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E. A. Lemesh, L. N. Gamko, A. N. Gulakov, S. E. Yakovleva
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Lactating cows, especially at the beginning of lactation, consume a higher proportion of minerals received from the diet, and as a rule there is a lack of them. Therefore, the composition of feed mixtures for lactating cows includes premixes, natural mineral additives with a known chemical composition, sapropel, marl, and others that contribute to replenishing the mineral part of the rations.Materials and methods. The objects of research were lactating cows at the third lactation and a recipe for a feed mixture with marl; clay-carbonate rock contains from 50 to 70% CaCO3. Accounting of milk productivity was carried out according to the results of control milkings. The mass fraction of fat and protein in milk was determined on the Clover-1M milk quality analyzer, the calculation of economic efficiency was carried out taking into account the cost of feed and the cost of production and its value.Results. Feeding dairy cows a feed mixture with the addition of marl in the amount of 40 g per day per head contributed to an increase in productivity by 8.2% and a reduction in the cost of energy feed units by 1 kg of milk by 7.7% compared to the control group. The amount of milk fat and protein in milk in the experimental group was increased by 14.5 and 11.7%, respectively. When evaluating the effectiveness of feeding lactating cows feed mixtures with mineral additive in the summer, it turned out that the level of profitability of milk production in the experimental group was greater by 2.77% compared with the control group, which was fed feed mixture without a mineral additive.
S. A. Bardakova
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Conducting research on the resistance of hybrid tea roses to phytopathogenic harmful organisms and determining the species composition of pathogens and factors affecting their developmen.Methods. The objects of the study were the causative agents of fungal diseases of varieties of hybrid tea roses from the collection of the Stavropol Botanical Garden. The research was carried out using the Methodology of state variety testing of agricultural crops.Results. The results of studying the species composition of mycosis pathogens on varieties of roses of the tea-hybrid garden group of the collection of the Stavropol Botanical Garden are presented. The nature and degree of damage to plants is described, the causes are established and methods of containment of diseases are developed. The most harmful and common diseases on hybrid tea roses in growing conditions are: powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa Lew. var. rosae Voron.); downy mildew (Peronoplasmopara sparsa (Berk.) Uljan.); rust (is caused by 2 pathogens — Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers.) Schltdl., Phragmidium tuberculatum Mϋll. Hal.); gray rot (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) and leaf spotting of different types: black spot (Diplocarpon rosae F.A. Wolf. = Marssonina rosae (Lib.) Diet.); septoria (Septoria rosae Desm.); cercosporiasis (Cercospora rosiola Pass.), the development of which was facilitated by meteorological conditions over the years of research. Evaluation of hybrid tea cultivaris of roses for resistance to fungal diseases was carried out in 2019-2021 in the collection of the Stavropol botanical garden on a natural infectious background on a 5-point scale during the period of mass spread of diseases. Despite the fact that all cultivaris of hybrid tea roses are affected by fungal diseases, it has been found that different cultivaris are affected differently. According to the degree of resistance to the complex of diseases, 4 cultivaris received 1 point (practically resistant), 52 cultivaris received 2 points (weakly affected), 74 cultivaris received 3 points (mediumly affected), 33 cultivaris received 4 points (strongly affected). Regular monitoring of the phytosanitary state of the studied cultivaris, biological and chemical protection measures made it possible to reduce the massive spread of fungal diseases and preserve the decorative effect of plants.
L. P. Kudryavtseva
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The pathogenic complex of seed infection causes large crop losses and reduced quality characteristics of flax products. The purpose of the research is to identify the species composition of pathogens that pose a threat to the crop crop by their harmfulness or are potentially dangerous.Methods. The object of research was the seeds of 21 flax varieties included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation for 2015–2021. The research was carried out at the All-Russian Flax Research Institute, as well as at the Laboratory of Breeding Technologies of the Federal Research Center for Bast Crops in 2015–2021 using modern mycological and phytopathological methods, as well as VNIIL techniques.Results. Analysis of the phytosanitary condition of the seed material of 21 flax varieties for 6 years (2015–2021) revealed a high degree of infection of seeds with parasitic and saprophytic infections, including 17 species of fungi and 3 species of bacteria. The saprophytic complex was mainly represented by species of the genera Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichothecium roseum, Trichoderma lignorum, etc. The lowest infectious load on flax seeds was noted in the Kostroma region (0–13.0%) and in the Kuban (5.0–19.8%). The following varieties had group resistance to seed infections of fusarium, anthracnose and aureobasidiosis: Diplomat, Caesar, Alexandrite, Alexim, Tonus, Nadezhda. The minimal infectious load of pathogenic microflora from the entire set of varieties was noted on the Tverskoy variety (14.7%).
G. H. Asadov, V. Kh. Mahmudova
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Based on satellite remote sensing data, it has been suggested that there is a linear relationship between NDVI and FPAR. However, the significant influence of seasonal factors of a particular ecosystem on this relationship creates uncertainty in the assessment of plant productivity by remote sensing. This uncertainty in the estimates of total grown products (GPP) by the indicator calculated as the ratio of GPP to photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation can be explained by daily changes in incoming optical radiation both in composition and magnitude. It is shown that the GPP indicator can be determined indirectly by calculating the extremum of the heat flow of the soil coming from the outside.Methods. A new approach to the synthesis of the optimal radiation regime of plant growth based on the methodology of optimization of isomorphic-holonomic systems is proposed. The basis of the proposed method for the synthesis of the radiation regime of plant growth is taking into account the total radiation coming from above to the crown of the plant, the peculiarity of this approach is to find a minimum of that part of the externally incoming photosynthetically active radiation that reaches the soil and is not spent on photosynthesis, provided that the production of the initially specified product is guaranteed. The optimization problem of achieving an extreme value of the total radiation coming from outside into the soil is formulated in the form of an unconditional variational optimization problem with a common target optimization functional. An approximate solution of the optimization problem is given, in which the target functional reaches a minimum, i.e. the maximum amount of external radiation is spent on the photosynthesis process.Results. A solution is obtained at which the target functional reaches a minimum, i.e. the maximum amount of external radiation is spent on the photosynthesis process. It is shown that the application of the known method of unconditional variational optimization with a guaranteed given value of GPP allows us to determine the optimal radiation regime of plant growth.
N. A. Ryabtseva
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Because of difficult economic conditions, sanctions applied to Russian Federation, the issue of resource conservation is becoming more and more urgent. Finding ways to reduce costs in the tillage system is a top priority, which determines the relevance of our research. Empirical studies are aimed at studying the influence of methods of basic tillage on the yield of spring barley.Methods. Object of research: spring barley plants of the Prairie variety. Mеthods of tillage for spring barley: 1. Plowing (control) — 20 cm (POM–4/7); 2. Combined — 14 cm (AKSO-4); 3. Combined — 8 cm (AKM-4). 4. Without tillage. The total area under the experiments is 4 hectares, the area of each variant is 1 hectare, according to the main observations, the repetition is 3 times. The link of the crop rotation is sunflower — spring barley. The soils of the experimental site are ordinary chernozem.Results. The greatest compaction of the arable layer during the growing season was with the absence of tillage — from 1,26 g/cm3 to 1,29 g/cm3. During the growing season, the porosity of the arable soil layer decreased in all variants, the greatest trend was in the variant with plowing by 15%. The effectiveness of combined mulching treatments is undoubtedly positive: the reserves of productive moisture in the spring in the meter layer were higher than after plowing. In the variant without tillage, the moisture reserves before sowing were 15 mm higher compared to the control. The method of basic tillage affected the abundance of weeds in barley crops. The smallest number of weeds in the tillering phase of spring barley was against the background of plowing — 36 pcs./m2. By harvesting, the contamination of crops increased in all variants, as well as their mass by 3,1–3,5 times. A significant increase in yield was on the variants with combined processing to a depth of 8 cm and without tillage, as well as a high profitability of 110–117%.
E. A. Lakota, O. A. Vorontsova, S. N. Zamygin
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Purposeful selection contributes to obtaining the optimal type of sheep of the Stavropol breed with improved exterior and productive parameters in the steppe conditions of the Volga region.Methods. The experiment took place in the CJSC “New Life” of the Novouzensky district of the Saratov region. The research material is purebred sheep of the Stavropol breed. Formation of experimental groups of queens (3): during selection into constitutionally productive types, an eye-dimensional assessment of external forms was used, which was specified by the measurements of body articles, live weight. In the first group were selected queens with a deviation to the strong type of constitution, in the second — to the gentle, in the third — to the loose. They mated with strong-type tups.Results. The offspring were formed: group I — from strong queens, II — tender, III — loose types. At birth, group III ewes had an advantage over I by 1.70%, over II — by 7.47%. Group I was superior in live weight to group II by 5.67%. In 4.5 months, “loose x strong” offspring exceeded “strong x strong” by 2.43%, “tender x strong” — by 12.27%. “Strong x strong” had an advantage over “gentle x strong” by 9.61%. According to the exterior at birth, the descendants of “loose x strong” surpassed “strong x strong”, “tender x strong” in chest width by 19.52; 5.78%; chest circumference — by 6.08; 10.99%, “strong x strong” prevailed over “gentle x strong” in chest width by 32%; chest circumference — by 4.62%. The trend of changing body measurements was observed at 4.5 monthsas well. According to the downness index at birth, “tender x strong” exceeded “strong x strong”, “loose x strong” by 8.03; 9.12%, at 4.5 months “strong x strong” had superiority over “tender x strong”, “loose x strong” by 3.77; 4.77%. All the young animals inherited the constitutional and productive characteristics of their parents, which is important in the inbreeding selection of sheep of the Stavropol breed in the Volga region.
, G. A. Svazlyan, N. M. Naumov
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. In modern research, the topic of metabiotics is considered as one of the current directions in the development of probiotics, in the future — as a new class of metabiotics. The article presents the results of studies during the cultivation of the probiotic microorganism B. subtilis in a grain nutrient medium from naked oats, and a scientific and practical substantiation of an experimental probiotic suspension during the formation of microbiocenosis and metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract in early weaning piglets.Methods. As the basis of nutrient media for obtaining metabolites of the probiotic culture of Bacillus subtilis, sprouted and non-sprouted oat grains of the naked variety Nemchinovsky were used at the rate of 100 g of crushed raw material per 3 l of water. The mass fraction of proteinogenic amino acids in experimental probiotic suspensions (EPS) was studied by capillary electrophoresis. The scientific and economic experiment was carried out according to the method of A.I. Ovsyanikov, 1976.Results. In nutrient media based on oats (O, OP), the number of CFU of probiotic microorganisms has a certain variability. The increase in the abundance of B. subtilis CFU continued up to 6 days, in the OP sample it reached 5.8·107 CFU/cm, after what it decreased until 8th day down to 15.5·106 CFU/cm3. At the same time, the synthesis of amino acids is higher compared to control (germinated grain): lysine — in the range of 7.85–10.53 g/l, methionine — 2.03–2.35 g/l, leucine + isoleucine — in the range 5.79– 9.7 g/l. Indicators of protein metabolism are within the physiological norm in piglets of experimental groups. In piglets that received an experimental probiotic suspension, a more pronounced antagonistic effect, during the formation of microbiocenosis, was manifested to conditionally pathogenic bacteriaif they were given B. subtilis, obtained on a medium based on sprouted oats.
L. P. Chebannaya
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The biological features were studied, the average dates of the beginning, end and duration of the phenological phases of growth and development of species, forms and varieties of the genus Clematis (Clematis L.) were established. The assortment of small-flowered clematis for cultivation in the soil and climatic conditions of the Stavropol upland, characterized by high decorative properties, resistance to drought, pests and diseases, is highlighted.Methods. The object of research is small-flowered species, forms and varieties of the genus Clematis L., cultivated in the collection of the Stavropol Botanical Garden. The studies were conducted in 2012–2021 according to the methods of variety study and evaluation of the decorative qualities of clematis species and varieties.Results. The dates of the beginning and end of the growth of shoots are determined. According to the duration of shoot growth, all taxa are divided into groups: with a short growth period (38–51 days), medium (60–79 days); long (90–126 days). According to the timing of the beginning of flowering, the studied taxa are classified into five groups, most of them are included in the groups of early summer and summer flowering. According to the duration of flowering, three groups are distinguished — with short flowering, up to 30 days (C. jubata Bsch., C. recta L., C. recta f. atropurpurea, C. terniflora DC.); medium, from 41 to 60 days (С. fusca Turcz., C. ‘Bryzgi Morja’, C. integrifolia L., C. orientalis L., C. serratifolia Rehder, C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh., C. virginiana L., C. viticella L., C. viticella f. rosea); long-lasting, more than 60 days (C. ‘Fargesioides’, C. heracleifolia DC., C. hexapetala DC.).
R. A. Nigmatzyanov, V. N. Sorokopudov
Published: 21 May 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Creation of new varieties with a complex of economically valuable characteristics in the conditions of the Republic of Bashkortostanis relevant. The climatic conditions of the republic require the creation of varieties with high resistance to the complex of biotic and abiotic stressors of the cultivation region.Materials and methodology. The objects of research are the hybrid fund, selected, promising, elite forms and varieties of black currant of local and foreign selection located in the Kushnarenkovsky breeding center for fruit and berry crops and grapes of the Bashkir Research Institute of the UFIC RAS. Research is carried out according to the program and methodology of selection and variety studies of fruit, berry and nut crops.Results. A new variety of black currant Estafeta has been created, which has a complex of economically valuable characteristics in the conditions of the Republic of Bashkortostan. According to the results of many years of research, the new variety of black currant Estafeta is resistant to diseases and pests. Over the years of research, leaf damage by anthracnose was 1,0 point (15%), in the control variety — 1,5 points (20%). Damage from grass moth — 2,0 points (30%), in control — 3,0 (40%), from aphids — 0,5 points (10%), in control — 1,0 (20%). New variety Estafeta is large-fruited, with berries of the standard sweet and sour taste. The average and maximum berry weight of 1,6-2,5 g is higher than that of the control of 1,4-2,1 g. According to the content of biologically active substances in black currant berries, the new variety has less sugar than the control, but has more vitamin C and carotene. The bush of the Estafeta variety is medium-sized, medium-spreading. Shoots are medium, straight, light green, slightly pubescent, matte. The buds are medium, oblong, green. The leaves are medium-sized, light green, three-lobed, with small notches. The fruit brush is medium, the berries in the brush are medium. The flowers are medium-sized, with a bright color. The sepals are medium-sized, with a bright color, with an average pubescence of the outer side, arranged horizontally. The berry is large, round-oval, black. The cup is open. The skin is of medium thickness. Pubescence is weak, simple. The peduncle is short, dark green, fleshy. The number of seeds is average. The taste is sweet and sour, refreshing. The timing of budding and the beginning of maturation is average, simultaneous. The period of the beginning of flowering is average. The variety is promising for industrial and amateur gardening. The optimal layout of plantings is 3,0-4,0 х 1,0-2,0 m. The self-fruitfulness of 40-45% is quite good for setting berries in single-grade plantings, although over-pollination with other varieties has a positive effect on the productivity and marketable qualities of berries.
E. Ya. Chebochakov, V. N. Murtaev
Published: 21 May 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The disadvantages of steppe nature management include soil degradation, deficiency of mineral nutrition elements and other adverse phenomena. Similar processes are taking place in Siberia. Currently, the re-development of laylands is beginning and soil degradation is again manifested in the steppe regions of Khakassia. For the effective use of land resources, it is necessary to develop a technology for processing soil deposits in the arid steppe zone of the south of Central Siberia.Methods. The study of the effectiveness of soil treatment technologies of the erosive agroecological group of laylands was carried out in the arid steppe agrolandscape region of the Republic of Khakassia, located in the south of Central Siberia. The research was carried out for four years in the feed crop rotation link: a long-term (20-25 years) grain-grass layland — oats (corn) for green mass by the method of field experience of B.A. Dospekhov. Methods of water-physical and agrochemical studies were used in the performance of the work.Results. It is established that on long-term laylands (20-25 years) soil compaction, low moisture content and mineral nutrition elements are noted. The influence of the complex application of continuous herbicides (Tornado 500, Sprut Extra) and processing technology on the water-physical and agrochemical properties of the soil has been revealed. During summer tillage of a long-term layland and introduction of herbicide, there is an accumulation of moisture, nitrate nitrogen. In the arid steppe zone, the technology with tillage of a long-term layland to a depth of 18-20 cm increases the productivity of the feed crop rotation link by an average of 25.5-32.7% compared to technological operations involving small-scale processing (12-14 cm and 14-16 cm).
T. O. Maryushina, G. M. Kryukovskaya, M. V. Matveeva, S. A. Kulikovskiy, E. V. Davydov
Published: 20 May 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. In recent years, the problems of arthrology have become more relevant among domestic and farm animals. The significance of the article is due to the fact that in the Russian market of veterinary drugs, there is obviously a small number of drugs for the treatment of various pathologies of the joints, created on the basis of hyaluronic acid.Methods. 32 dogs of different sexes and breeds aged from 8 to 13 years with destructive-degenerative pathologies of the joints were selected for the study. Animals were treated with hyaluronic acid with zinc. Research methods: hematological analysis, general clinical examination.Results. In the process of drug therapy, in 81.25% of dogs was noted an increase in motor activity. Also, 7 days after the 5th injection of the drug, there was a significant decrease in the manifestations of starting pains up to their complete absence. The main positive changes in the course of arthrosis in dogs, according to all evaluation criteria, reached their maximum manifestation after 3–4th injections and remained practically unchanged by the 5th injection. The results of a biochemical study of blood serum indicate that against the background of the use of the drug in dogs with osteoarthritis, no significant changes were found that characterize the main types of metabolism. According to the results of hematological studies, it can be noted that in dogs receiving therapy with hyaluronic acid with zinc, there is a steady positive trend in a number of hematological parameters. So, a week after the 5th injection of the “Drug” there was a decrease in the total number of platelets. The percentage of eosinophils in the leukocyte formula stabilized to the upper values of the reference range. It is appropriate to emphasize that the “Drug” does not exhibit the properties of an antigen, and has a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.
A. S. Osokina, V. A. Guschin, E. A. Anikina
Published: 21 May 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The study aimed to develop the composition of an artificial nutrient medium for the rearing of Gallery mellonella larvae. In the process of the research, the relative contributions of the feed component to the biological growth parameters of larvae and their morphological indicators were determined.Methods. In the experiment the plan 27-4 was used, that is, fractional factor experiments were varied in which seven factors — feed ingredients. The matrix of the complete factor experiment 23 was taken as a basis, and the coefficients in the interaction of three or more factors were assumed to be insignificant and replaced by additional factors. Morphophysiological parameters of larvae were used as the main indicators: mass, length, width of the head capsule.Results To obtain biomass in the production cycle, the mass of larvae should be at least 0.15 g, length 20-22 mm, width of the head capsule 1.9-2.3 mm (VI-early VII age), survival rate of at least 85%. In the regression equation for larval masses, wheat flour (X1), yeast (X3) and honey (X5) turned out to be significant ingredients. In the regression equation for the length of the larvae, the ingredients that make the maximum contribution are again yeast (X3) and honey (X5). Yeast (X3) was significant for the width of the head capsule. The obtained regression equations enable mathematical modeling within the framework of a linear model represented by regression equations in the studied range of morphological parameters of larvae, depending on the composition of the feed.
V. V. Volkova
Published: 21 May 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Water lilies are recognized as one of the most ornamental plants that play a significant role in the life of reservoirs and rivers.Methodology. The study of 15 species and varieties of tropical water lilies was carried out in the period 2016-2021 according to generally accepted methods.Results. It has been established that 40% of water lilies (Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea, N. lotus, N. lotus var. thermalis, N. rubra, N. capensis cv. Rosea, N. capensis var. alba) are characterized by a long vegetation period, which lasts 313.3±6.1 days. A short vegetation period of 140.6±42.7 days is typical for 60% of water lilies (Nymphaea х daubeniana, N. х daubeniana cv. Panama Pacific, N. х daubeniana cv. Suwahna, N. gigantean, N. gigantean cv. Gug, N. gigantean hybrida 1, N. cv. Mrs. George C. Hitchcock, N. cv. Nangkwaug Champooz, N. cv. Nangkwaug Fax). Depending on the species or variety, the duration of the flowering phase per year is for Nymphaea cv. Nangkwaug Fax, N. cv. Nangkwaug Apsara, N. lotus N. х daubeniana cv. Panama Pacific — 43-95 days, for the rest — 138-302 days. In 67% of species and varieties of water lilies, the sizes of leaf blades and flowers are close to natural and varietal indicators, in 33% the sizes do not match the varietal ones (Nymphaea х daubeniana cv. Panama Pacific, N. х daubeniana cv. Suwahna, N. gigantean cv. Gug, N. cv. Nangkwaug Apsara, N. cv. Nangkwaug Fax), they are 1.0-1.5 times smaller. According to the prospects — MP — unpromising (40%), P — promising (33%), OP — very promising (27%). Unpromising varieties are decorative for 100-130 days. Promising types and varieties of water lilies are decorative throughout the year, which has a positive effect on the perception of indoor compositions.
I. M. Dolgova, Н. Р. Александрова
Published: 8 May 2022
Abstract:
The issues of competitiveness of agricultural organizations at the present stage are relevant, since the achievement of competitive advantages based on the optimization of processes in the field of finance, production, marketing, human resources management is one of the key elements of the entity’s activities. The competitiveness of agricultural organizations can be influenced by many factors, both macroeconomic and microeconomic. In this regard, it becomes necessary to determine the main factors of the competitiveness of organizations in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the study is to develop a multifactorial model of the competitiveness of agricultural organizations. The formation of the correlation-regression model of competitiveness was carried out on the example of agricultural organizations of the Ulyanovsk region.
E. V. Shemelkov, A. D. Bulgakov, T. S. Kulikova, O. A. Verkhovsky, K. Y. Kunakov, А. П. Котельников, T. I. Aliper
Published: 6 May 2022
Abstract:
The publication outlines the results of antigenic activity trials for experimental samples of a marker vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF) prepared using different types of adjuvants, as well as data on the duration of immunity upon administration of this vaccine to laboratory and naturally susceptible animals. Live vaccine “KS”, widely used for the specific prophylaxis of CSF in Russia, was used as positive control. The data obtained indicate that all experimental samples of the vaccines stimulated a pronounced immune response to CSF viral glycoprotein E2, triggering off production of virus-neutralising antibodies in immunised piglets. Antibodies possessing such specificity were detected in piglets in high concentrations over a period of 96 days after double vaccination up to the final day of the experiment. Experimental samples of the vaccine did not induce synthesis of antibodies to CSF viral glycoprotein ЕRNS, which would allow one to use the vaccine and be able to distinguish vaccinated animals from those naturally infected with field strains. This strategy, by consequence, will be valuable in the implementation of CSF eradication programs.
G. N. Vyaizenen, S. V. Razaev, N. V. Popova, V. V. Golovei, A. G. Vyaizenen, A. E. Barashkov, E. V. Aldarova
Published: 8 April 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The article discusses the possibilities of using amino acids (glycine, methionine, glutamic acid) and rosehip flour, passed through a laser beam in a mounted (spatial) modulator, as biocorrectors. Air ionization was carried out during the subsequent LLLT. Among the factors that determine the way out of the current situations at the regional level, it is necessary to note the biotechnical method of influencing the organism of broilers of the Ross 508 cross of the Scottish company (Ross Breeders Ltd New bridge Scotland). Their use improved the state of carbohydrate, protein, fat, amino acid and vitamin metabolism, caused functional activation of the digestive system in it, along with an increase in enzyme, immune and hormonal systems, it made it possible to more fully realize the level of meat productivity, improve some biochemical blood parameters.Results. Biotechnical methods (AI, LILI, rosehip flour) of influence on the organism of broiler chickens make it possible to economically use compound feed, stimulate growth and development, and increase their live weight from one week of age. In connection with the use of biotechnical methods on the body of the bird, some biochemical parameters of the blood have improved.
B. G. Sharifyanov, I. F. Yumaguzin, A. L. Aminova, F. M. Shagaliev
Published: 7 April 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Silage of the green mass of perennial legumes remains a difficult task due to the high protein and water content. It is possible to obtain from them a feed slightly inferior to the original green mass in terms of energy nutrition and protein content, as well as biologically active substances, only by siloing them in a slightly dried form (30–40% dry matter) using effective preservatives.Methods. To study the digestibility of nutrients of silos of legume-cereal grass mixtures in the conditions of LLC “Garant” of the Belebeyevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, two physiological studies were conducted. According to the principle of pairs of analogues (breed, age at calving, live weight, lactation phase, productivity level), 6 groups of cows of the Bestuzhev breed were selected at the beginning of lactation, 10 heads each. In the first experiment, 20 kg of corn silage was received as part of the diet of cows of the 1st control group, and animals from the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups were fed with silage from a mixture of alfalfa and boneless stalk in the amount of 20 and 25 kg, respectively. In the second experiment, animals of the 1st control group received 20 kg of corn silage, and in the 2nd and 3rd experimental groups, 20 and 25 kg of silage of a mixture of clover and boneless stalk were included in the feeding diet. In the third group of each experiment, the proportion of compound feeds in the rations was reduced by 1 kg per head per day.Results. Studies have shown that the use of silos from legume-cereal grass mixtures in the diets of dairy cows in the amount of 20 and 25 kg instead of the same amount of similar feed from corn increases the digestibility and digestibility of feed nutrients. At the same time, the use of compound feeds in the diets of dairy cows is reduced by 1 kg per head per day, which is of great practical importance in the conditions of a modern market economy.
S. N. Gromova, O. V. Skripka, С. В. Подгорный, A. P. Samofalov, V. L. Chernova,
Published: 9 April 2022
Abstract:
Methods. The current study was conducted in 2018–2020 on the experimental plots of the FSBSI “Agricultural Research Center “Donskoy” in order to estimate the effect of sunflower as a forecrop on the formation of productivity and quality traits of the winter common wheat varieties in the south of the Rostov region. There have been studied 13 winter common wheat varieties developed by the FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”. The variety ‘Ermak’ was taken as a standard.Results. Through the years of study, the new winter bread wheat varieties ‘Razdolie’, ‘Donskaya step’ and ‘Rubin Dona’ had a higher realization of the genetic potential, which provided yields at the level of 5.30–5.78 t/ha, which was on 0.50–0.98 t/ha higher than that of the standard variety ‘Ermak’, and 0.46 t/ha with НСР05. The variety ‘Aksiniya’ had the smallest (66.0 cm) value of the trait ‘plant height’. On average for 2018–2020 there were dominated the varieties of medium-low height (from 66.0 to 80.0 cm). According to the trait ‘1000-grain weight’ the varieties ‘Aksiniya’, ‘Etyud’, ‘Donskaya step’, ‘Yubiley Dona’, ‘Zodiak’ and ‘Rubin Dona’ were of medium-size with 35.68–38.12 g, the standard variety ‘Ermak’ had 36.24 g. According to the trait ‘protein percentage’ the variety ‘Aksiniya’ corresponded to the 1-st class of quality (> 14.50%). According to the trait ‘gluten content’, the studied varieties ‘Tanais’, ‘Zernogradka 11’, ‘Aksiniya’, ‘Nakhodka’, ‘Etyud’, ‘Shef’, ‘Donskaya step’, ‘Yubiley Dona’, ‘Zodiak’, ‘Rubin Dona’ corresponded to the 2-nd class of quality (28.0–32.0%). The volume of bread yield ranged from 557 cm3 for the variety ‘Yubiley Dona’ to 683 cm3 for the variety ‘Aksiniya’, and 643 cm3 for the standard variety ‘Ermak’. Productivity had a positive average correlation with the trait ‘plant height’ (r = 0.59, p < 0.05) and a weak correlation with ‘heading stage’ (r = 0.20, p < 0.05) and with ‘gluten deformation index’ (r = 0, 22, p < 0.05). Productivity also negatively correlated with protein and gluten content in grain (r = -0.67 and r = -0.64, p < 0.05) and with kernel hardness (r = -0.27, p < 0.05).
Yu. A. Yuldashbaev, V. I. Kosilov, T. S. Kubatbekov, A. A. Salikhov, R. G. Kalyakina
Published: 8 April 2022
Abstract:
The article presents the results of studying the morphological composition of the carcass of bull-calves of different directions of productivity. The object of the study was bulls of the Red Steppe (I group), Simmental (II group) and Kazakh white-headed breeds (III group). During the control slaughter of three bulls from each group at the age of 18 months, the morphological composition of the right half-carcasses of young animals of each genotype was studied using the VASHNIL, VISH, VNIIMP method. At the same time, the mass of the half-carcass, absolute and relative masses of pulp, muscle and adipose tissue, bones and connective tissue formations were established. The arithmetic mean, the mean square deviation, and the coefficient of variation were determined. Indicators of variation statistics were calculated using the guidelines of N.A. Plokhinsky. The reliability of indicators was determined using Student’s t-test. When studying the morphological composition of the half carcass, it was found that the absolute weight of the pulp in bulls of the red steppe breed was 87.8 kg, relative — 76.4%, young animals of the Simmental breed, respectively, 104.0 kg and 77.6%, animals of the Kazakh whiteheaded breed — 102, 3 kg and 79.2%. The yield of muscle tissue in the bulls of the experimental groups was, respectively, 76.3 kg and 66.4%, 91.5 kg and 68.3%, 90.6 kg and 70.1%,respectively, the output of adipose tissue was 11.5 kg and 10. 0%, 12.5 kg and 9.3%, 11.7 kg and 9.1%, bone yield — 22.9 kg and 19.9%, 24.8 kg and 18.5%, 17.8 kg and 17.8%.
T. P. Lobova, V. V. Mikhailova, M. S. Shishkina, A. N. Skvortsova, G. A. Nurlygayanova
Published: 7 April 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Chlamydia (ornithosis) (Chlamydiosis) is a bacterial disease, which is a zooanthroponosis, with pronounced natural foci. Chlamydia (ornithosis) is widespread in the world among animals and birds; they are recorded on all continents. The key study is Chlamydia psittaci. Infections caused by this pathogen cause a group of endocarditis, myocarditis, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis and encephalitis, pneumonia in people. C. psittaci causes recombination most often, which increases the likelihood of a possible role of recombination in the adaptation of C. psittaci to host owners (birds, mammals, including humans). Chlamydia is one of the most dangerous and especially significant infectious diseases, especially for humans and animals, causing great economic damage, which occurs from the following consequences: reduced productivity (up to 50–60%); death of young animals from pneumonia (up to 20%); loss of animal reproduction as a result of abortions and stillbirths (5–30%), the occurrence of non-viable offspring (about 10%), an increase in infertility (up to 50%); carrying out medical, quarantine and emergency measures. Therefore, annual epizootic monitoring of morbidity takes place on the territory of the Russian Federation. The article publishes the reporting data of veterinary laboratory years of the 4th form on the diagnosis of bird ornithosis on the territory of the Russian Federation for 2018–2020.Methodology. An assessment of the epizootic situation for chlamydia (ornithosis) in birds in the Russian Federation for 2018–2020, based on the results of the analysis, income from annual reports, observations of state veterinary laboratories in the Federal State Budgetary Institution CNMVL in the 4-vet (annual) form.Results. During the analyzed period, the number of cases of the disease was detected among 16%, while an increase in the number of detected cases of ornithosis among birds. In 2018–2020, positive cases of ornithosis were detected in the Volga Federal District, Northwestern Federal District, Ural Federal District, Siberian Federal District, Central Federal District, and in 2020 ornithosis was detected in the Southern Federal District and the Far East Federal District bird ornithosis situation in these territories.
A. S. Ivanisova
Published: 8 April 2022
Abstract:
Introduction and methodology. The value of the initial material is primarily determined by the tasks of modern breeding process, collection material playing an important role in it. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the initial material of winter durum wheat according to their yield structure elements in the south of the Rostov region. The objects of research were 159 winter durum wheat samples among which there were 69 of domestic breeding and 90 of foreign one.Results. The study has shown that in 2019–2020 grain productivity of the collection samples ranged from 227.9 g/m2 to 735.9 g/m2. All studied samples were divided into three groups according to the trait ‘productive stand’ (number of productive stems per 1 m2). There were 17.6% of samples with a small value of the trait (201–400 pcs./m2); with a mean value of the trait (401–600 pcs./m2) there were 72.3% of samples and with a large value of the trait (601–800 pcs./m2) there were 10.1% of samples. According to the trait ‘plant height’ more than a half of the samples (57.0%) belonged to the ‘semi-dwarf’ group (61–85 cm). Large part (70%) of winter durum wheat samples formed ‘length of head’ in the range of 6.5–7.5 cm. In 2019–2020, number of spikelets per head ranged from 17 pcs. up to 24 pcs. The trait ‘kernel weight per head’ of the studied collection samples varied from 0.77 g to 2.08 g, all the samples had different kernel sizes. The trait ‘number of kernels per head’ varied from 22 pcs. (the variety ‘Novinka 4’) up to 51 pcs. (the sample ‘1015/16’). The trait ‘1000-kernel weight’ in the trial ranged from 23.9 g to 49.0 g, the standard variety had 34.1 g. The productivity of the collection samples was formed due to 1000-kernel weight and kernel weight per head, the correlation coefficients for these productivity elements being r = 0.45 ± 0.07; r = 0.35 ± 0.07.
S. O. Lenchenko, Yu. M. Subbotina
Published: 7 April 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Aeromonosis (carp rubella, hemorrhagic septicemia, infectious abdominal dropsy, Lublin disease) — an infectious disease of fish. Carp, common carp and their hybrids from underyearlings to broodstock are susceptible to the disease. The epizootic reaches its greatest distribution in the spring-summer period, by autumn it fades and the disease takes on a chronic course.Methods. The object of research was the fish Cyprinus carpio. In the experiments, we used the reference strain Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966 of the Global Center for Bioresources, as well as isolates isolated during outbreaks of carp aeromonosis in fish farms in the Moscow region. The diagnosis for the presence of aeromonosis was established on the basis of epizootological, clinical and pathological data and the results of bacteriological studies. The study of biofilms of microorganisms was carried out during cultivation in liquid nutrient media, the CFU of microorganisms was counted and sown on the surface of solid media.Results.The total number of microorganisms (CFU, lg/g) of intestinal microbiocenoses— 54,21 ±0,05 – 66,09 ±0,12. Cultures of microorganisms A. hydrophyla, A. sobria, A. caviae were isolated from blood, heart, spleen, gills, intestine, liver and kidneys of fish. During cultivation at 37 °C for 6–72 h, the adhesion of vegetative forms of bacteria with a typical shape and size of the species and the formation of a bacterial monolayer — a diffuse layer of bacterial cells — was revealed. Viable and non-viable microorganisms were differentiated by fluorescence microscopy. On meat-peptone agar with 5,0% of defibrinated blood, as a rule, the growth of b-hemolytic colonies was observed, less often a-hemolytic colonies. When determining the enzyme DNase, a light zone was found along the inoculation line on the DNA BA medium. Growth of b-hemolytic cultures was observed on meat-peptone agar with 5,0% of defibrinated blood. When determining the DNase enzyme on the surface of the dense nutrient medium “DNA BA”, a light transparent zone was revealed around the colonies of microorganisms. Prevention of aeromonosis is based on systematic monitoring of the etiological structure of pathogens of aeromonosis; feeding in feeding and summer mother ponds begins in the spring when the water temperature rises to 14 °C.
A. G. Eyvazov
Published: 10 April 2022
Abstract:
Relevance and methods. During the period of mass flowering — fructification 20 collection samples of eggplant of various origins were studied for some photosynthetic and biochemical parameters in the conditions of the Apsheron Peninsula of Azerbaijan Republic. On the basis of the conducted research, samples characterized by a high leaf area (1470,3–1810,1 cm2/plant), high content of total chlorophylls (94,8–104,3 mg/plant) in the leaves and dry matter in fruits (6,2–1,9%) were selected. The size of the leaf area was determined by a portable device L1–3000 C, the content of chlorophyll in the leaves was determined by the device SPAD-502 Chlorophyllo-meter, the content of dry matter and nitrates was determined by the method of A.I. Ermakov.Results. It was revealed that the varieties selected for photosynthetic parameters were also characterized by high productivity. Comparative characteristics of collection samples showed that the results obtained by assessing the dry matter content in eggplant varieties were higher compared to standard variety (6.2–11.9% contrary to 4.9%). Тhese distinguished samples are recommended for use by selectionist in further selection. At the same time, it is recommended to pay special attention to sample 148 (AFN-28), which exceeds the standard variety Zakhra by 2.43 times in dry matter content, 2.49 times in leaf area, and 3.30 times in total chlorophyll. It was also found that the content of toxic substances — nitrates in the fruits of the studied collection varieties was lower than the maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) provided in the regulations of the Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan Republic (24.0–82.5 mg/kg contrary to 300 mg/kg), which indicates that these samples can be used to produce eco-friendly eggplant products.
H. A. Aslanov, N. T. Abbasova
Published: 2 March 2022
Abstract:
The article presents the results of research on the effect of mineral fertilizers on sunflower yield in the western zone of Azerbaijan. One of the main values of mineral fertilizers is to improve the quality of the crop, the rate of growth and fertility. The soil needs fertilizing, because it is very difficult for plants to cope with certain substances in the soil, weather conditions, insects, weeds and other harmful factors. Therefore, for the full growth and development of plants, a number of minerals are needed, among them nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. In many cases, nature itself restores its mineral composition of soils, which requires a lot of time, as well as the presence of organic humus. For this, dried grasses and fallen leaves are suitable. In agriculture, the situation is different. After harvesting in autumn, the land remains desiccated in terms of nutrients. All minerals are simply taken with plants and exported by farmers when harvesting fields. Hence the urgent need for additional nutritious top dressing. The use of mineral fertilizers is one of the most important elements in the technology of sunflower cultivation, providing an increase in the yield and quality of seeds. Therefore, the correct determination of doses of mineral fertilizers for the first time in the zone is one of the urgent tasks. In this regard, we tried to determine the doses of mineral fertilizers on the effect of sunflower yield. As a result of the conducted studies it can be concluded that in order to obtain a large and high-quality harvest of sunflower seeds and restore soil fertility on chestnut irrigated soils of the Ganja-Kazakh zone, it is recommended that farms use mineral fertilizers in the norm N120P120K120 annually.
N. P. Chekaev, A. A. Galiullin
Published: 2 March 2022
Abstract:
The article presents the results of field studies of the effect of different doses of chicken manure on the agrochemical properties of leached chernozem and crop yields of the crop rotation link, carried out in the training and production center of the Penza State Agrarian University in 2017–2019. Studies have shown that the use of different doses of manure in direct action led to an increase in the content of mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil. In the aftereffect, in the second and third years, there is a decrease in their content to the level of the initial values. The pHsol indicator in direct action increased by 0.06–0.16 units. In the second and third years, a decrease in the pHsol was observed up to the level of the original values. The total increase in grain yield of cultivated crops in experiments from the direct action and aftereffect of the introduced doses of manure from 2 to 10 t/ha was 0.46–2.76 t/ha of grain units compared to control. The highest total productivity was at a manuredose of 10 t/ha. The payback of 1 ton of manure for three years of operation was 229.5– 309.5 kg/t. The highest payback was noted at doses from 4 to 8 t/ha.
A. S. Hussein, A. A. Nalbandyan, T. P. Fedulova, T. I. Kryukova, A. S. Fomina, A. V. Moiseenko
Published: 2 March 2022
Abstract:
Here we are testing the specific primers NEM06FWD2/NEM06REV2 and nem06FWD1/ nem06REV1 for the R6m-1 resistance gene to root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. in breeding samples of sugar beet. Sugar beet plants of domestic and foreign breeding lines were the object of the study. To identify the relationship between R6m-1 gene, which is localized on the chromosome 1 and controls the stable level of the kinase activity signal, with sugar beet resistance to phytopathogens, PCR-analysis of 10 sugar beet samples were carried out using 2 pairs of molecular genetic markers. DNA amplification revealed a fragments ~500 bp and ~100 bp in length and as a result of sequencing of nucleotide sequences of R6m-1 gene region with subsequent alignment by Geneious Prime program, 3 single nucleotide substitutions (A/G, G/C, and G/A) in the resistant MS11018 genotype and one nucleotide substitution (A/G) and 3 deletions in a foreign hybrid Humber were identified. It can be assumed that these SNPs can form resistance by amino acid substitutions in the polypeptide chain. Finally, possibility to differentiate homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for this allele was shown.
M. S. Saypullaev, A. U. Koichuev, M. A. Kasparova, A. M. Batyrova, Z. T. Gadzhimuradova, T. B. Mirzoeva
Published: 28 February 2022
Abstract:
Relevance and methodology. The results of laboratory studies of solutions of disinfectants Penox-1 and Penox-2, carried out on rough tests surfaces made of concrete, wood and metlakh tiles, against Mycobacterium (strain B-5) and Bac. cereus spores (strain 96) are presented. Experiments were carried out to establish the modes of disinfection of Penox-2 in a comparative aspect with solutions of Penox-1. For protein protection of the test cultures, horse blood serum was applied to the test surface, at the rate of 0.5 g/100 cm2. When developing disinfection modes, contaminated rough test surfaces were placed horizontally and vertically. Disinfection of the test surfaces was carried out by the method of wet disinfection, at the rate of 0.5 l/m2, at exposure 1; 3 and 24 hours. The treatment was carried out twice with an interval of 60 min. All studies were carried out in 3-fold repetition. The criterion for the effectiveness of the agent in the disinfection of surfaces is 100% death of test cultures.Results. It was found that with a single irrigation with solutions of the Penox-1 preparation, disinfection of test surfaces made of concrete, wood and metlakh tiles contaminated with mycobacteria and Bac. cereus spores was not achieved. Disinfection of the test surfaces from mycobacteria occurred with double irrigation, exposure for 24 hours, at the rate of 1 l/m2. Double irrigation of Bac. cereus spores did not result in decontamination of test surfaces. At the same time, the addition of chloramine B to the composition of the preparation Penox-2 at a concentration of 0.5–3.0% led to the disinfection of test surfaces from mycobacteria and Bac. cereus spores respectively after 1 and 3 hours, at the rate of 0.5 l/m2, with single irrigation.
A. N. Vetokh, N. Yu. German
Published: 1 March 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Poultry farming is one of the promising sectors of agriculture. High growth rate and good meat quality are the main factors in breeding. A convenient tool for studying the phenotypic characteristics of breeds and crosses, as well as the genetic characteristics of new breeding forms, is the creation of model animal populations.Methods. The aim in this study was to obtain first-generation crossbreeds from crossing of egg and meat-egg chicken breeds, in order to evaluate the incubation results of crossbreeds and compare them with the source breeds, as well as to study the growth and development rates in the obtained chickens’ hybrids. In the experiment, we used poultry breeds Russian white with the egg-production and Pushkin with meat and egg functions. Starting from the day the chicks were hatched with a period of once a week the measure taking of weight from the chickens were carried out. In addition, starting from the first week of life, the linear measurements, such as body length, depth, width and chest circumference, were carried out once a month. The dynamics of growth and development in crossbreeds was evaluated before the onset of maturity and oviposition in females.Results. Fertility of eggs during interbreed insemination was 81%, which differed from the indicators within the parental breeds by an average of 10%. The hatchability of eggs was less by 35.89 and 43.23% (p < 0.05) in comparison with the Russian white and Pushkin breeds. Upon reaching this period at the age of 5 months, the mass of females was 1554.8 ± 111.72, and of males — 1916.9 ± 63.88 g, and the relative increase, showing the intensity of weight gain over the entire period, was 189.6% and 191.6% respectively. Thus, the obtained individuals cannot compete with the initial breeds in their productive qualities in practical production. However, individuals of the first generation can be used to create a model population of individuals of the second generation, in which it will be possible to determine the associations of genes with economically useful traits with phenotypic diversity.
Е. А. Ларькина, U. Kh. Akilov, U. T. Daniyarov, N. K. Abdikayumova
Published: 1 March 2022
Abstract:
Natural silk was and remains the most elite and luxurious material. Silk is made from cocoons of the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.). The silkworm is part of the Holometabola group (insects with complete transformation). This means that the silkworm goes through several stages of development: egg, larva with four molts, pupa, butterfly. Each stage, depending on the breed and conditions of maintenance, is characterized by a certain duration and the so-called amity of development. In Uzbekistan, it is customary to carry out one feeding per year, timed to the beginning of the mulberry vegetation, therefore, tens of billions of caterpillars are simultaneously subjected to reproduction for 28–30 days. Changing the duration of any of the stages of development of the silkworm leads to destabilization of the feeding process and, as a result, to large material losses. Selection by motor activity, which implies the selection of the most active, and therefore the most viable individuals, leads to an acceleration of the metabоlism of the silkworm, synchronizes the development of a huge number of organisms at all stages of development, allows to coordinate with accuracy up to 1 day the work of all departments of the silk industry, accurately calculate time, human resources, the use of technical means and monetary costs for each stage and the entire cycle of reproduction of the silkworm.
M. N. Zaharova, L. V. Rozhkova
Published: 2 March 2022
Abstract:
To accelerate the maturation of soybeans and the possibility of timely mechanized harvesting, chemical preparations — desiccants (for drying plants on the root) are used. The results of 2-year tests of desiccants on their effect on grain moisture and crop yield are presented. It was found that when using desiccants, the moisture content of soybean grain decreased on the 7th day of the spraying field by the amount from 12,0 to 12,6% and the yield increased by 119,8–134,6%.
I. V. Epifanova
Published: 11 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevanсe. The novelty of our research lies in the fact that for the first time the allelopathic interaction of eastern galega seeds with a wide range of oilseeds is being studied. The aim of this work is to study the allelopathic effect in the initial stages of plant ontogenesis. The objectives of the study were to identify cultures with a positive and negative impact on the growth and development of sprouts of eastern galega. The objects of research were eastern galega Magister, false saffron Alexandrite, saperda mustard Lux, spring rape Tavrion, hemp Nadezhda, spring cress Iskra, white mustard Lucia, abyssinian colewort Polet, ethiopian niger seed Medea, oil radish Fiolina, damascene fennelflower Yalita, hybrid sunflower P63 LE 10 (XF 3020), winter camelina Baron, spring camelina Velez, oilseed flax Istok. The experiments were carried out in two layouts in 2019–2020 on the basis of a separate division of the Federal research center for fiber crops in the Penza region.Methods. The evaluation of allelopathic activity was carried out using a method that involves the germination of plant seeds, followed by the calculation of the percentage of germination. The number of seeds and seedlings at different stages of ontogenesis was determined along with measuring the length of the root, stem and leaf.Results. At the initial stages of ontogenesis, a weak negative allelopathic effect on the eastern galega is exerted by the abyssinian colewort Polet — the number of fullfledged seedlings was -6,1% to the control. A positive effect on the germination and development of galega seedlings is exerted by damascene fennelflower Yalita (+8,3% to control), ethiopian niger seed Medea (+8,1 to control), oilseed flax Istok (+6,4% to control). In general, the length of the galega seedling was at the level of control with damascene fennelflower and ethiopian niger seed is 3,27 and 3,24 cm (-0,40 and 0,43 cm respectively). A significant decrease is observed in the variants with oilseed flax, spring camelina, winter camelina, spring rape, false saffron, sunflower, saperda mustard, white mustard, hemp, abyssinian colewort and spring cress — from 2,81 to 1,66 cm (-0,86–2,01 cm to control).
M. V. Dovydenkova
Published: 10 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The breeding stock and young cattle in the conditions of industrial technology of animal husbandry experience an increased antigenic load, which leads to disturbances in the immune status and the development of inflammatory processes manifested by endometritis and mastitis, diarrheal and respiratory syndromes. It was relevant to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the immunological reactivity of the animal’s body according to the state of resistance in cattle with clinical and subclinical mastitis, depending on the age of lactation. As a result of complex studies, the specific and nonspecific reactivity of the body of cattle in different periods of lactation was studied.Methods. The object of the study were cows of a black-and-white Holstein breed (n = 450). Groups of animals were formed according to the age of lactation:1st lactation, 2–3rd lactation, 3–4th lactation and for health reasons: clinically healthy animals, with subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis. Milk samples were taken from cows to count the number of somatic cells, and blood to determine the quantitative content of IgG immunoglobulin and indicators of nonspecific resistance.Results. It was found that with mastitis in cows of different lactation ages, almost identical changes in the immune status were observed. Quantitative determination of IgG levels in animal blood serum is the basis for assessing the immunity of cattle. The immune status in clinically healthy animals was characterized by a higher level of the total amount of IgG immunoglobulin in the blood serum (amounted to 22.25 ± 0.70 mg/ml), whereas in cows with a subclinical form of mastitis, the level of IgG immunoglobulin decreased by 12.3%, with a clinical form of mastitis — by 17.2%. The results also showed that in cows of different lactations with subclinical and clinical mastitis, the bactericidal activity (by 10.8%) and the lysozyme activity of the blood increased significantly (by 8.22%). In cows with clinical mastitis — by 8.6% and 9.7% respectively, compared with the indicators in groups of healthy animals. Thus, mastitis, occurring in acute and subacute form, leads to a decrease in the resistance of the cows’ organism.
G. I. Dayanova, I. K. Egorova, L. D. Protopopova, A. N. Krylova, N. N. Nikitina
Published: 11 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Currently, there is a need to develop proposals for the creation of a vertically integrated system of procurement stations with modern slaughterhouses in the Arctic zone of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The methodology for determining the potential capacity of a primary processing point for animal products allows planning the rational placement of production facilities, their state regulation and financing.Methods. At the research we used such methods as monographic, economic and statistical, graphic, computational and constructive methods. The potential capacities are determined on the basis of the necessary equality between the monthly capacity according to the schedule of arrival of animals from agricultural producers and the monthly productivity of the point according to capacity.Results. The article provides a brief analysis of the development of agriculture in the Arctic regions, which are divided into the Anabarskaya, Prilenskaya, Yanskaya, Indigirskaya, Kolymskaya groups of uluses (districts) according to the basin principle of the main navigable rivers. The strategic directions of the development of branches of the agro-industrial complex in the north of Yakutia are considered. The methodology and results of calculating the potential capacity of primary processing points in each group of uluses based on the number of reindeer, horses and cattle (cattle) and seasonality of slaughter and daily capacity for initial planning are presented. According to the results of the study, it is proved that to ensure a relatively full load during the year (except for the summer period) the primary processing centers in the Arctic zone of RS (Ya) can be of small and medium capacity. The layout scheme of the centers for processing livestock products is proposed, taking into account the further optimal increase in performance with capacities: 25 heads per shift — in v. Saskylakh, Anabarsky ulus (district) and Deputatsky settlement, Ust-Yansky ulus; 10 heads per shift — in u.v. Tiksi, Bulunsky ulus and u.v. Chersky, Nizhnekolymsky ulus; 7 heads per shift — inv. Khonuu, Momsky ulus.
N. A. Shcherbakova, A. Yu. Kozlovskaya, O. S. Dmitrieva
Published: 12 January 2022
Abstract:
Currently, the food problem occupies an important place among the global problems of mankind. Despite a slight increase in food production, the level of nutrition of the population is not reaching optimal levels. This is especially true for Russia. One of the ways to solve this problem is the development of agriculture, in particular animal husbandry. Over the five analyzed years, there has been an increase in the level of milk production in cows of all ages. Milk yield, fat and protein content in the milk of cows of all ages significantly exceed the breed standard. The live weight of cows of all ages for all years also significantly exceeds the breed standard, in particular, full-aged cows are characterized by a weight varying in the range of 599–606 kg. The fat content in milk of cows during this period ranges within 3.70–3.85% with a breed standard of 3.7%, protein content – 3.07–3.26% with a 3.0% breed standard, that is, exceeds the standard for the entire period taken into account. It should also be noted that every year there is an increase in indicators, reaching a maximum in 2020. It should be noted that a number of cows have been in the list of the best in OOO “PskovAgroInvest” for a number of years, improving their milk yield with each lactation. So, from Travinka 1330 in 2018, 10,573 kg of milk with a fat and protein content of 3.63% and 3.12% were milked, and in 2020 – already 11,239 kg with a fat and protein content of 3.71% and 3.18%; from cow Torpedo 234 the corresponding figures for the same years amounted to 9340 kg, 3.75%, 3.06% and 10,504 kg, 3.74%, 3.18% respectively.
N. I. Malik, E. V. Malik, J. A. Malenkova, I. A. Rusanov, E. A. Gagaeva
Published: 12 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The use of antibiotics to treat infections of the reproductive tract in cows can cause bacterial resistance to antibiotics and endanger human health. Potentially, preparations from representatives of the lactic acid vaginal microflora (probiotics) can be used as a biological control to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry.However, the specific composition of the vaginal lactic acid microflora of healthy dry cows and its probiotic properties remain poorly documented.Methods. The species identification of catalase-negative gram-positive isolates of bacteria forming colonies on MRS agar isolated from utero-cervical mucus of healthy lactating cows was carried out in accordance with standard procedures using a culturedependent approach, biochemical tests and tests for sugar fermentation using API50 CHL strips (bioMеrieux, France). For testing for antagonistic activity by the method of delayed antagonism against test cultures of staphylococci and Escherichia, 14 isolates were selected in accordance with typing assigned to 5 species of the genus Lactobacillus.Results. The results obtained indicate that the utero-vaginal biocenosis of healthy lactating cows is represented by microorganisms of the Lactobacillaceae family, including lactic acid enterococci and bacteria of the Leuconostocaceae family. The presence of representatives of the genera Aerococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Gardnerella vaginalis was found in the composition of the vaginal biocenosis in cows without signs of pathology of the birth canal. According to the results obtained, the vaginal population of lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus has low or medium antagonistic activity against test cultures of indicatory strains of staphylococci and Escherichia.
Ch. Z. Bagirova
Published: 14 January 2022
Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the effect of heavy metals on the enzymatic activity of gray-brown soil in Sumgait. It was found that soil contamination with heavy metals leads to a significant decrease in the activity of microorganisms, including cellulosedecomposing ones. According to the inhibitory effect on the number of cellulosedecomposing microorganisms, metals can be arranged in a row: Рb < Сu < Zn. The decrease in cellulose-decomposing activity under the influence of high doses of Сu was 51%, Zn – 45%, Pb – 54%. A significant decrease in enzymatic activity was found in the presence of heavy metal contamination. With an increase in the amount of lead in the soil, a decrease in the activity of invertase was observed, at the same time, the greatest response to soil contamination with lead was found in the catalase enzyme. Thus, in comparison with the control, an increase in the activity of the catalase enzyme in the presence of lead in the soil occurs at a concentration of 1 MAC, which is more than 33%. A further increase in the values of catalase activity by more than 2.0 times is detected when the lead content in the soil is about 4 MAC. This allows the catalase activity of soils to be used as an indicator of soil contamination of the city of Sumgait with heavy metals, including lead.
R. B. Nurlygayanov, D. R. Islamgulov, F. F. Giniyatova, A. F. Zainagabdinov
Published: 13 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Legumes are a source of cheap protein. The importance of the cultivation of leguminous crops at the planetary level in order to combat the starvation of a part of the world’s population was marked by the year 2016, declared the International year of leguminous crops. In the Republic of Bashkortostan the main leguminous crop is peas. In recent years other leguminous cropshave been growing in the region, such as vetch, soy, chickpeas, and forage beans, which play a significant role in the production of protein for food and feed purposes.Results. Due to the increase in the production of nitrogen mineral fertilizers in Russia, the area of leguminous crops as a source of biological nitrogenbegan to decrease, another problems are low productivity and complexity of cultivation technology. Two-phase harvesting of a mixture of winter vetch with winter rye increases the yield of winter vetch grain by 0.51 t/ha, the protein content – by 1.8% in comparison with direct harvesting. The highest height of the lower bean in soybean plants is formed when sowing with a row spacing width of 70 cm as a result of intraspecific competition. Processing chickpea seeds with the biological preparation Rizotorfin B increases grain yield by 0.27 t/ha with a production profitability of 151.6%.
A. A. Sukhorukov
Published: 13 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Creation and introduction of high-yield varieties of soft winter wheat into production is one of the important ways to increase the production of wheat grain and increase its export potential.Materials and methods. The research was conducted in 2017–2019. according to the methodology of the State Commission for variety testing of agricultural crops. Statistical data processing was performed by the method of one-factor analysis of variance according to B.A. Dospekhov (1985) in Excel. In 2017 55 varieties were evaluated, in 2018 – 98 varieties, in 2019 – 150 varieties of north caucasian, forest-steppe southern (Ukrainian), steppe southern (Ukrainian), Volga forest-steppe, north russian, central european, north european, north american ecological groups of soft winter wheat.Results. Phenological observations made it possible to establish ecogroups with the minimum duration of the spring vegetation renewal – earing period in the experiments – the north caucasian – 47 days and the maximum – the north russian – 57 days. Under favorable conditions of humidification, the yield of varieties of the north caucasian, southern steppe (Ukrainian), Volga forest-steppe, and north Russian ecological groups was: 7.06; 7.43; 7.24; and 7.08 t/ha, respectively. In the conditions of drought, the varieties of north caucasian, southern forest-steppe (Ukrainian), southern steppe (Ukrainian), and Volga forest-steppe were distinguished by yield: 3.03–3.27 t/ha. Sharply reduced the yield of varieties of the north russian ecogroup – 0.0–1.18 t/ha.
T. R. Mammedova, Э. Ф. Мустафайева
Published: 13 January 2022
Abstract:
Materials were collected from Guba, Salyan, Sabirabad, Lankaran and Ganja. At the end of the study, 162 samples belonging to 11 species and 11 genera were collected from Pentatomidae family. Among the identified species, Aelia acuminata, Eurydema ornatum (Linnaeus), Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda) and Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus) were identified as phytophagous species that are remarkable in terms of density and prevalence. Palomena prasina (Linnaeus), Eurydema ornatum (Linnaeus), Graphosoma semipunctatum (Fabricius), Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus) species are harmful to agricultural plants.
E. A. Mitsurina, L. N. Gamko
Published: 12 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The article presents data on the effect of feeding lactating cows with different doses of natural mineral additives “Stimul” and smectite trepel as part of the feed mixture at the same concentration of metabolic energy in the diets, their effect on increasing milk yield, the amount of milk fat and protein in both the first and second experiments, their impact on increasing profitability and reducing the cost of exchange energy per 1 kg of milk.Methods. The effect of the inclusion of mineral additives “Stimul” and smectite trepel in the diet of lactating cows in 3.0% and 4.0% concentrations was studied, the composition of which includes about 40 mineral elements in an accessible form for the body, for the realization of the bioresource potential of the productivity of animals with a live weight of 400–450 kg in the conditions of the farm of ООО “Molochnoye”, Trubchevsky district of the Bryansk region. Before feeding, the mineral is subjected to high-temperature activation, grinding and separation into fractions. Crushing and dividing into fractions mineral additives from different deposits facilitate their use in feeding lactating cows.Results. The results of the research showed, that mineral supplements of different deposits in the diets of lactating cows have a stimulating effect on the mineral metabolism in the body of animals, and are consistent with the data of other authors. The analysis of the results of a comparative study of the productive qualities of cows for the experiment showed, that the inclusion of natural mineral supplements in the diet of lactating cows is cost-effective. The level of profitability when using the mineral additive smektitny trepel in the amount of 3.0% and 4.0% was higher by 5.3% and 18.6%then the mineral additive “Stimul”.
D. M. Mamiev
Published: 13 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Crop rotations remain a key element of modern agricultural systems and solve the whole range of tasks for the rational use of land, the reproduction of soil fertility, its protection from erosion, the protection of the environment and the entire agricultural landscape.Methodology. Field studies were conducted on leached chernozem with a close occurrence of pebbles in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of the RSO – Alania. The experiment was placed by the method of organized repetitions, the repetition of the experiment is three-fold, the variants were placed by the method of trial plots, the shape of the plot is rectangular. The total area of the plot is 240 m2, the accounting area is 186 m2. The tab of experiments, phenological observations, and statistical processing of the obtained data were carried out according to the generally accepted methods described in the educational and methodological manual of Adinyaev E.D., Abaev A.A., and Adaev N.L. (2013).Results. In the conditions of the foothill zone of the RSO – Alania, the studied crops of the grass-field crop rotation had a positive effect on the structural and aggregate properties of the soil, the water resistance of soil aggregates, as well as on the productivity and energy potential of the cultivated crops. Clover and winter wheat had the most favorable effect on the soil structure, having a longer growing season, a welldeveloped root system, providing better protection of the soil in autumn and spring from the destructive effects of atmospheric precipitation. Row crops in this respect had a low rating. The ability to form structures in potatoes is particularly weak. As a result of the research, it was found that the studied soil has a good structural condition, since it contains from 52.1 to 55.8% of water-bearing aggregates. It was found that the volume mass varied for all crops of the crop rotation. By the end of the growing season, almost all variants showed a tendency to increase the volume mass. In general, the average soil density under all crops was optimal throughout the study period. The highest yield of feed units was noted for the following variants: oats + clover – 9.83 t/ha, clover – 9.49 t/ha, corn – 9.49 t/ha. More digestible protein was contained in the clover crop, the rest of the crops were about the same level. The grass link is more productive, where the collection of feed units and digestible protein significantly exceeded the indicators of the rowed link (7.96 t/ha – grass link and 6.33 t/ha – rowed link).
V. Ya. Uzun
Published: 14 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. In the normative legal documents and scientific publications, various options for the policy of providing Russia with seeds are considered. In most of them, the emphasis is on increasing the share of the sown seeds of domestic selection (including those produced in the country or abroad), the share of seeds of domestic production (including seeds of domestic selection and seeds of foreign selection localized in Russia), the share of varieties of domestic selection allowed for use in the Russian Federation, the number of newly developed varieties of seeds. Business does not always select seeds in accordance with the recommendations of the authorities and science: its policy is aimed at sowing seeds of high quality, which in many cases leads not to an increase, but to a decrease in self-sufficiency in the seeds of domestic selection and production.Methods. Various options for the policy of seed production in Russia have been studied, including the production of seeds of domestic selection, the localization of production of seeds of foreign selection in Russia and Russian selection abroad, import and export of seeds of domestic and foreign selection. Indicators for the economic assessment of each of the crop-specific policy options have been developed. The comparison of the results of the Russian policy of seed provision with the policy of Germany and Poland is carried out. As one of the indicators of the quality of domestic seeds, it is proposed to use the ratio of prices of exported domestic seeds and similar seeds exported by other countries.Results. The necessity of transition from the threshold level of seed self-sufficiency established by the Doctrine of Food Security 2020 to its differentiation for individual crops, taking into account the seeds of domestic and foreign selection produced in Russia, is substantiated. With regard to sunflower, along with the localization of the production of foreign-bred seeds in Russia, special measures are needed to replace the import with domestic-bred seeds. For peas and soybeans, the task of import substitution has been solved due to the localization of the production of seeds of foreign selection (the share of imported seeds is less than 1%). A forward-looking policy should be aimed at achieving a positive export-import balance in seeds.
S. A. Bardakova
Published: 11 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. To identify the features of the growth and development of species of roses of different geographical origin, to establish the biological minimum temperatures necessary for the beginning of flowering of representatives of the genus Rosa L., to study the morphological indicators of fruits.Methodology. The research material was 12 wild roses belonging to 4 sections: Canina Crep, Cinnamomeae DC, Luteae Crep, Pimpinellifoliae DC. The research was carried out using the methods of the Main Botanical Garden, floral and geographical analyses — according to Hrzhanovsky. A caliper was used to measure the length and diameter of 10 fruits. For the analysis of statistical data, the MS Excel table processor and the integrated MATLAB mathematical package were used.Results. The article presents the results of a study of species of roses in the Stavropol Botanical Garden of various geographical origin. The study involved 12 species belonging to 4 sections. The features of growth and development of plants in new soil and climatic conditions are revealed. The dates of the beginning of the main phenological phases andtheir duration have been established: spring regrowth of shoots, budding, beginning and end of flowering, fruiting. In the studied species of roses, the growing season begins in the first — second decade of March, flowering occurs in late May — early June, the fruits ripen in August — September. The dependence of the timing of the beginning of flowering in the studied roses on the dynamics of the accumulated average daily air temperatures and the sum of effective temperatures above 5 °C was revealed. Mathematically, it was proved that the lower limit of the air temperature required for the beginning of flowering of species of roses is +16 °C, when the sum of the average daily temperature air St° = 1007.75–1069.48 °С and St эф > 5 °С = 530.75–594.75 °С are accumulated. Early flowering species of roses include Rosa foetida Herrm., R. pendulina L., R. pimpinellifolia L., late flowering — R. caudata Baker and R. corymbifera Borkh. The shortest flowering period is in R. caudata Baker, R. jacutica Juz. and R. kamtschatica Vent. Representatives of those types mostly bloom once. Their flowers are formed on biennial and more mature shoots. The flowering period is 13–23 days. Rosa rugosa Thunb. blooms again, its flowering period is extended and long — from 40 to 48 days. All species of roses form fruits. The longest fruits are in R. pendulina L., R. caudata Baker, R. rugosa Thunb., R. corymbifera Borkh. and R. canina L., and large ones — in R. rugosa Thunb., R. marretii Lev. and R. roxburghi Tratt.
N. T. Khomenko
Published: 10 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. This research is relevant due to ability to help in improving quality of pets life after surgery on the cranial cruciate ligament.Methods. Descriptive (description dynamics recovery various animals), сomparative (comparisons pace recovery various groups of animals applying different metods) methods were used.Results. Applied rehabilitation activities in early postoperative period accelerate recovery, improves muscle tone, keeps joint movements and helps in its stabilization.
A. M. Guseynova
Published: 11 January 2022
Abstract:
It has been established that on each variant oftillage use of mineral fertilizers have a positive effect on the structural indicators of the yield when sowing summer soybeans. When the soil was cultivated to a depth of 8–10 cm, the number of beans per plant was 3.0–10.2 pieces, the number of grains per plant was 5.7–21.8 pieces, the grain yield per plant was 1.0–3.6 g, the weight of 1000 grains was 7.0–7.4 g; when disking the soil to a depth of 13–15 cm these indicators reached, respecttively, 3.3–11.4 pieces, 6.0–22.5 pieces, 1.2–3.8 g, 3.5–8.0 g; when plowing to a depth of 20–22 cm these indicators increased and amounted to 3.8–13.3 pieces, 6.9–24.9 pieces, 1.7–4.5 g, 4.3–8.6 g and this contributed to an increase in yield compared to control. Thus, the highest structural indicators were obtained when plowing the soil to a depth of 20–22 cm and at a rate of mineral fertilizers N60P90K60 kg/ha of active substance.
S. M. Abasov, M. Sh. Gaplaev, M. Sh. Abasov, Z. B. Magamadgazieva
Published: 11 January 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The problem associated with the continuing decline in the yield of the main crops and soil fertility in most of the arable lands leads to the need of developing comprehensive measures, including the optimal selection of crops and methods of tillage and planting in order to increase the collection of plant protein and preserve soil fertility.Method. The work devoted to the study of the influence of tillage methods, mineral fertilizers and biological products on the productivity of forage crops and their mixed planting was carried out on the experimental fields of the Chechen Research Institute in 2019–2020 in the forest-steppe climatic zone. The experiment was multifactorial. Mineral fertilizers were used for crop rotation with a view to the planned yield. The biopreparation V417, created at the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology on the basis of the Bacillus subtilis strain, was used in the processing of seed material and crops during the period of intensive plant growth.Results. As a result of the research, it was revealed that each of the studied methods of tillage should correspond to the cultivated crop and the technology used. The introduction of mineral fertilizers provided an increase in the productivity of forage plants in their pure and mixed planting by 11–44%. The treatment of crops with biopreparation V417 reflected in the best way: an increase in yield was from 24 to 52%. At the same time, the highest yield of the green mass of 42.6 t/ha was obtained in a three-component mixture (wheat, peas, oats) in the variants where disking and chiseling were carried out. Mixed planting is a serious reserve for increasing the quantity and quality of plant products. It's feed productivity in the collection of dry matter and feed units was not inferior to pure planting of cereals, and in terms of the provision of 1 feed unit with digestible protein exceeded it by 3–14%.
N. N. Doguzova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Alfalfa occupies a leading position among the crops used for obtaining renewable sources of protein and energy-saturated feed, as well as a mean of biological reclamation of agricultural land, preservation and improvement of soil fertility. The aim of the research is to study the economically valuable characteristics of various varieties of alfalfa to local soil and climatic conditions in terms of seed productivity and feed value. Promising varieties that combine high feed and seed productivity have been identified. According to the indicators of seed productivity, the alfalfa variety Lada was distinguished. In this variety, the indicators of green mass, dry matter and seed productivity are most successfully combined. The Lada variety surpassed the other varieties in seed productivity, the formation of beans with a large number of seeds by 7–9%. In the average of three years, the number of stems per 1 m2 was distinguished by the varieties Lada and Vega 87 — 110–120 pcs/m2. In these varieties, the number of internodes was 18 pieces, and in the standard Nakhodka — 14 pieces. In terms of the number of stems, 2 samples significantly exceeded the standard: Lada and Pastbischnaya 88. According to the yield of green mass and leafiness, the varieties of alfalfa Lada and Ve-ga 87 outperformed other varieties by 5–7%. In the future of our research, the selected varieties will be used to form new varieties.
L. V. Kireicheva, V. A. Shevchenko, I. F. Yurchenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The effective use of agricultural land is a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation in the agro-industrial complex of the task of providing the population with food, and production with raw materials. At the same time, the issues of methodological support of the procedures for determining the integral indicator for assessing the use of agricultural land, established on the basis of a theoretically grounded unified approach based on quantitative methods, have been developed with insufficient completeness. Actualization of the issues of improving the theory and practice of assessing the effectiveness of the use of agricultural land in agricultural production is becoming one of the priority tasks of land reclamation science. The purpose of this work is to create a methodological basis for the process of assessing the use of agricultural land, which guarantees the comparability of the considered options for agroproduction in different natural and economic conditions.Methods. The research is based on the method of point assessments for indicators of agricultural land exploitation and the formation on their basis an integral criterion of land use efficiency. The proposed procedure includes: analysis of statistical data characterizing the dynamics of the values of indicators of used land resources, calculation of local assessments of the feasibility of their exploitation and assessment of the efficiency of land use according to a generalizing criterion represented by the sum of these local assessments.Results. A methodology has been developed and a method has been created for determining the efficiency of the use of agricultural land, based on a generalized integral assessment of the operation of agricultural land, which allows to identify bottlenecks in agricultural production and outline rational directions for the development of land use. The testing of the algorithm of the methodology and capabilities of the scale for the integral assessment of the efficiency of the use of land resources was carried out on the example of the Non-Black Earth Zone of the Russian Federation. Shown is an unsatisfactory (below the national average) contribution of agricultural production to the gross regional product. On the whole, positive dynamics of agricultural production in the Non-Black Earth Zone was established, which is achieved due to the development of animal husbandry, which is an effective factor in the formation of modern efficient agriculture of the territory, with the orientation of the crop production system on the raw material basis of feed production or the sector of the economy of the agro-industrial complex of the territory.
O. V. Skripka, A. P. Samofalov, С. В. Подгорный, S. N. Gromova, V. L. Chernova,
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Introduction and methodology. Wheat bread belongs to the greatest inventions of the mankind. Therefore, the study aimed at solving the issues of improving its productivity and quality, stabilizing the gross yield of wheat grain have always arisen a great interest of researchers and specialists in agricultural production. The most accessible source of improving yields and gross harvests is a variety.The purpose of the current study was to characterize the winter bread wheat variety ‘Donskaya Step’ according to the main economically valuable traits and properties. The study was carried out by the FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”” from 2016 to 2020 on the experimental plots of crop rotation belonging to the winter wheat department. The object of the study was the winter bread wheat variety ‘Donskaya Step’. The variety ‘Ermak’ was used as a standard variety. There were used four forecrops: maize for grain, peas, sunflower and green fallow. The trials were conducted in sixfold replications. The accounting area of the plot was 10 m2.Results. The variety was sent to the State Variety Testing in 2016. In 2020 it was introduced into the State List for the North Caucasus and Low Volga regions of the Russian Federation. This variety has a high potential for grain productivity. The maximum yield of 11.83 t/ha was obtained in 2017 when sown in weedfree fallow. The average yield through four years of the competitive variety testing (2016–2020) was 9.77 t/ha, which is on 0.96 t/ha higher than that of the standard variety ‘Ermak’. The variety ‘Donskaya Step’ is a middle-maturing variety that forms ears and ripens as the standard variety ‘Ermak’. The variety forms high and stable yields due to increased frost resistance, drought resistance and resistance to the main wheat leaf diseases.
V. A. Gerasimchik, E. S. Eremeev
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. In the instructions for the use of vaccines for dogs, there is a clause prescribing mandatory anthelmintic treatment of the animal before vaccination. This is really a correct indication, since it is well known that helminthiasis affects the animal’s body, disrupting many metabolic processes and causing a number of pathological changes in the body. Helminthic infestations affect the level of immunity of the animal by changing the level of immunoglobulins, causing changes in the T- and B-systems of immunity. However, there is no data available in the literature describing how helminths affect the production of post-vaccination antibodies. This paper describes an experiment aimed at establishing how toxocara invasion affects the formation of post- vaccination immunity against canine distemper and parvovirus enteritis in dogs.Methods. The research was conducted in a shelter for neglected animals in Vitebsk. The object of research was two dogs aged 4 years and seven puppies aged 1–2 months. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group included one adult dog and four puppies. The second group included an adult dog and three puppies. Animals of both groups were vaccinated against carnivorous plague and parvovirus enteritis, but only animals of the second group were dewormed.Results. By evaluating the results of the study, it was found that helminthic invasion really hinders the development of post-vaccination immunity.
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