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, Galina A. Bezrukova, Vladimir F. Spirin
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-620-626

Abstract:
Introduction. There are currently several works in the scientific literature devoted to studying the influence of working conditions on mobile agricultural machinery on the occupational morbidity of workers on the example of individual regions. Still, Russian Federation did not conduct such studies before. The study aims to analyze working conditions and current trends in the formation of occupational pathology when working on mobile agricultural machinery in the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The paper uses the results of long-term sanitary-hygienic and ergonomic studies of working conditions when working on mobile agricultural machinery and data on the level of occupational morbidity (PZ) of farmworkers of the Russian Federation in 2011-2017. Results. Microclimatic discomfort, dustiness and gas contamination of the working area air, industrial noise, general and local vibration, physical overload, forming harmful operating conditions (classes 3.2-3.4), occupational risk categories from medium to very high characterize working on mobile agriculture machinery. From 2011 to 2017, researchers have identified 960 agricultural machine operators with 1052 occupational diseases in the Russian Federation, formed mainly under the influence of physical factors and physical overloads. In the nosological structure of occupational diseases (OD), the first place is occupied by vibration disease (VD), the second by radiculopathy (RP), and the third by sensorineural hearing loss. Researchers characterize the current trends in the nosological structure by a significant increase in the prevalence of radiculopathy against the background of a decrease in diagnosis cases of vibration disease. Conclusions. Working conditions when working on mobile agricultural machinery remain harmful and pose a high risk of developing occupational radiculopathy, vibration disease and sensorineural hearing loss. It should be taken into account when developing measures to prevent occupational pathology for agricultural machine operators.
Natalya L. Proskuryakova, Anatolii V. Simakov, , Vasyliy V. Markovets, Sergey V. Lysenko, Tatyana M. Alferova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-601-604

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to assess the main radiation-hazardous factors that determine the effective dose of personnel during underground uranium mining at the Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Association, and to summarize the data of the radiation control of the enterprise for 2016-2020. The main factors that create personnel dose loads are: the volume activity of short-lived daughter products of radon decay in the air, the dose rate of external gamma radiation, and the volume activity of long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides of the uranium-radium series in industrial dust. Information on the structure and values of individual effective doses of workers is presented. Recommendations for improving the radiation monitoring system are given.
Валерий Гаврилович Барчуков, Oleg A. Kochetkov, Dmitry I. Kabanov, Aleksei A. Maksimov, Larisa I. Kuznetsova, Natalya A. Eremina, Sergy V. Berezin
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-605-610

Abstract:
Currently, scientists pay great attention to the intake of tritium and its compounds when assessing the impact of radiation-hazardous objects on the environment and humans. Now, there are no acceptable industrial technologies for the effective capture of this radionuclide; therefore, all tritium generated during the operation of nuclear power plants enters the environment with emissions and discharges. Consequently, it leads to an increase in its concentration in environmental objects, including soil and vegetation. This fact determines the need to assess its content in the ground and vegetation. The study aims to develop a method for determining the content of tritium in soil and vegetation. To develop a methodology for assessing the content of tritium in soil and vegetation, we used the technique of preparing counting samples based on burning the selected examples in a specialized Pyrolyser 6-Trio furnace. Previously, scientists conducted some laboratory studies to assess the acceptability of this method of sample preparation. We measured the counting samples on a Tri-CARB 3180 TR/SL liquid scintillation meter. Scientists have developed and certified a method for determining tritium in soil and vegetation. Furthermore, we investigated the content of tritium and its compounds in the environment in the area of the Nuclear Power Plant based on a comprehensive assessment. Researchers found tritium content in soil and vegetation in settlements near nuclear power plants with VVER type reactors. The main routes of entry of tritium and its compounds into vegetation are the air path and the access of tritium from the ground. The presented data determine the need for systematic studies on the accumulation of tritium in environmental objects.
, Oleg I. Bondarev, Maria S. Bugaeva, ,
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-611-619

Abstract:
Introduction. The combined impact of unfavorable factors of the production environment in miners leads to the development of associated pathology of the bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular systems, the predisposition to which depends on the individual susceptibility of the body. In this regard, it is important to comprehensively study the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the formation and course of occupational and work-related diseases for a personalized approach to the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of this pathology. The purpose of this study was to study the mechanisms of damage to the cardiovascular system in miners with dust lung pathology on the basis of morphological and genetic studies. Materials and methods. For genetic studies, venous blood drawing was conducted in 190 Kuzbass miners. The main group included 126 miners of the main professions with the previously proven diagnosis "dust lung pathology", the comparison group consisted of 64 workers without a proven diagnosis working in similar sanitary and hygienic conditions. Morphometric studies were carried out using autopsy material obtained during 80 forensic medical examinations of miners in the Kemerovo region. All the miners were divided into 4 groups depending on their underground work experience. The control group was formed from 20 cases of forensic medical examinations of men who died in road accidents and did not have organ pathology according to the results of autopsies. Results. The study of the autopsy material revealed the presence of morphostructural changes in the vascular walls of the miners’ hearts in the form of hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells of the medial layers, thickening of the endothelial lining, and the development of fibroplastic changes in the perivascular zones. These changes began to form from the first years of work in the underground conditions and progressed with increasing work experience contributing to the "recalibration" of the heart vessels with the formation of the lumen "obstruction". One of the mechanisms of endothelial damage in miners was a change in the expression of the EDN1 gene, which regulates the synthesis of endothelin-1. The risk and resistance genotypes of the development of dust lung pathology for the rs5370 polymorphism of the EDN1 gene were identified. Morphostructural rearrangement of the endothelium in the combination with its pathological activation contributed to the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction in miners. Conclusions. The conducted studies of the parameters of the vascular endothelium indicate its key role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular pathology in miners of the main professions. Getting into the body of workers, particles of coal-rock dust lead to morphostructural rearrangement of the cells of the endothelial layer and its pathological activation. The contribution of molecular and genetic mechanisms to the development of occupational lung pathology and associated diseases of the circulatory system in miners is revealed. Ethics. The studies were carried out in compliance with the ethical standards of the Bioethical Committee of the Research Institute for Complex Problems of Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, elaborated on the basis of the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association "Ethical Principles for Conducting Human Scientific Medical Research" as amended in 2013 and the "Rules of Clinical Practice in the Russian Federation" approved by the Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 266 dated 19.06.2003. All workers were informed about their participation in the molecular-genetic study and gave written consent to carry it out. The research of the dead miners was based on the secondary examination of blocks and ready-made histological micro-preparations of the material of the Bureau for Forensic Medical Expert Examination of the cities of Novokuznetsk, Osinniki, and Prokopyevsk. The study of pathomorphological material was carried out in accordance with the Federal Law of 21.11.2011, No. 323-FZ "On the Fundamentals of Health Protection of Citizens in the Russian Federation", in particular, with Article 67 "Carrying out pathological and anatomical autopsies", Federal Law of 12.01.1996, No. 8-FZ "On burial and funeral business" (Article 5, paragraphs 1, 2), as well as on the basis of the Order of the Ministry of Health of April 29, 1994, No. 82 "On the procedure for conducting pathological and anatomical autopsy" (Annex to the Order of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of 29.04.1994 No. 82), the Order of the Ministry of Health of Russia of 24.03.2016. No. 179n "On the rules for conducting pathological and anatomical examinations".
Валерий Гаврилович Барчуков, Oleg A. Kochetkov, Vladimir N. Klochkov, Natalya A. Eremina, Aleksei A. Maksimov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-594-600

Abstract:
Tritium is one of the most important dose-forming radionuclides that determine the radiation situation in the area where nuclear fuel cycle enterprises are located. At the same time, it is not possible to catch the tritium formed during the operation of a nuclear power plant using modern, efficient and cheap technologies. This causes an increase in its concentration in environmental objects and an increase in the contribution of technogenic tritium to the radiation load of the population. Therefore, the task of monitoring the formation of tritium during the operation of nuclear power plants, the content of tritium in emissions and discharges of nuclear power plants, as well as the distribution of this radionuclide in the environment is especially urgent today. The study aims to analyze the environmental pollution due to emissions and discharges of tritium from the Kalininskaya nuclear power plant, the process of spreading tritium by air, as well as the accumulation of this radionuclide in water bodies, soil and food products grown in the area of the nuclear power plant. The following methods, developed by the specialists of the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center were used during the research: 1) "Method for determining the volumetric activity of organic and inorganic tritium compounds in water bodies by liquid scintillation spectrometry". 2) "Methodology for determining the concentration of organic and inorganic tritium compounds in the air of the environment and industrial premises". 3) "The method for determining the specific activity of tritium compounds in soil and vegetation" was developed and tested in the course of field studies at the Kalinin NPP. As a sample preparation we used the method based on burning a selected sample in a specialized Pyrolyser-6 Trio oven. All prepared counting samples were measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry on a counter Tri-Carb 3180TR/SL. On the basis of an integrated approach to assessing the content of tritium and its compounds in air, water, soil and food, an analysis of the formation of environmental pollution due to emissions and discharges of tritium from the Kalinin NPP was carried out. It is shown that the transport of emissions from the NPP by air and the wind direction prevailing in the territory of the NPP location have a significant importance in the formation of the contribution to the ingress of tritium into foodstuffs. The necessity of taking into account the ingress of tritium and its compounds with nuclear plant emissions into the environment in the task of optimization of radiation protection of the population under conditions of normal operation of NPP is shown.
, Nelya A. Metlyaeva, Mikhail V. Konchalovsky, Vladimir Yu. Nugis, Olga V. Shcherbatykh, Lyubov A. Yunanova, Felix S. Torubarov, Zoya F. Zvereva
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-572-579

Abstract:
Introduction. The use of ionizing radiation as a production factor in the late 1940s - early 1950s. began in the absence of a clear understanding of the permissible radiation doses for workers, as well as knowledge of diagnostic criteria and developed therapeutic measures for developing chronic radiation sickness (CRS). Since then, a great deal of experience has been accumulated in the diagnosis and treatment of CRS. Currently, there are no conditions at the workplace for chronic exposure of workers in doses exceeding the permissible ones. However, taking into account the constant expansion of the scope of using sources of ionizing radiation, it is necessary to remember about the possibility of CRS development due to prolonged exposure in case of violation of their storage or their loss. The study aimed to explore the formation of radiation bone marrow syndrome (RBS) due to chronic exposure in doses that exceed the maximum permissible, accumulated with different dose rates of radiation. Material and methods. We selected the medical records of 27 people (24 men and 3 women) who had RBS as a result of chronic professional gamma radiation exposure. The selection criteria were the diagnosis of grade II-III chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) in the presence of agranulocytosis or anemic syndrome in the period of the disease formation and, especially, in the development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or aplastic anemia in the period of the CRS consequences. Identified clinical and dosimetric CRS features of 27 patients exposed to chronic irradiation with a dose rate of 0.0002-0,009 Gy/h and the summary dose of 1.7 and 9.6 Gy, accumulated over a period of 6 to 96 months were compared the characteristics of 84 patients CRS exposed a lower dose rates (less than 0,0003 Gy/h) and 26 patients with acute radiation syndrome moderate (II) severity as a result of irradiation the dose rates of 0.14-3,7 Gy/h, total dose of 2 to 4 Gy. Results. The criteria of atypical subacute CRS course are identified: the rate of chronic radiation exposure - not less than 0.001-0.009 Gy/h with a summary dose of 1.7-9.6 Gy accumulated over a period of 6-96 months, the presence of agranulocytosis in the period of CRS formation and anemic syndrome in the periods of CRS formation and outcomes. These signs predict the development MDS in 60% of the patients in the period of the CRS consequences. Conclusion. Retrospective study determined that long-term human exposure to a dose rate of 0.001-0,009 Gy/h (0,005-0,05 Gy/day) and more in the accumulation of a summary dose of 1.7 and 9.6 Gy and duration of contact 6-96 months in 60% of cases can be expected development CRS with a subacute clinical course RBS. The main factor determining this feature of the course of RBS is the dose rate exceeding 0.001 Gy / h (2 Gy/year). In the subacute course of CRS, the early outcome in MDS is essentially deterministic. The development of agranulocytosis and anemic syndrome are typical signs of the subacute course of CRS.
Natalia A. Ostryakova, , , Olga V. Sazonova, Mikhail Y. Gavryushin, Natalia Y. Kuvshinova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-627-632

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic is having a serious psychological impact on healthcare workers. There is an operational restructuring of medical institutions, the working conditions practically correspond to an emergency situation. Every day, medical workers receive a huge amount of new information in the form of orders, guidelines. This creates an additional load in the form of continuous "information noise". The problem of emotional burnout of doctors was acute even before the COVID-19 pandemic. According to numerous studies in different countries, almost half of doctors have high rates of emotional burnout, which is two times higher than those of the population employed in other areas of professional activity. The aim of the study is to review the theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation and development of emotional burnout in medical personnel during an increased epidemic threshold for a new coronavirus infection. The paper provides an analysis of literary sources devoted to the problem of burnout syndrome in medical workers presented in the Scientific electronic library eLibrary, as well as in the English-language textual database of medical and biological publications PubMed. The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with many reasons that can adversely affect the formation and development of emotional burnout in medical personnel during an increased epidemic threshold for a new coronavirus infection. The provoking factors of the burnout syndrome (professional burnout) are the organizational factor (high workload, lack and shortage of PPE, insufficient (at the first stage) accumulated knowledge about the new coronavirus infection COVID-19); feeling of safety, threat and risk of infection; social isolation.
Ольга Николаевна Семёнова, Tatyana V. Ryabova, Olga M. Hudyakova, Svetlana V. Smirnova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-567-571

Abstract:
Introduction. The use of highly toxic and highly hazardous components of liquid rocket fuel in silo-based intercontinental ballistic missiles makes it necessary to assure the health and epidemiological well-being of the population and environmental safety when eliminating silo launchers. The study aims to assess the chemical safety of the sites of silo launchers after their elimination by detonation and remediation of disturbed lands. Materials and methods. Samples of soil, water, vegetation were taken at 20 remedied sites of the former silo launchers of "single start" located in the Chelyabinsk region and the Altai Territory. These samples were analyzed in an accredited laboratory for the content of unsymmetrical dimethyl-hydrazine and its degradation products using certified photometric methods. Results. At the time of the survey in 2019, in 19 of 20 sites of former silo launchers, facts of unauthorized intrusion to the remedied sites were established in order to recover a scrap of non-ferrous and ferrous metals, building materials up to the depth of the location of the destroyed shafts of mine structures. In soil samples from 3 sites of silo launchers located in the Chelyabinsk region, asymmetric dimethyl-hydrazine was found in concentrations exceeding the MPC by 1.02 - 1.6 times. In water samples from open and water-flooded shafts of silo launchers, degradation products of unsymmetrical dimethyl-hydrazine were absent. Contamination of herbaceous and coniferous vegetation with asymmetric dimethyl-hydrazine at the surveyed sites has not been established. Conclusion. Soil contamination with asymmetric dimethyl-hydrazine at three remedied sites of 20 surveyed ones may be the result of their unauthorized opening. After the intrusion, the orphan sites of the silo launchers become objects of increased chemical hazard and environmental risk. Such things require carrying out nature restoration work, strengthening supervision over their technical, health and ecological condition.
, Felix S. Torubarov, Svetlana N. Lukyanova, Elena A. Denisova, Elena V. Miroshnik
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-588-593

Abstract:
Introduction. The study's relevance is due to the need to improve the safety of nuclear industry enterprises and, as a consequence, to ensure a good level of psychophysiological functioning of employees. The study aims to identify the analysis of EEG indicators characterizing the FS of the central nervous system at different levels of PFA using visual and computer analysis. Materials and methods. Object - 331 archival EEGS of workers of hazardous radiation industries. The researchers determined the level of adaptation of employees using psychological, psychophysical, and physiological techniques. We conventionally recorded the EEG at rest and functional loads. In addition, scientists used a visual analysis and computer evaluation of the spectral power of EEG biopotentials in the processing. Results. With the help of visual analysis, we identified diagnostic features reflecting different levels of psychophysiological adaptation and functional activity of structural and functional formations of the central nervous system. It is possible to determine the role of structural and functional formations in forming a low level of adaptation and formulate prognostic criteria for adaptation. Researchers have identified some mechanisms of these criteria based on the evaluation results of the spectral power of EEG biopotentials. Conclusions. We identified four abnormal indicators in the EEG: "Type IV EEG", "Unstable EEG dynamics", "High index of β1 activity", "Presence of flashes of bilateral synchronous waves". These indicators indicate the presence of violations of the central regulation of the cardiovascular system and dysfunctional changes in the structures of the limbic-reticular complex. Therefore, we consider it as a criterion of a low level of PFA. The identification in the EEG of persons with a high level of PFA electroencephalographic norm indicates the absence of violations of the central regulation of the cardiovascular system and dysfunctional changes in the structures of the limbic-reticular complex. Researchers consider this a sign of a high probability of these individuals performing professional activities with a low risk of emergencies due to reduced adaptation.
Алексей Николаевич Котеров, Liliya N. Ushenkova, Mariya V. Kalinina, Aleksandr P. Biryukov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-580-587

Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to compare the excess relative risk (ERR per 1 Sv) of solid cancer mortality in acute - catastrophic or emergency, and occupational - fractionated or chronic exposure. Materials and research methods. A maintained database (database of sources) on nuclear workers from about 40 countries, on the basis of it a combined data analysis was carried out to determine the integral ERR value per 1 Gy for cancer mortality for comparison with parameters of cohorts exposed to catastrophic and emergency exposure: the LSS cohort victims of the atomic bombings in Japan, residents of the Techa River (radioactive contamination due to emissions from the Mayak plant) and Russian liquidators of the Chernobyl accident. Results. Comparison of the ERR per 1 Sv for cancer mortality for workers in the global nuclear industry (combining analysis of data from 37 studies) with the parameters of the LSS cohort, residents on the Techa River and liquidators of the Chernobyl accident showed the absence of logical and principial differences, and the risks for the last two cohorts were the highest. Although the data obtained partly confirm the approach of recent years by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, according to which the carcinogenic effects of acute, accidental, and fractionated or chronic radiation exposure do not depend on the dose rate factor (DDREF), nevertheless, taking into account biological mechanisms and data radiobiological experiments, this issue cannot be considered unambiguously resolved. Conclusion. Based on the ERR per 1 Sv, the average external dose, and the annual background cancer mortality in Russia and the United States, the expected increase in cancer mortality for 100,000 nuclear workers will average 32-69 people over 10 years (0.032-0.069% of the group). Such risks, due to the many carcinogenic non-radiation factors of life and work, as well as fluctuations in the background value, cannot be taken into account in the practice of medicine and health care.
, Alexander G. Tsovyanov, Sergei M. Shinkarev, Anatoly V. Simakov, Vladimir N. Klochkov, Igor P. Korenkov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-9-558-566

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the substantiation of the need to implement a special program of radiation-hygienic support of work with nitride fuel for fast neutron reactors. It is shown that at the current pace of implementation of the project direction "Breakthrough", in conditions when achievements in scientific research lead to a revision of design and technological solutions, it is possible to manage radiation and hygiene support only in a mode that provides a quick response to changes in the real production and environmental situation.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-534-539

Abstract:
Healthcare workers are at risk of contracting new coronavirus infections (COVID-19) due to their job responsibilities. The study aims to explore the incidence of a new coronavirus infection of medical workers of private healthcare organization (PHO) of JSC "Russian Railways". To analyze the incidence of COVID-19 among medical workers of PHO of JSC "Russian Railways", we used the data of weekly monitoring conducted by the company from 5.04.2020 to 28.03.2021. The χ2 method was used for statistical processing. The epidemiological data were also smoothed by linear filtering using 2 points. A feature of the medical service of PHO of JSC "Russian Railways" is the continuous nature of its activities. 5 hospitals were converted to COVID hospitals. 12.9% of cases of COVID-19 were recorded among employees of PHO of JSC Russian Railways. The minimum number of cases was registered on the Far Eastern and East Siberian Railways. The maximum number of cases was noted on the South-Eastern and Northern railways. 94% of the sick were on outpatient treatment. Half of the sick are nurses. The testing of medical workers of PHO of JSC "Russian Railways" revealed a higher percentage of people with IgG to the SARS-CoV-2 virus than the number of cases registered. This may indicate an asymptomatic course of the disease in medical workers. Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the effectiveness of preventive measures to protect medical workers of PHO of JSC "Russian Railways" from a new coronavirus infection. The conducted research will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures in the other PHO.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-546-551

Abstract:
Professional training of cadets of lyceums in the process of mastering working specialties is accompanied by the influence on the adolescents' organism of ecological and hygienic territorial environmental factors, as well as specific factors of the educational and production environment. The study aims to explore the influence of factors of the environment and educational-production environment of river transport lyceums on the adaptation of adolescents' bodies in the process of teaching working specialties. A survey of 400 cadets studying at the Saratov and Balakovo lyceums of river transport (200 boys each) at the age of 15-18 years was carried out. The hygienic assessment of the organization and conditions of vocational training of adolescents mastering working specialties was carried out in accordance with SanPiN 2.4.3.1186-03, assessment of the conditions and nature of cadets' work in accordance with R 2.2.2006-05 "Guidelines for the hygienic assessment of the factors of the working environment and the labor process. Criteria and classification of working conditions". The processes of adaptation of the body of young men were studied in terms of psychophysiological status on a computer complex KPFK-99 - "Psychomat". To assess the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to physical activity, the Rufier index and the Martinet-Kushelevsky test were used. Statistical processing of materials was carried out using the program "Statistica for Windows 10.0". It is shown that vocational training of students in the process of passing educational practice in the shops of a ship repair enterprise, as well as swimming practice is accompanied by the impact on cadets of unfavorable production factors: microclimatic, increased sound pressure and vibration levels, exceeding the permissible content of chemicals in the air of the working area. The nature of the factors of educational and production activity of cadets during the periods of technological, swimming practice leads to a decrease in the adaptation processes of the body of young men, which is manifested by changes in the indicators of the psychophysiological status and functional activity of the cardiovascular system during stress tests. Negative factors of atmospheric air pollution of the environment, regardless of the territorial affiliation of the settlement, contribute to an increase in the overall incidence of cadets with a predominance of respiratory diseases. Among students with a deficit or excess body weight, in the process of passing professional practice, the number of people with low indicators of the body's adaptive ability to workloads is increasing.
Olesya V. Shcherbakova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-515-520

Abstract:
One of the duties of an employee as a subject of labor legal relations is the obligation to undergo established pre-trip, pre-shift, and post-trip, post-shift medical examinations. The digitalization of all spheres of public life, the erasure of spatial boundaries, the development of artificial intelligence naturally change the procedure for conducting these types of medical examinations. The purpose of this article is to identify the main proposals for changing the procedure for carrying out these types of medical examinations, as well as to analyze their legality from the point of view of the current legislation. In the course of the study, the current legislation was analyzed, collisions, gaps and difficulties in its application by business entities were identified when organizing and conducting pre-shift, pre-trip and post-shift, post-trip medical examinations. The results of pilot studies and analysis of judicial practice on these issues are presented. The objects of research were the official websites of manufacturers of software and hardware systems used for conducting pre-shift, pre-trip and post-shift, post-trip medical examinations remotely. It is concluded that the remote method of conducting pre-trip, pre-shift, and post-trip, post-shift medical examinations does not comply with the law, as well as the need for administrative control over the quality of pre-trip, pre-shift, and post-trip, post-shift medical examinations.
, Valerij A. Kiryushin
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-526-533

Abstract:
The article examines the socio-demographic indicators of professional groups of medical workers, some factors of job satisfaction. Purpose of the study - socio-demographic characteristics of medical personnel in obstetric institutions for the further development of scientifically based recommendations on the formation of health-preserving behavior. The research was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires on the basis of obstetric institutions of the second and third levels. Ryazan, Kolomna, Lipetsk, Smolensk. The study involved doctors (obstetricians-gynecologists, neonatologists) and nurses (midwives, anesthetics nurses, ward nurses). The study showed that about half of the respondents in medical professions, one tenth in the professional groups of nursing staff belong to the age category under 30 years old. The age group of 30-39 years is represented by doctors and mid-level medical personnel in almost equal proportions. In the age group 40 years and older, representatives of the nursing professions prevail. A significant part of the respondents are medical professions, have work experience in their specialty from 5 to 9 years; representatives of nursing professions, mainly, have work experience of 10-14 years and more than 15 years. In the families of nursing staff (nurse anesthetists and ward nurses), one can note dissatisfaction and incomplete satisfaction with the level of wages and lack of confidence in the future. The revealed dissatisfaction with work can lead to a decrease in motivation to perform professional duties. Socio-demographic characteristics are basic and serve as the basis for further hygienic and statistical studies, identifying correlations between unfavorable hygienic factors (physical inactivity, prolonged static load, local overstrain of certain muscle groups, exposure to physical, chemical and biological factors, psychoemotional and informational stress).
Марина Аркадьевна Зенкова, , , Ilya S. Shpagin, Olga S. Kotova, , Galina V. Kuznetsova, , Natalya V. Kamneva, Dmitriy A. Gerasimenko
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-488-496

Abstract:
Introduction. Influence of incidental nanoparticles of industrial aerosols on occupational lung diseases development is not studied enough. As nanoparticles has properties to induce inflammation and fibrosis, it is hypothesized that they affect occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotype. The aim was to establish monocyte subsets, airway inflammation, clinical and functional features in occupational COPD due to aerosols containing nanoparticles exposure. Materials and methods. Study design was a single center prospective cohort observational. Subjects with occupational COPD (GOLD 2011-2021 criteria) exposed to aerosols containing nanoparticles (n=50) enrolled. Comparison group - COPD in tobacco smokers (n=50), control group - healthy people (n=50). Groups were matched by demographics and COPD duration. Nanoparticles at workplaces air were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and by scanning electron microscopy. Of participants 26 were exposed to maximal concentrations of metal nanoparticles and 24 - of silica nanoparticles. Spirography, body pletysmography, lung diffusing capacity (DLco/Va), Doppler-ehocardiography, induced sputum cytology, COPD exacerbations assessment were done. Monocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry. Linear regression model was used to explore relationships. Results. COPD due to aerosols containing metal nanoparticles was characterized by most severe airflow limitation, lung hyperinflation, pulmonary hypertension, most prominent decrease in DLco/Va, frequent and severe COPD exacerbations, eosinophilic inflammation. The largest proportion of «classical» CD14+CD16- monocytes subset, 96,4% (90,3%; 97,2%), high level of CCR5 expression were seen in this group. The features of COPD due to aerosols containing silica nanoparticles were substantial decrease in DLco/Va, the least airflow limitation, mild lung hyperinflation, rare COPD exacerbations, paucigranulocytic inflammation. The largest proportion of «non-classical» CD14DimCD16+ monocytes with high level of CCR2 expression revealed. Mass concentration of metal nanoparticles was associated with «classical» monocytes, (B=1,5), silica nanoparticles - with «non-classical» monocytes (B=1,4). On their turn, «classical» monocytes were associated with DLco (B=-1,6), functional residual volume (B=1,2), mean pulmonary artery pressure (B=-1,4), eosinophilic inflammation. «Non-classical» monocytes were associated with DLco (B=-1,5) and paucigranulocytic inflammation (B=1,2), p<0,015. Conclusions. Exposure of incidental nanoparticles was associated with circulated monocyte subsets, airway inflammation and occupaitonal CODP phenotype.
Valery A. Kaptsov, Alexander V. Chirkin
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-497-502

Abstract:
Introduction. To adequately protect workers from gaseous air pollution using air purifying respiratory protective devices (RPD), it is necessary to periodically replace filters. The aim of the study was the analyze the methods of monitoring the performance of workers’ RPD. Materials and methods. Nowadays the subjective reaction of smell to an increase in the concentration of gas in the mask is widely used. This practice is compared with the available scientific information on the subjective ability of humans to detect gases. Results. The requirements for filter replacement in the legislation of foreign countries are analyzed. It has been established that for most hazardous substances there is no available information on the thresholds of odor (irritant) perception, and the available data show a high probability of exceeding the odor perception thresholds over the maximum permissible concentrations of hazardous substances in the working area. for getting used to it, distraction of attention, low individual sensitivity, etc. The existing approach in Russia leads to the belated replacement of part of the filters and, as a consequence, to the deterioration of the professional health of workers. Conclusion. Recommendations are formulated on the measures, the implementation of which is necessary to improve the protection of personnel used air purifying RPD.
Sergey N. Filimonov, Raisa V. Gordeeva, , Elena A. Martynova, Svetlana V. Erdeeva, Olga N. Blazhina
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-521-525

Abstract:
The results of the use of electrostatic massage in the miners with vibration disease and with shoulder joint diseases are presented. In the all patients the rehabilitation program included electrostatic massage on the ELGOS device using a lead-out electrode according to the local-segmental method. Patients of the comparison group underwent manual massage of similar areas. Before and after the treatment, the clinical manifestations of vibration disease were evaluated by vibration sensitivity test using a Rydel-Seiffer vibrotone C 64 Hz / C 128 Hz. The dynamics of functional activity indices in the patients with shoulder joint diseases was assessed using a visual analog scale questionnaire. The work showed that the electrostatic massage contributes to a faster restoration of vibration sensitivity, the volume of movements in large joints and a reduction in the clinical manifestations of vibration disease (pain in the fingers, paresthesia, numbness, etc.), which has an advantage in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, since the direct impact of the masseur’s hands on the patient’s body is excluded.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-510-514

Abstract:
Many authors point to the low incidence of occupational diseases in our country. The reasons are poor-quality preventive examinations, the lack of interest of employers in identifying these diseases, and others. However, there are no works in the literature devoted to errors in the statistical coding of diagnoses of occupational pathology and their accounting. The study aims to improve the accounting of occupational diseases in Russia. We conducted the study using the information base of the Industry Register of Persons with Occupational Diseases, developed by Burnazyan State Medical Center of the FMBA, Russia, which operating in the industry since 2011. As of 31.12.2020, the register contains information on 2,056 patients with occupational diseases, from among the employees of enterprises and organizations served by healthcare institutions of the FMBA, Russia. Errors of incorrect coding of diagnoses for occupational diseases with violation of the classification principles in the used directive materials played a negative role. The development of plans for medical and social rehabilitation measures to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases among the people working in harmful conditions. It requires correct knowledge of morbidity indicators of this nosology. In order to improve the accounting of occupational diseases in Russia, it is necessary to switch to the system of coding diagnoses of this nosology, adopted in medical statistics, and make appropriate changes to the directive documents.
, Igor P. Danilov, Maksim A. Gugushvili, Tatyana D. Logunova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-503-509

Abstract:
Relevance. Emotional burnout is dangerous due to the presence of a wide range of neurotic and psychosomatic symptoms. The article discusses the features of the structure and formation of the emotional burnout syndrome as manifestations of personal value-semantic deformations. Burnout has been found to be negatively associated with solving existential problems. The study aims to explore the specifics of the emotional burnout syndrome as manifestations of personal value-semantic deformations in the representatives of "helping" professions. Materials and methods. The study involved 968 respondents employed in the field of "helping" professions. Of the entire sample, 465 people (consulted persons) made up the main research group, and 503 individuals were included into the control group. The main study methods were clinical and psychological and experimental-psychological. Results. Psychodiagnostics made it possible to clarify the types of emotional states and self-attitudes that characterized the specificity of burnout. Psychodiagnostic examination confirmed the presence in the subjects studied the elements of existential crisis associated with both professional situations and the personality traits of the "burned out" persons. Conclusions. Emotional burnout syndrome is a "payment" not for sympathy and love for people from the representatives of "helping" professions, but for their unfulfilled expectations, for the lack of sometimes visible result of work, for the loss of the activities meaning, for the devaluation of efforts by those around him.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-8-540-545

Abstract:
Currently, work in any medical organization carries a risk of coronavirus infection, and, first of all, this applies to medical organizations dealing with the treatment of patients infected with coronavirus. Medical workers are a group at increased risk of infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the provision of medical care in modern conditions, which determines their incidence of COVID-19 [1-3]. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of cases of COVID-19 infection in medical workers providing medical care on an outpatient basis. Materials and methods. The analysis of the incidence of COVID-19 medical workers in one of the large medical organizations of the Samara region during the period of the pandemic was carried out. The medical staff of the medical organization includes 207 doctors. There are 11 subdivisions in the structure of the medical and prophylactic institution. Research methods: content analysis of the modern regulatory framework (2020-2021), statistical, expert. For the period from May 2020 to March 2021 71 cases of infection of medical workers on an outpatient basis with SARS-CoV-2 were identified, of which 32 doctors (45%) and 39 people (55%) nurses. Based on the results of the expert assessment, the insurance nature of the infection case was established in 50 people (70%). Among the medical and nursing categories of medical workers, the largest number of cases was made by doctors and nurses of primary contact - specialists of the district service: general practitioners (40%), pediatricians (32%), doctors - obstetricians-gynecologists (12%), nurses adults (76%) and children (20%) polyclinic departments. A third of health workers received inpatient treatment for severe COVID-19, an average of 60 days. Conclusion. Medical workers are a risk group of COVID-19 who need support measures, since the possibility of occupational infection has been sufficiently proven, and the risk probably depends on the work performed and the conditions of direct contact of medical personnel, which requires further study in the current persisting epidemic conditions.
Надежда Игоревна Куприна, Ekaterina V. Ulanovskaya, , Dina N. Serdyukova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-7-431-435

Abstract:
Currently, there are many consequences of the new coronavirus infection. We shall study the actual long-term consequences of this disease for population health in the coming years. It is necessary to consider concomitant chronic diseases in patients who are particularly dangerous in the post-COVID period. Vibration disease is one of the leading occupational pathologies in the Russian Federation. Symptoms of vibration disease are vegetative-vascular disorders, cold, cyanosis, paresthesia, violation of regional blood circulation of the extremities. As is known from numerous sources, the defeat of the cardiovascular system (CVS) against the background of COVID-19 infection occurs through angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-2) receptors, which presents in large numbers in the endothelium of veins and arteries. The study aims to research hemodynamics features in patients with vibration disease after a new coronavirus infection. In the clinic of occupational pathology, the researchers examined 28 patients with a previously established diagnosis of VD after a coronavirus infection. We did a Holter ECG, ultra-sound examination of the arteries and veins of the upper extremities. Arrhythmias in the form of supraventricular extrasystoles, paroxysms of atrial fibrillation, positional sinus tachycardia occur in patients with VB after a new coronavirus infection on an ECG and daily monitoring of the ECG by Holter. As is known, cardiac arrhythmias are essential in the development of acute and chronic vascular pathology, characterized by a decrease in arterial blood filling and changes. Ultrasound of the vessels of the upper extremities revealed moderate expansion of the radial and ulnar veins, insufficiency of the valve apparatus during functional tests, increased venous outflow. There was also an increase in the indicators of peripheral vascular resistance, which indicates violations of the tonic properties of the vessels of the upper extremities and violations of vasodilation. Scientists identified violations of the tonic properties of blood vessels in patients with vibration disease in the post-COVID period on ultrasound, arrhythmias in the form of supraventricular extrasys-toles, paroxysms of atrial fibrillation, positional sinus tachycardia on daily ECG monitoring.
, Nina V. Zaitseva, Vitalii G. Kostarev, Julia A. Ivashova, Maksim A. Savinkov,
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-7-442-450

Abstract:
Introduction. Currently, the violation of heart rate variability as one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms of the damaging effect of pollutants, associated effects on the cardiovascular system. The study aims to explore the dynamics of the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on heart rate variability (HRV) in workers of a potassium ore processing enterprise exposed to industrial pollutants (fine fractions of potassium chloride dust, formaldehyde, hexane, heptane) with an assessment of changes in dependence from work experience, establishment of cause-and-effect relationships of violations of heart rate variability with exposure to chemical compounds. Materials and methods. The object of the study was 140 employees of a potash ore processing enterprise, assigned to the observation group, and 76 employees of the administrative and technical apparatus, who made up the comparison group. Samples were taken from the air of the working medium for the content of saturated hydrocarbons (hexane, heptane), the vapors of formhehyde were considered, and the presence of fine particles PM2.5 and PM10 was established. Investigation of biological media (blood, urine) of workers at the enterprise determination of formaldehyde in blood, hexane and heptane in urine. Evaluation of heart rate variability was carried out on a computer electrocardiograph "Poli-Spectr-8/EX" using a cardiorhythmographic program using the method of time analysis, variation pulsometry and spectral analysis. Results. The concentration of fine particles in the air at the workplaces of the observation group was 12-111 times higher for PM2.5, and 5.6-74.6 times higher for PM10 than for the work places of the comparison group. The concentration of formaldehyde, hexane and heptane in the air did not exceed hygienic standards. In the observation group relative to the comparison group, formaldehyde blood was 1.5 times (p<0.001), in the urine of hexane - 1.2 times (p=0.011), heptane - 1.3 times (p=0.046). It was found that with an experience of up to 10 years, formaldehyde in the blood of workers in the observation group was 1.4 times higher than that in the comparison group (p=0.011), with an experience of more than 10 years - 1.7 times (p=0.005). In the urine of workers in the observation group with work experience of up to 10 years, an excess of 1.3 (p=0.026) relative to the comparison group of hexane was found. HRV data analysis. With damage to the length of service in the observation group, there was a significant decrease in the temporal analysis indicators (SDNN, ms, RMSSD, ms, pNN50, %, CV, %), while in the comparison group, only the CV, % decrease was statistically significant; the values of IN conventional units, AMo, % significantly increased (p=0.03 and p=0.003, respectively). A statistically significant relationship was established between the likelihood of an increase depending on the content of heptane in urine (b0=0.22; b1=10.6; F=21.5; R2=0.09; p=0.0001) and formaldehyde in the blood (b0=0.02; b1=6.55; F=69.6; R2=0.25; p=0.0001) in the surveyed workers. Conclusions. Activation of central ergotropic and humoral-metabolic mechanisms, a tendency towards a decrease in parasympathetic influences. The method of logistic regression analysis established a statistically significant relationship between the probability of an increase in the stress index depending on the heptane content in the blood of the surveyed suppliers.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-7-424-430

Abstract:
Mining in the Arctic is associated with an increased risk of developing occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess risks of developing occupational pathology over 10-year period of mining apatite ore in the Kola Arctic open-pit mines. We studied data on working conditions (certification of workplaces), health status (periodic medical examinations) and primary occupational pathology (monitoring "Working conditions and occupational morbidity of the population of the Murmansk region" in 2009-2018) of open-pit apatite miners. It was found that, according to an overall assessment, the working conditions of all 436 surveyed open-pit apatite miners corresponded to 3.2-3.3 hazard classes. During 10 years of employment (2009-2018), 88 (20.2%) miners were first diagnosed with 134 occupational diseases, which are 3.07 cases per 100 people per year. The main cause for their occurrence was the severity of work above the permissible level (39.6%), whole-body vibration (37.3%) and noise (17.9%), and their structure is dominated by vibration disease (35.8%) and musculoskeletal pathology (30.0%). The main factor in the occurrence of occupational diseases was recognized as imperfection of technological processes (58.2%). The risk of occupational pathology formation in the excavator drivers (RR=1.95; CI 1.33-2.86; p<0.001) and in the drilling rig drivers (RR=1.60; CI 1.04-2.47; p=0.031) was higher than that of bulldozer drivers. In 2009-2018, unlike the bulldozer and drilling rig drivers, the excavator drivers showed an increased risk of developing occupational diseases (RR=3.50; CI 1.90-6.43; p<0.001). In 2009-2018, the open-pit apatite miners of the Kola Peninsula retained a high level of occupational morbidity, and it tended to increase among excavator drivers.
Ольга Ивановна Копытенкова, Oksana S. Sachkova, Leonid A. Levanchuk
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-7-451-458

Abstract:
Transport is an object of mass concentration of people where workers and passengers are likely to be exposed to pathogens of infectious diseases. 95% are diseases that do not respond effectively to the effects of specific prophylaxis, influenza and acute respiratory viral infections. Currently, measures to contain the infection have led to a restriction of transport activity. In such conditions, the development of effective ways to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases transmitted by airborne droplets, not controlled by means of specific prevention, as well as the preservation of the health of transport industry workers, is particularly relevant. The aim of the study is to determine the location and type of air disinfection device in the driver's cabin of a railway vehicle and the passenger compartment of a sitting car with various breathing options (natural exhalation, cough, sneezing). To determine the location and capacity of the decontamination plant, the mathematical method of gas-dynamic calculations using solid-state three-dimensional models was used. The study was performed in the SolidWorks software package, using the FlowSimulation module to solve the system of nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. The trajectories of air flows from human breathing in the cab of the vehicle are calculated taking into account the influence of ventilation. Research on the effectiveness of disinfection was carried out by a certified laboratory in the operating conditions of the vehicle. The results of the calculation allowed us to establish that it is advisable to place devices for physical disinfection of air in the cab of the vehicle at the level of the information panel on the left side or directly in the center. The basis for choosing the technical characteristics of the device for air disinfection should be information about the maximum speed of particles approaching the information panel, which is equal to 2.2-3 m/s. The safest method of disinfection of the air environment of vehicles is the use of closed UV radiation installations, the effectiveness of which is confirmed in the course of a full-scale experiment. It is concluded that the formation of an infection zone when an infected person is in the cab or cabin of a vehicle largely depends on the duration of his stay in the cabin, the intensity of breathing and the use of personal protective equipment. The advantage of closed UV radiation installations is the simultaneous provision of high disinfection efficiency and satisfaction of all safety requirements (chemical, environmental, fire, electrical, etc.), as well as the possibility of using the method in the presence of people. The analysis of the regulatory and technical documentation showed that UV irradiators are the only type of disinfection equipment that meets the requirements of domestic legislation in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare.
, , , Darya S. Budash, Anna S. Agarkova, Marina Yu. Vostroknutova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-7-436-441

Abstract:
Introduction. Occupational asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Development of personalized treatment and prevention tactics becomes feasible due to phenotyping, which means identifying of markers to combine cases of occupational asthma with similar manifestations (clinical, instrumental, laboratory) and prognosis to phenotypes. The study aims to determination and comparative analysis of spirographic and immunological parameters for different phenotypes of occupational asthma. Materials and methods. In this study, we included 170 patients with different phenotypes of occupational asthma and 50 participants in control group. The spirographic examination was performed using computer spirograph with determination of the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1), Tiffeneau-Pinelli index (FEV1/FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, 25% of the forced vital capacity (MEF75%VC, MEF50%VC, MEF25%VC). Quantification of the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, and IgG in human serum was conducted by Mancini method; levels of IgE, C-reactive protein and fibronectin were determined using a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. Fibrinogen concentration in plasma was measured by an automatic coagulometer. Haptoglobin concentration in serum was determined by spectrophotometry. Results. According to spirometry and laboratory results obtained, there is a strong evidence, that the phenotype "occupational asthma - occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" has the lowest values in pulmonary function tests and the most significant changes in immunoglobulins, fibronectin and acute phase proteins levels among other studied phenotypes of occupational asthma. Conclusions. Dynamic determination of spirometric, immunological parameters, fibronectin and proteins of the acute phase of inflammation in workers at risk for the formation of occupational bronchial asthma may be recommended to be carried out once every 6 months, followed by the isolation of disease phenotypes. This will optimize diagnostics, therapeutic and preventive tactics, as well as predict the course of this pathology.
, Egor S. Filimonov, , Evgeniya V. Ulanova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-371-378

Abstract:
Introduction. Diastolic function is characterized by the earliest changes in the ventricular myocardium, rather than violations of their contractility, and can be used in the algorithm of prophylactic measures to prevent fatal cardiovascular events, including in people working at industrial enterprises. The objective of the study was to assess the indices of diastolic function of the right ventricle in workers of the coal mining industry in the South of Kuzbass. Materials and methods. Under the conditions of a periodic medical examination, we surveyed 337 people without lung diseases and coronary heart disease, of which 206 workers of coal mines in the South of Kuzbass and 131 workers of open pit mines, aged from 40 to 55 years (the average age of the miners was 46.12±0.36 years old, of the workers at open pit mines was 46.98±0.34 years, p=0.107). On the ultrasound system "Vivid E9" manufactured by General Electric, all examined persons underwent an assessment of the structural and functional state of the heart. Results. Diastolic dysfunction in the form of a decrease in the ratio of transtricuspid flows less than one was revealed in 22.5% of the miners with arterial hypertension and in 2.6% of the subjects without it (p=0.00001), in the workers of open pit mines there was in 12.3% and 8.3%, respectively (p=0.071). A decrease in the ratio of tissue Doppler flows of tricuspid annulus plane movement was detected in 89.9% of the miners with arterial hypertension and in 81.2% of the subjects without it (p=0.083), this parameter also did not differ among the workers of open pit mines (68.4% and 60.3% respectively, p=0.337), but the differences between the miners and the workers of the open pit mines turned out to be reliable (p=0.0012 in those examined with arterial hypertension, p=0.0015 - without it). Based on the conducted correlation analysis, it was revealed that the development of impaired right ventricular diastolic function in coal industry workers was influenced not only by generally accepted factors and concomitant arterial hypertension, but also by long-term work experience in underground conditions in the miners. Conclusion. The development of diastolic dysfunction of the right ventricle in miners was influenced by work experience in underground working conditions, the presence of arterial hypertension, a decrease in the longitudinal deformation of the left ventricle, a decline in the vital capacity of the lungs and impaired diastolic function of the left ventricle. Associations of right ventricular diastolic function indices with the presence of arterial hypertension, increased values of the smoker’s index, Quetelet index, waist circumference, relative wall thickness index of the left ventricle, a decrease in the longitudinal deformation of the left ventricle and forced expiratory volume in 1 second and impaired diastolic function of the left ventricle were revealed in the workers of open pit mines.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-408-414

Abstract:
Due to the modernization of chemical production in recent years, specialists note a reduction in detection of occupational intoxication and a decrease in the overall occupational morbidity of workers in the chemical industry. At the same time, the risk of loss of professional aptitude for general medical contraindications and the preservation of the functional longevity of employees comes to the first place. The study aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the current state of working conditions and health from chemical organ synthesis enterprise employees. The experts analyzed the state of working conditions of production workers under a special assessment of working conditions. In addition, we studied the status of the leading professional groups of the enterprise according to the results of a periodic medical examination (PME). The working conditions in the primary professions of the enterprise for the production of acrylic acid nitrile, sodium cyanide, and related products are harmful to 1-3 degrees (subclasses 3.1-3.3). Scientists estimated the a priori occupational risk to employees' health from exposure to harmful factors of the production environment in the categories from small (moderate) to high (intolerable), where it is necessary to take urgent measures to reduce it. Scientists recognized three employers out of 522 who work in harmful working conditions for general medical contraindications (coronary heart disease) as unfit for professional work. We allowed 14 people to work in the profession with restrictions. Specialists identified common somatic diseases in 335 people: sciatica of the lumbosacral level (23.7%), chronic bronchitis (15.3%), essential hypertension (14.4%), and cerebral atherosclerosis (12.3%). The employees of chemical organ synthesis enterprises work in harmful working conditions, namely: the presence of toxic chemicals in the air of the functional area, an increased noise level generated by working production equipment, and the severity of the labor process. An adequate system of hygienic monitoring and organizational and technical measures makes it possible to reduce the class of the degree of harmfulness of working conditions according to the chemical factor to acceptable ones. Polyethological general somatic diseases create the most significant risk of loss of professional aptitude in personnel. Harmful factors of work and lifestyle aggravate the involutional processes.
, Galina G. Lyashko, Nina I. Kalinina, Ekaterina N. Dubrovskaya, Alexander M. Vishnevskiy, Anna B. Razletova, Roman Ya. Nizkiy
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-402-407

Abstract:
The seafarers carried out the professional activity in a complex electromagnetic environment (EME), with technical means, structural materials, depending on the purpose of the watercraft, architectural features, and vessel classification. There are static electric fields, permanent magnetic and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields on ships. Marine radio-electronic means (REM) creates Electromagnetic fields (EMF) of the radio frequency range that provide communication, the safety of navigation and operation, and solving navigation problems. According to the documents of the sanitary legislation, specialists carry out control of the maximum permissible EMF levels for watercraft and marine structures at the design stage of the vessel by calculating the intensity of electromagnetic fields during commissioning, instrumental control of EMF levels. There are new technical means in modern automated vessels of various types and purposes that create electromagnetic fields in the crew's stay zones, which makes it urgent to improve regulatory and methodological documents in the area of ensuring the electromagnetic safety of the team and passengers. The study aims to develop proposals for regulatory, methodological, and hardware control over compliance with the maximum permissible levels of electromagnetic fields on ships to ensure the electromagnetic safety of the crew. Generalization of materials of own research of EME on ships, systematization of sources of electromagnetic fields. Analysis of regulations in occupational safety and health for the protection of the crew from the effects of EME, methodological documents on the calculation forecasting, and instrumental determination of the levels of electromagnetic fields. Experts have revealed that there are electromagnetic fields of a wide frequency range in the premises of ships and on open decks. The study showed that electromagnetic fields of a wide frequency range are created in the premises of ships and on open decks. Indoors, the most significant is the impact on the crew of electric and magnetic fields with a frequency of 50 Hz created by the ship's electric power systems. In addition, on open decks (at workplaces and in crew recreation areas), the protection of the crew from EMF antennas of the radio frequency range is relevant. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods for calculating the prediction of EMF levels and improve the means of measuring electromagnetic fields on ships. The most common sources of EMF in the crew's stay areas are radio communication and radar facilities, ship's electric power systems. The task of developing a methodological document on the calculated prediction of EMF levels in rooms and on open decks at the design stage of ships is urgent. In addition, it is necessary to develop devices-meters of electromagnetic fields for instrumental monitoring of EMF levels in actual operating conditions of the vessel.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-356-364

Abstract:
Introduction. An essential feature of the professional activity of pilots of civil aviation aircraft is the high intensity of work due to pronounced emotional, intellectual, and sensory loads, unique work modes. The study aims to assess the intensity of work and the prevalence of factors affecting fatigue among civil aviation pilots according to an anonymous online questionnaire. Materials and methods. Experts surveyed 667 members of the flight crews in remote anonymous online questioning. We developed the questionnaires under the criteria for assessing the intensity of work, assessing the risk factors for fatigue development according to the ICAO recommendations, and analyzing the pilot's activity algorithm. The researchers used descriptive statistical methods to analyze the survey data. Results. The working conditions of pilots according to 7 indicators of tension correspond to class 3.2: a high level of intellectual loads (72-100% of pilots), a large number of overlapping time zones (18%), the maximum duration of concentrated observation (70.7%), a high density of signals and messages (29.9%), a significant number of objects of simultaneous observation (18.9%), a high degree of risk to one's own life and responsibility for the safety of others (98%), as well as a rough working day (79%). According to the totality of indicators, the general class of labor intensity corresponds to the highest degree (class 3.3). The factors affecting the fatigue of pilots include rare rest between flights (44.6% of respondents), intermittent sleep (59.9%), not always a full sleep before the night flight shift (85.9%). According to the survey results, the share of pilots who have spontaneous sleep during the flight is 74.3%, and frequently delayed reaction to usual, non - standard, or extreme stimuli and signals is 12.3%. Conclusions. The obtained data of the questionnaire survey confirm the results of psychophysiological studies that have shown that the level of the labor intensity of pilots is "super-intense or extreme." Therefore, considering the prevalence of factors affecting fatigue among the crew members, and based on the understanding of the fundamental problems noted by the pilots, it is necessary to develop measures and management solutions to minimize the risk factors for fatigue development.
Olga N. Gulyaeva, , Olga A. Zagorodnikova, Lyudmila V. Renge,
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-415-420

Abstract:
Intrauterine growth retardation is recognized as one of the leading causes of incidence and mortality in infancy and early childhood in all the countries of the world. The causes and mechanisms of development of this process are decisive when choosing the tactics of nursing such children. Of particular importance is the understanding of the functioning of the mother-placenta-fetus system, in particular the mechanisms of suppression of the detoxification function of the placenta in connection with the polymorphisms of the genes of the I and II phases of the xenobiotic biotransformation system. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the polymorphism of the genes of the I and II phases of the xenobiotic biotransformation system with the intrauterine fetal growth retardation in women living in the South of the Kemerovo region and working under harmful labor conditions. A survey of 39 women of reproductive age living in the territory of Novokuznetsk was carried out, 20 of them worked at various enterprises of the city. The study group included 14 women who gave birth to children with intrauterine growth retardation of varying severity. The comparison group (control) consisted of 25 women. They did not have spontaneous miscarriages and they carried a child without the intrauterine growth retardation. The work investigated the frequency of occurrence of polymorphisms of genes of the xenobiotic biotransformation system - CYP1A2*1F, GSTM1 (they determine the activity of detoxification enzymes), as well as their combinations - in a group of working women and housewives who gave birth to children with intrauterine growth retardation. The forms of genes associated with the intrauterine fetal growth retardation, as well as genes associated with the resistance to this pathology, were identified. Combinations of gene forms of different phases of the xenobiotic biotransformation and their relationship with intrauterine fetal growth retardation were shown. There were no statistically reliable differences between various cohorts of women. A positive association of a high risk of the intrauterine fetal growth retardation in women with A/A CYP1A2*1F genotype and deletion polymorphism of the GSTM1 "-" gene has been shown. The heterozygous form of the C/A CYP1A2*1F gene polymorphism is statistically reliably associated with the resistance to this pathology, as well as the normally functioning GSTM1 "+" gene. Genotype A/A CYP1A2*1F in the combination with the deletion polymorphism of GSTM1 "-" gene is statistically reliably associated with intrauterine fetal growth retardation, and C/A CYP1A2*1F genotype in the combination with normally functioning GSTM1 "+" gene is associated with a low risk of the intrauterine fetal growth retardation. Comparative analysis of the relationship of the studied forms of genes of the xenobiotic biotransformation system with the intrauterine fetal growth retardation in the groups of female workers and housewives did not show statistically reliable differences.
Nadezhda N. Mikhailova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-350-355

Abstract:
The article presents a retrospective of the main directions of research on the preservation of the health of the population and labor resources of the Siberian Federal District based on the long-term work of the Scientific Research Institute of Complex Problems of Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Novokuznetsk. There is the ecological and hygienic definition and justification of optimal human life conditions; the development and implementation of methods for the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of occupational, production-related, and general diseases; planning the strategy of medical services and organizations in the management of healthcare, taking into account the peculiarities of population reproduction, the specifics of working conditions and socio-economic development of regions.
Marina A. Zemlyanova, Juliya V. Koldibekova, Ekaterina V. Peskova, Victor M. Ukhabov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-379-384

Abstract:
Introduction. Long-term constant exposure to certain representatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons during the extraction and processing of potash ore can lead to pathological changes on critical organs and systems in production workers. The study aims to evaluate the change in biochemical parameters in workers exposed to chemical production factors (heptane and hexane). Materials and methods. The study of the content of hexane, heptane in the air of the working area and the urine of workers, the establishment of changes in several biochemical (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, glutamyltransferase, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and general clinical (eosinophils, neutrophils and the eosinophilia index) indicators, modeling of cause-and-effect relationships. Results. Specialists found in the observation group relative to the comparison group: increased levels of heptane and hexane in the urine up to 1.7 times; increased levels of adrenaline and norepinephrine in the blood plasma up to 1.8 times, up to 1.4 times ALAT and γ-GT in the blood serum, up to 1.9 times neutrophils in the nasal secretions associated with increased concentrations of heptane and hexane in the urine; an increase of up to 4.4 times in the frequency of diseases of the nervous system, respiratory organs, and digestion. Conclusions. In the air of the working area of the workers of the flotation shop of the sylvinite processing plant, the concentrations of the studied limit hydrocarbons were below the detection limit; there is an increased concentration of heptane and hexane in the urine. In the workers of the studied production, an increase of 1.4-1.8 times in the level of adrenaline and norepinephrine in blood plasma, 1.2-1.4 times in ALAT and γ-GT in blood serum, 1.9 times in the content of neutrophils in nasal secretions, which characterizes adverse effects from the respiratory, digestive and nervous systems. We proved the dependence of the increased frequency of diseases of the listed organs and systems on the increased concentration of heptane in the urine (R2=0.26-0.43; p=0.0001-0.028).
, Natalya A. Evseeva, Sergey N. Filimonov, Olga Yu. Korotenko, Igor P. Danilov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-365-370

Abstract:
Introduction. Among underground miners, the pathology of the cardiovascular system is much more common than among workers on the surface, which indicates the negative role of the impact of harmful production factors. There is evidence of a high prevalence of traditional risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease among miners with dust pathology of the lungs. Preventive measures for coronary heart disease exist for the timely detection and elimination of risk factors. In this regard, it is relevant to optimize methods for predicting the risk of developing coronary heart disease in coal mine workers. The study aims to develop a system for predicting the probability of developing coronary heart disease in miners with anthracosilicosis based on determining the most significant risk factors. Materials and methods. The experts studied the frequency of coronary heart disease and its risk factors in 139 employees of the primary professions of coal mines. The scientists performed daily ECG monitoring, bicycle ergometry according to the Rose questionnaire. They also studied the indicators of lipid metabolism, hemostasis, the level of homocysteine, C-reactive protein, glycemia, the presence of excess body weight, constitutional and morphological types according to Rice-Eysenck and Tanner. The experts developed a predictive system using the Bayes method. We calculated a predictive coefficient for each factor. Scientists determined the probability of coronary heart disease by the value of the sum of prognostic coefficients. Results. Workers aged 45 years and older have the highest risk of developing coronary heart disease. The experience of working in harmful working conditions for 20 years or more, the presence of arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, respiratory failure, andromorphic constitutional-morphological type according to the Tanner index, as well as the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, increased levels of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes and C-reactive protein - all these are the risks of developing coronary heart disease in miners with anthracosilicosis. Conclusions. The developed system of personalized prediction of the probability of developing coronary heart disease in miners with anthracosilicosis allows us to identify a group of high-risk workers for timely treatment and preventive measures for them.
Andrey M. Allenov, Tatyana P. Vasilyeva, Ivan V. Starostin, Екатерина Владимировна Макарова, Anna V. Vorobeva
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-6-385-401

Abstract:
The study aims to assess the characteristics of health, psychological status, lifestyle, social and living conditions as factors affecting the professional success of researchers. We used content analysis of literary data and the method of expert assessments. The factors that have a high impact on the professional success of researchers include age, quality of life, premature aging, cognitive load and activity, emotional status, physical inactivity. Among the average significant factors are job satisfaction, childbearing, educational growth, stress resistance, career growth, work on the household farm, medical responsibility, material security, corporate and family health-saving environment, lifestyle, personal qualities, psycho-psychological, information and energy loads, emotional stress, academic title, intellectual activity cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, alternation of physical and mental work (change of mono-load to complex). It is necessary to study further the factors that determine the success of the professional activity of researchers. There is a significant number of problems and many negative aspects associated with scientific training. According to the agreed opinion of experts, there are priority ranking places by such problems as in the first place - a decrease in cognitive functions; in the second place - a reduction in the effectiveness of scientific activity and premature aging; in the third place - the presence of low medical responsibility; in the fourth place - a frequent decrease in physical activity; in the fifth-place - emotional burnout, the fact of low material security, the formation of violations of psychological characteristics, premature termination of scientific activity. The factors that have a high impact on the professional success of researchers include age, quality of life, premature aging, cognitive load and activity, emotional status, physical inactivity. Among the average significant factors are job satisfaction, childbearing, educational growth, stress resistance, career growth, work on the household farm, medical responsibility, material security, corporate and family health-saving environment, lifestyle, personal qualities, psycho-psychological, information and energy loads, emotional stress, academic title, intellectual activity cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, alternation of physical and mental work (change of mono-load to complex).
Alexander A. Dubinsky, Vera G. Bulygina,
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-5-340-346

Abstract:
The study of professionally significant individual-psychological features of employees of law enforcement units in relation to the leading type of activity, including taking into account professional experience, is an actual scientific and practical issue. The identification of the requirements of the profile activity imposed on the employee, the assessment of different-level individual-psychological qualities allows to draw a conclusion about the effectiveness and suitability of the employee for the profession. The professional experience of employees of law enforcement agencies significantly affects the features of stress response, decision-making, motives for official activity, and the state of maladjustment. The study aims to identification of individual-psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers with different profiles and professional experience. 179 male law enforcement officers (average age - 30,2±6,2 years, average professional experience - 7,5±6,1 years) were examined. The employees were divided into 3 groups, depending on the type of professional activity. Group 1 consisted of employees of the security profile (n=67), group 2 - of the communicative-informational profile (n=46), group 3 - of the inspector-communication profile (n=66). The subjects were further divided into subgroups with professional experience up to 9 years inclusive and with experience of 10 or more years. The methodological complex includes: Self-control questionnaire; Behavior Activation and Inhibition questionnaire; Test Technology of Psychosemantic Analysis - Semantic Analysis of Activity (Noss I.N., 2009); Test Problem Situation Analysis (Noss I.N., 2009); a modification of the S. Rosenzweig Frustration Toleration Test (Noss I.N., Ignatkin V.N., 1997). The employees of the security profile were distinguished by the predominance of intropunitive reactions and fixation on the obstacle when assessing the conflict from their own position, high physical activity. Individuals of the communicative-informational profile were distinguished by impunitive reactions, fixation on self-defense and satisfaction of needs, high inhibition of behavior to negative stimuli, high activation of behavior, and high efficiency of resolving problem situations when assessing the conflict from an external position. Persons of the inspector-communication profile were distinguished by high rates of extrapunitive reactions in the whole, unrestrained affect of irritation, preference for simple tasks, low inhibition of behavior. The classification in a group of the security profile with high professional experience contribute: a preference for simple tasks, high activation to promote; in the group of communicative-informational and inspector-communication profile - high activation of achieving the goal. The generalized group of law enforcement officers with 10 years or more of experience in assessing the conflict from their own position was distinguished by the severity of extrapunitive reactions and fixation on the obstacle and on self-defense, the predominance of unrestrained affect of irritation, preference for simple tasks, low inhibition of behavior to negative stimuli. The results obtained allow us to conclude that there are differences in the psychological profile of law enforcement officers with different types of official activities and work experience. The profile of employees of communication-information activities was more consistent with the universal personal and professional qualities required for employees of law enforcement agencies in terms of psychophysiological qualities. Least consistent with a universal professional requirements officers of inspector-communication activities, which was reflected in low capacity for learning, reducing the effectiveness of problem-solving, emotional instability. With an increase in the length of professional experience, there is a predominance of externally blaming response strategies and low self-control.
, Yuliya N. Sladkova, Olga V. Volchkova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-5-334-339

Abstract:
Human health and efficiency are largely determined by the microclimate conditions and the air quality in residential, public and industrial buildings in which people spend a significant amount of time. The existing methods of measuring microclimate indicators largely do not correspond to the changed regulatory framework, do not fully reflect all the stages of measurements, have contradictions and inaccuracies, which leads to errors in the measurement and evaluation of the results obtained. The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for measuring microclimate indicators in residential and public buildings, leveling the existing contradictions in the current documents and meeting modern requirements. The analysis of the current methodological documents regulating the requirements for measuring microclimate indicators was carried out, the main problems encountered by specialists during measurements and evaluation of laboratory and instrumental studies of the microclimate were identified and systematized. To date, the only methodological document in the field of microclimate for residential and public buildings is GOST 30494-2011 "Residential and public buildings. Indoor microclimate parameters". This standard sets the requirements for the organization of control and allows to measure and evaluate the microclimate in almost any residential and public building. However, the standard presents requirements for measurement conditions that are practically unrealizable for many regions of Russia, unreasonably high requirements for measuring instruments (MI), which do not allow to take measurements by MI included in the State Register and having the appropriate scope of application, insufficient requirements for the criteria for the selection of premises and their preparation for an objective assessment of the microclimate parameters, inaccuracies in the presented formulas for calculating the resulting room temperature and inconsistencies in individual paragraphs of the document. There are also no requirements for processing and presenting measurement results. In this situation, the development of a methodology for measuring microclimate indicators in residential and public buildings is extremely relevant. This paper presents the main provisions of the developed draft methodology for measuring microclimate indicators in residential and public buildings at different stages of operation of research objects. The developed procedural guidelines determine the order, conditions for carrying out and minimum scope of instrumental control required for microclimate parameters in residential and public buildings that meet the requirements of sanitary legislation. In the process of procedural guidelines development inconsistencies and discrepancies of current procedural documents were considered as much as possible.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-5-311-317

Abstract:
Introduction. It is necessary to consider the employee's age and health status to increase the reliability and accuracy of predicting occupational risk based on working conditions. Moreover, knowledge about the age dynamics of a person's working capacity is also required to preserve its longevity in pre-retirement and retirement age. The length of the working week (LWW) and work intensity (WI) often become the primary risk of chronic fatigue and related diseases. The latter is common among employees of industrial enterprises, doctors, teachers. The study aims to research the age dynamics of working capacity and the risk of industrial fatigue of employees of industrial enterprises, education and healthcare. Materials and methods. We examined six groups of employees. The central employees of large factories: workers engaged in regional physical labor (GR 1.1, 1175 people) and precision work (GR 1.2, 708 people), specialists, and managers (GR 1.3, 307 people). Medical workers (GR 2, 1041 people). University teachers (GR 3.1, 694 people). School teachers (GR 3.2, 130 people). Researchers studied groups by different methods, depending on the degree of diversity of the content of labor actions during the working day and their variation by days of the working week. We used the survey method to determine the degree, frequency, and duration of employee fatigue. Results. All factory workers in the age range of 18-49 years have a monotonous increase in the risk of severe fatigue at work (SFW) due to the rise in fatigue disappearance and increasing the intensity of work (IW). With an increase in the age of employees, GR 1.2 IW and working week duration (WWD) do not decrease, but all indicators of the physiological cost of maintaining the level of labor productivity increase. In workers of GR 2 and GR 3.1, the value of SWF in the age group of 30-40 years is from 6 to 14%, which is two times lower than in GR 1.1 and GR 1.2. In group GR 3.1, there is a lowering of the value of WI. We tend to reduce SFW up to 70-75 years of age; 20-35% of teachers have WWD more than 50 hours. The greatest WWD we observe at the age of 50-60 years. Also, we follow the lowering of WWD in healthcare workers, while it monotonically decreases with age. Teachers have increased WI, and there is no age-related tendency to decrease the value of SWF in them. The most significant number of university employees falls in the age group of 60-64 years and GR 1.2 - on the age of 30-34 years. Conclusions. The age dynamics of working capacity we consider as a process of biological aging of the body, the speed of which depends on the psychophysiological requirements of labor standards and the degree of their fatigue.With a tiring level of labor intensity, when the performance of labor standards requires the employee to speed and volume of sensorimotor tasks, performance decreases significantly with age. With regional physical labor without increased requirements for the accuracy of visual-motor reactions, performance decreases at the age of 51-55 years to 0.9; at 56-60 years - to 0.8; in 61-65 years - up to 0.75. With high sensorimotor requirements, performance decreases earlier and more significantly - at the age of 46-50 years to 0.7, at 51-55 years to 0.5, at the age of more than 55 years, the ability to fulfill labor standards decreases two times. With tireless work, when its result depends not on its physiological intensity (density and pace of labor actions), but on the knowledge and experience of the employee, the ability of a person to fulfill labor standards remains up to 75 years, and there is no age decrement of working capacity. Therefore, the indicator "long working hours per week" (extended hours) is a risk factor for employees' health only when combined with the physiological intensity of work that causes their fatigue on working days.
, , Elena P. Sizova, Marina A. Patyashina, Lidiya V. Stavropolskaya, , Ramil R. Zalyalov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-5-286-304

Abstract:
Introduction. To date, issues related to the protection of medical workers from COVID-19 infection, including immunological protection, are of particular interest. The aim of the study was to explore seroprevalence of the IgG to SARS-CoV-2 N-protein in various groups of medical workers with the following assessment of the risk of COVID-19, depending on the seropositivity and occupational group. Materials and methods. The study of the strength of immunity to COVID-19 was carried out within the framework of the large-scale Rospotrebnadzor program to assess population immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the population of the Russian Federation, considering the protocol recommended by WHO, on the basis of the laboratories of the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Republic of Tatarstan. From the sample of the study conducted in the Republic of Tatarstan, medical workers (301) were selected without a history of a new coronavirus infection and with no clinical symptoms of this disease at the time of biomaterial sampling (June 2020); the absence of the transferred new coronavirus infection was verified by the Unified State Information System "Electronic Health of the Republic of Tatarstan". The comparison group included 52 employees belonging to the engineering and technical personnel and not employed in medical institutions who met the above inclusion criteria. In the aggregate, the observation group (medical workers and the comparison group) included 12.1% of the participants in the population study. Results. The rate of seropositivity was 36.5% in the control groups, 23.7% - in doctors, and 38.9% - in nurses. Compared to doctors, seroprevalence was higher in nurses. The employment of medical workers in temporary infectious diseases hospitals did not affect the production of the IgG to SARS-CoV-2 N-protein. A relatively low prevalence of seropositivity among doctors of temporary infectious diseases hospitals was revealed. The probability of seroconversion decreased with age and did not depend on gender or history of recent contacts with COVID-19 patients. The survival analysis showed that the probability of remaining healthy by the end of the follow-up was the lowest among doctors from medical and preventive institutions that did not serve as temporary infectious diseases hospitals. The risk of COVID-19 in seronegative individuals was higher, but without statistical significance. Conclusion. According to the data of immunological studies for the presence of IgG antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it was found that the prevalence of seroprevalence in nurses is significantly higher than that of doctors, nurses of medical and prophylactic organizations of young age have higher seroprevalence to the nucleocapsid protein of the SARS-CoV-2. According to prospective observation, it was revealed that doctors of medical and prophylactic organizations that are not classified as temporary infectious diseases hospitals have a higher risk of developing a symptomatic form of COVID-19, which may be due to both the insufficient effectiveness of anti-epidemic measures and the peculiarities of the immune response and approaches, used to evaluate it. In the current epidemic situation, the detection of IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be used to decide on the distribution of responsibilities among medical personnel.
, Ilona Ya. Chistova, Natalia A. Bogacheva, Yana A. Petinati,
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-267-274

Abstract:
Introduction. One of the urgent problems of medicine around the world is the growth of malignant diseases. The impact of the production environment in developing professional and production-related skin malignancies is a sensitive area of occupational health. The high prevalence of precancerosis and the increase in the incidence of skin cancer in people of working age indicates the need to improve diagnostic and preventive measures. One of the most effective recognized non-invasive differential diagnoses of skin tumors with high diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity is dermatoscopy. The study aims to substantiate the importance of dermatoscopic diagnosis of skin neoplasms in workers with industrial carcinogens. The researchers analyzed the available literature and statistical data on the impact of industrial carcinogens on benign and malignant skin lesions in workers in various industries. Specialists from Clinic of the "Izmerov Research Institute of Occupational Health" examined 1,136 people during periodic medical examinations. The features of the signs of neoplasms evaluate according to the principle of their presence or absence. There were two groups: group 1 (n=648) consisted of persons who have contact with industrial carcinogens according to the special assessment of working conditions (SAWC), group 2 (n=488) - persons who do not have contact with carcinogens in the workplace. We found that the frequency of benign skin neoplasms increases depending on the length of work in contact with a production carcinogen. Researchers developed the criteria of clinical and anamnestic signs (the main of which are the working conditions). Dermatoscopic criteria for the initial signs of malignancy of skin neoplasms allow us to form a group of dynamic observations of skin neoplasms in patients working with carcinogens during periodic medical examinations. We formed a group of 38 people (29 from the first and 9 from the second group) for monitoring the dynamics of changes in neoplasms with an appearance to a dermatovenerologist after three months. Specialists sent seven people for additional examination by an oncologist to clarify the degree of existing signs of dysplasia. The formation of a dynamic observation group with the risk of malignancy of skin neoplasms will optimize early diagnosis and ensure high efficiency of treatment in outpatient settings.
, Tatyana E. Pictushanskaya, Marina A. Panova, Elena P. Kontorovich, Oksana P. Ponamareva
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-243-252

Abstract:
The article presents the basic concepts of the burden of occupational diseases, the modern concept of burden assessment is considered. The burden of occupational respiratory diseases (bronchial asthma, COPD, lung cancer, pneumoconiosis, hypersensitive pneumonitis) is analyzed. In connection with the significant socio-economic damage caused by occupational diseases of the respiratory system, attention is drawn to the need to improve the effectiveness of preventive measures in the field of respiratory health protection of employees of harmful (dangerous) industries.
, Maria M. Kolyaskina, , Nana A. Anvarul, Anastasia V. Karpushina
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-212-217

Abstract:
Introduction. Heart disease has remained the leading cause of death in the world for the past 20 years. The development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, along with genetic, somatic, behavioral, socioeconomic, environmental, and other risk factors, are significantly affected by unfavorable industrial and professional aspects: physical-vibration, noise, temperature disturbance; ergonomic - inactivity, and monotonous work, physical overstrain, chemical, biological, stress, etc. The primary pathogenetic mechanism leading to the development of CHD and fatal complications - myocardial infarction, strokes, thrombosis, and other diseases of the cardiovascular system is atherosclerosis. The study aimed to assess the risk of developing cardiovascular complications in employees who operate and maintain communication facilities based on wired and wireless technologies Materials and methods. An in-depth examination of the health status of 50 employees of the service for the operation of radio equipment and communications was conducted. Blood serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL were determined, and the atherogenicity index was calculated. The probability of total risk of cardiovascular complications and five-year cardiovascular risk was calculated for all the examined patients according to the European SCORE scale and the ASCORE rating scale. The "Vascular age" was also calculated. Results. Based on the analysis of lipid metabolism indicators, a high cardiovascular risk was identified in 40% of the examined patients. Increased values of the atherogenicity index were already observed in middle-aged people (45-60 years). Analysis of the data obtained using the SCORE and ASCORE assessment scales revealed a high risk of developing cardiovascular complications in middle-aged (45-60 years) and elderly (61-74 years) individuals. The excess of the vascular age in comparison with the real (passport) age was established in middle-aged (45-60 years) and elderly (61-74 years) individuals, on average, 7 (p<0.001) and 5 (p=0.026) years, respectively. Conclusion. The most pronounced changes in lipid metabolism and the risk of cardiovascular risk were in people of the most working age (45-60). In this regard, it is necessary to develop preventive measures aimed at cardioscreening to detect early signs of health disorders, prevent the development of cardiovascular complications, and the formation of groups at increased risk of diseases.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-238-242

Abstract:
Introduction. Effective therapy of occupational polyneuropathy of the upper extremities is a difficult task, because the characteristic clinical and neurophysiological manifestations of this disease persist for many years even after the termination of contact with the etiological harmful production factor - physical overload. Taking into account the low efficiency of existing treatment methods, as well as the peculiarities of the effect of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT), the task of developing a technique for using LILT for the treatment of patients with professional polyneuropathy and assessing its effectiveness during follow-up is very urgent. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of LILT for the treatment of occupational polyneuropathy of the upper extremities. Materials and methods. The results of treatment of 236 patients with an established diagnosis of occupational polyneuropathy of the upper extremities are presented. All patients received usual drug therapy, the treatment of patients of the main group differed from the comparison group in that they were additionally treated with LILT according to the developed method. Results. The effectiveness of the therapy was assessed by studying the dynamics of pain in the hands using a visual pain rating scale, pulse velocity along the sensory fibers of the median and ulnar nerves. Changes in each of these parameters in subgroups were assessed at different stages of follow-up (before and immediately after treatment, after 3 and after 6 months). The division of patients into subgroups was carried out by determining type of the nerve fibers' damage. Conclusion: The developed method of LILT of professional polyneuropathy is simple and convenient for use in clinical practice: it is applicable both in a hospital and on an outpatient basis. After treatment, in patients from the main group, in contrast to the comparison group, there was a statistically significant increase in the parameters of pulse velocity along the sensory fibers of the median and ulnar nerves with a simultaneous decrease in the severity of pain. The effect of LILT in patients from the main group decreased after 6 months, which allows us to recommend such courses of LILT 2 times a year. LILT has a limited list of contraindications and is generally well tolerated by patients with minimal local side effects.
Наталья Николаевна Логинова, Ivan V. Boiko
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-275-280

Abstract:
Occupational polyneuropathy of the upper extremities from the effects of physical overload in the Russian Federation is a common occupational disease that leads to a long-term decrease in the occupational capacity of patients. But at the same time, the current regulatory documents do not contain any detailed recommendations for the examination of professional suitability in patients with this disease. The aim of the study is to substantiate the ways of improving expert approaches to determining the professional suitability of patients with occupational polyneuropathy caused by physical overload. The adequacy of two alternative approaches to assessing the professional suitability of patients with occupational polyneuropathy was assessed, the first of which allowed the patients to continue working under the influence of physical overload, and the second indicated the need to employ these patients at work without the influence of physical overload. The adequacy of labor recommendations was assessed by the dynamics of the health status of workers in different employment options. According to the dynamic observation of a group of 412 patients with occupational polyneuropathy, it was found that when they continued to work under conditions of physical overload, an unfavorable course of occupational pathology in the form of progression of polyneuropathy was regularly noted (36,1%), less often the development of new occupational diseases of the musculoskeletal system from physical overload. Among patients employed at work without physical overload, cases of progression of occupational pathology were not observed. Among patients with occupational polyneuropathy, in the majority (61.9%) this disease was combined with occupational pathology of the musculoskeletal system, occupational radiculopathies of the cervical and lumbosacral levels. Periodic exacerbations of these diseases can also lead to the need to establish contraindications for admission to physically demanding work. During dynamic observation of patients with occupational polyneuropathy in 39.5% of patients, due to the unfavorable course of cardiovascular diseases, there were grounds for determining contraindications to work under the influence of all harmful industrial factors. As a justification for contraindications to continue working under conditions of physical overload and other harmful production factors (general and local vibration, general hypothermia), the probability of progression of an occupational disease should be considered. When choosing the types of work, one should consider the presence of concomitant occupational and general diseases.
, Elena L. Poteriyaeva, Boris M. Doronin, Vladimir N. Maximov, Elena L. Smirnova, Svetlana A. Karmanovskaya
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-231-237

Abstract:
Introduction. The problem of preventing the development of stroke in workers under the influence of harmful production factors is urgent. The aim of the study was to study the characteristics of stroke in men under conditions of industrial noise exposure, to establish the prognostic value in the formation and course of the disease. Material and methods. The study involved 71 men with stroke from 30 to 65 years old, who worked in conditions of industrial noise in the professions of "pilot of civil aviation aircraft" and "adjuster of railway construction machines" for 5 years or more. In order to develop a mathematical model for predicting the development of stroke and to establish an individual risk, a group of 81 men from 30 to 65 years old, working under conditions of exposure to occupational noise for 5 years or more, who had no history of stroke data, were also examined. Using the method of sequential inclusion of the studied risk factors (Forward Stepwise), we selected those that made an independent significant contribution to the development of stroke. Based on the results obtained, a logistic regression formula was created, which determines the likelihood of stroke in men working under conditions of occupational noise. Results. In the group of patients with stroke, persons of middle age were found significantly more often - 53.5%. Ischemic stroke prevailed among clinical forms - 90.1%. Among the risk factors prevailed: arterial hypertension (AH) in 100.0% of cases, dyslipidemia factor in 78.9%, smoking factor in 59.1%. A direct moderate correlation was found between the level of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and the index of the NIHSS 1 and NIHSS 2 scales. The influence of the following factors on the development of stroke was established: the level of total cholesterol (β-coefficient=1.0, p=0.001), the presence of atrial fibrillation factor (β-coefficient=2.9, p=0.004), the presence of a factor of alcohol abuse (β-coefficient=1.1, p=0.049), the patient has a diagnosis of grade 2 AH (β-coefficient=13, p=0.041) or a diagnosis of grade 3 hypertension (β-coefficient=1.8, p=0.008). A p(X) value exceeding 0.5 indicates a high risk of developing a stroke. The sensitivity of the proposed method was 76.1%, specificity - 74.1%. Conclusion. The proposed multivariate model is informative for the individual prediction of the development of stroke in men working in conditions of exposure to occupational noise, because reflects the degree of influence of one factor or another on the development of the disease.
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-253-266

Abstract:
A retrospective cohort study was carried out to investigate the mortality of workers occupationally exposed to dust containing chrysotile asbestos fibers. In its chemical and physical properties, it differs from the fibers of other types of asbestos and is the only type of asbestos that is currently approved for use in many countries of the world. The members of the cohort are current and former employees who have worked for at least one year at the production sites of the complex of enterprises for the mining and enrichment of chrysotile asbestos (JSC "Uralasbest", Asbest, Sverdlovsk region) in the period from 01.01.1975 to 31.12.2010. Of the 35,837 members of the cohort, 12,729 (35.5%) people died (2,373 of them were malignant neoplasms of various localizations, including 10 mesotheliomas), 18,799 (52.5%) were alive at the end of the observation period (2015), and 4,309 people (12.0%) were censored by the end of 2015. The mean follow-up period was 21.7 years for men and 25.9 years for women. The average age at death was 59.4 years for men and 66.5 years for women. It is currently the world's largest cohort of workers in the field.
Irena A. Mishkich, Evgeniy A. Baymakov, Olga I. Yushkova, Anna V. Zaytseva, Hristina T. Oniani
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-218-223

Abstract:
Introduction. The impact of high information and neuro-emotional loads on teachers and medical workers contributes to professional stress and the development of production-related diseases. The development of preventive programs in health-saving behavior is quite relevant. It reveals the need to study the peculiarities of the labor activity in employees of pedagogical labor and the medical sphere. The study aims to substantiate hygienic and medical-preventive programs to prevent the development of overstrain and maintain health in pedagogical and medical workers with different work intensities. Materials and methods. Researchers carried out comprehensive physiological and hygienic studies, a hygienic assessment of the intensity of the labor process, and factors of the production environment. We have a questionnaire survey and the results of medical examinations of teachers and surgeons. Scientists did physiological studies on the state of the cardiovascular system with characteristics of the response to stress loads (ECG recording on a 12-channel electrocardiograph and continuously using Holter monitoring, determination of systemic blood pressure). We calculated the total risk of fatal cardiovascular complications on the SCORE scale. Researchers carried out statistical processing of the obtained data using the statistical program EpiInfo 3.5.2., Statistika 10, Microsoft Excel 2010. Results. 85.7% of medical university teachers have chronic diseases, and diseases of the circulatory system prevail in the structure of morbidity, the frequency of which increases with age. The results of the questionnaire survey established the priority behavioral risk factors for teachers. There is a high (from >5% to 10%) and very high (>10%) absolute risk of fatal cardiovascular complications on the SCORE scale in teachers. In surgeons, the study of the features and degree of adequacy of the cardiovascular system's response to stress during work revealed the tension of the regulatory mechanisms of the circulatory system, which indicates a decrease in the functional capabilities of the myocardium. Conclusions. Neuro-emotional stress of work is the leading professional factor in the teaching staff of higher medical education (2 permissible, 3 class of harmfulness of the 1st degree) and surgeons (class 3.2). It determines the formation of the functional state of neuropsychiatric tension.
Klara R. Ziyakaeva, Aliya F. Kayumova,
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-4-224-230

Abstract:
Introduction. Heavy metal compounds of copper-zinc pyrite ores can negatively affect the blood-forming and composition of peripheral blood of workers at mining and milling industry. Studying of the mechanisms of the development of metal-induced anemia will help in the search of ways to correct disorders in the red blood system. The study aims to estimate the mechanism of functional disorders of the central and peripheral parts of erythron in the long-term intoxication of natural heavy metal compounds in the experiment. Material and methods. The work was carried out on 50 white non-linear male rats weighing 220,5±15,5 g. Sample of the studied ore was provided by Uchalinsky Mining and Refining Plant (Uchaly, Bashkortostan Republic, Russia). The rats were given a water suspension of copper-zinc powder daily for 90 days for 1 hour before feeding, the dose was calculated on the basis of the maximum allowable concentration of lead (0,2-0,5 mg/kg) and cadmium (0,02-0,1 mg/kg) in grain and bread. The number of red blood cells, reticulocytes, hemoglobin and the concentration of erythropoietin were determined in the peripheral blood. Bone marrow erythropoiesis was evaluated by the quantitative and qualitative composition of erythroblastic islets (EI) and indicators of proliferation and maturation of erythroblasts in the EI. Statistical analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney's non-parametric methods and Pearson's paired correlation. Results. On the 10th day young EI completely disappeared in the bone marrow, and erythropoiesis was supported only by reconstruction. In the peripheral blood the number of erythropoietin decreased by 22%, the number of reticulocytes doubled. The number of mature EI in the bone marrow was doubled by 30 days. By 90 days the number of reticulocytes in the blood returned to normal, but in the bone marrow the content of young forms of EI was 5 times less than the control values. Correlational analysis showed the absence of direct links between the central and peripheral parts of erythron in animals with chronic intoxication of copper-zinc pyrite ore, that present in the control group. Conclusion. With long-term combined exposure with heavy metals of natural origin, regulatory processes in the red blood system are disrupted, that is accompanied with inhibition of erythropoiesis in the EI.
, Natalya A. Evseeva, Sergey N. Filimonov, , Olga N. Blazhina, Igor P. Danilov
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-3-161-167

Abstract:
Introduction. There are data on the effects of dust on the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. The main measures for preventing diseases of the circulatory system aimed to identify and eliminate risk factors. However, the prevalence of risk factors for coronary heart disease among coal mine workers with anthracosilicosis has not been sufficiently studied, determining the study's relevance. The study aimed to learn the frequency of risk factors for coronary heart disease in coal industry workers with anthracosilicosis. Materials and methods. We examined 269 miners working in conditions of dustiness exceeding the maximum permissible concentration by ten or more times: 139 miners with a previously established diagnosis of anthracosilicosis and 130 miners of the control group without dust pathology of the lungs. All of them underwent a comprehensive clinical, instrumental, and laboratory examination of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems to detect anthracosilicosis and coronary heart disease, as well as to assess its risk factors. Results. In miners with anthracosilicosis, coronary heart disease was 3.5 times more common (30.94%) than in the control group (8.46%). We have identified a high incidence of coronary heart disease in the age group of 45 and more years and with the experience of working in dust conditions of 20 and more years. In miners with anthracosilicosis combined with coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension was 1.6 times more common (58.14%) than without concomitant coronary heart disease - 35.42%. Miners with a combination of anthracosilicosis and coronary heart disease were three times more likely (20.93%) than those without coronary heart disease (6.25%) to have a metabolic syndrome. According to the Tanner index, significant risk factors for coronary heart disease were the presence of an andromorphic constitutional-morphological type and the formation of a complication of anthracosilicosis - respiratory failure. The evaluation of biochemical blood tests showed that the most significant markers of coronary heart disease risk were hyperhomocysteinemia, increased levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and soluble fibrin-monomer complexes. Conclusions. We found that the most significant risk of developing coronary heart disease in miners is 45 years and older. There are also other risk factors: work experience in harmful working conditions of 20 years or more; the presence of arterial hypertension; metabolic syndrome; andromorphic constitutional-morphological type according to the Tanner index. Risk factors are respiratory failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, increased soluble fibrin-monomer complexes, and C - reactive protein. It is necessary to consider all risks in developing programs of medical and preventive measures for employees of the coal industry.
Egor S. Filimonov, , Evgeniya V. Ulanova
Russian Journal of Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology, Volume 61; https://doi.org/10.31089/1026-9428-2021-61-3-168-172

Abstract:
Introduction. The wide prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their close connection with obesity, especially abdominal, makes the question of the relationship of these disorders with the respiratory system highly relevant to the coal industry. Their working conditions are closely related to the harmful effects on production factors. The study aimed to study the main cardiorespiratory parameters in coal industry workers with abdominal obesity. Materials and methods. We explored 369 men, including 225 employees of coal mines and 114 workers of open-pit coal mining enterprises in the South of Kuzbass, aged from 40 to 55 years (the average age of miners - 46.2±0.36 years, workers of open-pit mines - 46.7±0.36 years, p=0.344). Scientists conducted a study of external respiration function on an analyzer of the pneumotachometric type "Spiro-Spectrum." We used the ultrasound system "Vivid E9", manufactured by General Electric, to define echocardiographic parameters. Results. The percentage of abdominal obesity among the coal mining industry employees in the south of Kuzbass was relatively high (more than 50%). At the same time, we detected arterial hypertension much more often. Scientists have found that the average values of the lungs' vital capacity and the volume of forced exhalation for the first second have decreased in both groups in the presence of abdominal obesity. Moreover, we found a pronounced deviation among the miners. Researchers associate the values of the leading echocardiographic indicators with the presence of visceral obesity. We identified high values of systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery and characteristic signs of diastolic myocardial dysfunction in the examined patients. The researchers also identified the most pronounced indices of right and left atrial volumes in miners. In underground workers, the data of correlation analysis indirectly indicate that an increase in waist circumference is not the main factor affecting the reduction in their left ventricular longitudinal deformation. But we can't say this for onshore coal mining workers, who have a moderate connection. Conclusions. Abdominal obesity harms the respiratory system of coal industry workers, more pronounced in miners. Visceral obesity is significantly associated with dysfunction of the right and left parts of the heart, both in miners and in coal mine workers.
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