in an increased critical thinking ability as measured by the receptive and productive and this is particularly so when compared to the control condition. The study concludes with the main finding together with their interpretation. Some practical implications related to critical thinking instruction, lesson planning and material development, in general, brings the full paper circle.
Abdullah Soliman Nouraldeen
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 242-253; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.25

Abstract:
This research is an extension of the ongoing project of Nouraldeen (2020) and (2021). The project aims at studying and assessing the Qur’an translation of the āyāt (verses) which embodies one type of taḍmīn, complete taḍmīn, in the whole Qur’an. Also, this project endeavours to provide a suggested improved translation, where needed, to bring in the rhetorical style of taḍmīn. The importance of this project lies in appreciating the rhetorical aspect of complete taḍmīn, for it provides the reader with rich, additional meaning in a concise way. Four Muslim-Arabic authored English translations are studied and assessed through two sources in which complete taḍmīn can be identified. Textual analysis is applied to the source text and the target text. Sometimes, the translators pay attention to the implicit preposition in the āyāt and yet overlook the explicit preposition. Every so often, however, they translate the explicit preposition without recognising that this preposition is not standardly collocated with the explicit verb. Inconsistency is detected when translating different āyāt with the same explicit verb and preposition ـــ one time the implicit preposition is rendered, another time the explicit preposition is translated. I have already identified some other linguistic aspects which are essential to analyse and discuss in order to suggest improvements to the four translations. These aspects include, but are not limited to, the translation of the noun يوم ‘day’, being indefinite in the context of the Judgement Day; the translation of possession in English and Arabic; the translation of the coordinating conjunction و (literally translated as ‘and’); and the translation of preposing/fronting التقديم and postposing/backingالتأخير .
, Haseeb Ahmed, Mohammed Osman Abdul Wahab
International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, Volume 4, pp 50-55; https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2021.4.9.6

Abstract:
This article critically focuses on the emotions created in the poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins. It explores the various features responsible for creating feelings in poetry. Among them are word choice, sound choice and imagery. Moreover, it delves into the poem to anayse how devices such as alliteration, simile, metaphor, diction, and symbolism play a vital role. Appropriate implementation of these features create strong emotions in poetry. In most of his poems, Hopkins employed coinage words. In “Spring and Fall”, he doubly used coinage words in a single – line. In the second line of the poem, he coined ‘Goldengroove’ and ‘unleaving’ and in the eighth line ‘wanwood’ and ‘leafmeal’. The word ‘Goldengroove’ is not used for a place in reality yet, and it is a place that represents autumn’s beauty. ‘Golden groove also refers to the ‘Garden of Paradise’. It indicates the four seasons of the year and the chronological phases of human life too. The words ‘golden’ and ‘groove’ are combined to form a single word. The word ‘unleaving’ encapsulates the noun ‘leaf’ employed as a verb possessing a negative prefix ‘un’, which means ‘leaving leaves’. The coinage word ‘unleaving ' is an Anglo-Saxon and comes in the category of pun. Another word, 'wanwood', is also a compound word. ‘Wanwood’ explains the pale condition of trees that have shed their leaves, so they seem to become ‘wan’ or pale. Initially, the word ‘leafmeal’ appears to be ambiguous, yet this ambiguity is expelled immediately.’Leafmeal’ refers to the phrase ‘leaf by leaf’. The two words ‘wanwood’ and ‘leafmeal’ are originated from Anglo- Saxon ring. Hopkins entitled the poem” Spring and Fall”, which itself enhances strong emotion. The rhyme scheme's alteration in this innovative poem, “Spring and Fall”, exhibits the speaker's feelings.
Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, Volume 3, pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal.2021.3.10.4

Abstract:
In every individual’s life, communicating and interacting with others is vital for carrying out a healthy social and professional relationship. Strictly speaking, we, you and I communicate with one another in our day-to-day life and simply understand each other. Paul Grice’s has presented his cooperative principle theory to explain our day-to-day life conversation. This article aims to review the basic Grecian theory of conversational implicature, identifying important consequences, known problems, and useful extensions or modifications. This paper is about how people should consider meeting the cooperative principle in order to perform successfully in communication which is based mainly on Paul Grice’s theory of implicature which is considered one of the most important contributions to pragmatics.
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