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O. Haidei, S. Shuliak, А. Mezhenskyi, G. Kyivska, O. Krushelnytska
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 46-50; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9508

The global market of special foods has grown by 75 % in 2003–2008, that indicating a trend towards individualized diets and healthy lifestyles. Gluten-free foods are popular today due to the increase in the number of people with celiac disease and the general idea of healthy lifestyle. Thus, the production of such products increases due to the intensification of marketing activities. Because the only treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong gluten-free diet, people with this problem need to carefully read food labels for wheat, barley and rye, as well as so-called “hidden” gluten – barley-made malt and hydrolyzed vegetable protein (often contains wheat), as well as to exclude from the diet foods containing these cereals and select alternative foods for full life. However, given the number of people with individual gluten intolerance in Ukraine, the difficult economic situation and the high cost of gluten-free products, not every consumer with this problem can afford to buy certified specialized products labeled “gluten-free”. The aim of the research was to evaluate meat and fish products for gluten content. The article presents information of the results of monitoring gluten in meat and fish products (sausages, canned fish) from different regions of Ukraine by molecular genetic method for 2018–2020 using R-Biopharm diagnostic kits. According to the results of research, fish products that were not labeled “gluten-free” and were not certified as “gluten-free” met the requirements of current legislation of Ukraine and EU Regulation № 41/2009 on gluten-free products. Gluten was not detected in 29.4 % of meat products of various producers; 58.8 % of meat products contained gluten in trace amounts – less than 2 mg/kg; and 11.8 % of meat products contained gluten – more than 20 mg/kg. Prospects for further research are to monitor gluten in sweets and dietary products of domestic production and analyze the results of research on compliance with current legislation and safety for people with individual intolerance to gluten.
A. L. Bespalov, , O. O. Boiko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 33-37; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9506

Under modern conditions vibrating hopper feeders with electromagnetic drive are irreplaceable when it comes to production processes in mechanical engineering and instrument making optimization processes. They are used to download small, medium or miniature details to automated technological equipment, such as automatic machines, automatic lines and automated complexes, or any other flexible automated production. The vibrating hopper loading devices are most commonly used in transportation and loading of details on working positions of assembly automatic machines and assembly automated complexes. In this case the details must be issued in a clearly oriented state. For this purpose, the stationary automated orienting devices, or the orienting devices located directly on the working vibrating feeders` bodies are used. Low compressed air pressure is often used in these devices. Apart from this, in some cases the low compressed air pressure is used in vibrating feeders to increase the maximum lifting angle when vibrating transportation of details on a transport tray of the feeder. We already know the designs of vibrating feeders, whose transport tray is equipped with channels and openings for the supply of compressed air, whose jets affect the parts that are transported in order to increase the maximum possible lifting angle or the speed of parts transportation, as well as to ensure the guaranteed gap between them at the download position. We also know the vibrating feeders` constructions equipped with jet pneumatic devices, which are set exactly on the vibrating feeder hopper and serve for non-contact orientation of details that are issued. All of these devices use the low compressed air supplied by means of the flexible pipeline from a workshop pneumatic network. But the fact that such network is simply absent in many enterprises` workshops makes it impossible to use the vibrating feeders like these, this way decreasing their use. For expanding their use it is necessary to have vibrating feeders with individual low pressure compressed air source. Modern production manufactures new models of machines with high technical economic indicators, so functionality increase of the existing one equipment and the development of new schemes of machines is an important task for designers and technological equipment manufacturers, because minimal improvement of its technological and performance can lead to a significant economic effect. The set of elements affecting the performance and efficiency of vibrating bunker feeders with electromagnetic drives that have a directional elastic system are presented in this paper. The additional structural elements increasing the functionality of such feeders are offered.
M. Perepelytsia
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 7-12; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9502

Taking into account the need to improve existing, optimize and create new technologies for flour culinary products, there is a need to use non-traditional raw materials for the design of flour culinary products of high nutritional value. The prescription composition of these products is adjustable, which allows you to create foods that meet the traditional requirements for consumer properties and modern requirements of nutrition. The article investigates the structural and mechanical parameters of the dough semi-finished product for flour culinary products. The influence of protein-fat additive and carrageenan on structural and mechanical properties that characterize the deformation behavior of the dough semi-finished product under stress conditions, the main indicators of which at applied force are the ultimate stress, plastic viscosity, modulus of elasticity. In order to develop the technology of flour culinary products using BJD ESO and carrageenan, it is important to determine the rational concentration of additives and the method of their introduction into the dough semi-finished product. For the manufacture of model dough compositions were added BJD ESO was added in an amount of from 5 to 30 % and carrageenan from 0.5 to 3.0 % instead of wheat flour. According to the results of research, the influence of BJD ESO and carrageenan on the structural and mechanical properties of the dough semi-finished product was established. When the concentration of BJD ESO increases from 5 to 30%, the value of plastic viscosity decreases by 3.2–67.3 %, respectively. Therefore, to improve the structural and mechanical properties in the model test compositions added carginan. When the concentration of carrageenan increases from 0.5 to 3.0 %, the value of the plastic viscosity of fresh dough increases by 0.9–18.4 %, respectively. At the concentration of carrageenan 1.0%, the value of the indicator is close to the control (7.06 PA×s*108) and is 7.12 and 7.27 PA×s*108. Therefore, using the methods of mathematical modeling taking into account the structural and mechanical properties, determined the rational concentrations of the functional composition for the test semi-finished product – 11 % (1.0 % carrageenan and 10.0 % BJD ESO, which can be used in the technology for new types of dough semi-finished products for flour culinary products.
, G. Krusir, H. Shunko, H. Korkach
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 57-64; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9510

Currently, the creation of a range of new products that improve human nutritional status is a timely and urgent problem facing scientists in the food industry. In food technology it is effective to use functional ingredients that have enhanced protective and improved technological properties. It is possible to confidently attribute the components of plant origin, namely, dietary fiber and plant phospholipids, to such substances. Phospholipids are a group of essential substances that are irreplaceable and enter the human body only with food. Phospholipids cannot be formed independently in the human body, but perform important functions that have a positive effect on the body: they restore cell walls; they are involved in lipid metabolism, as well as reducing the risk of cholesterol formation; they actively participate in the delivery processes of biologically active substances to cells, etc. A rich source of biologically active substances are flax seeds, its medicinal properties have been known for centuries and are recognized by official medicine. The influence of flax seed mucilage and phospholipids in the formulation of red main sauce on rheological and physical parameters was investigated. Samples of sauces with replacement of 50 and 100% of flour for flax polysaccharides and 30 % of animal fat for vegetable phospholipids were developed. The change of effective viscosity and density of the developed sauces is investigated. It was found that at a shear rate of 0.3333 s-1 the viscosity of the control sample is 14.32 Pa·s, of the same one with the replacement of 50 % flour and 10 g of fat and 100 % flour and 10 g of fat, respectively, is 16.49 and 19.6 Pa·s. This replacement in the experimental samples is accompanied by a slight increase in density. In order to substantiate the functional orientation of sauces in the introduction of herbal additives, studies were conducted to determine the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the developed sauces and their components. It was found that the maximum AOA a sauce with herbal additives has, which for 90 minutes is able to “quench” 89 % of the radicals formed in these conditions in the model system. Adding sauces to ready meals, even in small quantities, help to increase the nutritional value and attractiveness of the consumed food. Therefore, the effect of additives on the consumer characteristics of sauces was investigated. It is established that the developed types of sauces have a characteristic structure, creamy and homogeneous consistency, pronounced taste and aroma. The conducted complex of researches allows to state with confidence that use of available vegetable raw materials instead of the ingredients possessing the raised food value, allows to reduce energy value and to expand the range of sauces of functional orientation for restaurant enterprises.
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 38-45; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9507

The purpose of the work was to develop recipes and technology of smoothies with high nutritional value by enrichment with fruit and vegetable filler. Experimental studies of organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the strip were conducted in the laboratory of the Department of Milk and Dairy Products Technology. In the first stage, a new product was developed using different ratios of milk and fruit-vegetable base (banana and pumpkin puree in different proportions) and chia seeds. For research, 4 formulations of the strip were developed: control – milk base 75 %, fruit puree – 10 %, pumpkin puree – 10 %, chia seeds – 5 %; sample № 1 – milk base 60 %, fruit puree – 15 %, pumpkin puree – 15 %, chia seeds – 10 %; sample № 2 – milk base 50 %, fruit puree – 20 %, pumpkin puree – 20 %, chia seeds – 10 %; sample № 3 – milk base 40 %, fruit puree – 20 %, pumpkin puree – 20 %, chia seeds – 20 %. Yogurt was used as a milk base. Yogurt was made by tank method. Bacterial preparation of direct application of FD DVS ABY-3 was added to the mixture cooled to a temperature of (37 ± 1) ºС. The increase in titrated and active acidity was monitored during fermentation. The titratable acidity was determined according to GOST 3624-92 “Milk and dairy products. Titrometric methods for determining acidity. Measurements of active acidity were performed using an electronic pH meter “Muttler Toledo MP220”. The vegetable base was prepared as follows: the pumpkin after washing and cleaning was rubbed on a fine grater, then crushed with a blender to obtain a more homogenized mass. Heat treatment of the crushed mass was performed in a water bath at a temperature of +74 ºC for 25 min. The banana was washed, peeled and crushed with a blender to obtain a homogeneous mass. Heat treatment of the crushed mass was performed in a water bath at a temperature of +74 ºC for 25 min. Chia seeds were cleaned of damaged specimens, dust, dirt and other impurities, washed with water for 10 minutes. at a temperature of 20 °C. Chia seeds were mixed with yogurt in a ratio of 1 : 10 at a temperature of 37 °C. Left to swell for 30 min. Then the estimated amount was made to the bulk. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters according to DSTU 4343:2004 “Yogurts. General technical conditions”. The microbiological parameters of the product were studied according to DSTU IDF 117B:2003 “Yogurt. Determination of the number of characteristic microorganisms. The method of counting colonies at a temperature of 37 °C”. The introduction of chia seeds affected the energy value of the product. The highest energy value is calculated for the sample using 20 % of chia seeds – 110 kcal. The lowest energy value for control is 70.6 kcal, in which the share of milk base prevails. The introduction of chia seeds in the product reduces the number of lactic acid bacteria in the test samples of the smoothies, which in particular correlates with the titrated acidity of the product. When examining the presence of pathogenic microflora in the samples of the strip, it was found that all samples met the requirements for microbiological safety. The number of viable cells of Escherichia coli and bifidobacteria gives the product probiotic properties. According to the results of organoleptic parameters, the best shelf life for the strip is 14 days. All samples of the strip after 14 days had a sour taste and smell and a slight serum. The lowest value of titratable acidity for 14 days of storage was in the sample when using more chia seeds – 20 %. At 21 days of storage in all samples of the strip, the titrated acidity was higher than the allowable value. To expand the range of dairy products with high nutritional value and heroic properties, it is recommended to use in the technology of the strip 50 % milk base (yogurt), 20 % banana puree, 20 % pumpkin puree and 10 % chia seeds.
, V. A. Nahovska, B. V. Gutyj
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 83-90; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9514

The basis of the technology of functional foods, as is known, is the presence of high content of nutrients, the ability to influence certain parts of the potential consumer. Fermented milk products in this regard are natural representatives of this group. The use of sour milk drinks with phytonutrients of different physical state will contribute not only to additional profits due to the sale of new biologically valuable and very important for public health products, but also to solve such an important problem of all food companies as complex processing of raw materials. related environmental issues. Taking into account the relevance of the topic, research was planned to study the possibility of using a new domestic cryoadditive – cryopowder “Morska Kapusta” in the technology of such a popular sour milk drink as yogurt. Scientific research was conducted in the scientific laboratory of the Department of Milk Technology and Dairy Products of Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv and in production. Formulations of thermostatic yoghurts (1.5 %) with cryopowder of domestic production “Morska Kapusta” were developed and proposed for industrial production. The technological scheme of production of thermostatic yoghurts (mchzh 1.5 %) with cryopowder of domestic production “Morska Kapusta” is offered. The main organoleptic and technological characteristics of thermostatic yogurts (1.5 %) with cryopowder of domestic production “Morska Kapusta” were studied. Experimental samples of thermostatic yogurts (1.5 % weight) with cryopowder of domestic production “Morska Kapusta” had high levels of all regulatory vitamins. The proposed types of thermostatic yogurts (1.5 %) with cryopowder “Morska Kapusta” are characterized by an increase in the amount of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine + cystine) and tryptophan, and the lack of limiting amino acids in the combined sample of yogurt indicates an increase in biological value. Prototypes of thermostatic yogurts (1.5 %) with cryopowder of domestic production “Morska Kapusta” retained the technological characteristics and regulatory safety indicators during the standard storage time.
, Z. Dziamski
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 3-6; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9501

Features and main technological methods of forming thin layers of semiconductor materials by methods of chemical deposition and mechanical application are analyzed. The disadvantages of thermal sputtering and cathodic sputtering of thin films in vacuum for multicomponent semiconductor compounds are indicated. Features of chemical deposition of semiconductor films from the gas (steam) phase are presented. Such deposition involves the transfer of source material from the evaporator zone with higher temperature in the form of volatile compounds to the colder surface of the substrate, where the film growth occurs as a result of reaction of transported compounds or their decomposition. It is shown that the growth of the film during chemical vapor deposition is a process of layer-by-layer condensation of atoms or molecules, with the advantageous difference that during chemical deposition the latter are formed as a result of a heterogeneous chemical reaction when there is no need for average free path length of the gas molecules to be larger than the size of the deposition chamber, i.e. no need for critical degree of vacuum. Chemical deposition of thin films from solution is characterized as a process of precipitation of solute which occurs due to the fact that the ionic product exceeds the product of solubility, i.e. it is greater than the constant value characteristic of a saturated solution in the equilibrium state. We emphasize, that chemical deposition from an water solution allows to obtain homogeneous in thickness and structure fine-grained non-textured mechanically stable polycrystalline films with good adhesion to substrates and the required set of properties. The method of pulverization with subsequent pyrolysis is described. This is deposition from intracomplex organometallic compounds, which is based on thermally stimulated reactions between clusters of atoms, chemically active substances of liquid or vapor phase. The method of electrolytic deposition on electrically conductive substrates is characterized. The method is using appropriate salt solutions by co-deposition of individual components, or by deposition on the cathode of one of the components with its subsequent interaction with others present in the solution. We also describe the method of obtaining epitaxial thin films of semiconductor deposition materials. We note that the analyzed methods or their modifications are necessary tool today to create thin-film semiconductor structures with predetermined properties. In the same time, in each particular case the features of each method of obtaining thin semiconductor films should be comprehensively evaluated and, depending on the chemical composition, structure, topology and complex of expected properties, the most effective method should be applied.
Lin Fang, Ai-Qing Ren, , , V. Sokolenko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 91-97; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9515

Quick and accurate determination of oil content is extremely important to control the oil content of vacuum fried fruit and vegetable chips. This article uses fresh Pleurotus eryngii as raw materials to explore the influence of different vacuum frying times (0–14 min) on the moisture distribution, oil changes and quality of Pleurotus eryngii strips. The results show that as the frying time increases, the lateral relaxation time required for the taro strips to drop from the highest point of the signal amplitude to smooth becomes shorter and shorter, and the decay rate becomes faster and faster, that is, when the frying time is 14 minutes, The attenuation curvature and velocity are the largest. The oil content and brittleness of Pleurotus eryngii strips are significantly increased (P < 0.05); the water content is significantly reduced (P < 0.05); the hardness first decreases and then increases (P < 0.05); the brightness L* value does not change much, and the color is not Significant change (P > 0.05). At the same time, low-field NMR shows that the high-degree-of-freedom water in the pleurotus eryngii strips migrates to the low-degree-of-freedom water during the vacuum frying process. Among them, the free water in the pleurotus eryngii strips has a large degree of freedom. It has been removed, resulting in poor mobility and increased inability to flow. Part of the free water migrates to the semi-bound water, and most of the semi-bound water migrates outward as free water and then is removed. From this, all peaks are gradually removed. Moving to the left, the total peak area decreases. During the frying process, the T2 relaxation time of Pleurotus eryngii strips all shifted to the left, the total peak area is continuously reduced, the water content is getting less and less, the fat content is getting higher and higher, and the fat content distributed in the edge shell is always higher than Other locations. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technology can provide a fast, accurate, and non-destructive method for detecting moisture and grease for the vacuum-fried fruit and vegetable chips. As the frying time increases, the inner contour of the MRI image of Pleurotus eryngii strips gradually becomes blurred, the brightness gradually decreases, the volume shrinks, the less water, and the image interior is close to the background color (blue), indicating that the sample has reached the end of drying; and The grease content is distributed in the edge shell layer higher than other positions. Therefore, the water is continuously removed, the oil signal becomes stronger and stronger, and the oil content of the sample becomes higher and higher.
M. I. Fil
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 78-82; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9513

The improvement of the recipe composition of the quality of the omelet with the use of natural raw materials – bee pollen, honey, egg powder has been studied. Inclusion in the recipe of bee pollen will help to obtain a functional omelet omelette. The article highlights the results of the study of organoleptic parameters. The positive effect of the api-egg omelet is due to the mutual complex influence of all components and their number. According to organoleptic studies, the best results were obtained in example 2. Replacing sugar with honey in the omelet can reduce the amount of carbohydrates, not only improves the taste and healing properties, but also allows people with diabetes, obesity, as well as children to consume it, etc. The method of preparation of the omelet is as follows: lemon zest, bee pollen are added to the apiya-egg omelette mixture, the mixture is thoroughly mixed, poured into a portion pan with melted fat, fried on both sides for 5–7 minutes. Bee pollen is a biological stimulant that has a beneficial effect on the human body. The protein complex (26 %) in pollen consists of 22 amino acids, including a number of essential ones, and bee pollen also contains 28 chemical elements. Especially a lot of iron, potassium, as well as copper, cobalt. We studied api-egg omelette, which includes: cream or pasteurized milk, butter, egg powder, bee pollen, natural lemon zest. In this article, the quality was determined by organoleptic method. The literature available to us does not establish the combination and use of bee pollen, egg powder for the preparation of api-egg omelette. Given that chicken eggs are one of the most valuable human food and are used in the preparation of many dishes, especially egg omelets, as well as information about the nutritional and biological value of omelets, we consider it appropriate to use bee pollen to produce omelets to improve health. of people of all ages. Based on the research, it can be argued that the use of opiya egg omelette, dishes with bee pollen, will expand the range of omelets and increase the biological value of the finished product. Inclusion in the recipe of bee pollen, honey will help to obtain a functional omelet. The positive effect of the opiya egg omelette is due to the mutual complex influence of all components and their quantity. Organoleptic evaluation of the quality of the apiya-egg omelette was performed on the following indicators: color, smell, taste, consistency, harmony of the additive. The results of a comprehensive organoleptic evaluation of an api-egg omelet made in accordance with the proposed method are shown in Fig. 4, the highest indicators of sample 2, namely, points: color – 4.86, odor – 4.92, taste – 5.0; consistency – 5.0, the harmony of the additive – 5.0, which confirmed its high consumer organoleptic properties. Cooking an omelet in the proposed way is possible in almost different conditions, where there are means of cooking: fire, utensils, liquid, cream.
, , , H. Koval, I. Simonova, N. Herez
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 65-71; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9511

In modern conditions of meat production, one of the priorities of the meat processing industry is the production of products with improved consumer properties. To perform this task, it is necessary to include in the industrial circulation of physiologically functional ingredients of plant origin, which will provide the body with nutrients and expand the range of functional foods. The paper covers the issues of partial replacement of raw materials of animal origin with germinated sea-buckthorn seeds (GSBS) flour as a functional ingredient in the production of sausages. The chemical and vitamin composition of the physiologically functional ingredient has been studied. Three experimental recipes for sausages from GSBS flour has been developed. The positive influence of GSBS flour on functional-technological and physical-chemical properties of the received forcemeat is proved. Organoleptic parameters of sausages from GSBS flour are determined. The use of GSBS flour as a functional ingredient in the technology of sausages affects the appearance, taste, smell. It is established that the increase in the amount of GSBS flour introduction leads to an increase in pH by 0.4–0.8 % and finished products by 6.8 %. The improvement of functional and technological properties of experimental minced meat of sausages based on the use of GSBS flour is proved. The optimal amount of replacement of the main raw material with a physiologically functional ingredient, which is characteristic of the experimental sample № 2. The changes in the qualitative characteristics of the developed sample of sausages, which where within the regulatory requirements. The addition of 10 % GSBS flour to the minced meat of sausages leads to a slight increase in protein with a significant reduction in lipid content by 4.4 % in the finished product. As a result, the caloric content of Altaiska functional sausage is reduced by 13.2 % compared to traditional products. Production of such products will allow to expand the domestic range of functional products. Consumption of such sausages allows to consider them as foodstuff with essentially new functional properties which would correspond to modern requirements concerning food.
G. Р. Khomych, N. I. Tkach, Y. G. Nakonechna, O. V. Nesterenko, N. M. Prior
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 13-19; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9503

The article considers the use of Jerusalem artichoke processing products in technology flour yeast products. In terms of productivity, Jerusalem artichokes significantly exceed potatoes, sugar beets, corn and other crops of intensive type, but grow it on small area mainly for fodder purposes. Recently, in the food industry is observed reorientation to the production of products with new qualities, aimed at improving the situation health and disease prevention. Jerusalem artichoke is a unique raw material that can increase the biological value of finished products. Useful properties of Jerusalem artichoke are used to strengthen the immune system, reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke, eliminate salt deposits in the joints, in the therapeutic diet for diabetes. However, its limited use in the processing industry is due to the rapid enzymatic darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers during processing. Given the specific properties of Jerusalem artichoke, it is advisable to investigate the enzymatic darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers during processing by determining the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and the use of Jerusalem artichoke puree in the technology of yeast dough. Analysis of tubers and Jerusalem artichoke puree was performed by organoleptic and physicochemical indicators. The quality of finished products was controlled by organoleptic, physicochemical and structural and mechanical indicators, among which special attention was paid to indicators acidity, humidity, porosity, shape stability. The activity of the enzyme in whole and crushed Jerusalem artichoke tubers and its effect on the activity of the enzyme pre-blanching in water for 10 minutes It is determined that when blanching is a partial inactivation of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, which prevents darkening of raw materials during grinding. The effect of adding Jerusalem artichoke puree in the amount of 10, 15 and 20 % was studied on gluten of wheat flour. The partial replacement of wheat flour in mashed Jerusalem artichoke leads not only to a decrease in the amount of gluten, but also to a change in its quality. The gluten becomes more elastic, the extensibility decreases, and with the addition of 20 % puree gluten is torn. It is determined that the duration of fermentation of dough samples varies depending on the amount introduced Jerusalem artichoke puree. With increasing percentage of Jerusalem artichoke puree in the dough recipe, the duration of dough fermentation is reduced by 6.25…8.75 %. The addition of puree had a positive effect Jerusalem artichoke to increase the yield of the finished product by 5.20…26.34 %. Research of the main quality indicators of experimental samples confirm that according to the set of indicators, the optimal sample is 10 % of Jerusalem artichoke puree, which makes it possible to recommend it for the production of yeast bakery products of high biological value.
A. O. Shevchyk, , N. T. Bilyk, I. V. Poberezhska
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 25-32; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9505

This paper presents the results of the study of x-ray luminescence of apatite from different genetic types of apatite species in order to study its geochemical characteristics and the possibility of using as a mineral indicator the conditions of ore formation and for search purposes. Apatite Ca2Ca3(F,Cl,OH)2[PO4]3 contains impurities Gd3+, Ce3+, Eu2+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Nd3+ as well as Mn2+ and others. Syngony is hexagonal. Crystals of prismatic habit; usually ending in dipyramide or basopinacoid. Sometimes forms tabular crystals. A hexagonal prism is often preserved. Color greenish, bluish-green; pinkish-purple, gray; often white, colorless or brown. Quite often translucent due to the presence of small internal cracks and inclusions; sometimes the inclusions are arranged oriented, preferably parallel to the main axis of the crystal. Brightly luminesces in cathode, x-ray and ultraviolet rays. The intensity and color of luminescence varies widely depending on the impurities. The presence of three crystal chemical positions in the structure of apatite – two cationic and one anionic makes it possible to be realized in the mineral by a wide heterovalent substitution. The distribution of isomorphic impurities between the crystal chemical positions will depend on the type of cation, its amount, as well as anionic substitutions in apatite. To determine the luminescence intensity values of the characteristic isomorphic impurities of apatite TR3+ (Gd3+, Ce3+, Eu2+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Nd3+) and Mn2+, the X-ray luminescence method was applied. Apatites of different genetic types of the Aldan, Baltic Shields, the Baikal region (Russia), the Sette-Daban Range, and the Maimech-Kotui Province (Yakutia) and the Ukrainian Shield were investigated. The obtained values of luminescence intensity of TR3+ and Mn2+ can be used to diagnose the genetic type of apatite species, the conditions of mineral formation, the type of their mineralization and for search purposes. On the basis of factor analysis, it can be concluded that the intensity of the luminescence centers of rare earth elements in the apatites of each complex depends on the relative age position of the mineral in the groups of successively formed rocks. Analysis of apatite carbonatites from different deposits showed minimal fluctuations in the ratios of radiation intensity of X-ray centers (Ce3+, Sm3+, Mn2+, Eu2+), which may indicate a close geochemical situation and, consequently, the only source of matter in the formation of carbonates. Analysis of apatite carbonatites from different fields showed minimal fluctuations in the radiation intensity ratios of the centers of X-ray luminescence (Ce3+, Sm3+, Mn2+, Eu2+), which, in my opinion, may indicate a close geochemical situation and, as a consequence, the substance or the result.
, , V. O. Nagovska, O. R. Mykhaylytska
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 51-56; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9509

The trend of healthy eating determines several areas of modern consumer trends: the Ukrainian buyer pays more attention to the naturalness of ice cream and more carefully analyzes the ingredient composition of the product. More popular is ice cream, which does not contain synthetic dyes and flavors and is lower in sucrose. The article substantiates the use of dates processing products in ice cream technology. The aim of the work was to develop ice cream technology with partial and complete replacement of sucrose with date paste and date syrup. The research was conducted at the Department of Milk and Dairy Products Technology at Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv. The raw materials used for research met the requirements of current regulations in terms of quality and safety. Date paste was made independently, hazelnut oil was added to it. Organic date syrup was used under the trademark Bio Planet. Four ice cream recipes were developed and technological operations of ice cream production with dates processed products were worked out. Denise 855 was used as a stabilizer and emulsifier in the ice cream recipe, which gives an unsurpassed creamy taste and homogeneous structure and provides the initial air distribution and stable whipping. In the study of organoleptic characteristics of ice cream, it was found that all samples had a similar sense of aroma and taste – with the taste of dates. The addition of date syrup improved the taste of ice cream. Taste indices increased significantly with increasing concentration of date syrup. Complete replacement of granulated sugar with date syrup significantly lowered the pH and increased acidity. In addition, the replacement of sucrose with date processed products has been shown to increase the viscosity of ice cream. The lowest viscosity value was observed in the control sample, while the highest viscosity value was obtained when the sugar was completely replaced with date syrup.
, , Yu. Yu. Horbenko, A. L. Stepura
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 20-24; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9504

The important problem to ensure the safety of life is the development of effective methods for monitoring of toxic gases in the atmosphere and industrial premises. To ensure such control, various gas sensors are developed that work on the effects of changes in electrical resistance, optical absorption or radiation in a certain spectral range. Most known gas sensors have high operating temperatures, which creates some difficulties in their operation, so more and more attention is paid to sensors based on conjugated electrically conductive polymers, in particular, polyaminoarenes. In result of absorption of inorganic polar gases such as ammonia, nitrogen oxide, hydrogen chloride and others the significant changes in conductivity, optical absorption and morphology of polyaminoarene films are observed. However influence of organic solvent vapors on the optical spectra of polyaminoarene films for today is poorly studied. In the present work the functional polymer films of polyanisidine (PoA) and polytoluidine (PoTI) are proposed as sensitive elements of optical sensors operating at room temperatures. The sensitive films on the transparent SnO2 surface were prepared by electrodeposition. The influence of vapors of organic solvents (dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, nitrobenzene, toluene) on the optical characteristics of PoTi and PoA films was established. The optical absorption spectra investigated PoA film was characterized by two band with maximum near 360–410 nm (π–π* transition) and broad band in the range of 620–950 nm which is a superposition of the second and third bands. Influence of organic vapors causes the changes in films coloration. The maximum of sensitivity to the organic vapors for PoTI films in all cases is observed at λ > 550 nm and extends to near-infra-red area indicating a formation of free charge carriers of polaron type. Nonpolar solvent vapors insignificantly affect the optical properties of polyaminoarene films responсes to spectral changes in the visible and NIR range of spectrum. A highest gas sensitivity of optical signal was observed under influence of dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran vapors. The time to establish the steady-state value of the optical response is 30–60 s for PoTi, while for PoA reaches 120–180 s depending on the nature of organic vapors.
D. Ya. Dalievska, O. S. Pokotylo
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 72-77; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-f9512

Iodine is a natural trace element that is necessary for the human body. The function of iodine in the human body is the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency has many negative consequences for the human body. Iodine deficiency is especially dangerous for pregnant women and children. Insufficient iodine in pregnant women increases the risk of miscarriage and birth of a child with cognitive impairment. Iodine deficiency in children has the following consequences: delayed physical development, delayed intellectual development, decreased mental activity, drowsiness, lethargy. Expanding food with iodine is a necessary step to overcome the problem of iodine deficiency.The quality of dairy products in Ukraine is very high. Due to the mandatory implementation of the HACCP system, manufacturers are improving equipment and production technologies. Accordingly, the requirements for the quality of raw materials increase in proportion to the competitiveness of the enterprise. That is why it is important to develop dairy products that will be in demand among consumers.Kefir with a biologically active additive “Iodis-concentrate” is a source of the required amount of iodine for the body. Jodis-concentrate is a certified biologically active additive that is widely used in the food industry. It has already found application in water production and the meat industry. The article presents a comparative analysis of changes in titrated acidity and active acidity (pH) in control and experimental samples of kefir during fermentation with the addition of biologically active iodine. The source of iodine was a biologically active additive "Iodis-concentrate". It is shown that the titrated acidity in both samples of kefir – control and experimental – had the same dynamics before growth during fermentation, which indicates no effect of the addition of biologically active iodine on the dynamics of titrated acidity. The same tendency to decrease the active acidity (pH) in control and experimental samples of kefir during fermentation with a difference within the significant error, indicating no effect of adding biologically active iodine to kefir on active acidity (pH).
V. I. Khalak, B. V. Gutyj, O. M. Bordun, O. I. Stadnytska, S. E. Chernyavsky
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 117-122; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9421

The results of research activities of reproductive qualities of sows of different breeding value are given, the level of their phenotypic consolidation is determined and the correlation analysis is carried out. The study was conducted in agricultural formations of Dnipropetrovsk and Sumy regions (LLC “AF “Renaissance”, research farm of the Institute of Agriculture of the Northeast NAAS of Ukraine, LLC “Druzhba – Kaznacheyivka”), livestock laboratory of the State Institution Institute of Grain Crops of NAAS of Ukraine and livestock laboratory economy of the North-East of NAAS of Ukraine. The work was performed according to the research program of NAAS of Ukraine № 30 “Innovative technologies of breeding, industrial and organic production of pig products” (“Pig breeding”). The object of the study were sows of large white breed. Indicators of reproductive qualities of animals of the specified production group were investigated taking into account the following quantitative signs: multiplicity, head; milk yield, kg, number of piglets at weaning, head; nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days, kg, safety, %. The BLUP index (maternal line) was calculated on the basis of the Main Breeding Center for Pig Breeding (Institute of Pig Breeding and AIP NAAS of Ukraine) according to the general model of a single animal. The index of alignment (homogeneity) of the sow's nest by live weight of piglets at the time of their birth, the index of reproductive qualities of the sow and the coefficients of phenotypic consolidation of the main quantitative traits were calculated according to the methods of V. I. Khalak (2012), M. D. Berezovsky (quoted from A. Vashchenko, 2019) and Yu. P. Polupan (1996, 2005), respectively. Biometric processing of research results was performed according to the methods of G. F. Lakin (1990). It was found that the maximum indicators of fertility, milk yield, number of piglets and nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days are characterized by sows of group I, in which the index BLUP (maternal line) is 109.78–128.75, the index of reproductive qualities (CPI) – 101.43–161.72 points. The correlation coefficients between the characteristics of reproductive qualities and integrated indicators are reliable and range from + 0.648 ± 0.0492 (index BLUP (maternal line) × milk yield) to + 0.984 ± 0.0086 (index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) × nest weight per weaning time at the age of 28 days). A high level of phenotypic consolidation on the basis of reproductive qualities of sows was found in animals of group II by milk yield (K1 = 0.561, K2 = 0.499) and nest weight at the time of weaning at the age of 28 days (K1 = 0.521, K2 = 0.472), peers of group I – by multiplicity (K1 = 0.315, K2 = 0.410) and the number of piglets at weaning (K1 = 0.296, K2 = 0.397). The calculation of economic efficiency of sows of different breeding value shows that the maximum increase in additional products was obtained from sows of group I, in which the index BLUP (maternal line) is 109.78–128.75, the index of reproductive qualities (IRQ) – 101.43–161, 72 points – +13.08 %, and its value is +332.08 UAH/head. These indicators of evaluation indices are a criterion for selecting high-yielding sows of large white breeds of controlled herds.
V. M. Nedashkivskyi, B. D. Mishchenko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 46-49; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9409

On the development and productivity of bjolin queens, they infuse the methods of vivennya, dew vivification, weather conditions, and the appearance of food - bee bread and honey, or a square file and nectar. On a practical basis, the preparation of the large family of creepers with food, additional supplies of small private substitutes, one of such substitutes is glucose-fructose syrup. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of carbohydrate supplementation with glucose-fructose syrup in foster families on the number and weight of reared queens in the context of supportive honey. In the statistic, it has been infused into the adolescent bjolin family with glucose-fructose syrup on the efficiency of the growth of bjolin queen bees. The pre-session was carried out at the base of the PP “Volodymyr” with. Shershny Tivrivsky district of the Vinnytsia region. In the past year, in the year of the bdzholin family, glucose-fructose syrup was revealed, which shortens the result of the reception of larvae per vykhovannya to preserve in the previous groups by 12.5 % more portions of the control group in bjolins. The water hour revealed a decrease in vibrating mothers by 10.5 %, depending on the control group, in which case the indicator of the increase in changes was made. In the results of the last few days, it was established that the introduction of glucose-fructose syrup to the last group of glucose-fructose syrup to the last group was increased, and the increase in the intensity of the growth of the bjolin queens became freely average, to a maximum of 20.3 % for the group. Thus, the obtained data indicate the effectiveness of the effect of glucose-fructose syrup during feeding in foster families on the number and weight of reared queens.
O. P. Rudenko, N. A. Lytvyn, B. V. Gutyj
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 81-85; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9415

There are a number of springs on the territory of Lviv, water from which is used by the city residents. It should be noted that natural resources cannot be systematically used by the population for drinking purposes, as they are not sources of centralized water supply and, accordingly, do not have service personnel. No sanitary protection zones have been established for such sources, within which economic activities are prohibited. In this regard, the quality of water from such natural sources has unstable indicators, which depend on many factors of man-made and natural factors (sanitary-chemical and sanitary-microbiological indicators can sometimes fluctuate within one week), which makes it unfit for human consumption and can lead to acute intestinal infections of bacterial and viral etiology, a number of infectious diseases. The article considers the current ecological, microbiological state of natural sources of the city of Lviv. The necessity, and hence the relevance of the analysis and detailed microbiological assessment of water quality of springs in the city of Lviv, namely: springs № 1 in the park "Zalizna Voda" (Lviv, Ternopilska Street); springs № 2 in the park "Zalizna Voda" (Lviv, Myshuhy Street); springs № 3 in Stryiskyi Park (Lviv, Stryiska Street). A sociological survey of city residents on the use and consumption of water from the studied sources was conducted. The results of the analysis were compared with the list of maximum concentration limits of harmful substances in water bodies in accordance with the order № 400 from 12.05.2010 on approval of State sanitary norms and rules “Hygienic requirements for drinking water intended for human consumption” (DSanPiN 2.2.4-171-10).
A. V. Hunchak, S. M. Medvid, O. M. Stefanyshyn, Ya. M. Sirko, S. I. Koretchuk
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 50-55; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9410

The paper presents a fragment of a systemic study on the efficiency of replacing inorganic salts of microelements in guaranteed mineral premixes used in quail feed with a complex supplement of said elements in nanocitrate form produced by Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies LLC (Kyiv). The study is, in particular, focused on the levels of microelements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, І) in quails and their egg yolks depending on the form and concentration of those microelements in the poultry diet. The tests have been conducted on 14-day old Pharaoh quails divided into three groups. Raising conditions – cages. Test duration – 2 months. Quails of all groups were fed complete feed with a balanced content of nutrients and biologically active compounds. Control group birds were given mineral premix containing inorganic salts of (g/t of feed): Mn – 50, Zn ‒ 50, Cu ‒ 2.5, Fe ‒10, Co ‒1 and І ‒ 0.7. Test group quails were fed a mineral complex of aqua citrates of the same elements with a concentration of (calculated for each element) 1/10 (D1) and 1/20 (D2) or 10 and 5 % of their content in a standard mineral premix (SP). It is established that the form and dosage of microelements introduced into the diet affect their levels in quails and their egg yolks. Nanocitrates of bioelements have a relatively high cumulative potential in poultry compared with the control group (an inorganic form of microelements). The best results are achieved with citrate elements being fed in a concentration of 10% of their regular content in a standard mineral premix. It is proven that the use of optimal concentration of aqua citrates of microelements in poultry diet promotes increased levels of manganese, iron, zinc, copper and cobalt (Р < 0.05‒0.001) in the liver and hip muscles as well as iron and copper levels (Р < 0.01‒0.001) in breast muscles of quails; increased body weight by 15.7 % during the testing period; an enhanced biological value of the eggs (increased calcium (Р < 0.05), iodine (Р < 0.05), zinc (Р < 0.01) levels) compared to analogs in the control group.
V. M. Volovich
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 20-24; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9404

The results of studies on the effect of synthetic tryptophan supplements to goose feed during the reproductive period on the incubation qualities of eggs, the level of total protein, albumin and α-, β- and γ-globulins in the blood of embryos and newborn goslings are presented. The study was conducted on four groups of geese-analogues of the Obroshyn gray breed group during the 3-month period (January ‒ March). The control group did not receive synthetic tryptophan supplements. The level of this amino acid in this group of geese in accordance with current regulations in Ukraine was 0.16 g per 100 g of feed. To the diet of birds 2, 3 and 4 experimental groups were additionally administered, respectively, 0.04; 0.09 and 0.14 g of synthetic tryptophan per 100 g of feed. As a result of research it was found that increasing the level of tryptophan from 0.16 g to 0.30 g per 100 g of feed due to its synthetic analogue in the diet of geese during egg-laying significantly improves the incubation quality of eggs and has a positive effect on protein levels. daily embryos and 5-day-old goslings. It is shown that the most pronounced effect on improving the quality of hatching eggs and optimizing the effect on the level of protein in the blood of embryos and goslings reveals the content of tryptophan in feed during intensive laying of geese in the amount of 0.25 g per 100 g of feed. Studies have shown that the quality of hatching eggs and the content of total protein, albumin and α-, β- and γ-globulins in the blood of embryos and newborn goslings has a pronounced positive effect on the level of tryptophan in the diet of geese during intensive laying. In particular, increasing the amount of this essential amino acid in goose feed during the reproductive period from 0.16 to 0.30 g due to its synthetic analogue improves such incubation qualities of eggs as: egg-laying, weight, length, width, egg shape index, strength and thickness eggshells, and increases in the serum of 25-day-old embryos and 5-day-old goslings contents of total protein, albumin and α-, β- and γ-globulins (P < 0.05). It is shown that the most pronounced positive effect on the optimization of protein ingredients in the serum of both embryos and goslings was found for the content of tryptophan in the feed of geese of the parent flock in the amount of 0.25 g per 100 g of feed. The results show that increasing the level of such essential amino acids as tryptophan in goose feed during intensive egg-laying from 0.16 to 0.25 g per 100 g of feed activates the synthesis of egg components in the ovary of birds, improves their quality and has a stimulating effect on the biosynthesis in hepatocytes of embryos and newborn goslings of total protein, its albumin, α-, β-globulin fractions and immune γ-globulins.
, S. V. Sliusarenko, A. O. Sliusarenko, R. А. Petryshak, I. P. Golodyuk, O. S. Naumyuk, O. І. Petryshak, O. V. Kuliaba
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 3-8; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9401

According to modern classification of trace elements, which is based on their biological significance for living organisms, selenium is classified as a group of vital or biogenic elements. As a biotic element, it has unique physico-chemical and biochemical properties and, with adequate intake into the body of farm animals and poultry has a positive effect on a number of physiological processes. The discovery of biological properties of selenium became the basis for its use first in the prevention and treatment of many diseases associated with a deficiency of this trace element, and later – as a stimulator of growth and development of young animals, as well as in order to increase egg production, poultry safety, improve the incubation characteristics of eggs and several other productive qualities. Scientists who have studied the effects of selenium on poultry have paid relatively little attention to meat quality. The effect of additives of different selenium doses in compound feed on the chemical composition, energy and biological value of Ukrainian white breed ducklings’ meat was studied in the scientific and economic experiment. Four groups of ducklings with 100 heads in each groups were formed to conduct the scientific and economic experiment. The duration of the experiment was 56 days and corresponded to the period of raising ducklings for meat. The ducklings of the first control group did not receive selenium supplementation. Selenium was additionally introduced into compound feed for poultry of the experimental groups in the following amount, mg/kg: the second group – 0.2; the third – 0.4 and the fourth – 0.6. It was established that the introduction of selenium into compound feed in the studied dose did not significantly affect to the quality of ducklings’ meat, although it had a positive effect on some indicators that characterize its chemical composition, nutritional and biological value. Among the experimental groups, ducklings of the third and fourth groups, which were injected with selenium into compound feed at the rate of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg, stood out in terms of meat quality.
K. O. Skoryk, S. V. Girin, S. Е. Kokish, І. І. Tatsyuk, O. V. Dobrovolskyi
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 31-35; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9406

The presented work presents the results of the effectiveness of the bioregulatory approach in stimulating sports horses. The aim of the study was to find a way to safely restore the energy balance and prevent the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the musculoskeletal system during significant physical exertion. Sport horses spend a lot of energy not only in competition, but also during daily training. Such loads require a high supply of energy. Often the body uses its last reserves to compensate for its energy needs, which leads to exhaustion and the appearance of various diseases. First of all, diseases occur in the musculoskeletal system, because it is the limbs that bear the greatest load during training. As you know, various synthetic doping is introduced to keep animals in a sporty tone. Their action is not long-lasting, but it has many side effects for the animal's body and leads to disruption of the functioning of organs and systems. Today, there is an alternative to such stimulation methods thanks to a bioregulatory approach in the treatment of animals using preparations containing exclusively natural ingredients. To confirm the effectiveness of the use of bioregulatory drugs, clinical and laboratory studies of animal blood (general, biochemical, cytochemical) were carried out. The main changes in laboratory parameters were obtained by cytochemical analysis of such enzymes as GPDH, SDH. These enzymes are among the main indicators of the intensity of energy metabolism in the horse's body. The quantitative composition of basophils and eosinophils has also changed, which indicates a decrease in the level of the inflammatory process in the body of experimental animals. The results obtained prove the effectiveness of the investigated drugs and their direct influence on the energy balance of the “horse-athlete”. Thanks to the natural composition of the components of the preparations used, side effects on the body can be avoided and used without restrictions throughout the horse's sports career.
, S. I. Lugovoy
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 25-30; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9405

The main aim of this paper was to estimate the piglet stillbirth incidence distribution in the Large White (LW) sows. The population used for the present study is from a pig farm managed by the Limited Liability Company (LLC) “Tavriys’ki svyni” located in Skadovsky district (Kherson region, Ukraine). The experimental materials used for this study consisted of 100 inds. of productive parent sows of the Large White breed. The estimation of reproductive performance was conducted for each animal included in this study. The total number of piglets born (TNB), number of stillborn piglets (NSB) and frequency of stillborn piglets (FSB) per litter were monitored in the first eight parities in the period of eleven years (2007–2017). The 800 farrowings averaged 11.3 piglets per litter. Of the 9037 piglets born, 7895 were live born and 1142 were stillborn. Stillborn pigs were observed in 63.3 ± 1.7 % of the litters and the pig stillbirth incidence was 12.6 ± 0.4 %. The percentage of pigs born dead in total pigs born, obtained in this study is within the range of rates (5 to 15 %) reported for commercial pig farms in other countries. The frequencies of litters with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 or more stillborn piglets were 27.1, 14.8, 10.6, 5.8 and 5.0 %, respectively. The frequency of litters with at least one stillborn piglet varied from 44 % (2nd parity) to 76 % (6th parity). Significant factor in the analysis for frequency of litters with at least one stillborn piglet was parity number in sow (Chi-squared test: χ2 = 51.35; df = 7; P < 0.001). This frequency increased as parity number in sow increased (Pearson correlation coefficient: r = 0.929; P < 0.01). We noted that the piglet stillbirth incidence in the LW sow’s litter took place already during the first farrowing for almost half of the sows (46%). In general, this distribution is well approximated by the exponential model equation (y = 73.567*exp(-0.551x); R2 = 97.09 %). The LW sows with stillborn piglets in four out of eight farrowings were the most reported. The value of the entropy of the traits NSB and FSB varied significantly among sows of different parities (Chi-squared test: in both cases P < 0.001). At the same time, a significant increase in the entropy estimates for both traits from the 1st parity to the 8th parity was noted (Spearman's rank correlation: P < 0.001…0.002).
I. I. Kushnir,
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 9-15; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9402

Data on the study of the effect of a consortium of lactic acid bacteria on the morphological parameters of blood and the state of the intestinal microflora of white rats using a composition of probiotic strains of L. lactis, Lb. plantarum and E. durans SB18 in a ratio of 50:40:10. Thus, when determining the morphological parameters of the blood of rats at 14 days of use found a positive effect of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria on the hematopoietic function of laboratory animals. In particular, a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and hematocrit value was found by 14.9, 14.0, 22.5 % (P < 0.05) and 5.7 %, respectively, compared with the control group. In addition, the use of the drug for 14 days caused an increase in the average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte (MCНS) by 9.8 % (P < 0.05) and a tendency to decrease the average hemoglobin in the erythrocyte (MCН) and the average erythrocyte volume (MCV) by 0.45 and 9.0 %, respectively, compared with the control group. Both central and peripheral organs of the immune system were also significantly affected. In particular, the relative weights of the thymus and spleen increased by 21.1 (P < 0.05 ) and 9.8 % (P < 0.05), respectively. When determining the leukogram of peripheral blood of rats, it was found that the use of the study drug in animals of the experimental group caused a tendency to increase the number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes by 6.0, 0.5 and 19.8 %, respectively, with a slight decrease in eosinophils. The use of a composition of a consortium of lactic acid bacteria stimulated an increase in lacto- and bifidobacteria content of the large intestine of white rats. In particular, a significant increase in the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was found by 4.3 and 5.2 % (P < 0.001), respectively, relative to the animals of the control group. In addition, 14-day application of the studied composition of probiotic strains contributed to a probable reduction in the number of opportunistic and putrefactive microflora. The number of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi of the genus Candida significantly decreased relative to control by 4.7 (P < 0.01), 2.6 (P < 0.05) and 13.3 % (P < 0.001), respectively, all this indicated the recovery of the body of laboratory animals. The positive effect of lactic acid bacteria of the formed composition persists until the 21st day of the experiment.
, T. I. Matviienko, O. M. Soborova, R. V. Sydorak, K. І. Bezyk, A. І. Lichna, O. Y. Kudelina
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 106-110; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9419

Today on the territory of Ukraine there are 40 national nature parks which include the NNP “Bug Gard”. One of the main tasks of the NNP is to preserve the valuable natural objects and to develop the scientific recommendations for protecting the environment and using the natural resources efficiently. Modern poaching, with its mass, technical armament, impunity and constant rapid growth, poses a serious threat to the national security of Ukraine. Significant damage to fishing and fish farming on the territory of the NNP “Bug Gard” is caused by the actions of poachers. During the functioning of the NNP “Bug Gard” the State Protection Service constantly conducts inspections and patrols the territory of the park to identify and to stop violations of the environmental legislation. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the fish protection measures carrying out in the Bug National Nature Park by the State Protection Service has been assessed. Annually the State Protection Service of the NNP “Bug Gard” conducts on average of 120 activities to identify environmental offenses, practices the explanatory talks, on average, 600 conversations per year, which are aimed at clarifying the environmental legislation in the field of fauna and flora protection, as well as it constantly informs the public through the media about the individual cases of poaching in order to further preventing the environmental offenses. Annually, an average of 1.000 leaflets with the fire safety rules on the territory of the NNP and with the environmental issues were produced and distributed among the population and the visitors of the park. It is established that, according to the analysis, the State Protection Service of the NNP “Bug Gard” carries out the effective measures in the field of fish resources conserving and rational using in the area of its responsibility, carries out a widespread waste water pollution control in the water bodies, creates the conditions for normal fish reproduction and keeps a track of environmental and fishing offenses, which not only preserves the flora and fauna, but also compensates the damage caused by the actions of poachers and other violators.
R. M. Myniv
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 100-105; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9418

Economic efficiency of livestock production is determined using a system of indicators, among which the main (generalizing) indicator of economic efficiency of livestock production is the achieved level of labor productivity. This indicator has a significant impact on other derivative indicators. A comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of farming systems should be carried out using a generalized indicator of the efficiency of the used resources of the livestock enterprise and an indicator of the share of growth of livestock products. The matrix method is the most acceptable for the analysis and an estimation of efficiency of work of the livestock enterprises. It allows: to rank livestock enterprises according to the achieved level of efficiency (static task); to study changes in the level of efficiency of livestock enterprises during the analyzed period (dynamic task); determine the dependence of farm performance on intensive and extensive factors. To assess the economic efficiency of feed production in animal husbandry use the indicator “marginal productivity of feed (feed protein) unit”. Evaluation of productive use of dairy cows is carried out using the coefficient of productivity intensity, which is calculated by the ratio of the average milk yield per day to the lifetime milk yield of cows. The complexity of livestock mechanization, individual technological lines or specific machines and equipment is determined by the calculated technical and economic indicators, comparing them with the indicators obtained in practice of the existing facility or basic analogue, or with the best examples of domestic or world practice. The application of the above indicators of analysis and evaluation of livestock efficiency will provide: assessment of the effectiveness of production systems by livestock enterprises in modern conditions of their development; objective characteristics of farming and the main results of activities in animal husbandry; identification of the most rational options for improving the efficiency of animal husbandry; comparative assessment of the efficiency of livestock enterprises operating in the same natural and economic conditions; measuring production efficiency in livestock and related industries; identification and evaluation of a set of measures for the development of animal husbandry aimed at improving the efficiency of its operation.
Yu. G. Kropyvka, V. S. Bomko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 86-92; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9416

The article deals with the results of research to study the digestibility of nutrients in the ration and metabolism of Nitrogen, Zinc and Manganese in high-yielding Holstein cows of German selection in the first period of lactation for feeding mixed ligand complexes of Zinc, Manganese and Cobalt. The research was performed in the conditions of Terezyne Ltd., Bila Tserkva district, Kyiv region. There was an increase in the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter in cows of the 2nd-5th experimental groups compared with animals of the 1st control group, respectively by 1.8–3.5 % (P < 0.05); organic matter by 0.3–2.5 %; crude protein by 0.5–4.2 % (P < 0.05 – P < 0.01); crude fat by 1.1–1.8 %; crude fiber by 1.3–3.3 % and nitrogen-free extractives by 2.1–4.2 %. Cows of the experimental groups consumed more Nitrogen than the cows of the control group: 20.18 g or 2.4 % – the 2nd group, 55.06 g or 6.6 % – the 3rd, 42.52 g or 5, 1 % – 4th and 28.98 g or 3.5 % – 5th experimental group due to better eating of the feed mixture. General consumption level of Nitrogen in relation to excreted with milk and deposited in the body of cows of the control group was 32.02 %, and in animals of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th experimental groups – 33.59 %; 37.31; 36.99 and 34.97 %. In relation to the total digested amount, the proportion of Nitrogen deposited in the body and excreted with milk in animals of the control group was 42.38 %, and in the experimental – 44.25–47.34 %. Doses of Zinc, which provided its existing rate of 54–85 % due to the mixed ligand complex, positively influenced on the the metabolism of trace elements in the organism of experimental cows. Assimilation of Zinc in the organism was determined by the amount of its secretions with milk and deposits in the body and in absolute terms it was the lowest in cows of the 4th and 5th experimental groups – 562.7 mg and 671.6 mg against 740.8 mg in the 1st control group and the largest – 784.7 mg and 801.3 mg in animals of the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups. The use of a mixed ligand complex of manganese ensured its positive balance in the organism of cows and the absorption of the trace element in the organism of experimental cows ranged from 22.5 % in the 2nd experimental group to 33.2 % in the 3rd experimental group. The best indicators for the metabolism of Nitrogen, Zinc and Manganese were got in the third experimental group whose cows were fed a feed mixture, that in 1 kg of DM contained, mg: Zinc – 54.7; Manganese – 54.7; Cobalt – 0.7; Selenium – 0.3; Copper – 12 and Iodine – 1.1.
M. D. Perih, D. P. Perih, Yu. V. Kovalskyi
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 65-72; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9413

Sheep farming is considered a powerful source of lamb production. The analysis of the current state of sheep breeding in the western region of Ukraine and the changes that have occurred since 1991 in this industry have been analyzed. The work was performed on the basis of generalization, analysis, synthesis and comparison of data of the State Statistics Committee for the period 1991–2019, surveys of owners of farms and farms that raise sheep, scientific publications, including online publications and web pages. The article outlines the priority areas of industry development and ways to implement them. It is noted that today sheep breeding in Ukraine is characterized by the zonal principle of placement. The main factor in this process is natural climatic and economic conditions. Analysis of statistical data shows that since 1992 the number of sheep in Ukraine, including farms of the western region, has significantly decreased, namely from 7896.2 thousand (1991) as of January 1, 2019 in all categories of farms Ukraine's sheep population decreased to 698.5 thousand or 11.3 times, and in the regions of the western region – from 848.6 thousand to 180.7 thousand or 4.7 times. It is noted that currently the bulk of the sheep population both in Ukraine and in its West (75.3 and 86.6 %, respectively) is concentrated in households, while at agricultural enterprises this figure is at the level of 24.7 and 13.4 %, respectively. The main shortcomings in the field of sheep breeding in the western region of Ukraine are reflected and possible ways to eliminate them are outlined. Sheep farms should take the following important measures: genetic improvement of meat and wool breeds and types available in the region by purebred breeding and crossing of local low-yielding uterine livestock with breeders of specialized imported meat breeds; creation of new zonal genotypes of meat and wool animals with high productive and reproductive qualities; introduction of the newest modern industrial technologies of keeping and fattening of sheep for lamb production; creation of a network of specialized slaughterhouses capable of slaughtering sheep, assessment and varietal cutting of carcasses in accordance with the requirements of international standards and specific consumers; improving the market for finished products.
Y. Kovalskyi, V. Fedak, L. Kovalska, A. Druzhbiak, Y. Vovkun
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 61-64; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9412

The stability of the intestinal immunity of the honey bee depends on the effects of various toxic substances. Especially when detecting some infectious diseases in apiaries, when using various antibiotics. The aim of the study was to study the effect of oxytetracycline on the morphological parameters of enterocytes of the midgut and the microbiological pool of the intestine. To do this, 10 days after the last treatment, for the next five days, 20 experimental bees were selected from each family, immobilized and the midgut dissected. The study of the folds of the midgut was performed on paraffin sections. The study was performed histopreparations, which were obtained at a distance of 5 mm from the beginning of the midgut. Sequentially arranged 10 folds were chosen for measurement. Morphometric parameters of enterocytes were obtained by measuring their height, width and area. It has been studied that three sprays of working solution of oxytetracycline at a dose of 900 mg, per family, with an interval of two days, adversely affects the morphological parameters of enterocytes of the midgut. On the segmental section, in the cranial direction, there is a decrease in the number of folds of the epithelium per unit area of the intestine. At the same time, the area of enterocytes is smaller by 14.9 % compared to the epithelial cells of control bees. For microbiological examination of the intestine was carried out sowing on nutrient media, followed by counting bacteria. It was investigated that the intestinal microorganisms of bees are represented by both gram-positive (Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative (Enterobacter, Escherichia, Mikrococus) bacteria, as well as fungi and yeasts. At the same time, enterobacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes and Escheriichia coli) and staphylococci (Staphylococcus varneri) are dominant in the microbiocenosis. In the intestines of bees, where the antibiotic got, no 100 % destruction of bacteria was detected, but changes were still observed. And they are associated with a decrease in their absolute number. The most negative effects were found for Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. In May, the maximum concentration of Lactobacillus plantarum was detected, which is normally 3.3 lg CFU/g. In September and October, some lactic acid bacteria are completely absent in the intestines of bees.
T. Y. Prudius, A. V. Gutsol, O. O. Mysenko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 111-116; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9420

At the current stage of development of the feed industry a lot of feed additives are used for animal feeding. Everyone knows that period of piglet’s weaning from sows is always the most critical in the process of pigs’ raising. The further result of fattening depends on this period. Therefore, it is important that the diet is adapted to the age of the piglets and the development of their digestive tract. In recent years, either in the world or in Ukraine, the African swine fever (ASF) has become a widespread disease, leading to the decline and closure of a number of pig farms. This prompted the process of safe feed preparation review, and especially the use of a number of make up feed ingredient. The risk group includes porcine blood plasma and its products, which since 2018 have been temporarily banned for use in pig feed in China and a number of European countries. A positive factor in this is the reduction of new outbreaks of this disease. But the lack of blood plasma in prestarter feed for piglets can lead to reduced productivity of piglets due to the lack of animal protein, reduced feed intake, as blood plasma affects the taste of feed. The article presents the results of the feed additive Globigen Jump Start use instead of blood plasma in pre-starter feed for piglets from birth to 42 days of age and in the conditions of industrial inspection. It was found that the replacement of , blood plasma in pre-starter feed for suckling piglets and piglets after weaning for feed additive Globigen Jump Start contributed to an increase in daily intake by 6 g or by 2.6 %. At the same time, the cost of feed per weight gain 1 kg decreased in the experimental group by 7.89 %. As a result of industrial testing when replacing blood plasma with immunological feed additive in the ratio of 42 kg to 2 kg, respectively, has a significant economic impact on the cost of prestarter feed. This has a positive effect on the piglets' eating and digestibility of feed, which is reflected in better average daily gains, final weight and improved feed conversion and piglet safety.
P. S. Hnativ, B. V. Gutyj, G. A. Lysak, N. Y. Lopotuch, R. S. Shkumbatyk
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 93-99; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9417

The general trends in the purity changes of the environment in connection with the urbanistic technogenesis were analyzed on the example of the largest city of Western Ukraine – Lviv – and its outskirts, Dublyany. The characteristic changes of some parameters of the main environmental factors – transformed ecosystems, including biogeochemical properties of edaphotope and pollution by heavy metals are described. Urbanization leads to a tendency of parkerising, alkalinization and significant measure of green zone soil contamination with heavy metals. The increase of the complex pressure of urban anthropogenic environment on vegetation is revealed and current changes of the chemical composition of dry matter of leaves of trees in terms of heavy metal content and structure-energy metabolites are analyzed. A significant accumulation of some chemical elements in the assimilation system of Quercus robur L. and Cercidiphyllum japonicum Siebold et Zucc. was found, their species-specific features of ash accumulative ability were revealed. Cercidiphyllum japonicum is proved to be a promising and effective, in terms of cleaning the environment from man-made pollution, decorative plant in the green belt of cities in the regions of Roztochchia and Pasmove Pobuzhya. Under the influence of edaphotope transformation and pollution in the assimilation bodies of woody plants some structural and metabolic changes occur to adapt to the new to their species environment. Oak as autochthonous species, has signs of stability of the metabolic system of assimilation to the urban genic changes. Cercidiphyllum’s structure demonstrates plasticity of dry matter of leaves, designed to adapt to the new environment acclimatization of exotic species, and thus performs an effective metal storage function in a green area of the city.
V. V. Senechyn, E. O. Yakimova
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 56-60; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9411

We have studied the possibility of increasing the production of young carp by applying a set of intensification measures and the introduction of innovative production methods, when growing it in artificial reservoirs. Works that has been carried out works provided with technology of cultivation of young fishes as one of the first stages of production of marketable products in aquaculture, secures the selection of qualitative and viable breeding material, providing it with appropriate environmental conditions for normal growth and development, search of optimum and balanced compound feeds which will supplement natural fodder base of ponds, and carrying out of complex measures concerning intensification of fish farming taking into account natural-climatic and geographical-zonal features of a separate economy. The main purpose of the work was to improve the technology of growing young fish in the carp farm of Ltd "Mykolaivska RMS" when using in the feeding of this year's granular feed. Generally accepted hydrochemical, hydrobiological and fish farming methods were used in order to achieve this goal. The technological features of growing carp fish planting material at low planting densities were studied in the ponds of the experimental fishery. The effect of land reclamation, fertilization of ponds to improve the natural feed base, feeding fish with granular feed with a well-balanced content of nutrients and biologically active substances, with constant control of temperature and hydrochemical regimes of ponds on morphometric parameters expediency of carrying out such measures in fisheries. Our research results indicate that the natural fodder basis of ponds of the experimental carp farm Ltd "Mykolaivska RMS" does not fully meet the regulatory conditions for growing young carp and carrying out the above set of intensification measures in combination with feeding young carp granular concentrated organic feed environmentally friendly and economically feasible.
O. O. Borshch
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 36-41; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9407

Recently, an important element in improving the genetic traits of dairy cattle on commercial farms is the use of interbreeding (crossbreeding). The use of crossbreeding makes it possible to use a variety of additive genetic levels between breeds to grow individuals with higher economic potential. The aim of this study was to analyze the development of udder parameters in crossbred first-borns compared to purebred counterparts and to study the indicators of milk production during milking. The research was conducted on the first-born Ukrainian black-spotted dairy breed and first-generation crossbreeds obtained by crossing with the Brown Swiss breed and on the Ukrainian red-spotted dairy breed and first-generation crossbreeds obtained by crossing Ukrainian red-spotted dairy breed with Montbeliarde breed. Two groups of purebred and local first-borns were formed in both farms. Both farms use the same type of year-round feeding of cows with complete feed mixtures. The study was performed on first-born cows during weaning (2–3 months of lactation). It was found that local first-borns obtained by crossing red-spotted and Montbeliarde breeds outnumbered purebred red-spotted analogues in terms of measurements and udder indices. The opposite situation was observed in local first-borns obtained as result of crossing black-spotted and Brown Swiss breeds, which were inferior in these characteristics to purebred black-spotted analogues. In purebred black and red-spotted cows, the rates of single and daily milking were higher than in local ones. Also, purebred first-borns had a longer duration of single milking, indicators of average and maximum intensity of milk production and milk yield in the first 3 minutes. Prospects for further research are to study the productivity for completed lactation, the quality of milk and the duration of the service period.
N. Ye. Grynevych, A. O. Sliusarenko, O. A. Khomiak, M. M. Svitelskyi, N. V. Semaniuk
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 73-80; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9414

The article presents the results of studying the hydrochemical regimes of carp ponds in polyculture and for the introduction of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) into polyculture. The highest pH values were in pond 2, and in the second half of June and the first half of July exceeded the upper limit of normal (norm 6.5–8.5) by 0.3 and 0.5, respectively. In July, the upper limit of the norm was exceeded in the water of pond 1, by 0.1 and 0.2, respectively. From August, the pH of water increased in both ponds until October and in pond 2 the active reaction of water was higher, compared to pond 1, 5.08.2020, by 18.3 %, 20.08.2020 by 12.3 %, 5.09.2020, by 3.8 %, 20.09.20 and 5.10.20, respectively by 2.5 and 2.4 %. Higher in pond 2, compared with pond 1, was the permanganate oxidation of water in all studied periods, but the largest difference was 5.07.2020 and amounted to 6.9 mg O/l. In the second half of July, permanganate oxidation of water was the lowest, but was at the upper limit of normal, then in August increased sharply and was highest in October – 26.3 mg O/l in the pond 1 and 26.5 mg O/l in the pond 2. Dichromatic oxidation of water of the studied ponds was during the experiment in pond 2 slightly higher than normal and ranged from 50.5 (5.06.2020) to 57.9 (5.07.2020) mg O/l and only 20.07.2020 it was the lowest and was 34.2 mg O/l. In pond 1, the dichromate oxidation of water at the beginning of the experiment was 52 mg O/l, gradually decreased and 20.06.2020, was 46 mg O/l, in July, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased sharply to 63.6 and also decreased sharply up to 40.5 mg O/l. From 05.08.2020, COD rose by 27.8 % above normal, remained at approximately the same level during September and decreased to 62 mg O/l in early October. The content of free ammonia in the water during the whole period of fish farming exceeded the norm from 2.6 to 5 times, and the highest, except for 20.06.2020, it was in pond 2. The highest difference in ammonia content in the water of the studied ponds was 5.07.2020 and 5.10.2020, and was, respectively, 0.1 and 0.08 mg N/l. The content of ammonium nitrogen and mineral phosphorus in the water of the studied ponds exceeded the norm, and the nitrogen content of nitrates and nitrites was within the norm. In pond water, the concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, CO32-, HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-did not exceed the norm. was 5.07.2020, and was 1.20 mg/dm³, which is higher than the norm by 20 %. The total hardness and mineralization of water in the studied ponds did not exceed the norm.
G. A. Paskevych, V. P. Khvostik, L. M. Fijalovych
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 42-45; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9408

The article presents the results of determining the parameters of growth intensity in the geese of different genotypes in the process of creating a dimorphic population. It was found that in the geese of the Rhine and Large Gray breeds, dimorphic population, high rates of formation intensity were determined during the first three weeks of life, slightly lower – in the offspring of F1-F3. For the value of this criterion, a tendency to increase from the descendants of F1 to dimorphic geese. In most cases, the bird of the original breed was characterized by a higher growth rate than the hybrids. The highest values of the growth uniformity index are characteristic of Large Gray geese, which indicates a better gradual uniform development of their internal organs and systems compared to birds of other studied groups. F1 hybrid geese, having a high live weight at 9 weeks of age, were characterized by a higher value of growth uniformity. Dimorphic geese in this parameter predominated only in F2 hybrids. The growth uniformity index shows a high correlation with live weight of the geese at 9 weeks of age (r = 0.6518). This indicates that with its use it is possible with a high probability to predict the further live weight of the bird. High rates of absolute and relative growth and the index of uniformity of growth contribute to the formation of high live weight in geese of Large Gray breed in the early ontogenesis. This indicates their moderate type of growth, ie obtained close indicators of relative growth in adjacent age periods. The maximum values of the growth stress index were determined in poultry of the original breeds, which indicates a more uniform intense growth of young animals. The geese of the created dimorphic population, which outnumbered the descendants of the first-third generation, were also characterized by relatively high values of this indicator. The growth stress index shows a close correlation with the indicators of the intensity of formation (r = 0.9559). A negative correlation was established between the growth stress index and the value of the relative growth – r = -0.4033. With an increase in the growth stress index, an increase in the value of the average daily increase (r = 0.6934) is expected.
N. Kachmar, T. Datsko, M. Ivankiv, A. Dydiv
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 16-19; doi:10.32718/nvlvet-a9403

The article presents the results of research on environmental, energy and economic efficiency of the use of alternative energy sources to provide heat to buildings located on the territory of nature reserves. Spending of time on the territory of the nature reserve fund gives the chance of various kinds of rest: use of bicycle routes, ecological paths, the organized places of recreation, etc. Therefore, in specially designated areas complexes are built for vacationers. They provide them with a comfortable stay and the opportunity to get the most out of the chosen type of recreation. Electricity networks are most often used to provide buildings with electric power on the territory of nature reserve facilities. However, this has a significant negative impact on the environment. Many of these facilities are located at a great distance from the settlements, that increases the cost of electrification and gasification. Such facilities require large investments in hot water and heat. Therefore, alternative energy sources are suitable for such cases. The main advantage of using solar panels and heat pump is their environmental friendliness and long period of operation without major repairs. It is established that for the installation of vertical probes it is enough to use four branches 106 m long. For this combined system it is necessary to install six solar collectors, which will provide monthly heat production in the amount of 514.03 MJ. The use of solar collectors and a heat pump to provide heat to the visitor center will reduce the annual operating costs by 4.63 times compared to the costs required for the operation of a system that would operate on the basis of a gas boiler. The use of a combined heat supply system will make it possible to abandon the use of 7156.3 kg of conventional fuel and as a result will reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the amount of 7871.9 kg. Our country is interested in the use of renewable energy sources by reducing the cost of traditional energy sources, the overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. The state receives direct income from the sale of quotas for harmful emissions.
Y. G. Krupnyk, S. V. Tsisinska, Yu. M. Lenjo
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 100-106; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10117

Mycotic diseases, ie those caused by microscopic fungi, are widespread among animals. As for cattle, at present ungulomycosis has become the most widespread, in which keratolytic fungi affect the hooves of animals, causing complications such as deformities, pododermatitis, lesions of the hoof bone. Ungulomycosis (from the Latin ungula – hoof, Gr. Mykes – fungus) – a disease of the hooves, which are caused by microscopic fungi that have keratolytic properties. In most cases of ungulomycosis, its complications are most often registered, and not the disease itself, which does not allow to carry out effective preventive measures and treatment of animals in a timely manner. That is why the purpose of the work was to study and concretization the main factor of the disease and the contributing conditions for the disease. For this purpose the basic and additional clinical methods of research were used, including microscopy of the destroyed horn and sowing on nutrient media to determine the species content of microscopic fungi. The research was carried out in the farms of the western regions of Ukraine on cows of Black-Spotted and Holstein breeds in the stall period with tethered animals. It is found that the pathogenic action of microscopic fungi-keratomycetes on the hooves of cattle is carried out in the presence of favorable conditions of external and internal nature, primarily insufficient housing conditions and poor feeding. In particular, for osteodystrophy due to ungulomycosis, the destruction of the hoof's horn is accelerated, which complicates the pathological process. For purulent subdermatitis of traumatic origin, microscopic fungi-keratomycetes act as an additional or contributing factor to the disease. Further research will focus on the development of effective treatments and measures to prevent ungulomycosis.
, B. V. Gutyj, W. S. Said
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 107-112; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10118

Toxocariasis is a chronic helminthic disease caused by the larval stages of the nematode Toxocara canis. The problem of toxocariasis is important for both humane and veterinary medicine. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fenbenzyl and fenbendazole on the intensity of lipid peroxidation in the blood of dogs during experimental infestation with the pathogen toxocariasis. The experiments were performed on 18 dogs, two to four months of age, and three groups of six animals were formed in each: control and two experimental groups. Puppies of all groups were experimentally infected with the pathogen toxocariasis at a dose of 5.000 invasive T. canis eggs per kg of body weight. The control group of dogs was as untreated control. Puppies of the first experimental group were fed the drug “Fenbendazole” at a dose of 150 mg per 3 kg of animal weight once a day for three days in a single dose. Puppies of the second experimental group were fed the drug “Fenbenzyl” at a dose of 350 mg per 3 kg of animal weight once a day for three days. In the clinical manifestation of the disease, toxocariasis secretes metabolic products that promote the formation of large amounts of free radicals, which in turn enhance the initiation of lipid peroxidation processes. With the use of fenbendazole and fenbenzyl, a probable decrease in these products was found starting from the 15th day of the experiment. It should be noted that the lowest level of diene conjugates and TBA-active products was in the blood of dogs of the second experimental group at 25 and 30 days of the experiment. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation processes in the treatment of dogs with fenbenzyl is due to the activation in animals of metabolic processes involving enzymes, including antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the processes of peroxidation and phosphorylation, as well as enhancing erythropoietic function. On the 30th day of the experiment, the level of diene conjugates in the blood of the second experimental group was 0.29 ± 0.02 IU/ml, and TBA-active products – 25.2 ± 0.40 μmol/l.
T. F. Kot, S. K. Rudik, S. V. Guralska, S. S. Zaika, Z. V. Khomenko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 75-81; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10113

The analysis of scientific literature shows that the study of adrenal morphology in humans and animals is an urgent problem of biology and medicine from ancient times to the present day. In the historical aspect, we can distinguish three stages of studying the adrenal gland that differ in the directions of research. The first stage corresponds to the research of scientists of the XVI–XVIII centuries (Bartolomeo Eustachio, Andreas Vesalius, Gabriele Folloppio, Girolamo Fabrici, Andriaan Spieghel, Johann Vesling, Giulia Casseria, Caspar Bauhin, Johann Grafenberg, Caspar Bartholin, Thomas Bartholin, Giulio Casserio, Antonio Molinetti, Jean Riolan, Thomas Wharton, Giovanni Lancisi, Jakob Winslow, Antony Valsalva, Albrecht Haller, Johann Meckel, Jean Senac, Armand Cassan). Their works is devoted to the study of topography, macroscopic structure and function of the adrenal gland. Studies of morphological scientists of the second stage (late XVIII – mid XX century) correspond to the study of the structure of the adrenal gland at the microscopic level. Scientists like Albert Kelliker, Johann Ecker, Thomas Addison, Gabriel Colin, Alfred Kohn and Jay Arnold used histological and histochemical research methods. Edward Schafer, George Oliver, Vladislav Szymonowicz, John Abel, Jokiti Takmine, Welter Cannon, Edward Kendall to the study of the features of adrenal hormone secretion. Scientific works of the mid-twentieth and early twenty-first centuries can be combined in the third stage of research on the morphology of the adrenal gland. It is devoted to solving issues related to the formation of the adrenal gland in the process of filogenesis and ontogenesis, the features of the structure and function of the organ in normal and pathological conditions. A significant contribution to the study of the morphology of the adrenal gland of animals at the third stage was made by such scientists as Ziyade A. M., Dardykina O. N., Harina V. V., Atagimov M. Z., Torguj P. M., Antipin I. A., Shishkin A. P., Volkova M. V., Shevchenko L. F., Sidorova O. G., Vovchenko M. B., Salekh M. M., Ovcharenko N. D., Zaika S. V., Samatova I. M., Gorbacheva E. S., Pronin V. V., Kuznecov A. V., Pashinin N. S., Strel’nikova I. G., Barvenko A. D., Fedotov D. N., Izatulin A. V., Kvarackheliya A. G., Silkina A. V., Muhametov A. I. Among the studies of morphologists of the third period, the method of electron microscopy prevails.
, A. Yu. Melnyk, A. V. Kharchenko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 113-123; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10119

Trace elements in the body of the bird are in small quantities, but their role in productivity remains important. In order to get a quality carcass at the slaughterhouse, you need a constant supply of nutrients and, last but not least, microelements. Zinc and Manganese are essential trace elements that affect the growth and development of birds. And their deficiency in the body has a negative effect on the productivity of birds. In the diet of broilers trace elements are mainly added with a premix in the form of inorganic salts (sulfates, carbonates). However, these micronutrient compounds in the body of the bird are insufficiently absorbed, and increasing the dose of their introduction can cause toxicosis. Therefore, in order to prevent microelementosis, it is more appropriate to use organic compounds (chelates), which have a much higher level of bioavailability and less release into the environment. This review article describes the prophylactic efficacy of Zinc and Manganese chelates in micronutrient deficiencies in broiler chickens and laying hens. With a deficiency of a particular trace element develop metabolic disorders and other pathologies (perosis, etc.). Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the use of organic forms of trace elements in poultry feeding is a better alternative to inorganic sources, as they can be used in smaller quantities. But due to their greater bioavailability, they are better absorbed, which has a positive effect on the productivity of broilers. Since knowledge about the use of chelated forms of trace elements in comparison with inorganic forms (salts, sulfates, etc.) in the diet of poultry is still poorly understood, it is necessary to further conduct research to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in these compounds.
L. V. Koreyba
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 21-25; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10104

The success of the control of obstetric diseases in cattle depends on the timely implementation of preventive measures, and, in cases of pathology, on diagnosis, effective obstetric care and treatment. A prominent place is given to blood tests among the methods that allow to objectively assess the state of health and the course of the pathological process in animals' bodies. The study of biochemical parameters of blood allows for the assessment of the state of metabolic processes in animals, with high accuracy in establishing the body's general condition and predicting complications and adjusting their prevention and therapy. The goal of the work: our work aimed to study the biochemical parameters of the blood of deep-calving heifers for the prediction, correction, and prevention of obstetric pathology during childbirth and puerperium. The research was carried out on deep-calving heifers of Holstein breed selected on the principle of analogues. Biochemical examination of blood serum was performed in the district laboratory of veterinary medicine. Indicators of protein and mineral metabolism were determined in the blood serum of deep- calving heifers: total protein, carotene, reserve alkalinity, inorganic phosphorus, albumin content, class M immunoglobulins. The obtained research results indicate that the total protein content corresponds to the norm in deep-calving heifers of the Holstein black-spotted breed. The protein coefficient exceeds the standard. There are pronounced deviations in the blood's biochemical parameters: low levels of carotene almost two-fold, reserve alkalinity – 1.91-fold, the total calcium content – by 16.08 % and the ratio of calcium to phosphorus by 17.78 %. Since the decrease in carotene content correlates with the predisposition to endometritis, the Holstein black-spotted breed's deep-calving heifers are prone to developing birth and postpartum pathology. For pregnant cows which are predisposed to postpartum obstetric pathology, that occur in weak parturition activity, failure to release the placenta, uterus subinvolution, endometritis and postpartum hypocalcaemia, unfavorable prognostication is the low concentration in blood plasma of general calcium, inorganic phosphorus and carotene.
O. M. Pyatnychko, , N. V. Shkodyak, , M. V. Derkach, L. V. Kalynovska
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 31-37; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10106

An important feature of living organisms, acquired in the process of evolution, is the ability to adapt to various external influences and changes in the environment, to maintain homeostasis and regulatory processes in organs, systems and the body as a whole. However, with modern breeding technologies, the physiological capabilities of the animal's body are often unable to change as quickly as required by the conditions of industrial maintenance, which leads to stress. Vitamin preparations and biologically active feed additives are widely used by veterinary medicine specialists to increase resistance to stressful situations, disease prevention, increase resistance, safety and productivity of farm animals. Preparation L-tsyn, solution for injection (manufactured by BIOTESTLAB LLC), is a drug, the action of which is due to the prescription combination of active substances, namely: butaphosphane, B vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B3) and L-carnitine. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the drug L-tsyn on horses under the influence of stressors of various natures. Two experiments on working horses with constant, excessive physical activity with chronic exercises and with complex therapy of intoxication with signs of acute renal failure in horse were conducted. Clinical trials of the drug were performed on working horses aged 5–15 years, of different sexes. The drug was administered in a dose of 20–25 ml per animal, 1 time per day for 5 consecutive days. The clinical condition of the experimental animals was observed for 21 days from the start of the drug. The morpho-functional state of the animal's body before and after the drug was established according to the indicators of the clinical condition, morphological and biochemical parameters of the blood, which were determined according to generally accepted methods. In working horses under excessive load the drug L-tsyn activated the processes of hematopoiesis, improved the physiological state of the body and contributed to the increase the general tone of the body. The drug as part of complex therapy in the treatment of intoxication, showed hepato- and nephroprotective properties, reduced the manifestations of intoxication, helped to restoration of the animal’s normal physiological state. According to the results of clinical, hematological and biochemical studies, it can be concluded that the drug L-tsyn has a stimulating effect on metabolic processes in the animals’ body, shows tonic properties, increases the body's resistance to toxins and adverse environmental factors and can be used as monotherapy and for the complex treatment of diseases of various etiologies in horses.
T. P. Lokes-Krupka, , A. U. Karasenko
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 50-54; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10109

The article presents the results of clinical studies of domestic cats and dogs with diabetes mellitus on the background of obesity at the beginning and for a month of treatment. Domestic cats with diabetes were prescribed active exercise and industrial diet Royal Canin Diabetic Feline, dogs – Royal Canin Diabetic DS37. The portion size was determined according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Treatment of small animals for obesity, both alimentary and endocrine, preferably involves feeding food in limited quantities to cause controlled weight loss, as well as increased physical activity, which can provide additional energy expenditure. Successful weight loss can reduce the effects of comorbidities associated with obesity, such as improved mobility in osteoarthritis, increased insulin sensitivity and the reversal of other metabolic disorders, and improved quality of life. The main pathogenetic therapy for animals with diabetes for both domestic cats and dogs is the mandatory use of insulin. Researching the market of drugs in Ukraine, we chose the most affordable and effective veterinary drug – Caninsulin. The dose of insulin was selected individually for each animal by plotting a curve of blood glucose concentration over three days. At the beginning of treatment and at the end of the course, we conducted a comprehensive study of animals of both species. In cats, the general condition significantly improved as a result of treatment: only one animal remained depressed, the number of cases of hyporexia decreased, only 25.0 % of animals remained pale mucous membranes; temperature within the physiological norm; vomiting and bradycardia were not reported. A decrease in the rate of shortness of breath and drowsiness also indicates an improvement in the condition of cats with obesity due to diabetes. The improvement of the general condition of domestic dogs is evidenced by the restoration of the condition of the coat (about 4 times), the restoration of appetite in 66.7 %. Only one dog had anemia of the mucous membranes. Anxiety, bradycardia, hypothermia and itching disappeared completely. Within one month, there was a tendency to decrease the body weight of animals of both groups, but due to the insufficient duration of treatment, their fatness still remained excessive. Which indicates the need for further correction of the pathological condition.
L. P. Goralskyi, O. M. Kovalchuk, I. M. Sokulskyi, N. L. Kolesnik
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 38-43; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10107

A scientific paper is devoted to studying histomorphology of healthy cats’ pancreas under acute pancreatitis. A pancreas was taken for a histological analysis (n = 6 in each group) from healthy cats, who died because of fatal injuries. The material under acute pancreatitis was taken in a scientific work-training clinic from the cats who died because of the pathalogical processes of a given pathology, or sick animals were put to death because of their critical condition and upon the consent of animal’s owner. Histological analysis of pancreas tissue were carried out in the laboratory of pathomorphology which is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Anatomy and Histology of Polissia National University. Histologic sections (from 8 to 12 micron thick) of a pancreas of both groups were painted with Ehrlich’s, Carazzi’s hematoxylin and with eozyn applying a method of Van-Gizon, after which light microscopy and microphotography of tissue specimens were carried out. Animal pancreas is of parenchymal structure, it is divided into particles consisting of pancreatic acinuses which have sharp contours of inter-acinus, internal and inter-particle canals as well as of the main canals. There are Langerhans islets (endocrine cells accumulation) among acinuses. When studying a histological structure of a gland under acute pancreatitis, some widening of inter-acinus space of a gland, a well-defined interstitial swelling and hyperemia of stroma were observed. Acinal cells (pancreatocytes of exocrine pancreas) were in a state of granular degeneration, another part of such cells was in a state of hydropic degeneration. The acinus size increased. Some acinuses lost their typical form and did not have a well-defined structure. In a gland histostructure the amount of fibroblasts, fibrocytes and synthesized collagen fibers, which were painted bright-red applying Van-Gizon method, increased. A histological structure of endocrine pancreas, which is repesented by islets of Langerhans, had some hemorrhages and burned-out cells. The islets contours were not well-defined, their capsules were ruptured on all areas. There was total necrosis of endocrine cells, islets capillaries were widened anf filled with blood. Some local hemorrhages and chromatin margination in some nuclei of different types of cells were revealed. According to organometry indices of a gland, the absolute weight of a gland (Р ≤ 0,05) increased by 1.24 time as compared with a clinically healthy animals, that accounted for становило 6.82 ± 2.31 g, and in clinically healthy cats – 5.5 ± 1.82 g. Relative gland mass increased by 1.3 times and equalled 0.50 ± 0.03 %.
V. B. DuKhnitskyi, I. M. Derkach, S. S. Derkach, , , V. M. Lozovyi, V. V. Kostrub, Yu. V. Loza, A. O. Husak
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 8-14; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10102

Hypoplastic anemia is a disease that is associated with a decrease in the number of red blood cells and / or hemoglobin per unit volume of blood due to hematopoietic disorders and is manifested by changes in metabolism and growth retardation. Particular attention was paid to changes in the body of piglets of the experimental group compared with the control in the probable period of manifestation of iron deficiency anemia. The uniqueness of the chemical structure of iron (IV) clatrochelate allowed us to assume that intramuscular administration of a solution of this substance to sows will provide the necessary need for iron during the first months of life of piglets. The influence of the proposed scheme of prevention of this pathology on the further development of young pigs was analyzed. The results of the study of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit were scientifically significant, because the gradual decrease in these indicators after the birth of piglets is a physiologically determined phenomenon for animals of this species. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of Iron (IV) clatrochelate in pregnant sows in order to prevent iron deficiency anemia in piglets and to determine its effect on hemoglobin content, hematocrit and morphological parameters of piglets' blood. To achieve this goal, 2 groups of newborn piglets-analogues were formed during their retention with suckling sows – control and experimental, 15 animals in each. The experiment lasted 60 days. Piglets from the experimental group were selected from sows who were injected 10 ml 10 % Iron (IV) clatrochelate solution twice intramuscularly during pregnancy. The results of the studies show that the content of hemoglobin in the blood of piglets of the experimental group was the same as in animals of the control group at 1 and 60 days of life, and 1.1–1.3 times lower in other periods of the study; hematocrit - was the same on the first day of life and 1.3–1.9 times lower in other study periods. Quantitative indicators of blood cells of piglets of the control and experimental groups did not exceed the normative values, but the number of erythrocytes in the blood of piglets of the experimental group was probably lower than the control indicator at 5, 9 and 30 days of life. Therefore, a double injection of 10 % Iron (IV) clatrochelate solution into pregnant sows 14 and 7 days before the expected farrowing provides a preventive effect on iron deficiency anemia in piglets born to them.
I. S. Varkholiak, B. V. Gutyj
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 93-99; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10116

Experimental studies obtained in recent years indicate the urgency of developing drugs of complex action to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease in dogs. This requires a much deeper study of the pathogenesis of heart failure, including cardiomyopathy. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the drug “Bendamin” on the biochemical parameters of the blood of dogs in heart failure. Two groups of dogs were formed for research: control (healthy) and experimental (sick). The 30-day experiment included 10 dogs of the control group and 10 dogs of the experimental (sick) breed of spaniel and dog 10–12 years of age. Treatment regimen for sick dogs: furosemide was administered orally on an empty stomach at 2 mg/kg every 12 hours; enalapril was administered orally at 0.5 mg/kg every 12 hours; bendamine was administered orally on an empty stomach at 20 mg/kg every 24 hours. It is recommended to divide the dose into two doses. An increase in the activity of aminotransferases (ALT by 59.2 %, AST – by 51.9 %) was found in the serum of dogs at heart failure. An increase in alkaline phosphatase activity was also found, which in the complex is an additional confirmation of changes in the heart muscle. Lactate dehydrogenase activity increased in the blood of sick dogs by 23.5 %. Minor changes in the content of total bilirubin and urea in the serum of sick dogs indicate the initial stage of liver pathology with impaired liver function due to congestion in the small circulation. This is also indicated by a decrease in the level of total protein in the blood of sick dogs, which was respectively 57.2 ± 3.57 g/l against the control group of 63.5 ± 4.15 g/l. On the basis of cardiac dysfunction and on the background of congestion, the function of not only the liver but also the kidneys is impaired (the so-called cardiorenal syndrome in heart failure). This is indicated by an increase in urea and creatinine by 38.5 and 36.9 %, respectively, compared with animals in the control group. The use of the drug “Bendamin” alleviated the manifestations of functional failure of the heart, liver and kidneys, as indicated by biochemical studies. Studies confirm the feasibility of using the drug “Bendamin” in dogs with the development of heart failure. The use of the drug “Bendamine” in patients with heart failure in dogs had a positive effect on the restoration of hematopoiesis and the normalization of biochemical parameters of the blood.
, , V. Z. Salata, T. S. Matviishyn, , Zn. B. Koreneva
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 44-49; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10108

Meat products, in particular sausages, play a significant role in the structure of retail trade among other product groups. Sausages are a traditional product of the food industry in Ukraine, and the share of cooked and smoked sausages is up to 51 % of total production. Today, fierce competition encourages producers to introduce new recipes into production, which, unfortunately, has led to a sharp increase in cases of falsification of sausages. In addition, a significant number of low-capacity enterprises are involved in production, which often leads to a decrease in the sanitary quality of manufactured products. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to analyze the compliance of quality and safety indicators of cooked and smoked sausage of the highest grade of different manufacturers to DSTU 4591:2006 “Cooked smoked sausages. General specifications”. The material of our research were samples of cooked smoked sausage of the highest grade “Servelat” of several domestic producers. The research was conducted on the basis of Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies of Odesa State Agrarian University) and on the basis of the laboratory of Department of Veterinary-Sanitary Inspection (Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Lviv). Sampling, organoleptic analysis of sausages and determination of microbiological parameters were performed in accordance with current regulations, determination of chemical composition – using an express analyzer FoodScan, general toxicity – express method using the infusoria Colpoda steinii. According to the results of the analysis of the labeling, it is established that the packaging of all investigated products contains the basic production and consumer information in accordance with Article 6 of the Law of Ukraine “On information for consumers about food”, but on the labels of samples № 2 and 3 there is no data provided for in Article 23 of this Law – the content of unsaturated fats, sugars and salt. The study of organoleptic and microbiological parameters of sausage samples demonstrates their compliance with the requirements of the regulated DSTU 4591:2006 “Cooked smoked sausages. General specifications”. The general toxicity of sausages was also not detected. The analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed non-compliance of sample № 3 with the requirements of the national standard in terms of mass content of moisture – excess by 5.72 %. In addition, a sufficiently high collagen content of 2.3 ± 0.04 was found in sausage loaves of sample № 1.
P. М. Skliarov, O. V. Holubiev, D. D. Bilyi, L. H. Roman, , O. M. Bobrytska
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 55-60; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10110

Choosing the optimal time of insemination of she-dogs is one of the urgent problems in the reproduction of dogs, because it causes fertility and can be the cause of artificially acquired infertility or low in fertility. To this end, a number of methods are used in practice, but none of them fully meets the requirements. Therefore, the question of choosing a method for determining the optimal time of insemination of bitches remains unresolved. In this regard, the purpose of our research was to study the effectiveness of the use of the microscope “Arbor Elite” to determine the fertile period of she-dogs. The work was performed in the Clinical Diagnostic Center “Rancho” of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University. The material for the study were female dogs of different breeds with a physiological course of sexual cycling. In order to determine the optimal time of insemination of bitches used test microscope “Arbor Elite”, the principle of which is based on the phenomenon of salivation arborization, due to the presence of salts that crystallize as a result of increasing estrogen in the body in the stage of proestrus-estrus. There are 3 types of dried saliva after crystallization: Type I – small crystals in the form of thin stems/a large number of formed crystals “twigs”. Fertilization is probable (stage of proestrus with insignificant / moderate estrogen secretion); Type II – fern leaves, crystals with a thick stem. The probability of fertilization is maximum (estrus stage with maximum estrogen production); Type III – outlines of sand or pebbles, no crystals. Fertilization is unlikely (met- / diestrus stage). It is established that the efficiency of using the test microscope “Arbor Elite” to determine the fertile period of female dogs is 85.2 %. However, the effectiveness of the method can be increased by differentiating endocrine pathology. In addition, the use of a test microscope “Arbor Elite” has other advantages, in particular, is simple, does not require special knowledge or training, so it can be used at home. But the main advantage is that its implementation in combination with other methods can reduce financial costs and reduce the impact of stressors (ie reduces the number of visits for sampling and cytological and hormonal tests). The method of determining the fertile period of she-dogs using a test microscope “Arbor Elite” needs further research and improvement, and its combination with other methods will optimize the diagnosis of optimal insemination time not only in bitches but also in females of different species.
V. О. Yevstafieva, A. A. Khorolskyi,
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 26-30; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10105

Rabbit breeding is one of the promising branches of meat cattle breeding, and also plays an important role in supplying light industry with fur raw materials. One of the factors that ensure the efficient management of the industry and increase the production of rabbit products is the veterinary welfare of farms against parasitic diseases of rabbits, in particular – pasalurosis. It is necessary to prevent the development of the parasite at all stages in order to successfully control and prevent pasalurosis. The aim of the work was to improve and determine the effectiveness of the method of cultivation of Passalurus ambiguus eggs, which can be used to study the embryogenesis of the pathogen pasalurosis in rabbits, obtain a laboratory model of invasion, determine the disinvasive properties of disinvasive and disinfectants and agents. The proposed method of culturing P. ambiguus nematode eggs allows to take into account the sensitivity of eggs to moisture, allows to obtain a high yield of invasive eggs in the experimental culture, as well as to conduct microscopic examinations and microphotography without removing eggs from the substrate in which cultivation takes place. Eggs of P. ambiguus were obtained from the gonads of females of the pathogen pasalurosis, which were removed by helminthic dissection of the colon of rabbits. The proposed method is based on the use of nutrient environment for the cultivation of P. ambiguus eggs. Studies have shown that the improved method was more effective than the well-known method, where as a substrate for the cultivation of Pasaluris eggs used saline. With the use of the improved method, the invasive stage reaches more than 71 % of Pasaluris eggs, which is 38.75% more (P < 0.001) than with the use of the well-known method of cultivation. The obtained results of the conducted research activities lead to further, deeper study of questions concerning biological features of embryonic development of the causative agent of passalurosis, and also disinvasive efficiency of modern disinfectants concerning P. ambiguus eggs.
D. V. Frejuk,
Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Volume 23, pp 3-7; doi:10.32718/nvlvet10101

The antioxidant defense system of the organism controls and inhibits all stages of free radical reactions, starting from their initiation and ending to the formation of hydroperoxides and TBA-active products. The main mechanism of control of these reactions is associated with the chain of reversible redox reactions of metal ions, glutathione, ascorbate, tocopherol and other substances, the value of which is especially important for the preservation of long-standing macromolecules of nucleic acids and proteins, some components of membranes. The purpose of the research was to investigate the activity of the enzyme link of the antioxidant defense system of cows organism in experimental fasciolosis. Twelve cows of 4–5 years of age, Black-Spotted breed, were selected for the experiments, from which 2 groups were formed, six animals in each. Animals in control group (C) were clinically healthy. Animals of experimental group (E) were experimentally infected with adolescents. During the research, the rules of compulsory experiments were followed – selection and keeping of analogue animals in groups. The cows' ration was balanced in terms of nutrients and minerals. All animal manipulations were carried out in accordance with the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals, which are used for experimental and scientific purposes. According to the results of our research, in cows affected by fasciolosis invasion, catalase activity in their blood decreased by 21.5 %, and superoxide dismutase activity by 30 %. In the research of the glutathione link of the antioxidant defense system, it was found that the activity of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase is also reduced in experimental fasciolosis. Thus, on the 25th day of the experiment, a decrease in these enzymes by 26.6 and 20.5 % is set. Thus, with the development of fasciolosis in ruminants, the balance in the complex “Antioxidant system – Lipid peroxidation” is disturbed, which in turn leads to complications of the disease. In the future it is planned to investigate the state of the non-enzymatic part of the antioxidant defense system of cows organism with experimental fasciolosis.
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