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Tiga Neya, Galine Yanon, Mouhamadou Bamba Sylla, Oble Neya, Julien W. Sawadogo
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3758

Abstract:
Transport sector is cited among the key emitted sector. In Burkina Faso, road transport occupies more than 60% of the emissions of the entire transport sector. However, there is no model equation for greenhouse gases modelling in transport sector. A methodology combining literature review and survey has been adopted to develop the simplified model equation in transport sector. The vehicle type survey allowed the identification of the type of vehicle and the literature review allowed the identification of the key parameters used for greenhouses gases modelling. The results revealed 10 vehicle types for road transport in Burkina Faso such as: Private cars, Public Transport/Buses, Special Vehicle (Ambulances, Fire bus, Funeral vehicles), other vehicle, Motorcycles, Wheeler, Rail, Van, Lorries and Truck Tractor. The keys parameters for greenhouse gases modelling are Fleet availability, Average annual distance travelled, Fuel Economy and Fuel emission factor. For all vehicle type identified simplified model equation was developed to support Burkina Faso, assessing greenhouse gases emission in the sector of transport. This approach could be replicated in other countries in the sub-Saharan Region.
Peter Sungu Nyakomitta, Vincent Omollo Nyangaresi, Solomon Odhiambo Ogara
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i4.3661

Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks convey mission critical data that calls for adequate privacy and security protection. To accomplish this objective, numerous intrusion detection schemes based on machine learning approaches have been developed. In addition, authentication and key agreements techniques have been developed using techniques such as elliptic curve cryptography, bilinear pairing operations, biometrics, fuzzy verifier and Rabin cryptosystems. However, these schemes have either high false positive rates, high communication, computation, storage or energy requirements, all of which are not ideal for battery powered sensor nodes. Moreover, majority of these algorithms still have some security and privacy challenges that render them susceptible to various threats. In this paper, a WSN authentication algorithm is presented that is shown to be robust against legacy WSN privacy and security attacks such as sidechannel, traceability, offline guessing, replay and impersonations. From a performance perspective, the proposed algorithm requires the least computation overheads and average computation costs among its peers.
Lilian Adhiambo Agunga, Joshua Agola, Paul Abuonji
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i4.3734

Abstract:
The current health information systems have many challenges such as lack of standard user interfaces, data security and privacy issues, inability to uniquely identify patients across multiple hospital information systems, probable misuse of patient data, high technological costs, resistance to technology deployments in hospital management, lack of data gathering, processing and analysis standardization. All these challenges, among others hamper either the acceptance of the health information systems, operational efficiency or expose patient information to cyber attacks. In this paper, an enhanced information systems success model for patient information assurance is developed using an amalgamation of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Information Systems Success Model (ISS). This involved the usage of Linear Structured Relationship (LISREL) software to model a combination of ISS and Intention to Use (ITU), TAM and ITU, ISS and user satisfaction (US), and finally TAM and US. The sample size of 110 respondents was obtained based on the total population of 221 using the Conhrans formula. Thereafter, simple random sampling was employed to select members within each category of employees to take part in the study. The questionnaire as a research tool was checked for reliability via Cronbach’s Alpha. The results obtained showed that for ISS and ITU modeling, only perceived ease of use, system features, response time, flexibility, timeliness, accuracy, responsiveness and user training positively influenced the intention to use. However, for the TAM and ITU modeling, only TAM’s measures such as timely information, efficiency, increased transparency, and proper patient identification had a positive effect on intension to use. The ISS and US modeling revealed that perceived ease of use had the greatest impact on user satisfaction while response time had the least effect on user satisfaction. On its part, the TAM and US modeling showed that timely information, effectiveness, consistency, enhanced communication, and proper patients identification had a positive influence on user satisfaction.
Girma Yohannis Bade
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i4.3614

Abstract:
This article reviews Natural Language Processing (NLP) and its challenge on Omotic language groups. All technological achievements are partially fuelled by the recent developments in NLP. NPL is one of component of an artificial intelligence (AI) and offers the facility to the companies that need to analyze their reliable business data. However, there are many challenges that tackle the effectiveness of NLP applications on Omotic language groups (Ometo) of Ethiopia. These challenges are irregularity of the words, stop word identification problem, compounding and languages ‘digital data resource limitation. Thus, this study opens the room to the upcoming researchers to further investigate the NLP application on these language groups.
Febronie Nambajemariya, Yongshun Wang, Twizerane Jean D’Amour, Kwizera Niyigena Vincent DePaul, Yao Hu
Artificial Intelligence Advances, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/aia.v3i2.3651

Abstract:
With the deployment of Connected and Automated Vehicles in the coming decades, road transportation will experience a significant upheaval. CAVs (Connected and Autonomous Vehicles) have been a main emphasis of Transportation and the automotive sector, and the future of transportation system analysis is widely anticipated. The examination and future development of CAVs technology has been the subject of numerous researches. However, as three essential kinds of road users, pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists have experienced little to no handling. We explored the influence of CAVs on non-motorized mobility in this article and seven various issues that CAVs face in the environment.
Alemayehu Diriba Roba
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3586

Abstract:
Coffea cultivation with shade tree is used for improving soil health, increasing coffea production, sustaining agro ecology. The study was attended in two kebele, on 36 farmers’ fields, at Gololcha district of East Arsi zone. The study was intended to assess the influence of coffea shade trees on farm lands versus mountainous area. Household interviews were used to get imperative separately, i.e. from old farmers, middle age farmers and young farmers. Significant difference value was observed between farm land and mountainous area coverage. Based on this respondents’ idea, before 25-30 years; the ‘condition of tree coverage at mountainous’ area in Arsi Gololcha district was ‘medium condition’ but not normal that means as deforestation of mountainous area have been starting before 30 years’ time; while the condition of tree coverage at farmland area also has been starting before 30 years’ time. The third respondents’ idea was interpreted with the real situation of the district, that it gave us a constructive inspiration on the role of coffea shade tree to enable the farm land to be taken as regular natural forest. The existing coffea shade trees are Cordia africana followed by Erythrina abyssinica and Acacia senegal. Farmers accounted 95% of coffea shade users and 4.6% without shade users. The respondents said that even if the rainfall intensity is increasing at farmland rather than mountainous area occasionally due to shade tree effect. On the contrary side, mountainous area exposed to deforestation since the farmers have been shifting to hilly side for their livelihood dependency.
M. Alhassan, M. Suleiman, A. A. Isah, A. G. Abdulrashid, Y. Nasiru, A. Bello
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3699

Abstract:
Colour removal from dye-bearing effluent is a serious challenge due to the difficulty in treating such wastewater by conventional treatment methods. The present investigation explores the decolourization of contaminated wastewater using acid-activated sawdust as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of wastewater samples labelled A, B, and C vizaverage temperature; pH; electrical conductivity; and total dissolved solids were determined using standard methods to be 302.63; 6.1; 284.47 µS/cm;35116.66 mg/L respectively. Colour removal efficiency of the adsorbent was studied under variable conditions (contact time, rate of agitation,loading). Experimental results demonstrated that the sawdust adsorbent has a significant capacity for colour removal from tannery effluent. There was significant variation in the absorbance of the treated samples. Adsorbent dose, stirring rate, and contact time were found to be directly proportional to colour removal while pH variation of the samples show that the effluents became less alkaline (slightly acidic) after decolourization.
Journal of Psychological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jpr.v3i4.3748

Abstract:
Psychological criminogenic factors for identifying terrorist offenders at risk of recidivism in Indonesia remain unclear; hence the adequate assessment to those involved with terrorism and measurement of effective terrorism rehabilitation are questioned. ‘MIKRA’ Risk Assessment was developed to identify individual criminogenic risk factors and needs of terrorist offenders in Indonesia. It is formulated to set up future parameters of effective terrorism rehabilitation. MIKRA study involved thirty-two eminent Indonesian counterterrorism experts and practitioners in semistructured interviews and qualitative data analysis. The study identifies 18 individual risk factors and needs of ideology-based terrorist offenders that are grouped into one of three higher order domains: Motivation, Ideology, and Capability.
Érika Pena Bedin, Luiz Carlos de Faria
Macro Management & Public Policies, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v3i3.3670

Abstract:
This study aims to explore how the topic of sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) has been addressed in the scientific literature. It presents a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1975 and 2019. After that, bibliometric and content analyses were performed in order to identify the behavior and evolution of the literature and identify the frequency with which they appear in the text, making it possible to raise replicable and valid inferences to the data. The results of this study indicate that the theme is emerging since the year 2010 and with a strong focus on qualitative studies, focused on critical theory. The results indicate that although studies involve the tripod environment, economy, and society, there is still a gap in studies that deal with specific issues to solve practical problems and that analyze the impacts from a more holistic perspective. The combination of methods made it possible to identify and interpret the articles in the selected sample, but based on results reported by other authors, with little room for quality control and integrity.
Bamidele Moses Kuboye
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i4.3555

Abstract:
The advancement in cellular communications has enhanced the special attention given to the study of resource allocation schemes. This study is to enhance communications to attain efficiency and thereby offers fairness to all users in the face of congestion experienced anytime a new product is rolled out. The comparative analysis was done on the performance of Enhanced Proportional Fair, Qos-Aware Proportional Fair and Logarithmic rule scheduling algorithms in Long Term Evolution in this work. These algorithms were simulated using LTE system toolbox in MATLAB and their performances were compared using Throughput, Packet delay and Packet Loss Ratio. The results showed Qos-Aware Proportional Fair has a better performance in all the metrics used for the evaluation.
Asefachew Belete Tseganeh, Henok Fikre Geberegziabher, Ayele Tesema Chala
Journal of Management Science & Engineering research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jmser.v4i2.3707

Abstract:
Expansive soils undergo high volume change due to cyclic swelling and shrinkage behavior during the wet and dry seasons. Thus, such problematic soils should be completely avoided or properly treated when encountered as subgrade materials. In the present study, the biomedical waste incinerator ash and lime combination was proposed to stabilize expansive soil. Particle size analysis, Atterberg limits, free-swell, compaction, unconfined compression strength, and California bearing ratio tests were conducted on the natural soil and blended with 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 11% biomedical waste incinerator ash (BWIA). The optimum content of BWIA was determined based on the free-swell test results. To further investigate the relative effectiveness of the stabilizer, 2% and 3% lime were also added to the optimum soil-BWIA mixture and UCS and CBR tests were also conducted. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests for representative stabilized samples were also conducted to examine the changes in microfabrics and structural arrangements due to bonding. The addition of BWIA has a promising effect on the index properties and strength of the expansive soil. The strength of the expansive soil significantly increased when it was blended with the optimum content of BWIA amended by 2% and 3% lime.
Tekilil Wolde
Published: 29 September 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i3.3668

Abstract:
The research was conducted in chaha wereda gurage zone SNNP region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess opportunity and challenges of degraded land rehabilitation. From the total population of the study area 20% (73) respondents were selected in order to achieve the objective of the study at hand, for the study both primary and secondary data was generated. The primary data collection was started with a preliminary survey followed by a key informant interview, focus group discussion, and household survey with questionnaires. The secondary data were collected from books, unpublished thesis, project report, and workshops, open ended questionnaire and checklists for interview. The households were selected using stratified sampling technique (Cochran) sample size formula the process of analysis of the study was carried out using qualitative description and quantitative analysis. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the quantitative data were analyzed frequency and percentage when appropriate the qualitative data were discussed to substantiate the study. And the results were expressed in the form of tables and graphs. The findings of the study indicated that limited labor availability, high cost of maintenance. Lack of knowledge, soil conditions, high surfaces runoff, poor vegetation coverage, poor monitoring and evaluation, poor implementation and poor training on the technology use are major challenges.
S. I. Akopunwanne, E. T. Oparaocha, C. D. Onwuka
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3582

Abstract:
Rainwater and groundwater quality in Izombe were assessed. Five water samples were collected from five (5) different locations, with at least one location from one of the four autonomous communities in Izombe, Oguta L.G.A of Imo State. The physicochemical and microbial parameters of rainwater and groundwater samples from Umuakpa, Ndeuloukwu, Ugbele, Ndioko, and Orsu were assessed using Varian Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and microbial qualities of groundwater and rainwater in Izombe and how these affect their health as individual members of the community, and their environment when compared to WHO standards. The water samples were collected from five different locations, with at least one location from each of the four autonomous communities, and were assessed. The result indicated that rainwater and groundwater pollutants in the community were turbidities, ammonia, copper and temperatures 7.59±0.02 ph, 6.42±0.28 nitrate, 59.56±0.50 ammonia, 0.29±0.07 phosphate, 0.88±0.03 iron, copper, lead, nickel, aluminum, mercury, manganese, cadmium, bacteria count, coliform count, and E-coli. Also, all the pollutant parameters were identified, only iron, copper, aluminum, and bacteria count were not identified as being associated with petroleum products and exploratory activities. This research has broadened the understanding of the suitability of Izombe water sources for both consumption and other purposes. The findings show that the rain and groundwater sources of the community are not fit for human consumption, due to the contaminants inherent in them, attributed majorly to the oil production activities in the area which corroborates other research studies.
Yin Huang, Na Li, Guoqin Huang, Huifang Xu
Published: 27 September 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i3.3685

Abstract:
The development of ecological economics is a major strategy for development in the 21st century. Although scholars have been rising more and more interesting for ecological economic over the past 10 years, it is still unclear what is the change will be facing in the future. In order to provide a theoretical basis for the future development of ecological economy, our article analyzes the current research progress of ecological economy on the basis of a bibliometric analysis. The results show that (1) sustainable development of an ecological economy is a hot research topic; (2) there is little cooperation and exchange between institutions and among scholars regarding ecological economics; (3) the number of publications on ecological economics is increasing, with a relatively large number being published in China. Therefore, we must strengthen the cooperation between institutions and among scholars and improve the research content, vision, and methods in this field. This study provides a theoretical basis for the future development of ecological economy.
Daniel Evans
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i4.3567

Abstract:
Quick Quantum Circuit Simulation (QQCS) is a software system for computing the result of a quantum circuit using a notation that derives directly from the circuit, expressed in a single input line. Quantum circuits begin with an initial quantum state of one or more qubits, which are the quantum analog to classical bits. The initial state is modified by a sequence of quantum gates, quantum machine language instructions, to get the final state. Measurements are made of the final state and displayed as a classical binary result. Measurements are postponed to the end of the circuit because a quantum state collapses when measured and produces probabilistic results, a consequence of quantum uncertainty. A circuit may be run many times on a quantum computer to refine the probabilistic result. Mathematically, quantum states are 2n -dimensional vectors over the complex number field, where n is the number of qubits. A gate is a 2n ×2n unitary matrix of complex values. Matrix multiplication models the application of a gate to a quantum state. QQCS is a mathematical rendering of each step of a quantum algorithm represented as a circuit, and as such, can present a trace of the quantum state of the circuit after each gate, compute gate equivalents for each circuit step, and perform measurements at any point in the circuit without state collapse. Output displays are in vector coefficients or Dirac bra-ket notation. It is an easy-to-use educational tool for students new to quantum computing.
Basma H. Marghani
Journal of Human Physiology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jhp.v3i2.3437

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that first appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and then spread all over the world, causing a global respiratory epidemic COVID-19 illness. Certain health conditions can increase your exposure to COVID-19, such as chronic obstructive lung disease, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The immune system of the host is severely compromised in the event of a respiratory viral infection. Immunocompromised patients have a more difficult time avoiding respiratory viral infections, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19 pneumonia and increasing the death rate to 19%. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to damage the host cell by modifying its own DNA or RNA and proliferating inside the host cell, with antiviral treatments and prophylactic vaccinations being tested. In recent years, numerous innovative technologies have been examined to diagnose, prevent and treat viral infections. Nano technology opens the way to distinguish the living cell mechanisms and develop new technologies that make it possible to diagnose and cure various viral infections in the early stage. The therapeutic and preventative approaches of nanomedicine are essential factors for curing SARS-CoV-2. The delivery of antiviral drugs based on nanocarrier, changes in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, leading in dose reduction, reductions in toxicity, increased bioavailability, and the prevention of the virus. The overall efficiency and safety of vaccinated adjuvant vaccine nanoparticles (VANs) helps enhance the immune response of older, immunocompromised persons with the greatest death rate of SARS-CoV-2. The review focuses on recent advancements in nanomedicine treatments and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2.
Fatima Isiaka, Zainab Adamu
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i4.3577

Abstract:
User experience is understood in so many ways, like a one on one interaction (subjective views), online surveys and questionnaires. This is simply so get the user’s implicit response, this paper demonstrates the underlying user emotion on a particular interface such as the webpage visual content based on the context of familiarisation to convey users’ emotion on the interface using emoji, we integrated physiological readings and eye movement behaviour to convey user emotion on the visual centre field of a web interface. The physiological reading is synchronised with the eye tracker to obtain correlating user interaction, and emoticons are used as a form of emotion conveyance on the interface. The eye movement prediction is obtained through a control system’s loop and is represented by different color display of gaze points (GT) that detects a particular user’s emotion on the webpage interface. These are interpreted by the emoticons. Result shows synchronised readings which correlates to area of interests (AOI) of the webpage and user emotion. These are prototypical instances of authentic user response execution for a computer interface and to easily identify user response without user subjective response for better and easy design decisions.
Cheng Tak Chan
Review of Educational Theory, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/ret.v4i4.3712

Abstract:
In terms of English learning, whether native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) surpass non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) or vice versa has been a heated topic. These two types of teachers have their own respective benefits and drawbacks with respect to English teaching. Most of the current related studies are on the traditional educational classroom setting in both secondary school and higher education. However, the study of the virtual learning platform as a method of teaching English is rare. This research displays valuable significance in identifying whether parents in Macao have a preference towards NESTs and NNESTs before they purchase the online synchronous one-on-one English lessons for their children. This qualitative study, after two participants were interviewed, concludes that they both prefer NESTs due to their authentic accent and pronunciation and believe it is more suitable in such a speaking-andlistening oriented online lesson. Price is not the prioritized factor to consider. They are generally satisfied with the teaching style of the online NESTs but it is also important to take note of the teaching approach conducted in the online lessons towards children, to ensure that it holds their interest appropriately.
M. Elaigwu, H.O.A. Oluma, A. Onekutu
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3482

Abstract:
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is usually contaminated with many fungi where some of them are mycotoxigenic causing economic and health problems. This study investigated the percentage composition of fungi contamination of sesame seeds in Benue state Nigeria. Using direct plating technique; the study revealed twelve species of fungi contamination in sesame seed obtained in Benue State. The percentage occurrence of fungal isolates shows that Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were found in all the locations and their occurrence was significantly different (P≤0.05). The percentage contamination of Sesame samples collected from Otukpo LGA has the highest fungal (23.35%) contamination and was significantly higher (P≤0.05) from samples of other places whereas Sesame contamination from Gboko was the least with total percentage of (12.05%). In conclusion, considering the benefits of sesame, it is recommended that several treatments should be applied to reduce the levels of contamination in sesame seeds before consumption utilization such as environmental conditions leading to fungal proliferation (a high temperature, humidity, poor soil fertility, drought and insect damage). Also poor harvesting practices, unsuitable storage conditions, improper transportation, marketing and processing should be discouraged.
Wagbafor Marx O., Adenegan Kemisola O., Oladokun Yetunde O.M, Olasehinde Toba
Macro Management & Public Policies, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v3i3.3546

Abstract:
Ability to have access and use financial goods and services such as bank and mobile money accounts indicates the overall financial inclusion level of an economy and the higher the indices are in any economy, the better that economy is. Financial inclusion is important to realize inclusive growth in any country. It has direct impacts on the level of growth and development experienced by any economy. It can however, be skewed along gender lines as noticed overtime in the Nigerian economy and other developing economies. This study examined financial inclusion in Nigeria: a gender gap approach. It also determined the factors responsible for the gender gaps. The Global Findex (2014) dataset of Nigeria from World Bank database was used to analyse the aims of the study. In the study, 61% of the men were financially included, while only 43% of the female were financially included, with 18% gap. The gap in endowments accounted for the huge difference of the gap in outcomes as males seemed to be more naturally favoured by society than females. The level of education, wealth quintile, saved in past 12 months for farm/business purposes, sent domestic remittances in the past 12 months, paid utility bills in the past 12 months, and received wage payments in the past 12 months are the factors explaining the gender gaps in Nigeria. Thus the government and other relevant stakeholders should encourage females along these factors.
Qianxun Jiang, Cuili Luan
Macro Management & Public Policies, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v3i3.3599

Abstract:
Street vending is a form of informal economy. The main participants of street vending economy consist of exploited workers, rural-urban migrants who are in low level of socioeconomic households, common workers, and some individual households. Most of the studies and articles have explored how to regulate the street vending economy and how to facilitate the relationship between vendors and city authorities, but the important constitute of street vending economies, rural migrants, has received little attention from scholars and there is little research about it. What role does street vending economy play in the lives of this segment of this population which itself faces a number of challenges in migrating and integrating into the city? We have found out that street vending functions as a platform which helps these people to better integrate into the cities. Through desktop research and case studies, this paper explores how street vending economy helps rural to urban migrants integrate into the city from four perspectives: identity integration, integrating in economic level, integrating in social level, and females' empowerment.
Abhinandan Kulal
Macro Management & Public Policies, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v3i3.3589

Abstract:
Due to the transparency, simplicity, and blockchain system, cryptocurrencies gained popularity in the modern world. This led to more use of cryptocurrencies for speculation and investment rather than a medium of exchange. It is crucial to analyse the nature of the crypto market before investing in such currencies. With this intention, the paper tried to know the extent of following (Followness) of altcoins to the bitcoin in the different dominance phases like High Dominance, Low Dominance, and Moderate Dominance. For this purpose, daily closing prices of the Bitcoin and five major altcoins (Ethereum, Litecoin, Namecoin, Doge, and Ripple) are collected for the last five years and analyse the relationship between bitcoin and altcoins. Pearson's correlation coefficient test is used to know the direction of the relationship, and Vector Error Correction Model is used to see the extent of the relation. In general, the empirical result of the study showed cointegration between bitcoin and Altcoin. It also depicted that Altcoin showed a high level of followness in the moderate dominance phase and low followness in the low dominance phase. The study developed a price estimation equation to predict the price of altcoins depending upon the price of bitcoin and its dominance in the crypto market. This paper concludes that the dominance of Bitcoin also has a significant role in the price movement of altcoins.
Kedir Bekeru Genemo
Macro Management & Public Policies, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v3i3.3547

Abstract:
Velocity of money is an important instrument used to measure the monetary target and quality of monetary policy. Referencing the trends in the money velocity, mainly in the short term, will have a paramount effect in determining the trends in real money growth. This study investigates the main causes of money velocity in Ethiopia using time series data for the period 1974/75 to 2015/16. A regression with Bayesian estimation and nonparametric Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) methods were used to analyze the data. Variables such as credit, real interest rate, real exchange rate and real per capita income were included as potential determinants of money velocity. The findings of using non-parametric LOWESS methods show an upward trends in the velocity of money since 2002 and downward trends before 2002, indicating the existence’s of prudent monetary policy in Ethiopia after 2002. The result also shows a positive effect of real exchange rate and credit, whereas income per capita and real interest rates have a negative effect on velocity of money in Ethiopia. Hence, this paper recommends that, the policy to encourage sustainable economic growth and increase in interest rate would be beneficial to reduce velocity of money.
Nicholas Daniel Otieno, Olanrewaju Isola Fatoki
Macro Management & Public Policies, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v3i3.3595

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of donor funding on the performance of water utilities in Kenya. The study employed the use of a census by targeting all 88 regulated Water Services Providers (WSPs) in Kenya for a period of two years, 2016 and 2017. Data pertaining to the support received from the donors were obtained from the publications of the WSPs, Development Partners, Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), and Office of Auditor General (OAG). Performance data of the various WSPs were extracted from the Impact reports produced by Water Regulatory Board (WASREB), for the periods 2016/7 to 2017/8. Presentation of the data was done through the use of tables and charts with the application of SPSS. The study found that donor funding issued as Output Based Approach (OBA) leads to improved performance. This finding is expected to assist the Kenyan Government in negotiating for the Official Development Assistance (ODA) funding to be aligned to the government flagship projects under the Medium Term Plans (MTP). The study recommends OBA as the best way of issuing donor funding.
Patience Mpia Ngelinkoto, André-Marie Kassia Lokassa, Bernadin Bulumuka, Jeff Kawaya Maliani, Myriam Mukadi Ngondo, Ruth Luntadila Mbuli, Johnny Bopopi Mukoko, Florent Biduaya Mukeba
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3455

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to find and assay phytochemical compounds and various biological macromolecules of the tender stems of Dioscorea praehensilis benth and evaluate their antioxidant activity and to compare the content of oxalates and cyanogenetic glucosides between raw and cooked tender stems. The plant collection and identification, phytochemical evaluation: phytochemical screening, preliminary (qualitative) analyses and in vitro assays. Phytochemical screening was performed by qualitative methods. The estimation of the content of secondary metabolites was evaluated by spectrophotometry-UV. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS and DPPH assays and preliminary composition by the gravimetric method. The results obtained show that the stems of Dioscorea praehensilis are devoid of certain important chemical groups, the flavonoids were not detected and they were rich in total polyphenols (17.22 ± 0.16), tannins (19.32 ± 0.52) and anthocyanins (25.22 ± 0.04). Our extracts showed a lower antioxidant activity than that of positive controls. The samples are rich in carbohydrates and fiber, with low levels of proteins, lipids and ash. Dioscorea praehensilis has a high toxicity in HCN, but after a good cooking of about 1 hour, 99.97% of the cyanide are eliminated and does not have many oxalates. The results obtained show that Dioscorea praehensilis has a high dietary value and can therefore be used as a nutritive food.
Masens Da-Musa Y.B., Briki K. Cyril, Masens Mandung, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua
Journal of Botanical Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbr.v3i4.3505

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to inventory plant biodiversity and to evaluate the carbon sequestration potential of the Misomuni forest massif. An inventory of all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm measured at 1.30 m height was performed. The aerial biomass (AGB) was used for estimating the stored CO2 and its carbon equivalent. 88 plant species belonging to 71 genera and 32 families were inventoried. Fabaceae family displayed the highest number of species and genera. The highest basal area values were displayed by Scorodophloeus zenkeri (7.34 ± 2.45 m2 /ha), Brachystegia laurentii (5.82 ± 1.94 m2 /ha), Entandrophragma utile (5.28 ± 1.94 m2 /ha), Pentadesma butyracea (4.53 ± 1.51 m2 /ha). The highest values of stored carbon and their carbon equivalent were observed in Pentadesma butyracea (15.13 ± 5.00 and 50.55 ± 16.85 t/ha), Picralima nitida (7.02 ± 2.34 and 23.66 ± 7.88 t/ha), Strombosia tetandra (6.56 ± 2.18 and 22.10 ± 7.36 t/ha). The Misomuni forest massif is thus much floristically diversified and plays a significant role in the sequestration of CO2. The total AGB of the inventoried trees is 183.78 ± 61.26 t/ha corresponding to stored carbon and carbon equivalent of 96.63 ± 32.21 t/ha and 289.92 ± 96.64 t/ha respectively. The protection of this ecosystem is highly needed for combatting climatic changes at local, national and regional scales and for the conservation biodiversity habitat.
Maurice O Oyugi
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3289

Abstract:
Various postulations on the relationship between urban morphology and air quality are qualitative. This fails to establish the strength of the contributions of each morphological parameter in the spatial distribution of the air quality. It is this gap in knowledge that this study sought to fill by modelling the correlation existing between the urban morphological variables of development density, land uses, biomass index and air quality values of Nairobi city. While 30 development zones of the city constituted the target population, IKONOS satellite imagery of the city for the year 2015 was utilised in establishing the development densities, land uses and biomass index. The parameters were transformed into numerical surrogates ranging from 1 to 10 with lower values accorded to zones with low biomass index, the highest development density, noxious land uses, high gaseous concentrations and vice-versa. Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r), coefficients of determination (R), t-tests and the Analysis of Variance (F-tests) with levels of significance being 95% were used to determine the strengths, significances and consistencies of the established relationships. The study established that development density is the most significant morphological variable influencing the distribution of air quality. This is followed by biomass index and to a weaker extent, land uses.
Hiroaki Waraya, Masahiro Muraguchi
Journal of Electronic & Information Systems, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jeisr.v3i2.3569

Abstract:
With the rapid development of wireless systems, the demand for frequency resources has been increasing in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the high-quality communication method that efficiently utilizes finite frequency resources. In this paper, Single Sideband 16 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (SSB 16PAM) scheme for the uplink communication is proposed. It transmits data in only Lower Sideband (LSB) without extra Hilbert components. Under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel environment, Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the proposed scheme is superior by 3 dB in terms of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) to 256 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (256QAM) scheme with the same frequency efficiency and the same Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Our proposed scheme employs the original frequency domain filter on the transmitter side to form an ideal spectrum. The configuration of its process is almost similar to Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA), moreover, half of the input data on the frequency domain is removed. The proposed frequency domain filter produces the SSBmodulated spectrum with a roll-off rate of zero without degrading the BER performance.
, Min Jo Kim, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi, Jin Pyeong Jeon, Takako Yokozawa
Journal of Integrative Medicine, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.30564/jim.v10i2.3441

Abstract:
Inhibition of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) or glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is estimated to be the central therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, water extract of Kangenkaryu, its crude drug and chemical composition used in oriental medicine were evaluated regarding their BACE1 and GSK-3β inhibitory activities.Fluorescence resonance energy transfer was used to characterize the BACE1 inhibitory effect of Kangen-karyu, its crude drug and chemical composition.GSK-3β activity was determined using the Kinase-Glo Luminescent Kinase Assay Platform. The water extract of Kangen-karyu inhibited BACE1 and GSK-3β in concentration-dependent manners when compared with reference drugs, quercetin and luteolin. Among six components of Kangen-karyu, the water extracts of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix or Cyperi Rhizoma exhibited significant inhibitory effects on BACE1 and GSK-3β. Among the constituents of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix extract, salvianolic acid C, salvianolic acid A, rosmarinic acid, and magnesium lithospermate B significantly inhibited BACE1. In addition, they inhibited GSK-3β with an IC50 value range of 6.97 to 135.35 μM. From these results, one of the effectiveness and its mechanisms of action of Kangen-karyu against AD may be the inhibition of BACE1 and GSK-3β, and one of the active ingredients of Kangen-karyu is Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and its constituents.
Cisse Sory Ibrahima, Jianwu Xue, Thierno Gueye
Journal of Management Science & Engineering research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jmser.v4i2.3261

Abstract:
Demand forecasting and big data analytics in supply chain management are gaining interest. This is attributed to the wide range of big data analytics in supply chain management, in addition to demand forecasting, and behavioral analysis. In this article, we studied the application of big data analytics forecasting in supply chain demand forecasting in the automotive parts industry to propose classifications of these applications, identify gaps, and provide ideas for future research. Algorithms will then be classified and then applied in supply chain management such as neural networks, k-nearest neighbors, time series forecasting, clustering, regression analysis, support vector regression and support vector machines. An extensive hierarchical model for short-term auto parts demand assessment was employed to avoid the shortcomings of the earlier models and to close the gap that regarded mainly a single time series. The concept of extensive relevance assessment was proposed, and subsequently methods to reflect the relevance of automotive demand factors were discussed. Using a wide range of skills, the factors and cofactors are expressed in the form of a correlation characteristic matrix to ensure the degree of influence of each factor on the demand for automotive components. Then, it is compared with the existing data and predicted the short-term historical data. The result proved the predictive error is less than 6%, which supports the validity of the prediction method. This research offers the basis for the macroeconomic regulation of the government and the production of auto parts manufacturers.
Cisse Sory Ibrahima, Jianwu Xue, Thierno Gueye
Journal of Management Science & Engineering research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jmser.v4i2.3242

Abstract:
Forecasting is predicting or estimating a future event or trend. Supply chains have been constantly growing in most countries ever since the industrial revolution of the 18th century. As the competitiveness between supply chains intensifies day by day, companies are shifting their focus to predictive analytics techniques to minimize costs and boost productivity and profits. Excessive inventory (overstock) and stock outs are very significant issues for suppliers. Excessive inventory levels can lead to loss of revenue because the company's capital is tied up in excess inventory. Excess inventory can also lead to increased storage, insurance costs and labor as well as lower and degraded quality based on the nature of the product. Shortages or out of stock can lead to lost sales and a decline in customer contentment and loyalty to the store. If clients are unable to find the right products on the shelves, they may switch to another vendor or purchase alternative items. Demand forecasting is valuable for planning, scheduling and improving the coordination of all supply chain activities. This paper discusses the use of neural networks for seasonal time series forecasting. Our objective is to evaluate the contribution of the correct choice of the transfer function by proposing a new form of the transfer function to improve the quality of the forecast.
Hingabu Hordofa Koricho, Shaoxian Song
Published: 19 August 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i3.3638

Abstract:
This work aims at studying different green spaces’ experiences in developed countries and extrapolates the experiences to Oromia cities in Ethiopia; in order to investigate and promote greenery infrastructure in selected cities. To do that greenery practice performance data were collected in four cities, which were classified into two groups as good and weak performers. As a result, Adama and Bishoftu cities were good urban greenery performers whereas Burayu and Sebeta were weak performers. The cities were also selected non-randomly to investigate the current urban greenery practice and different green areas in each city. Eight green areas were taken as samples for observation, where qualitative and quantitative data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The assessment of data confirmed that green areas along the roadside, recreational parks, open areas, and nursery sites existed in most cities. The urban plan of some cities does exclude most green area components. Greenery sites in Bishoftu and Adama are relatively better, while in Burayu and Sebeta urban greenery are highly abused for changing to another type of land use, e.g., residential and institutional areas. The technical skills of tree planting, care, protection, and management were also observed as a collective resource.
Federico Vargas Lehner, Ruth Tiffer Sotomayor, Alejandrino Díaz, Alberto Yanosky
Published: 19 August 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i3.3358

Abstract:
Agricultural systems result of the coevolution between social and natural systems, where biodiversity and natural resources play an important role, emerging interactions between crops and the natural environment that allow the development of ecological processes which interact with external inputs. This research aims to describe the agricultural practices developed by the Guarani Indigenous People in the agricultural systems located within the biodiversity corridor of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest. This exploratory study is focused on multiple cases, with a qualitative approach and data were collected during 2017 and 2018 in eleven indigenous communities. The main practices developed for the management of biodiversity are polyculture, rotation, and embroideries; they also practice agroforestry and livestock-raising. The main difficulty they face is the reduction of the surrounding biodiversity, which affects the sustainability of the system. This study shows ways for nature-based solutions and ecosystem-based adaptation according to current needs for greening the economy.
K. R. Panwar, G. Tripathi
Published: 19 August 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i3.3429

Abstract:
In this study, an analysis of organic fertilizer of an agro-waste (Sesame straw) plus cow dung was carried out using an epigeic earthworm species Eisenia fetida and Perionyx sansibaricus. Sesame straw is abundantly produced after each harvesting of the crop in Kharif season in arid region of tropical India. The compost produced in presence and absence of earthworm exhibit significant (P0.05) changes in physicochemical properties respectively. In control bedding, the values of water holding capacity enhanced significantly (P<0.05) by 1.28 fold, while organic carbon and C/N ratio decreased significantly (P<0.05) by 19.93% and 31.25% respectively after 60 days of composting.Working of E. fetida in the bedding material showed significant (P<0.001) difference in the level of pH, electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, available phosphorous and available potassium. After 60 days of working of P. sansibaricus, these physicochemical properties of the bedding substrate also changed significantly (P<0.001). Analysis of vermibed showed a gradual increase in electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium by 1.51, 1.86, 1.95, 1.78 and 1.75 fold respectively. While the values of pH, organic carbon and C/N ratio declined by 9.30%, 41.80% and 71.48% respectively within 60 days of decomposition. Thus, E. fetida and P. sansibaricus can be applied for production of organic fertilizer of sesame chaff plus cow dung to fulfill the requirement of bio-fertilizers for organic farming and agro-waste management in arid environment.
Jinhua Shao, Kai Huang, Wei Tang, Xinyue Liang, Weixiong Wu, Guoqin Huang
Published: 19 August 2021
Research in Ecology, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/re.v3i3.3386

Abstract:
The water network plays an important role in maintaining the stability of regional water resource and ecological environment. It is also affecting the harmonious development between environment and economy. Guangxi is one of the provinces with relatively rich water resources in China, while the ecological water network exists deficiencies and faces challenges. The current situation and defects of ecological water network in Guangxi province will be discussed. By studying the experience of the establishing and the preserve of ecological water network in various regions at home and abroad, some suggestions and targeted measures will be mentioned for a better ecological water network in Guangxi.
Yunbo Zhang, Liping Zheng, Junqi Liu, Jinqiu Li, Jianguang Zhang, Jingjing Ma, YuXiu Song
Journal of Oncology Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jor.v3i2.3513

Abstract:
Background: The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of postoperative radiotherapy for N2 lung cancer.Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of postoperative radiotherapy on the survival and prognosis of patients with N2 lung cancer.Setting and design: Data from 12,000 patients with N2 lung cancer were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2012). Age at disease onset and 5-year survival rates were calculated.Statistical analysis: Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The univariate log-rank test was performed. Multivariate Cox regression were used to examine factors affecting survival.Results: Patients’ median age was 67 years (mean 66.46 ± 10.03). The 5-year survival rate was 12.55%. Univariate analysis revealed age, sex, pathology, and treatment regimen as factors affecting prognosis. In multivariate analysis, when compared to postoperative chemotherapy, postoperative chemoradiotherapy was better associated with survival benefits (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.813-0.898, P <0.001). Propensity score matching revealed that patients who had received postoperative chemoradiotherapy had a better prognosis than did patients who had received postoperative chemotherapy (HR=0.869, 95% CI: 0.817-0.925, P <0.001).Conclusion: Female patients and patients aged <65 years had a better prognosis than did their counterparts. Patients with adenocarcinoma had a better prognosis than did patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, prognosis worsened with increasing disease T stage. Patients who had received postoperative chemoradiotherapy had a better prognosis than did patients who had received postoperative chemotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy was an independent prognostic factor in this patient group.
Elena N Tolkunova
Journal of Oncology Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jor.v3i2.3566

Abstract:
Gliomas are solid brain tumors composed of tumor cells and recruited heterogenic stromal component. The study of the interactions between the perivascular niche and its surrounding cells is of great value in unraveling mechanisms of drug resistance in malignant gliomas. In this study, we isolated the stromal diploid cell population from oligodendroglioma and a mixed population of tumor aneuploid and stromal diploid cells from astrocytoma specimens. The stromal cells expressed neural stem/progenitor and mesenchymal markers showing the same discordant phenotype that is typical for glioma cells. Moreover, some of the stromal cells expressed CD133. For the first time, we demonstrated that this type of stromal cells had the typical myofibroblastic phenotype as the α-SMA+ cells formed α-SMA fibers and exhibited the specific function to deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins at least in vitro. Immunofluorescent analysis showed diffuse or focal α-SMA staining in the cytoplasm of the astrocytoma-derived, A172, T98G, and U251MG glioma cells. We could suggest that α-SMA may be one of the main molecules, bearing protective functions. Possible mechanisms and consequences of α-SMA disruptions in gliomas are discussed.
Wirat Wasinwong, Mantana Saetang, Thavat Chanchayanon
Journal of Integrative Medicine, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.30564/jim.v10i2.3459

Abstract:
Internal defibrillation is commonly indicated for shockable rhythm following cross-clamp removal in cardiac surgery. Low energy decreases the success rate of defibrillation but high energy can cause myocardial damage. This study aimed to determine the success rate of internal defibrillation for shockable arrhythmias after cardiac surgery.Retrospective data of 1,424 patients who developed shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia), and required internal defibrillation after aortic cross-clamp removal during cardiac surgery, without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest technique, from August 2015 to July 2017, were reviewed.The overall success rate of internal defibrillation in the first attempt of defibrillation was 61.5%. The success rate of the energy levels at 30, 10, and 7 Jules were 66.7, 64.9, and 61.5%, respectively. The success rate was higher in patients who had a better ejection fraction than those who failed after defibrillation. This was significantly associated with higher pH, higher bicarbonate, lower serum calcium, and lower total cardioplegic volume during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Redo-valve surgery, valvular surgery, and combined coronary artery bypass graft with valvular surgery had a non-significantly lower success rate (p-value = 0.989). Incidence of failure for defibrillate patients in redo-valvular surgery, combined coronary artery bypass graft with valve surgery, adult congenital heart defect, and valvular surgery; requiring four or five shocks was non-significantly increased. Recurrent rate of ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia was 13.5%.The success rate of internal defibrillation was not related to the dose of energy used after being weaned off CPB.
Sergey Victorovich Ulyanov
Artificial Intelligence Advances, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/aia.v3i2.3171

Abstract:
The quantum self-organization algorithm model of wise knowledge base design for intelligent fuzzy controllers with required robust level considered. Background of the model is a new model of quantum inference based on quantum genetic algorithm. Quantum genetic algorithm applied on line for the quantum correlation’s type searching between unknown solutions in quantum superposition of imperfect knowledge bases of intelligent controllers designed on soft computing. Disturbance conditions of analytical information-thermodynamic trade-off interrelations between main control quality measures (as new design laws) discussed in Part I. The smart control design with guaranteed achievement of these tradeoff interrelations is main goal for quantum self-organization algorithm of imperfect KB. Sophisticated synergetic quantum information effect in Part I (autonomous robot in unpredicted control situations) and II (swarm robots with imperfect KB exchanging between “master - slaves”) introduced: a new robust smart controller on line designed from responses on unpredicted control situations of any imperfect KB applying quantum hidden information extracted from quantum correlation. Within the toolkit of classical intelligent control, the achievement of the similar synergetic information effect is impossible. Benchmarks of intelligent cognitive robotic control applications considered.
Falah Al-Akashi, Diana Inkpen
Artificial Intelligence Advances, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/aia.v3i2.3219

Abstract:
What is a real time agent, how does it remedy ongoing daily frustrations for users, and how does it improve the retrieval performance in World Wide Web? These are the main question we focus on this manuscript. In many distributed information retrieval systems, information in agents should be ranked based on a combination of multiple criteria. Linear combination of ranks has been the dominant approach due to its simplicity and effectiveness. Such a combination scheme in distributed infrastructure requires that the ranks in resources or agents are comparable to each other before combined. The main challenge is transforming the raw rank values of different criteria appropriately to make them comparable before any combination. Different ways for ranking agents make this strategy difficult. In this research, we will demonstrate how to rank Web documents based on resource-provided information how to combine several resources raking schemas in one time. The proposed system was implemented specifically in data provided by agents to create a comparable combination for different attributes. The proposed approach was tested on the queries provided by Text Retrieval Conference (TREC). Experimental results showed that our approach is effective and robust compared with offline search platforms.
Oluwatoyin O. Akinola, Olusola A. Ola Olorun
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3308

Abstract:
Akure area in southwestern Nigeria falls within the basement complex underlain by migmatite, quartzite granite and charnockite. Geochemical features of these crystalline rocks and their overlying in-situ weathering profiles are investigated and reported. Analytical result from ICP-MS facility at the University of Malaya reveals average SiO2 content in quartzite (91.1%), granite (73.8%), migmatite (67.4%) and charnockite (58.6%) categorize the rocks as siliceous. SiO2 contents in the weathering profiles above these rocks are 61.9%, 60.2%, 52.2% and 54.6% respectively. Alumina contents in the weathering profiles overlying quartzite (23.8%), granite (19.9%), migmatite (26.3%) and charnockite (24.3%) are substantially higher than the precursor rocks. In the same order, average alkali (Na2O+K2O) contents in the profiles are 3.38%, 3.42%, 3.48% and 2.68%. Chemical features of the profiles reflect that there exists some correlation between the chemistry of crystalline basement and their in-situ weathering profiles. The residual soils contain low plastic clays with kaolinitic characteristics and compare well with other clays reported from other parts of Nigeria basement complex.
Jingjing Tao
Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3284

Abstract:
Environmental issues are becoming hot topics nowadays. As the steps of industrialization and urbanization expand, the conflict between economic development and environmental protection appears to intensify and catch people’s eyes more frequently, from the disappearing Amazon rainforest to the pollution of Mississippi River. Over the past few months, the news of one species, salmon, dying out in the northwestern part of the United States drew our team’s attention. In this paper, I would like to present my research on Pacific Northwest salmon from the perspectives of problem statement, policy proposal, and political analysis.
Jênifer Ribeiro Dona, Istefani Carisio de Paula, Alceu Terra Do Nascimento, Aline Cafruni Gularte
Journal of Management Science & Engineering research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jmser.v4i2.3336

Abstract:
Brazilian public managers have been structuring and updating policies to support workers’ employment and income strategies. However, when the vulnerable individual has social, emotional, or technical limitations, success in this operation becomes uncertain. This research aim was to propose a methodology to identify profiles in vulnerable populations, viewing to promote the efficient elaboration of employment and income strategies. The unit of analysis was vulnerable population of waste pickers, in a large city from South Brazil, in the scope of a municipal program named "All of us are Porto Alegre". A literature review allowed the identification of tools from marketing, economy and design adequate to profile analysis. A workshop with social educators responsible for giving support to the individuals. Insights from workshop and the literature allowed the proposition of a methodology including cluster analysis and the creative tool named personas. The methodological approach suggests it is adequate in confirming the differences in profiles. The theoretical contribution lies in the use of quantitative-creativity tools to support policymaking. The practical contribution is to provide consistent information for governmental decision-making at the labor access market.
Pavan Kumar B, Bhavani Pinjarla, P K Joshi, P S Roy
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3475

Abstract:
A comprehensive analysis of climate data (1958-2018) is carried out at the national scale in India to assess spatiotemporal variation in aridity. The aridity is analyzed using UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Aridity Index (AI), which is the ratio between Precipitation (P) and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET). Freely available Terra-Climate database, P and PET variables, offered an unprecedented opportunity for monitoring variations in AI and aridity index anomalies (AIA) at interseasonal and inter-decadal basis. The study also assesses longer term patterns of P and AI anomalies with vegetation anomalies. The results indicate that significant clustered areas with maximum dryness are located at west-central part of India, the state of Maharashtra. Overall, there is a gradual increase in the extent of arid zone during 60-year period and spatially maximum extent of percentage change in aridity area is observed. The change patterns of AI in India are largely driven by the changing patterns of precipitation. The maximum impact of decline in precipitation on AIA was observed during Kharif season frequently, for every 4-5 years during 1972-1992. The pattern repeated in the last few recent years (2013- 2018), the decline in precipitation resulted increased aridity. The study also reveals that the availability and usage of irrigation sources have increased from 2014 to 2018. Thus, despite of less precipitation positive vegetation has been resulted in this period. The findings are important to understand the impacts of climate change on land use pattern, and land and water resource management.
Sheikh Nawaz Ali, Anil D. Shukla
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3556

Abstract:
Himalayan glaciers‒ the store house of fresh water outside the polar region contributes ~45% of the total river flow by glacial melt in the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra watersheds which supports the livelihood of ~500 million people . The sustainability of these rivers is being questioned because of the growing evidences of accelerated glacier retreat in the recent decades, which is expected to have cascading effects on the mountainous areas and their surrounding lowlands. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers reveals their sensitivity to ongoing changes in climate dynamics, and if the current trend continues, rivers that rely heavily on snow/ice melt are expected to suffer hydrological disruptions to the point where some of the most populous areas may ‘run out of water’ during the dry season. Therefore, efforts are being made to study the glacier mass balance trends in order to understand the patterns and causes of recent recessional trend. Despite their importance, the absence of long-term mass-balance and remote sensing data restricts our knowledge of the Himalayan glaciers’ sensitivity/ response to climate change. Furthermore, such studies may be insufficient unless are compared to long-term glacier fluctuations (millennial and multi-millennial time scales), which aid in better understanding the natural trends of and human impacts on climate change, as well as assessing the causes and possible future of contemporary shrinking glaciers. This will also improve our understanding of past glacier behaviour in the context of primary causes of glacier change, which is critical for water resource management and understanding climate variability in high alpine areas where alternative proxy climate archives are typically scarce. Therefore, it is pertinent to pool our scientific resources and energy (i) towards understanding the Himalayan glaciers’ feeders (precipitation sources) and how they changed over time (geological and historical), as well as the causes of glaciers recession, one of which has been identified as (ii) black soot (carbon) in aerosol pollution.
Deepak Singh Rathore, Vimlesh Kumar Meena, Chandra Pal Singh Chandel, Krishna Swarup Gupta
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3465

Abstract:
Hydrogen sulfide is an important acid rain precursor and this led us to investigate the kinetics of its oxidation in aqueous phase by atmospheric oxygen. The kinetics was followed by measuring the depletion of oxygen in a reactor. The reaction was studied under pseudo order conditions with [H2S] in excess. The kinetics followed the rate law: -d[O2]/dt = k[S][O2]t (A) Where [S] represents the total concentration of hydrogen sulfide, [O2]t is the concentration of oxygen at time t and k is the second order rate constant. The equilibria (B - C) govern the dissolution of H2S; the sulfide ion in water forms different species: H2S K1 HS- + H+ (B) HS- K2 S2- + H+ (C) Where K1 and K2 are first and second dissociation constants of H2S. Although, H2S is present as undissociated H2S, HS- and S2- ions, nature of [H+ ] dependence of reaction rate required only HS- to be reactive and dominant. The rate law (A) on including [H+ ] dependence became Equation (D). -d[O2]/dt = k1K1[H+ ][S][O2]t / ([H+ ] 2 + K1[H+ ] + K1K2) (D) Our results indicate anthropogenic VOCs such as acetanilide, benzene, ethanol, aniline, toluene, benzamide, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene and anisole to have no significant effect on the reaction rate and any observed small effect is within the uncertainty of the rate measurements.
UmmulKhair Abdulkarim, Bello Tijjani
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3430

Abstract:
Atmospheric aerosol concentrations have been found to change constantly due to the influence of source, winds and human activities over short time periods. This has proved to be a constraint to the study of varied aerosol concentrations in urban atmosphere alongside changing relative humidity and how it affects visibility and aerosol particle size distribution. In this research simulation was carried out using Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC 4.0) average concentration setup for relative humidity (RH) 0-99% at visible wavelength 0.4-0.8 μm to vary the concentrations of three aerosol components: WASO (Water-soluble), INSO (Insoluble) and SOOT. The Angstrom exponents (α), the curvatures (α2) and atmospheric turbidities (β) were obtained from the regression analysis of Kaufman’s first and second order polynomial equations for visibility. The research determined the mean exponent of the aerosol size growth curve (µ) from the effective hygroscopic growth (geff) and the humidification factors (γ) from visibility enhancement f (RH, λ). The mean exponent of aerosol size distributions (υ) was determined from µ and γ. The results showed that with varied WASO, INSO and SOOT concentrations respectively at different RH, aerosol particle size distributions showed bimodal characteristics with dominance of fine mode particles. Hazy atmospheric conditions prevailed with increasing turbidity.
Mary Ogbuka Kenneth, Stephen Michael Olujuwon
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i3.3535

Abstract:
Alphanumerical usernames and passwords are the most used computer authentication technique. This approach has been found to have a number of disadvantages. Users, for example, frequently choose passwords that are simple to guess. On the other side, if a password is difficult to guess, it is also difficult to remember. Graphical passwords have been proposed in the literature as a potential alternative to alphanumerical passwords, based on the fact that people remember pictures better than text. Existing graphical passwords, on the other hand, are vulnerable to a shoulder surfing assault. To address this shoulder surfing vulnerability, this study proposes an authentication system for web-applications based on visual cryptography and cued click point recall-based graphical password. The efficiency of the proposed system was validated using unit, system and usability testing measures. The results of the system and unit testing showed that the proposed system accomplished its objectives and requirements. The results of the usability test showed that the proposed system is easy to use, friendly and highly secured.
Yan Liu
Journal of Economic Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jesr.v4i3.3331

Abstract:
The study of spatial econometrics has developed rapidly and has found wide applications in many different scientific fields, such as demography, epidemiology, regional economics, and psychology. With the deepening of research, some scholars find that there are some model specifications in spatial econometrics, such as spatial autoregressive (SAR) model and matrix exponential spatial specification (MESS), which cannot be nested within each other. Compared with the common SAR models, the MESS models have computational advantages because it eliminates the need for logarithmic determinant calculation in maximum likelihood estimation and Bayesian estimation. Meanwhile, MESS models have theoretical advantages. However, the theoretical research and application of MESS models have not been promoted vigorously. Therefore, the study of MESS model theory has practical significance. This paper studies the quasi maximum likelihood estimation for matrix exponential spatial specification (MESS) varying coefficient panel data models with fixed effects. It is shown that the estimators of model parameters and function coefficients satisfy the consistency and asymptotic normality to make a further supplement for the theoretical study of MESS model.
Uttam U. Deshpande, Pooja Hulajatti, Shraddha Suryavanshi, Vrunda Balgi
Journal of Computer Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jcsr.v3i3.3487

Abstract:
In the evolving situation of highly infectious coronavirus, the number of confirmed cases in India has largely increased, which has resulted in a shortage of health care resources. Thus, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare- Government of India issued guidelines for the ‘Home isolation of COVID-19 positive patients’ methodology for asymptomatic patients or with mild symptoms. During home isolation, the patients are required to monitor and record the pulse rate, body temperature, and oxygen saturation three times a day. This paper proposes a system that can request data from the required sensor to measure the pulse rate, body temperature, or oxygen saturation. The requested data is sensed by the respective sensor placed near the patients’ body and sent to the CAN data logger over the CAN bus. The CAN data logger live streams the sensor values and stores the same to an excel sheet along with details like the patient’s name, patient’s age, and date. The physicians can then access this information.
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