Refine Search

New Search

Results: 618

(searched for: publisher_id:11572)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 13
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
L. R. Ashibokova, N. G. Lapenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The article presents the materials of the geobotanical examination of the virgin steppes of the Western Predcaucasia. The relevance of the study is due to the modern state of natural grass stand, which is under constant anthropogenic influence.Methods. The research points are located in the southwestern part of the Stavropol Territory and the northeastern part of Karachay-Cherkessia, within the absolute heights of 500–880 m. The description of vegetation and its analysis was carried out on ten accounting sites (10x10 m) according to methods generally accepted in geobotany.Results. It was revealed that in the grass stand the grass familyhas on average 17,5% (its weight fraction is 70–80%). In the formation of grass stand plant associations, the leading role belongs to the dominant sod steppe-grasses: Stipa pulcherrima, Festuca valesiaca, Festuca rupicola, Bothriochloa ischaemum, etc. Legumes (Medicago romanica, Trifolium pratense, Onobrychis arenaria) are the main source of protein for animals, they are diverse and have on average 10,8%, but in weight terms they are inferior to sod steppe-grasses. The flora of the studied steppes is represented by a number of economically valuable plants. These are sod steppe-grasses — the creators of the main feed mass of the steppe. They are also sources of a protein component for animals. But the main source of protein in the steppe grass stands are representatives of the legume family (species Trifolium, Medicago, Onobrychis, etc.). Nectariferous plants (Filipendula vulgaris, Galium ruthenicum, Echium russicum) and drug plants (Adonis vernalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus marschallianus, etc.) are found in the steppe. The spectrum of life cycles of the flora is noteworthy. There is a high percentage of perennials — from 66,7 to 97,8%. This fact indicates that the axes of ecological niches are packed relatively tightly by perennials — persistent competitors of annual plants (more often weeds). Until mid-summer the generative stage of development of wild plant species reaches on average 80%. Their gene pool can be recommended for the restoration of low-productive steppe grass stand, as well as for use in selection work.
Yu. G. Belyakova, B. V. Usha
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The activity of the digestive organs is largely determined by the feeding regime, in particular, the frequency, timeliness, and the order of feeding the feed. The digestibility of nutrients is influenced by the preparation of feed for feeding, which facilitates mechanical processing in the digestive tract and the action of digestive enzymes. Against the background of a decrease in the natural resistance of the animal body, an important aspect is the use of mineral supplements and the enrichment of diets with biologically active substances that increase the nutritional value and the degree of assimilation of feed by animals. The aim of the work was a comparative assessment of methods for studying the degree of assimilation of feed by animals.Methods. To determine the degree of food assimilation, 2 drops of isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride solution and a small amount of intestinal contents were applied to a glass slide, a thin smear was prepared, dried in air for 30 min, and large particles were removed. The preparations were fixed for 15 min with 96% ethyl alcohol, then 3–5 drops of a 1.0% aqueous solution of methylene blue, Lugol, Sudan III were applied. Along with the indicated conventional methods, we tested a method for preparing preparations using fixation in vapors of a 25.0% solution of glutaraldehyde for 30–40 minutes, in vapors of a 1.0% aqueous solution of osmium tetroxide.Results. The kinetics of the formation of intestinal microbiocenoses is characterized by a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and an increase in the number of pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. In a comparative assessment of the preparation methods, the advantage of microscopic research methods is the possibility of a detailed study of the contents, the degree of assimilation of feed components in the gastrointestinal tract, and a visual assessment of the state of the intestinal microflora. The advantage of the method for preparing preparations with the use of vapor fixation of a 25.0% solution of glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide is the possibility of visualizing the formation of monospecific and polyspecies biofilms by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The preparations were sufficiently contrasting, there were no artifacts, bacteria and fungi stained brown, which made it possible to count even pinpoint colonies using a magnifying glass or an optical microscope. The easily digestible feed results in a low fecal yield and a stable consistency. The use of functional food “Pristine Gold Vet” in the nutrition of dogs and fur-bearing animals made it possible to increase the absorption of nutrients by 18,1% and 15,3%.
L. M. Sokolova, A. A. Egorova, A. N. Hovrin
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Currently, more than 10,000 species of fungi associated with plants have been found, and it is not surprising that fungal diseases cause a lot of harm. Most species of the genus Fusarium are soil protrophs that live on dead plant remains, in the rhizosphere of plants, on the surface of roots. They cause rot of roots, seeds, fruits, tubers, root crops. All forms of fusariums progress at high temperatures and humidity. The analysis of literary sources and experimental data allowed us to formulate the purpose of our research: “To analyze the species diversity of fungi of the genus Fusarium from the soil, table carrot plants, depending on the ecological and geographical zones of growth.” As a result, using PCR analysis, 13 samples attributed to F. langsethiae were identified; 2 samples of F. ochusrohim; 8 samples of F. roae; 2 of F. sporotrichioides; 1 sample attributed to F. sulmorum, this sample was collected in the Rostov region and the Moscow region. It was also revealed that the diversity of soil and climatic conditions in different zones leads to a change in the species composition of representatives of R. Fusarium: the species composition of fungi of R. Fusarium varies significantly depending on agro-climatic conditions. In wetter and warmer conditions (southern regions), specific species of F. culmorum, F. sporotrichiella, and F. oxysporum dominate. F. heterosporum, F. nivale are less common; F. graminearum species lives on plant residues, on plant roots or in the rhizosphere zone, but practically does not occur in the soil in its pure form. Thus, this direction is promising for the study of fungi of the genus Fusarium, since this microorganism lives in the soil and on plants. It is advisable to identify the pathogen from samples from different regions to significantly increas the representativeness of samples within the regions with further identification of diverse mycelium, thereby creating a scale of diverse mycelium.
A. M. Lunegov, A. G. Ovsyannikov, I. V. Lunegova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Every year, dog breeders are faced with the problem of acute poisoning of dogs. Various toxic compounds can be the cause of dog poisoning. The huge variety of potentially toxic substances makes it difficult to identify the source of poisoning. Service dog breeding also faces this problem, as a result of which it is necessary to have information about the possibility of poisoning service dogs, as well as methods for detecting toxic substances and preventing further poisoning. In service dog breeding, they mainly use feed made by cooking gruel soup in boilers in the feed kitchens of nurseries. Due to the fact that there were cases of poisoning of service dogs in the Vyborg district of the Leningrad region, we conducted research to identify toxic compounds in beef from which feed was made in the feed kitchens of nurseries.Methods. The studies were carried out at the Institute of Toxicology of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency using an Acguity UPLC I-class ultra-performance liquid chromatograph with a spectrophotometric detecto and an Acguity UPLC H-class ultraperformance liquid chromatograph with a Xevo TQD tandem mass spectrometer. Sample components were identified by electronic spectra and mass numbers.Results. According to the results of the study, the presence of isoniazid metabolic products in the form of isonicatinic acid, as well as conjugates of isoniazid with sulfuric, acetic and glucuronic acids, was found in beef meat.The obtained results of the study of the chromatographic profiles of aqueous extracts and the chemical identification of their components in the products that are used for the preparation of food for service dogs make it possible to accurately determine and identify toxic substances with a wide variety of them. Thus, in order to prevent the loss of service dogs, it is necessary to control the newly received food and feed in order to prevent poisoning.
N. A. Zhizhin
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
The article discusses the effect of the b-galactosidase enzyme on the storage capacity of milk with hydrolyzed lactose. For this purpose, parallel studies of a sample of sterilized milk and low-lactose milk, produced on its basis, were carried out. The peptide profile was used as a criterion for assessing the storage capacity of milk that underwent enzymatic decomposition of lactose. Assessment of the state of the peptide profile during storage was recorded at three control points — 30, 60 and 90 days. Studies have shown that at the second checkpoint, peptides were identified that characterize the proteolytic activity in the product. The third checkpoint study revealed the presence of low molecular weight peptides responsible for the bitter taste in milk. Parallel studies of sterilized milk without the addition of the enzyme did not reveal any changes in the peptide profile. The studies carried out indicate that the b-galactosidase enzyme has a residual proteolytic activity, which negatively affects the storage capacity of low-lactose milk and, as a consequence, the products, produced on its basis.
T. A. Bazanov, I. V. Uschapovsky, N. N. Loginova, E. V. Smirnova, P. D. Mikhailova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is a geographically widespread oilseed crop characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids in seed oil and resistance to most stress abiotic and biotic factors. The prospect for the development of camelina culture in agriculture is associated with the production of biofuels and a wide range of technical oils. The creation of new specialized highly productive varieties of camelina is associated with the tasks of the chemical, medical and food industries. Increasing the efficiency of the breeding process needs development of methods for the assessing and selecting of genetic material (lines, cultivars etc.). The study of the genetic diversity of a culture using DNA marking, including the microsatellite SSR markers, is considered as an effective way of the pre-breeding stage of breeding work. The aim of this study was to study the polymorphism and phylogenetic relationships of camelina cultivars using SSR markers.Methods. The object of the study was 18 varieties of camelina of various breeding origin, included in the State Register of Varieties of the Russian Federation. Genetic analysis was carried out by PCR using a set of 8 SSR-markers, followed by detection of products on a genetic analyzer.Results. During the study, 40 alleles were identified, with rather high indicators of the level of polymorphism. A specific marker associated with the winter form of life of camelina was revealed. Cluster analysis with the construction of a dendrogram of genetic similarity showed significant differences in the studied samples. The varieties were divided into two separate clusters — winter and spring forms of camelina. In each of the clusters, varieties were grouped mainly by origin (originator). Further development and use of DNA-marking methods will contribute to increasing the efficiency of the breeding process and the formation of a system of genetic certification of oilseeds.
T. Kh. Bayramov, G. B. Mammadov
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Cylindrical coaxial heaters are increasingly used in agricultural production. However, their widespread use is restrained by the fact that it is still necessary to supplement the calculation methodology, which would make it possible to take into account its geometric dimensions, dielectric and magnetic permeability, surface effect and proximity effect, uneven distribution of electric and magnetic fields along the heater, and a number of other factors when choosing the parameters of the heater. Such a task is relevant in the design of electric heaters for the production needs of dairy farms, taking into account what the methodology presented below has been developed. This technique gave a positive effect in relation to the development of an experimental electric pasteurizer.
V. A. Gerasimchik, E. S. Eremeev
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. In the instructions for the use of vaccines for dogs, there is a clause prescribing mandatory anthelmintic treatment of the animal before vaccination. This is really a correct indication, since it is well known that helminthiasis affects the animal’s body, disrupting many metabolic processes and causing a number of pathological changes in the body. Helminthic infestations affect the level of immunity of the animal by changing the level of immunoglobulins, causing changes in the T- and B-systems of immunity. However, there is no data available in the literature describing how helminths affect the production of post-vaccination antibodies. This paper describes an experiment aimed at establishing how toxocara invasion affects the formation of post- vaccination immunity against canine distemper and parvovirus enteritis in dogs.Methods. The research was conducted in a shelter for neglected animals in Vitebsk. The object of research was two dogs aged 4 years and seven puppies aged 1–2 months. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group included one adult dog and four puppies. The second group included an adult dog and three puppies. Animals of both groups were vaccinated against carnivorous plague and parvovirus enteritis, but only animals of the second group were dewormed.Results. By evaluating the results of the study, it was found that helminthic invasion really hinders the development of post-vaccination immunity.
O. V. Skripka, A. P. Samofalov, С. В. Подгорный, S. N. Gromova, V. L. Chernova,
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Introduction and methodology. Wheat bread belongs to the greatest inventions of the mankind. Therefore, the study aimed at solving the issues of improving its productivity and quality, stabilizing the gross yield of wheat grain have always arisen a great interest of researchers and specialists in agricultural production. The most accessible source of improving yields and gross harvests is a variety.The purpose of the current study was to characterize the winter bread wheat variety ‘Donskaya Step’ according to the main economically valuable traits and properties. The study was carried out by the FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”” from 2016 to 2020 on the experimental plots of crop rotation belonging to the winter wheat department. The object of the study was the winter bread wheat variety ‘Donskaya Step’. The variety ‘Ermak’ was used as a standard variety. There were used four forecrops: maize for grain, peas, sunflower and green fallow. The trials were conducted in sixfold replications. The accounting area of the plot was 10 m2.Results. The variety was sent to the State Variety Testing in 2016. In 2020 it was introduced into the State List for the North Caucasus and Low Volga regions of the Russian Federation. This variety has a high potential for grain productivity. The maximum yield of 11.83 t/ha was obtained in 2017 when sown in weedfree fallow. The average yield through four years of the competitive variety testing (2016–2020) was 9.77 t/ha, which is on 0.96 t/ha higher than that of the standard variety ‘Ermak’. The variety ‘Donskaya Step’ is a middle-maturing variety that forms ears and ripens as the standard variety ‘Ermak’. The variety forms high and stable yields due to increased frost resistance, drought resistance and resistance to the main wheat leaf diseases.
L. V. Kireicheva, V. A. Shevchenko, I. F. Yurchenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The effective use of agricultural land is a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation in the agro-industrial complex of the task of providing the population with food, and production with raw materials. At the same time, the issues of methodological support of the procedures for determining the integral indicator for assessing the use of agricultural land, established on the basis of a theoretically grounded unified approach based on quantitative methods, have been developed with insufficient completeness. Actualization of the issues of improving the theory and practice of assessing the effectiveness of the use of agricultural land in agricultural production is becoming one of the priority tasks of land reclamation science. The purpose of this work is to create a methodological basis for the process of assessing the use of agricultural land, which guarantees the comparability of the considered options for agroproduction in different natural and economic conditions.Methods. The research is based on the method of point assessments for indicators of agricultural land exploitation and the formation on their basis an integral criterion of land use efficiency. The proposed procedure includes: analysis of statistical data characterizing the dynamics of the values of indicators of used land resources, calculation of local assessments of the feasibility of their exploitation and assessment of the efficiency of land use according to a generalizing criterion represented by the sum of these local assessments.Results. A methodology has been developed and a method has been created for determining the efficiency of the use of agricultural land, based on a generalized integral assessment of the operation of agricultural land, which allows to identify bottlenecks in agricultural production and outline rational directions for the development of land use. The testing of the algorithm of the methodology and capabilities of the scale for the integral assessment of the efficiency of the use of land resources was carried out on the example of the Non-Black Earth Zone of the Russian Federation. Shown is an unsatisfactory (below the national average) contribution of agricultural production to the gross regional product. On the whole, positive dynamics of agricultural production in the Non-Black Earth Zone was established, which is achieved due to the development of animal husbandry, which is an effective factor in the formation of modern efficient agriculture of the territory, with the orientation of the crop production system on the raw material basis of feed production or the sector of the economy of the agro-industrial complex of the territory.
N. N. Doguzova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Alfalfa occupies a leading position among the crops used for obtaining renewable sources of protein and energy-saturated feed, as well as a mean of biological reclamation of agricultural land, preservation and improvement of soil fertility. The aim of the research is to study the economically valuable characteristics of various varieties of alfalfa to local soil and climatic conditions in terms of seed productivity and feed value. Promising varieties that combine high feed and seed productivity have been identified. According to the indicators of seed productivity, the alfalfa variety Lada was distinguished. In this variety, the indicators of green mass, dry matter and seed productivity are most successfully combined. The Lada variety surpassed the other varieties in seed productivity, the formation of beans with a large number of seeds by 7–9%. In the average of three years, the number of stems per 1 m2 was distinguished by the varieties Lada and Vega 87 — 110–120 pcs/m2. In these varieties, the number of internodes was 18 pieces, and in the standard Nakhodka — 14 pieces. In terms of the number of stems, 2 samples significantly exceeded the standard: Lada and Pastbischnaya 88. According to the yield of green mass and leafiness, the varieties of alfalfa Lada and Ve-ga 87 outperformed other varieties by 5–7%. In the future of our research, the selected varieties will be used to form new varieties.
V. A. Sergeeva, I. S. Muravyova, A. V. Ignatova, S. Yu. Penskoy, M. N. Myrmyr
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. In the conditions of the Central Black Earth region in the farm “Yaroslav the Wise” of the Starooskolsky district of the Belgorod region, five soybean varieties (Belgorodskaya 48, Bara, Victoria, Opus and Kassidi) were studied on nutritional backgrounds — without seed inoculation and without biological treatment (control), using only inoculation and with the use of a biological product against the background of seed inoculation.Methods. The experimental conditions differed in rainfall patterns and the amount of heat, their distribution was especially uneven in 2020, that had a significant negative effect on the yield of all studied soybean varieties. The soil of the experimental plot is typical medium-thick chernozem, medium-humus, heavy loamy texture. The advantages of the soybean variety Opus, the plants of which formed a large height, air-dry mass, leaf area, a greater number and mass of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots, were revealed. Plants of this variety provided a higher yield level in all studied agro-backgrounds.Results. The yield varied from 32,5 centners per hectare (control) to 36,2 centners per hectare (when using the biological product Biogor, Zh). The content and collection of protein were also higher in the Opus cultivar in all the studied agrophones. In comparison with the control, the protein content was higher by 4% (background — control), by 4,9% — with inoculation of seeds and by 6,1% — when using a biological product. The same pattern is observed when assessing the oil content in seeds and collecting protein and oil per hectare of soybean sowing. Inoculation of seeds with soybean inoculant Nitragin, KM improved plant development and increased productivity, as well as the profitability of cultivation of the studied soybean varieties, which was higher when using a biological product against the background of seed inoculation by an average of 27%, while with only inoculation — by only 15,1%.
D. A. Korkots, Yu. A. Vatnikov, A. A. Rudenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The study of the pathogenesis of obesity in domestic animals is an urgent problem in veterinary medicine, which is associated with the high prevalence of this pathological condition and a significant risk of complications from the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study was to present the pathophysiological characteristics of the development of arterial hypertension syndrome in obesity in Yorkshire Terrier dogs.Methods. In a comparative aspect, clinical, tonometric, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters were studied in obese patients (n = 13) and clinically healthy dogs (n = 7).Results. Our study shows the negative role of obesity in the development of arterial hypertension syndrome in Yorkshire Terrier dogs. It was also found that obesity in dogs is accompanied by impaired lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, the development of arterial hypertension and a tendency to the development of concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium and hepatopathy.
M. T. Kargaeyeva, Yu. A. Yuldashbayev, K. Zh. Iskhan, O. Alikhanov, D. A. Baimukanov, V. A. Demin, I. A. Lukyanova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Herd horse breeding is the most ancient way of reproduction and maintenance of horses. The regularities of the growth and development of young animals largely depend on the genotype of the producers. Adai horses are bred in a herd way. Their well-being largely depends on natural and climatic conditions — the state of the weather, grass stand. The breeding zones of the Adai horse are the desert and semi-desert of the western region of Kazakhstan, characterized by a sharply continental climate.Methods. Experimental work was carried out at Taushyk LLP, Tupkaragan district, Mangistau region. The object of the study is pure-bred Kazakh horses of the Mangistau population and Adai offspring. According to scientific experience, two groups of 12 stallions were formed. Feeding qualities were assessed by the increase in live weight in young animals in the period from 24 to 30 months of age. Meat productivity was studied according to the methodology of the All-Russian Research Institute of Horse Breeding, in accordance with the technological instructions adopted in the meat industry.Results. It was found that the greatest increase in live weight in foals of Kazakh horses of the Adai offspring is observed from 3 days of age to 1 month and amounted to 42.9 kg with an average daily gain of 1530 g. For six months the increase in live weight was 84.1 kg, and average daily gain — 460 g. From 6 to 12 months of age the average daily gain in foals decreases to 126.9 g, due to the independent wintering of foals. From 18 to 24 months the minimum increase in live weight was recorded — 24.6 kg. From 24 to 30 months of age the average daily gains slightly increase — to 310 g. It has been established that the coefficient of increase in live weight in Kazakh horses in the conditions of the Mangyshlak Peninsula from birth to 24 months of age is 5.28–5.30, from 24 months. up to 30 months age — 0.51–0.52, from birth to 30 months of age — 8.54—8.56. It was found that the stallions of the Mangystau population exceeded their peers of the Adai offspring in terms of pre-slaughter live weight by 3.8 kg. In terms of slaughter yield stallions of the Adai offspring were inferior to their peers of the Mangistau population by 0.4%. The highest fat content in the meat of both groups is observed in the off-grade cut (kazy + sting) — from 16.0% to 16.4%. Comparatively little fat was contained in grade II meat — from 3.8% to 4.3% and grade III — from 2.3% to 2.7%.
V. V. Tedeeva, F. T. Gerieva
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The advantages of meadow clover, as a forage crop, is that it is a source of highly nutritious feed in monoculture and in grass mixtures, containing protein, macroand microelements, vitamins and carotenes. In the conditions of the foothill zone of the RSO — Alania, a new breeding material of meadow clover was studied. The possibilities of selection of breeding samples with high winter hardiness, feed and seed productivity are studied. The analysis of the most productive samples in terms of productivity and resistance to diseases was carried out. The research objective was to identify the most promising varieties of meadow clover for cultivation in specific natural and climatic conditions of the Republic of North Ossetia — Alania.Methods. Experimental studies were carried out on the experimental fields of the North Caucasus Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Agriculture of the VNC RAS in the forest-steppe zone of the RSO — Alania. The soils of the experimental site are represented by leached chernozems on pebbles, they are characterized by a high content of gross and available nitrogen and phosphorus reserves. In terms of the content of mobile potassium, they are average in comparison with other soils. The arable layer contains from 3.3% to 4.7% of humus. The reaction of the soil solution in the upper horizons is neutral. The tab of experiments, phenological observations and statistical processing of the obtained data were carried out using generally accepted methods.Results. According to the duration of the period from the beginning of spring regrowth to the beginning of flowering at the first mowing, the studied varieties can be attributed to medium-ripe and late-ripe. То variety Vladikavkazsky the duration of the growing season was 65–70 days, to variety Daryal — 75–80 days, Farn — 70–75 days. Later matures include varieties Alan and Orlik. In the spring during the development periodand the beginning of regrowth there was no big difference between the varieties. The Daryal variety started growing earlier than everyone else, the difference was 5 days. The earliest flowering was observed in the Daryal variety, the difference between the studied varieties was from 10 to 20 days. In the varieties of meadow clover studied by us, the Alan variety surpasses other varieties in winter hardiness, productivity and biological yield. The highest plant height was found in samples of local selection Alan, Vladikavkazsky, Farn (within 68–72.4 cm), surpassing the standard variety Daryal by 7–11.4 cm.The seed yield of the samples had a weak positive correlation with the number of days from the beginning of spring regrowth to the beginning of flowering (r = 0.27).
I. V. Ziruk, M. E. Kopchekchi, A. V. Egunova, Ya. E. Yarosh
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Exotic species of animals have recently become more and more popular and widespread; the approach to their diagnosis of diseases and treatment has its own nuances. Despite the similarity of species, there are differences that need to be taken into account. One of the fundamental problems of comparative anatomy is the disclosure of general patterns and specific features of the skeleton of animals. Despite the available detailed work in this direction, many questions concerning this problem still remain open and require further study.
Ye. Ya. Chebochakov, V. N. Murtaev
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. According to the conducted studies, it was found that the disadvantages of steppe nature management include water erosion, deflation and other adverse phenomena. Similar processes are taking place in Siberia. At present, the redevelopment of deposits is beginning and soil degradation is again manifested in the steppe regions of Khakassia. For the rational and efficient use of land resources, it is necessary to develop a technology for processing soil deposits in the arid steppe zone of the south of Central Siberia.Methods. The study of the efficiency of soil cultivation technologies for the erosional agroecological group of fallow lands was carried out in the arid steppe agrolandscape region of the Republic of Khakassia, located in the south of Central Siberia. Research for four years was carried out in the link of fodder crop rotation: a long-term (20–25 years) cereal-forb fallow — oats (corn) for green mass by the method of B.A. Dospekhov. When performing the work, statistical and graphical methods were used.Results. It is established that malicious perennial grasses and juvenile weeds grow on long-term fallow lands (20–25 years). High efficiency of complex application of herbicides of continuous action (Tornado 500, Octopus Extra) and intensive tillage was revealed. Tillage of a long-term deposit to a depth of 18–20 cm, disking, fine flatcutting treatment and spraying with herbicide reduces the number of perennial weeds by 2 times more compared to technologies, that include small treatments and herbicide application. In the arid steppe zone, the technology with tillage of a long-term deposit to a depth of 18–20 cm increases the productivity of the feed crop rotation link by an average of 25.3–33.7% compared to technological operations involving small-scale processing (12–14 cm and 14–16 cm).
N. M. Alekseeva, P. P. Borisova, N. A. Nikolaeva
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
The article presents the results of the influence of new recipes of feed additives, made on the basis of local resources, on the biochemical parameters of the blood of dairy cows of the Simmental breed in the conditions of Yakutia. Research objectives: 1) study the chemical composition of new recipes for feed additives produced from local resources; 2) determination of the influence of the new formulation of feed additives from local resources on the biochemical parameters of blood in cattle of the Simmental breed. In our experiments, there were no statistically significant changes in the biochemical parameters of blood during the period of the experiments, all the studied blood parameters, both at the beginning and at the end of the experiments, in all groups of animals were within the physiological norms and did not have significant differences between the groups. Consequently, feeding the formulation of feed additives in the composition of Tammi barley, Tuymaada wheat, Pokrovsky and Vilensky oats, dry brewer’s grain, Hongurin zeolite, Hongurinobakt probiotic in the diet of cows and heifers of the Simmental breed contributed to the activation of vital processes in the body, assimilation of feed and improved appetite. It should be noted that the cows of the II experimental group showed a tendency to increase the composition of amino acids. At the beginning of the experiment, the blood lysine content increased by 5.22 mg/% compared with the control and by 5.79 mg /% — with the I experimental group, methionine — by 19.67 mg/% and by 10.02 mg/% respectively. The same pattern is observed for the rest of the amino acid composition at the end of the experiment. The data obtained indicate that the optimization of the feed rations of Simmental cows in terms of the content of vitamins of groups A and C through the use of the formulation of protein-vitamin-mineral feed additives had a positive effect on the hematopoietic function. So, if the content of vitamins A and C at the beginning of the experiment was low, then at the end of the experiment the same indicators returned to normal.
Zh. S. Nelyubina, N. I. Kasatkina
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
A new direction in pre-sowing seed preparation is environmentally friendly and energyefficient ultraviolet irradiation, which increases germination, reduces seed infection, and improves growth force. In this regard, the experiment of studying the effect of UV irradiation on the sowing qualities and morphophysiological parameters of the seeds of the birds-foot trefoil and awnless brome was laid at the UdmFRC UB RAS in 2019. Use of UV rays of range A with a wavelength of 315–400 nm for 5 min reduced the infection of the birds-foot trefoil seeds by 3.2%, increased the length of the sprout by 0.81 cm and the strength of growth — by 5.4% in comparison with untreated seeds. There was also a tendency for a decrease in seed hardness by 2.5%, an increase in root length by 0.41 cm, and the degree of seedling development by 0.12 points. The most effective for awnless brome seeds was UV treatment for 35 minutes, which led to an increase in germination by 14.5%, a decrease in seed infection by 5.8%. There was also a tendency to improve the morphological parameters of seedlings: the length of the sprout increased by 0.9 cm, the length of the root — by 0.88 cm, the length of the coleoptile — by 0.30 cm. The strength of growth in this variant was 9.3% higher than in the control without treatment. In general, the treatment of perennial grasses seeds with ultraviolet light reduced infection, increased laboratory germination and strength of growth, and reduced seed hardness.
S. V. Dezhatkina, V. V. Akhmetova, N. V. Sharonina, L. P. Pulycherovskaya, S. V. Merchina, N. A. Provorova, M. E. Dezhatkin
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Modern livestock breeders face an important task of producing organic products, in Russia this is regulated by the Federal Law “On Organic Products” (from 01.01.2020), it allows producers to enter in the state register and mark the products with the “organic” sign. There is a problem of deterioration of the quality of milk, low content of fat, protein, SOMO, deficiency of macro-and microelements, vitamins, which is associated with a violation of the proper feeding of animals. The use of innovative technologies for the activation and modification of silicon-containing minerals (diatomite and zeolite clinoptilolite) enhances their properties. This makes it possible to use them as an adsorbent, an ion exchanger and a source of readily available silicon and other mineral elements to produce high-quality organic products.Methods. To achieve this goal, in the Ulyanovsk region we organized a production experience in the conditions of a dairy farm of “Agrofirma Tetyushskoe” for a duration of 100 days. Three groups of 50 cows were formed: 1st — control, received only the basic diet (ОR), 2nd — experimental (ОR+ supplement based on modified zeolite enriched with amino acids), 3rd — experimental (ОR+ supplement based on modified diatomite enriched with amino acids). The supplement was given once a day, in the morning in a mixture with mixed feed, the input rate was 250 g/head/day. For the physiological experiment, 5 analog cows were selected in a group. To enrich the minerals, a complex of plant-derived amino acids of high purity and biological activity was used.Results The intake of additives based on silicon-containing natural minerals (zeolite and diatomite), processed with innovative technologies and enriched with plant-based amino acids, increases the level of animal productivity and ensures the yield of organic products high-quality. It has a prolonging effect.
E. N. Ivanenko, T. V. Menshutina, M. G. Kostenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
The article presents the results of a five-year study of the yield of the Melba apple variety on dwarf, semi-dwarf and medium-sized rootstocks selected by the North Caucasus Federal Scientific Center for Horticulture, Viticulture, and Winemaking (SKFNCSVV). The aim of the research is to study the influence of rootstocks of different growth strengths on the productivity potential of the Melba apple variety in the natural and climatic conditions of the Astrakhan region. The research revealed the influence of the rootstock genotype on the main productivity indicators: perishability, yield, frequency of fruiting, stability of productivity, marketable qualities of fruits. The early fruitfulness of the variety was most affected by the dwarf subspecies SK 3, SK 7 and semi-dwarf SK 2, on which 60–100% of the trees bloomed in the first year of growth in the garden. Among the studied combinations, the highest rates of crop growth in the Melba variety were noted on the dwarf rootstock SK 3 and semi-dwarf SK 2, in combination with which the variety was characterized by maximum values of average (19.4–16.3 t/ha) and total yield (97.2–81.6 t/ha), with the values of these indicators on the control variants 16.0–10.6 t/ha and 80.2–53.1 t/ha respectively. Low indicators of the periodicity index were noted on the dwarf rootstock SK 3 (15.6) and semi-dwarf rootstock: control M 26 (23.0), SK 2 (20.0), SK 5 (27.5), high index of productivity stability (0.75–0.86) – on rootstocks SK 3, SK 2 and SK 5. In the arid conditions of the Astrakhan region, the zoned variety Melba is recommended to be grown in an intensive garden on rootstocks SK 3 and SK 2, which ensure regular and stable yields.
A. I. Abilov, A. A. Azhmyakov, I. P. Novgorodova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The study will help to identify new perspectives in breeding; get new data about the biological processes occurring in the body of animals according to the endogenous hormones of breeding bulls. The hormonal-immunobiological relationship in the body of bulls and their adaptive ability in different climatic conditions is a very important issue today.Methods. The work was performed in a temperate continental climate with a long, snowy winter and warm summer in the conditions of the Udmurt Republic in the period from 2020 to 2021 on breeding bulls (n = 27) of modern breeding at the age of 15–69 months. The state of endogenous hormones testosterone, estradiol, thyroxine and cortisol after a long winter period was studied, depending on the age, breed and selection in the normal physiological functioning of breeding bulls. The average serum values of estradiol — 0.517 nmol/l, testosterone — 25.7 nmol/l, thyroxine — 74.7 nmol/l, cortisol — 420 nmol/l, and their cholesterol precursor at the level of 3.2 nmol/l were established in the blood of breeding bulls located in this region. It was found that, depending on age, there are differences in all the studied indicators, however, there is a reliability for thyroxine and cortisol. The concentration of cortisol by selection significantly differs in imported bulls of European selection from the Netherlands at the level of p > 0.05, which characterizes the presence of a certain stress adaptation factor in this group. In terms of variability, a significant difference between min and max indicators was noted for the concentration of testosterone, which varied between 2.4 nmol/l and 60 nmol/l, indicating the individuality of these hormones in breeding bulls in this region.Results. Based on the data obtained, the need to take these data into account when operating breeding bulls and analyzing sperm products, taking into account the concentration of these hormones, as well as the implementation of appropriate preventive measures, is revealed.
I. Yu. Mitrofanov, L. V. Pugacheva, O. N. Antsiferova, N. A. Smirnova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The article is devoted to the actual problem of the spring-summer seeding of winter rye on drained lands.Methods and results. The studies were carried out in 2017–2020 at the experimental site of VNIIMZ (Tver region), drained by a closed drain. The soil of the experimental site is sod-podzolic light loamy gleyic slightly acidic, the content of humus is 1.8–2.4%, exchangeable potassium and available phosphorus content is increased and high. In field experiments, the effectiveness of spring-summer sowing dates for winter rye in a fallow field of crop rotation was studied with a ridge belt-spread cultivation method. It has been established that under the conditions of the north-west of the Non-Chernozem zone winter rye with its spring-summer sowing can form practically the same yields as with the standard cultivation technology. On average over 4 years the biological yield of rye grain when grown after spring rape was 3.69 t/ha, and with spring-summer sowing in a fallow field and harvesting the next year — 3.70 t/ha. The leveling of the variants in terms of yield with a significant difference between them in the plant density occurred due to productive tillering. The coefficient of productive bushiness in the control was 1.4, and with spring-summer sowing — 2.3. Differences between the variants in the number of productive stems, the number of grains per ear, and the weight of 1000 grains on average over 4 years were insignificant. High efficiency of harrowing of spring-summer crops of rye was noted both in the sowing year (late August — early September) and in spring after overwintering. The preservation of plants improved, the number of productive stems increased by 14.3%, and the biological productivity of rye increased by 18.4%. The technology of cultivation of winter rye with spring-summer sowing can significantly reduce the amount of field work in the fallow field, eliminate the costs of plowing, cultivation, sowing, rapeseed, and reduce the total production costs for maintaining 1 hectare of a fallow field by 7–10 thousand rubles.
I. E. Minevich, A. A. Goncharova, L. A. Zaitseva
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The wide use of extrusion for processing plant raw materials is explained by the possibility of improving the structure and increasing the availability of macronutrients of the target product. Extrusion of oilseeds is complicated by the negative effect of high lipid content on the ongoing physicochemical processes and, as a consequence, a decrease in the quality of extrudates. Along with their high lipid content, oilseeds such as flaxseed contain significant amounts of protein, soluble (mucilage) and insoluble (cellulose, lignin) fibers, which can also affect the technological properties of extrudates. As a high-energy and protein component, flax seeds are used in the feed industry. Increasing the nutritional value of flax seeds and their safety will expand the range of biologically active additives for the production of feed. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of extrusion on the feed value of flax seeds.Methods. For the research we used unmilled oil flax seeds produced in 2020. Flax seeds were processed by wet extrusion: the raw material was preliminarily moistened to 17% at 80 °C; extrusion process parameters — 120 °С, pressure 40 atm., duration 30 sec. Extruded flax seeds were obtained on a pilot plant of OOO “Fid-Group” (Belgorod region). Studies of extruded flax seeds were carried out on the basis of the laboratory for processing bast crops of the Federal Scientific Center for Fiber Crops (Tver).Results. A comparative analysis of the results showed a positive effect of short-term barothermal treatment, such as extrusion, on the chemical composition of flax seeds and their feed parameters. It has been shown that: the content of crude protein in extruded flax seeds increased by 3.97%, the water-soluble fraction increased by 66.18%, which indicates an increase in the biological value of the extrudate; the mass fraction of crude fiber decreased by 1.18%, which indicates an improvement in the digestibility of the extruded product; the content of mineral nutritional value increased by 12.5%; when using barothermal treatment, the nutritional value of flax seeds increased by 2.46%, metabolic energy increased by 2.19% and digestible protein increased by 4.08%; the level of indicators of the lipid complex, acid number and peroxide number, decreased by 40 and 39% respectively, which indicates a decrease in the activity of enzymes that cause hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration of the extrudate.
V. V. Mikhailova, T. P. Lobova, M. S. Shishkina, A. N. Skvortsova, A. A. Varentsova
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Currently, rabies is registered in almost all countries of the world and is included in the list of dangerous viral diseases. According to WHO estimates, more than 50,000 people die from hydrophobia in the world every year. The urgency of the problem is also associated with the huge economic costs of prevention and antiepizootic measures. Annual rabies monitoring is an important link in the chain of epizootic situation improvement. Based on its results, a further strategy for the prevention and control of rabies is being built. Methods. The assessment of the epizootic situation in the Russian Federation for rabies in 2020 was carried out based on the results of the analysis of data from annual reports in the 4-vet form provided by state veterinary laboratories to the FSBI CNMVL. Results. Annual rabies epizootic monitoring is carried out throughout the territory of the Russian Federation. In 2020, 1517 positive results were obtained. Of these, 47% of cases are in pets (dogs, cats), 43% — on wild animals, 9% — on agricultural animals. Unfavorable items were recorded in 61 constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The most tense epizootic situation has developed in the Central Federal District and the Privolzhskiy Federal District (603 and 505 positive cases respectively).
I. V. Ziruk, G. E. Rysmukhambetova, K. E. Beloglazova, V. V. Frolov
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The work studied the biological safety of the use of biodegradable film coatings for the organism of laboratory animals. For different application methods a different composition of polysaccharides (PS) (%) was developed — xanthan and carboxymethyl- cellulose (CMC): spraying (0.60:2.73); by brush (0.90:2.05); wrapping (1.61:1.38) respectively. Different film coating methods were selected for different foodstuffs. This film coating does not have a negative effect on the organism of laboratory animals.
E. N. Sedov, T. V. Yanchuk, S. A. Korneyeva
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The greatest period of time was spent on creating a cultivar at the first stage of breeding in our institution, when we did not have proper experience in apple breeding. For example, in the sixties of the last century, cultivars Pepin Orlovsky, Orlovskaya Zarya, Nizkorosloye and Sinap Orlovsky were created, in which the period from hybridization to inclusion in the State Register of Breeding Achievements allowed for use was 48, 45, 43 and 34 years respectively. With the acquisition of breeding experience in selecting the initial parent cultivars and improving the methods of growing seedlings in the breeding orchard (growing hybrid seedlings in the crown of a semi-dwarf or dwarf rootstock or on insert rootstocks) the period was significantly reduced — to 20 years for such cultivars as Yablochny Spas, Aleksander Boyko, Maslovskoye and a number of others. The first immune domestic cultivar Imrus (immune russian) was created and included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements allowed for use in just 15 years. It took 16 years to create the Rozhdestvenskoye cultivar. Naturally, on average, much less time was spent on the creation of columnar cultivars due to the earlier entry into flowering and fruiting. Due to the fact that high agricultural technology improves the growth processes of hybrid seedlings in the breeding nursery and in the breeding orchard and reduces their juvenile period, it must necessarily be carried out. This report gives a brief production and biological characteristics of the best apple cultivars of the Institute’s breeding. One of the best cultivars immune to scab is the winter cultivar Imrus (immune russian). The cultivar has a rapid fruitfulness and high yield. Its fruit can be stored in the cold storage until mid-March. Veniaminovskoye and Kandil Orlovsky are also valuable immune cultivars. The fruits of Veniaminovskoye are stored in the refrigerator until the end of February; the cultivar is characterized by the dessert quality of the fruit. The advantages of Kandil Orlovsky are also high rapid fruitfulness and productivity. Triploid Aleksander Boyko is immune to scab and has large size of fruit (220 g) and regular fruiting. Columnar cultivars Priokskoye and Poezia are of great interest. Priokskoye is characterized by scab immunity and high productivity. The fruits are characterized by marketability and high consumer qualities. In the refrigerator, the fruits can be stored until February. It took only 18 years to create this cultivar. The columnar scab-immune cultivar Poezia is characterized by high rapid fruitfulness. Its fruits are stored in the refrigerator until February.
L. A. Gruner
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The article presents information about the new book of the first volume of “Pomology”, prepared at VNIISPK with the participation of scientists from leading horticultural institutions of Russia under the general editorship of Academician E.N. Sedov and reissued at the end of 2020 with the financial support of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The new edition of the volume “Apple” includes more than 200 cultivars included in the State Register over the past 15 years, and about 100 cultivars are excluded. The structure of the book is described, in which there is a substantial introductory part that tells about the history of pomology as a science, its tasks, stages of formation and scientists who made the greatest contribution to its development. The description scheme of the cultivars presented in this volume is built according to a single plan, that allows to compare and test the cultivars. Each description, in addition, contains information about the institutions, in which the cultivars were created, their authors, years and regions of zoning. The main advantages and disadvantages of the described cultivars are indicated, and color photos of the fruits are provided. The book has a section on the origin and evolution of Malus Mill., provides information about the main genetic centers of the origin of the culture. The volume has 633 pages, it describes 400 apple cultivars, 28 clonal rootstocks of various growth strength and 5 intercalary rootstocks for apple trees included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements approved for use in the Russian Federation by 2020. The volume has a circulation of 300 copies. The book can be of value to all categories of readers interested in gardening, including scientists, students and postgraduates, as well as to gardeners-practitioners.
G. M. Goryainova, L. M. Arsenyeva, E. A. Denisova
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance.The article highlights the problem of detecting residual amounts of antimicrobial substances in dairy products. The widespread use of medicines in veterinary medicine and animal husbandry creates certain problems associated with the possible contamination of raw materials and products with residual amounts of these substances in case of non-compliance with veterinary rules and regulations. On this basis it is necessary to monitor the content of drugs in animal products. Currently, microbiological and physico-chemical methods for the determination of antibacterial substances are used in Russia. Methods. O ne of the innovative directions in this field are methods, based on nanobiotechnology and, in particular, the immunomicrochip method. The immunomicrochip technology is designed for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative evaluation of several substances from a single sample. Results. During the research, the optimal parameters for detecting residual amounts of beta-lactam antibiotics, antibiotics of other groups and sulfonamides in milk and dairy products were determined by the method of immunomicrochip technology.
L. V. Potapova, M. S. Zhuravlev, N. P. Buryakov, Yu. A. Ezerskaya
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Monoglycerides of organic acids are considered as a promising replacement for feed antibiotics in the diets of pigs and poultry, as they have pronounced bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties. Alpha-monolaurin is a one of the most promising compound, which has a significant antibacterial effect on gram-positive microorganisms. Methods. The experiment was carried out at one of the pig farms of the Rostov region on September 5–27, 2020 on fattening pigs weighing from 36 kg and up to achievinga live weight of 75 kg. Piglets of the experimental group received 0.4 kg/t of alpha-monolaurin as part of the premix for compound feed CK-5. In the conditions of the production site, control weighing was carried out before the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Weight gain, feed consumption, survival rate and feed conversion were recorded. Results. The possibility of using alpha-monoglyceride lauric acid (GML, glycerol monolaurate) in the ration of pigs of the first period of fattening under the industrial conditions of an operating pig farm has been studied. It has been found that alphamonolaurin improves feed conversion, reduces feed intake, and also increases the survival rate of fattening pigs. The use of alpha-monolaurin led to an increase in the economic efficiency of raising pigs by 37.63 rubles/head, or 1:2.38 ROI.
V. V. Fedyuk, A. A. Chertov
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Pig breeding is primarily aimed at improving their reproductive and fattening qualities. To a lesser extent, the selection takes into account the indicators of the immune status of animals and their resistance to conditionally pathogenic microflora, apparently because due to the significant variability of individual blood parameters in ontogenesis, work with animals of many generations is required to improve these signs by breeding. The urgent task is to accelerate this process. Methods. 6 groups of animals were formed, including: 2 groups of 20 young sows of the Durock breed and large white breed and 2 groups of piglets, their offspring; 10 piglets from each group were weighed monthly, their linear measurements were determined. The study of natural resistance was carried out according to the following indicators: lysozyme, bactericidal and complementary activity of blood serum were measuredby conventional methods and in the author’s modification, hemagglutination reactionand bacterial agglutination — by conventional methods, indicators of phagocytosis were determined by conventional methods and in the author's modification. Results. A new method of comprehensive assessment of the level of natural resistance of pigs based on eight blood parameters — the resistance index (IR) — has been developed. For the first time, two coefficients — repeatability (rw) and persistence (h2) — were used as the statistical weight of traits. It was found that the live weight gain was higher in the offspring obtained from sows with an IR > 60 points. The offspring of highly resistant sows also had an advantage in linear torso measurements.
T. V. Sevastianova, B. V. Usha
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The article presents the test results of the new functional feed additive — “Bioprotectin FA”. The use of the developed functional feed additive in the conditions of the equestrian complex of the Belgorod National Research University allowed to improve such training indicators of horses as frolic potential, endurance, as well as general health indicators of sports horses in training conditions in experimental groups of animals compared to control ones, such as positive correction of the intestinal microbiota and improvement of the activity of the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems.
Yu. A. Yuldyshbaev, V. I. Kosilov, T. S. Kubatbekov, T. A. Sedykh, R. G. Kalyakina, S. V. Savchuk
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The article presents the results of monitoring the chemical composition of the average sample of minced meat, energy value, yield of nutrients and their ratio in meat products. The positive effect of crossing black-and-white cattle with Holstein on the nutritional and energy value of meat products has been established. This contributed to an increase in the gross protein yield of carcass pulp by 3.62–5.27 kg (9.50–13.83%), extractable fat — by 1.59–4.60 kg (5.39–14.80%) , energy concentration in 1 kg of pulp — by 506.5– 568.8 kJ (5.34–5.46%).
A. G. Tulinov, A. Yu. Lobanov
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Potato hybrids obtained when creating varieties adapted to the weather conditions of the Komi Republic must have maximum resistance to constantly changing environmental conditions while maintaining the yield indicator at a high level. In addition, breeders impose requirements for their high field resistance to the main diseases common in the region: late blight, alternaria, rhizoctonia, scab and viruses (X, Y). In 2020, in the course of a continuously operating selection process, produced on the basis of the Institute of Agrobiotechnology FRC Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Syktyvkar) together with the FRC potato named after A.G. Lorkh (Korenevo), samples were taken from the nursery of the main test of hybrids. Methods. The studies were carried out on five hybrids sent from the FRC of Potato named after A.G. Lorkh obtained by hybridization of the original parental forms, growing hybrid seedlings and single-root hybrids, followed by selection in nurseries of single-root hybrids, second-year hybrids, preliminary and main tests already directly at the Institute of Agrobiotechnology FRC of the Komi Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Observations, counts and culling in each nursery were carried out in accordance with the methodological recommendations on the technology of the potato breeding process. According to the research results, the hybrids were assessed in terms of yield, yield range (the difference between the maximum and minimum values for the study period), realization of yield potential (the ratio of the average yield to the maximum over the years of research) and coefficient of variation, as well as disease resistance. Results. As a result of a comprehensive assessment of potato samples in the nursery of the main test, three promising hybrids were identified — 1992–14, 2000–60 and 2139– 5 with an average yield at the level of standard varieties and higher (23.6–31.2t/ha), having a high stability and disease resistance.
N. M. Kostomakhin, Yu. A. Yuldashbaev, A. V. Dikov, M. N. Kostomakhin
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Recently interest in Siberian and Alaskan huskies has led to a sharp increase in their population, which has led to the relevance of the work carried out. The purpose of the research was to study and evaluate the biological characteristics of sled dogs of different breeds. Methods. The biological traits of sled dogs of Siberian and Alaskan Husky breeds have been carried out with using modern hematological and statistical research methods. Results. The dynamics of hematological indicators in dogs of different breeds before and after exercise has been established. The exercise affected the content of red blood cells — in both groups their decrease occurred (by 7.3 and 11.7%), a similar dynamics has been observed in the level of hemoglobin. The content of white blood cells in both groups, on the contrary, has been increased after exercise. Exercises during the race led to a slight change in the concentration of platelets in the blood of dogs: in Siberian huskies their content has been decreased, while in the group of Alaskan huskies has been increased. The adaptation coefficient of Siberian husky dogs was 4.4 and was higher than in Alaskan huskies by 0.6 or 13.6% (P > 0.999). The heat tolerance index for Siberian huskies was 79.0 and was higher than for Alaskan huskiesb y 8.0 or 11.3% (P > 0.99).
A. V. Ivenin, A. P. Sakov, Yu. A. Bogomolovа, T. S. Вuzynina
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The article deals with the influence of mineral fertilizers and the long-term aftereffect of liming on the biological properties of light gray forest soil and the yield of meadow clover 1 g.p. in the conditions of the South-East of the Volga-Vyatka region. The biological properties of light gray forest soil in 2020 were more influenced by the weather conditions of the pink clover vegetation and the culture itself than by the studied aftereffects of lime material and various doses of its mineral nutrition. The biological activity of the soil was in the range of 16.3–30.4%. The intensity of soil respiration was very weak and was in the range of 1.53–3.4 mg of CO2/10g for 24 hours. The average yield of the green mass of clover 1 g.p. (in terms of absolutely dry matter) was in the range of 30.4–33.2 t/ha (NSR05 by factor B-6.3) and did not depend on the aftereffect of the studied lime doses. The use of N45P120K180 doses of mineral fertilizers increases the average yield of pink clover 1 g.p. compared with the natural fertility of light gray forest soil and the variants of using N15P40K60 doses up to 37.9 t/ ha, which is by11.9 and 8.6 t/ha respectively higher than these variants (NSR05 for factor A-5.2). An increase was also obtained from the use of N30P80K120 doses of mineral fertilizers compared to the cultivation of clover according to natural soil fertility — by7.4 t/ha (NSR05 according to factor A-5.2).I n general, for 42 years of studying the aftereffect of liming it was shown, that by 2020 liming does not affect the biological properties of light gray forest soil and the yield of 1 g.p. clove according to all the studied doses of its use in the conditions of the South-East of the Volga-Vyatka region. The soil needs repeating of reclamation works.
A. A. Molyavko, A. V. Marukhlenko, N. P. Borisova
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Experimental studies have shown that with an increased level of mineral nutrition (N120P180K240) all varieties increased the yield (by 1.7–4.1 tons/ha, or by 10–25%), while the most productive varieties being Bryansky Nadezhny, Bryanskaya Novinka, Slava Bryanshchiny (21.9–22.9 tons/ha). In terms of dry substances content almost all varieties met the requirements of processing, which called for for a dry substance level in tubers of at least 20–24%. With an increase in the dose of fertilizers the amount of starch and dry matter in tubers decreased. On an average background, the starch content compared to the control decreased by 0.7–1.1%, dry substances — by 0.7– 1.2%, on an increased background respectively — by 1.2–1.7%, dry substances — by 1.4–2.7%. The taste of potatoes on an increased background of fertilizers worsened regardless of variety. In terms of darkening of the flesh, raw cleaned tubers of all varieties are not suitable for long-term storage (for example, for 24 hours), while boiled tubers of all varieties did not reduce the quality. Growing potatoes on an increased background of mineral nutrition increased the darkening of raw tubers of the studied varieties compared to control. In the studied varieties the content of reducing sugars in many cases exceeded the amount allowed for the manufacture of crispy potatoes, and therefore its quality was reduced, mainly due to the color of the slices. Almost all varieties gave puree of good quality. An increase in the background of fertilizers slightly worsened the consistency of puree, which reduced the overall estimate.
I. M. Dolgova, Н. Р. Александрова, S. Yu. Petryakova
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
One of the most pressing issues at this stage of the development of the russian economy is the search for ways to effectively operate its agricultural sector, which is based on the development of a competitive food market. Among a number of reasons hindering the formation and development of agricultural organizations, the main ones are: the low level of the material and technical support system, the disparity of prices and the lack of healthy competition between different types of economic entities. In these conditions, there is a need to determine the methodology for assessing the competitiveness of agricultural organizations. The purpose of this work is to create a methodological basis for assessing the competitiveness of agricultural organizations. Testing of the methodology for assessing competitiveness was carried out on the example of agricultural organizations in the Ulyanovsk region.
E. P. Bezukh, A. V. Zykov
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
This article presents the results of studies that were conducted in a small-sized film greenhouse for growing аpple and pear seedlings according to different planting schemes with mulching between rows with black span bond and matting. It was found that mulching between rows creates more favorable conditions for growing plants. The temperature regime of the soil improves, especially at the depth of the root layer. The row spacing soil is less compacted, since multiple loosening and weeding are not required. The mulching materials used freely pass water and mineral elements dissolved in it. Black woven matting is recognized as the best material for mulching between rows of apple and pear trees in a small film greenhouse. The applied schemes of planting winter grafts of apple and pear trees and mulching of row spacing made it possible to completely abandon the use of intensive manual labor on weeding and loosening the soil. Using three-line planting instead of one-line planting allows to significantly increase the yield of planting material per unit area.
N. A. Popov
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The Holstein bulls’ genealogical structure on the Russian Federation breeding enterprises (n= 3 75), as well as the selection types ratio of their breeding, genomic parameters’ assessments in the countries of exporting were studied. The evaluation of 21 breeding sires on their daughters quality and their mothers milk production comparison in the breeding plant’s herd was carried out. A narrow range of genealogical lines of imported Holsteins, that does not allow genetic variability’s effective use at domestic livestock populations improvement, has been identified. These bulls evaluation by the offspring quality revealed the distribution of daughters on milk yield terms and the mass fraction of protein (PC) at the herd improvement, but with the mass fat fraction (FC) decreasing relative to the groups of mothers. The determination of the daughter groups’ repeatability coefficients and ranking based on the milk production characteristics revealed significant differences with the genomic values estimated fortheir fathers: for milk yield rs = 0,395, for PC — rs =0,200, and for FC — rs = – 0,570. The author concludes that it is impossible to plan improvement ofthe main features of breeding in herd at breeding bulls selecting according to the genomic assessment indicators’ levels and givessuggestions for improvment of methodology of evaluating breeding sires by the quality of offspring in dairy cattle breeding of the Russian Federation.
Zh. V. Emanuylova, A. V. Egorova, D. N. Efimov, A. A. Komarov
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The increasingly high volumes of poultry production predetermined a necessity in the constant targeted selection of poultry, advancement of the existing crosses and development of new lines and crosses with high genetic productivity potential which can be sustainably realized in the regions with different climatic and economic conditions. Methods. The productive performance of new russian cross “Smena-9” was assessed in relation to the productivity in cross “Smena-8” and to the different slaughter ages in the commercial-like conditions of the Center for Genetics & Selection “Smena”. Results. The selection of the preparental and parental lines of the new cross “Smena-9” resulted in the improvements of the mortality rate (lower by 0.8%), live bodyweight at 35 days of age (higher by 10.3%), dressing percentage (by 0.9%), breast filet yield (by 0.8%), feed conversion ratio (lower by 4.8%) in broilers of “Smena-9” cross as compared to “Smena-8”. These improvements, in turn, resulted in higher by 16.7% European productive efficiency index (EPEF). At slaughter age 5 weeks the output of meat per parental hen in “Smena-9” cross was 307.6 kg while in “Smena-8” it was 274.9 kg (lower by 11.9%). At slaughter age 6 weeks average daily weight gains in “Smena-9” broilers (74.0 g/bird/day) was higher in comparison to 5 weeks (63.4 g/bird/day) while feed conversion ratio increased from 1.67 to 2.12 kg/kg, resulting in the decrease in the EPEF from 382 to 345 points. The sensory evaluation of meat and broth of “Smena-9” broilers revealed high average scores. The conclusion was made that new cross “Smena-9” can be effectively used in the commercial broiler production.
A. I. Khripunov, E. N. Obshchiya
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Increasing the yield of the most profitable field crops and their placement in crop rotations is an urgent problem of agriculture. The purpose of the studies is to study the productivity of grain crop rotations with various saturation of winter wheat on various power backgrounds and landscape taxons in the zone of unstable moisturizing of the Stavropol Territory. Productivity of grain crop rotations depends on the developing weather conditions, the introduction of mineral fertilizers, saturation of crop rotations with winter wheat and location in the relief. The maximum yield of grain units was observed in crop rotations with winter crops. In crop rotation with a spring barley, they were collected by 3.5–4.2 с less. The use of fertilizers increased the collection of grain units on average by 4.9–6.1 c/ha. On the outskirts of the placard (A1) due to lower soil fertility the minimum collection of grain units was obtained (20.2 с). On average (A2) and lower (A3) slopes their fee increased by 11.7 c, or 57.9%, and by 14.5 c, or 71.8%. In the first crop rotation with 60% saturation of winter wheat the maximum yield of the grain of this culture was obtained. In the second and third crop rotation with 40% grain saturation wasassembled by 6.2–6.3 c less. Putting fertilizers in a dose of N40P40K40 increased the grain collection in the first crop rotation by 4.1, in the second — by 2.2 and in the third — by2.4 c, and according to taxons: on A1 — by1.4,on A2 — by3.6 and onA3 — by 3.8 c. According to the landscape taxons, the release of grain of winter wheat differed at 7.9–10.2 c with the maximum value on the lower slope. Upon the exit of the grain and feed units on all power backgrounds, 1st and 3rd crop turns were leading, and in the exit of the grain of winter wheat — crop rotation with 3 fields of winter wheat.
S. A. Pavlova, E. S. Pestereva
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The aim of the work is to create a green conveyor belt of perennial zoned grasses in floodplain meadows. For the first time in the Far North on the basis of field experience were studied species composition and mode of use of perennial grasses and legumes for green belt. Methods. The research was conducted in 2018–2020 in field conditions in the experimental field laboratory of horticulture of Yakut Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture named after M.G. Safronov in the Khangalassky ulus of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The soil of the experimental site is permafrost floodplain turf light loamy. Sowing was carried out in summer in the first decade of July. Results. The article includes data on the yield, chemical composition and nutritional value, and economic efficiency of perennial grasses. Over the years of research, the maximum yield was obtained from the grass mixtures of rumps (20)+ wheatgrass (16) — 4.0 t/ha of green mass, which is higher than the natural herbage by 2.4 t/ha of green mass. The yield of net sowing of sickle alfalfa (8 kg/ha) was 4.5 t/ha of green mass. The maximum yield from leguminous grass mixtures was provided by a two-component mixture of alfalfa (8 kg/ha) + stalk (10 kg/ha) — 4.9 t/ha of green mass. The highest content of crude protein when creating a green conveyor from single-species cereal crops is observed in red oatmeal — 18.2%, while the content of exchange energy is 9.1 MJ, feed units — 0.66, digestible protein — 122 g in 1 kg of dry matter. Of legumes and cereals the highest content of raw protein is provided by alfalfa (8 kg/ha) — 19.0%, while the content of exchange energy is 9.3 MJ, feed units — 0.70, digestible protein is 120 g per 1 kg of dry matter. When creating a green conveyor from grass stands, a high conditional net income is obtained when sowing boneless stalk (20 kg/ha) +w heatgrass (16 kg/ha) — 5688 rubles/ha, while the cost of production is 12,000 rubles/ha, the profitability is 90%.
V. G. Grebennikov, I. A. Shipilov, O. V. Khonina, L. R. Ashibokova
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. An analysis of the development of feed production in the Stavropol Territory shows that at present, due to the low productivity of natural forage lands, the level of feed production does not meet the requirements for the development of animal husbandry. Illiterate anthropogenic influence in the dry-steppe regions of the region, where about 70% of the number of sheep and 30% of the number of beef cattle are located, led to the fact that up to 300 thousand hectares of hayfields and pastures were subjected to erosion and deflation. However, in recent years, the process of improving forage land has been reduced to a minimum. Therefore, the process of restoring the forage productivity of hayfields and pastures should be given close attention. To this end, in the zone of dry steppes we conducted research on the selection of perennial legumes and grasses of a new generation to create highly productive grassland agrophytocenoses of long-term use. Methods. The experiments were carried out in the conditions of arid and extremely arid zones of the Stavropol Territory. The objects of research were perennial legumes and cereals and their herb mixtures. Restoration of degraded hayfields and pastures was carried out by means of amelioration and superficial improvement. Results. According to our research, by enriching the degenerated grass with valuable legumes and cereals in terms of forage it is possible to significantly increase its productivity and quality. In extremely arid and arid zones the most effective mixtureswere ones involving 4 and 5 components, which yield reached 15.3–23.8 t/ha of green mass, and the yield of feed units per 1 ha was 1.9–2.6 t/ha. The increase in the productivity of the improved herbage had a positive effect on the feed capacity of the land, which increased to 0.83–1.30 conventional heads per 1 ha.
M. S. Shevtsova, V. F. Kadorkina
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The article presents the results of a three-year study of the stability of Psathyrostachys juncea to leaf spots in the feedstock nursery. The production of stable yields of Psathyrostachys juncea is limited by a number of factors, some of them are lesions by a complex of diseases that significantly reduce feed productivity. It has been revealed that the most common diseases of the leaves and stems of Psathyrostachys juncea are: helminthosporiosis, septoriosis and stem (linear) rust. On the basis of phytoimmunological evaluation of samples in the nursery of the starting material, the numbers K 2, K 4, K 6, K 9, K 10, K1 1, K 12, K 14, K 16, K 20 were identified, showing the highest complex resistance to the group of leaf spots.
E. A. Lakota, M. V. Zabelina
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The article presents experimental data on the use of intrabreed selection in order to create the most effective productive type of sheep of the Stavropol fine-wool breed. In the zone of the dry steppe of the Volga region the sheep of the Stavropol breed were improved by the meat merino of the Australian selection. Scientific and experimental research was carried out in JSC “New Life” ofNovouzensky district of the Saratov region. The crossbreeds obtained during the step-by-step crossing of Stavropol sheep with tup-producers of Australian meat merino with 1/8-blood content according to AMM by eye-measuring the degree of severity of wool and meat productivity were distributed according to productive indicators (live weight, wool shearing) to the corresponding specific types of productivity. The first group — the uterus of the wool productive type; the second — wool-meat, the third — meat-wool. Each group of sheep was assigned to tuh of meat-wool productive type. The offspring were obtained according to the selection of parental pairs: father x mother. At birth, the M-W x M-W ewe hoggs had an advantage over the W x M-Wanimals in terms of live weight by 7.47%, and over the M-W x M-W — by 1.7%. After weaning at 4.5 months, the live weight of all young animals decreased slightly. In 13.5 months, the superiority of group III over group I and II was 9.3%, 4.6%. In terms of cutting physical wool, group II yarks outperformed group I and III by 1.91 and 3.45%, while their advantage in pure wool was 13.6 and 4.11%. The longest coat was characterized by the young animals of group I, the stronger coat was in the young animals of group III. In the structure of fine-wooled sheep of the Stavropol breed of the Volga population three productive types were distinguished, which differ from each other in terms of productive indicators: wool, wool-meat and meat-wool. At the same time sheep of the Stavropol breed, bred in the dry steppe of the Volga region, to a greater extent deviate towards the wool-meat productive type, such merinos of the combined direction in the conditions of the modern economic situation are most demanded and profitable.
E. V. Davydov, B. V. Usha, T. O. Maryushina, M. V. Matveeva, Yu. S. Nemtseva
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. In this article, we present experimental study on the effect of photodynamic therapy with a chlorin-type photosensitizer on the hematological and biochemical blood parameters of cats with malignant oncological diseases. Methods. During conducting studies in experimental animals, we took blood samples from 44 cats aged 8 to 16 years, of different breeds and different sexes, before photodynamic therapy and two days after treatment, in order to determine the possible effect of therapy on the blood counts of patients. Blood sampling was carried out according to the standard method. Hematological examination was performed on a PCE90vet analyzer (HTI, USA), biochemical on an automatic biochemical analyzer Biosystems A15 (Biosystems, Spain) and on a semi-automatic analyzer Biohaem SA (HTI, USA). Photodynamic therapy was performed according to the standard method, with the preliminary introduction of the photosensitizer “Photoditazine” at a dose of 0.8– 1 mg/kg, 3 hours before irradiation. Results. The most significant changes in the hematological study were found among the following parameters: the level of white blood cells after irradiation increased by 18%, the number of eosinophils decreased by 28%, the number of segmented neutrophils increased by 11%, the content of lymphocytes decreased by 21%. When studying the biochemical parameters of blood, changes were found in the following parameter: the glucose level increased by 13% after irradiation, the level of GGT decreased by 19% after irradiation. At the same time, all indicators of the hematological and biochemical composition of the blood were within the normal values for this type of animal. Photodynamic therapy does not significantly affect the hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood of cats, this proves the safety of using this method of treatment in these animals.
Yu. V. Petrova, I. S. Lugovaya, V. D. Vasilchenko, A. A. Antipov, E. P. Agrinskaya
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
In modern Russia turkey breeding is developing at a significant rate. Turkey meat belongs to dietary products and is very popular among the population. The tasks of turkey breeding include, first of all, ensuring the safety of livestock, preventing feed stresses and reducing the level of microbial contamination. To create the required acidity in the digestive tract, in order to reduce the microbial contamination of feed and water, various feed additives are used based on organic acids or their salts with antimicrobial and probiotic properties, called acidifiers. The studies presented in the article were carried out according to generally accepted methods. As a result, it was found that the use of “Prodaktiv Acid SE” in growing turkeys in order to reduce the microbial contamination of feed and water contributes to an increase in the shelf life of meat and also improves the organoleptic characteristics of meat relatively to the control group.
Yu. V. Petrova, I. S. Lugovaya, V. D. Vasilchenko, A. A. Antipov, E. P. Agrinskaya
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
In modern Russia turkey breeding is developing at a significant rate. Turkey meat belongs to dietary products and is very popular among the population. The tasks of turkey breeding include, first of all, ensuring the safety of livestock, preventing feed stresses and reducing the level of microbial contamination. To create the required acidity in the digestive tract, in order to reduce the microbial contamination of feed and water, various feed additives are used based on organic acids or their salts with antimicrobial and probiotic properties, called acidifiers. The studies presented in the article were carried out according to generally accepted methods. As a result, it was found that the use of “Prodaktiv Acid SE” in growing turkeys in order to reduce the microbial contamination of feed and water contributes to an increase in the shelf life of meat and also improves the organoleptic characteristics of meat relatively to the control group.
Inna P. Novgorodova
Published: 26 July 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Cytogenetic studies are in demand to identify carriers of hereditary anomalies. In order to obtain metaphase plates of the chromosomes of various animal species, we optimized the usual method, taking into account some adjustments. Methods. The main research criterion was the selection of a hypotonic solution for cytogenetic studies in sheep and goats. 3 variants of using hypotonic solutions were considered: 0.56% solution of potassium chloride; distilled water and 0.56% solution of potassium chloride; 2% solution of sodium citrate and 0.56% solution of potassium chloride (1:1). For the cultivation of peripheral blood cells, blood was taken from the jugular vein of animals (goats n = 8, sheep n = 11). Results. The cells were cultured according to the generally accepted method. The results of the conducted studies showed that the quality of the preparations differed depending on the components used. The optimal parameters for the preparation of chromosomes with a good distribution were obtained by culturing sheep lymphocyte cells using 0.56% potassium chloride as a hypotonic solution (20 min) and ranged from 14.29 to 25.00%. For cytogenetic studies in goats, optimal results were found when using a 2% solution of sodium citrate with a 0.56% solution of potassium chloride (1:1) for 20 minutes — from 13.33 to 25.00%. Each option allowed to reduce the loss of cells during the preparation of chromosome preparations for a certain type of animal. Thus, the developed protocol for obtaining metaphase plates using a 2% solution of sodium citrate with a 0.56% solution of potassium chloride (1:1) as a hypotonic solution is optimal when used in goats, while the classical method (0.56% solution of potassium chloride) was most suitable for sheep.
Page of 13
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top