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Ronnie James Murungu, Olutayo Bankole-Bolawole, Collins Otieno, Charles Mwangi, Girma Aboma
Published: 12 April 2022
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v4n1p32

Abstract:
Ethiopia has made large strides in water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) given rapid urbanization and a steadily increasing population. The country has developed several policies and plans that focus on improving the WASH sector. Simultaneously, the Government of Ethiopia has also developed several policies that tackle the impacts of climate change and aim to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by adapting sustainable climate resilient practices. The WASH sector plays a significant role in climate change as it contributes to GHG emissions but is also negatively affected by the impacts of climate change. In spite of the clear connection between the WASH sector and climate change Ethiopia’s NDCs do not fully address the mitigation and adaptation measures possible with water resources, sanitation, and waste management. There is growing evidence based on studies that globally emissions from sanitation and domestic wastewater are expected to rise significantly in the future. The sectoral approach in the preparation of the Ethiopia NDCs, rather than an integrated multi-sectoral approach risks missing out on important interactions and cross-cutting issues.
Muhammad Taufiqurrohman, Tri Murniati
Published: 28 June 2022
Culture and History, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30560/ch.v2n1p1

Abstract:
This article discusses the distribution of two post-New Order Indonesian non-commercial films, namely Turah and Prenjak. Eclectic methods employed in this research consist of (1) a textual-descriptive method to reveal the message of the films in correlation with its distribution aspect, and (2) an ethnographic method with in-depth interview technique to reveal how the distribution of the two films is carried out. This article shows that the distribution of Turah and Prenjak has several similarities as well as differences. Thematically, they talk about the lives of the poor, though they use different angles. In terms of distribution, both utilize film festivals as the main distribution media, both at national and international levels. Turah and Prenjak also achieved recognitions at various film festivals. The striking difference is in the choice of film distribution and screening road shows. Turah entered mainstream cinema and benefited from road shows while Prenjak did neither. This is mainly due to sensitive scenes in Prenjak showing vagina and penis which makes the film unable to be widely screened. It was distributed only for film festivals and limited screenings. Meanwhile, Turah, which does not display any scenes related to pornography, has the flexibility in its distribution. This shows that as part of circuit of culture, film distribution—as an act to circulate the film’s vision and ideology—is closely related to the process of production, consumption and also regulation.
Ronnie James Murungu, Olutayo Bankole-Bolawole, Collins Otieno, Charles Mwangi
Published: 12 April 2022
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v4n1p37

Abstract:
The Paris Agreement aims to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, thus contributing to sustainable development goals through building climate-resilient communities and industries. Water is the primary medium through which climate change influences the earth’s ecosystem and thus the livelihood and well-being of societies. Extreme weather conditions impact many sectors such as health, tourism, agriculture, and industry where water plays a key role. The climate effect is first and foremost through water systems as highlighted by the World Economic Forum (2016) Global Risks Report. Hence the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) sector plays a pivotal role in addressing climate change. In the last decade, Zambia has experienced the impacts of climate change in the form of extreme weather conditions and rising temperatures. In light of this, the Zambian government developed NDCs in accordance with the Paris agreement that aims to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and develop sustainable climate-resilient communities and industries. The impacts of climate change are felt through its influence on water. WASH is not only affected by climate change, but also a contributing factor to GHG emissions. Therefore, the WASH sector should play a pivotal role in contributing to the climate change targets. There are gaps among state and non-state actors and with affected communities in acknowledging the critical role of WASH in making real the NDC that need bridging. These include awareness and knowledge of WASH in contributing to NDC; the need to go beyond water to include sanitation and hygiene elements in the NDCs as holistic approach; inclusive participation of civil society and other non-state actors in addressing the gaps; integration of sectors and programmes in the NDCs; and enhanced governance and accountability mechanisms.
Peter Antes
Published: 28 June 2022
Culture and History, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30560/ch.v2n1p8

Abstract:
Migration is the most significant characteristics of Europe after World War II. In many European countries, in particular in Western Europe, it has led to multiethnic societies with special integration problems but only in more recent times its impact for multireligious pluralism was discovered in social sciences studies. It is therefore necessary to have a closer look at both: multiethnicity and religious pluralism and its respective consequences for the social peaceful living together in society, especially as concerns present-day Germany.
Mitali Das
Published: 21 June 2022
Risk and Financial Management, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/rfm.v4n1p1

Abstract:
Financial markets represent a powerful means to incentivize governments and corporates to take action against climate change. When climatic risks are reflected in the valuation of financial instruments, firms and governments acting in their own self-interest will reorient decisions toward climate-friendly activities. While the literature has found scant evidence that climate change risks are priced into equity share prices, recent work suggests that climate risks are priced into sovereign bonds. I re-examine the link between climate change and sovereign bonds and find that, as with share prices, sovereign bonds do not price in a climate risk premium. This paper thus resolves the anomalous finding that investors would demand a climate risk premium from sovereign bonds but not stocks. I find that, by virtue of their construction, measures of climate change vulnerability and resilience are highly rigid over time, and thus empirically capture country-specific risk premia rather than a climate-specific risk premium.
Xi Chen, Zhixin Zhan
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v5n1p16

Abstract:
Based on the relevant theoretical research on mortality salience and general self-efficacy, this paper tests the impact of mortality salience on uncertain consumption intention through experiments. It is found that mortality salience increases consumers’ preference to choose uncertain probabilistic promotion methods, but decreases individuals’ evaluation of new products. During the process above, the moderating effect of general self-efficacy was tested. Based on the results, this study provides specific suggestions on the marketing and product strategies in the context of mortality salience.
Ronnie James Karukuni Murungu, Olutayo Bankole Bolawole, Collins Otieno, Charles Mwangi, Musololo Onditi, Henry Kazula
Published: 12 April 2022
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v4n1p20

Abstract:
Tanzania continues to experience more frequent precipitation extremes such as droughts and heavy rainfall. These temperature and extreme weather events particularly droughts, heavy rains and flooding are predicted to increase further in both frequency and severity in the future. According to various studies these impacts are expected to include profound changes in water availability among other implications. The Government of Tanzania (GoT) estimates the annual economic costs of addressing climate change impacts to be about 1% of the country’s GDP. This figure could rise to 2% by the year 2030. As part of its climate change response plans, Tanzania has ratified the Paris Agreement and is currently reviewing its National Determined Contributions (NDCs). The nexus between Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and NDCs in the Tanzania policy framework falls within the Water, Health, and Waste Management sectors. Review of the NDCs shows an implicit inclusion of WASH but only as it relates to water resource management and health as adaptation priorities, and waste management as a mitigation priority. The NDC WASH commitments do not fully cover global WASH indicators and do not explicitly articulate the linkages between WASH and implementation in the areas of Water, Health and Waste Management. Given the change of context since 2015 and in the circumstances of COVID19, which has created further challenges in WASH service delivery, the government should consider integrating relevant WASH targets in the ongoing NDCs review process to speed up its commitment to reduce green emission, boost sufficient availability of quality water, and thus positively impact sanitization practices.
Ronnie James Murungu, Olutayo Bankole Bolawole, Collins Otieno, Charles Mwangi, Anthony Wolimbwa
Published: 12 April 2022
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v4n1p26

Abstract:
Uganda as a signatory to the Paris Agreement is required to update her Nationally Determined Contributions to demonstrate progress after every five years. The Water Sanitation and Hygiene(WASH) sector has proven to be a victim, contributor but also a critical component to addressing the existing climate challenges. Despite the clear link between WASH and Climate change, most climate change initiatives do not address WASH adequately from both adaptation and mitigation perspectives. This study analyzed the WASH related targets in Uganda’s current NDCs to ascertain how they have been addressed from both the mitigation and adaptation perspectives. The paper took on a rapid assessment of the current NDCs using a desk study and secondary literature review approach coupled with key stakeholder expert inputs through write-shops. Whereas WASH climate focused targets have been to a greater extent covered under adaptation, there is limited integration from the mitigation perspective which does not provide a balanced approach towards achieving the targets set out in the NDCs. The policy brief recommends a number of actions that include inclusion of WASH mitigation policy action in the NDCs, setting adaptation targets for the waste sector, amplifying the role of the private sector in WASH in the updated NDCs, prioritizing research and development to support decision making, providing for measurement, reporting and verifications for WASH in the NDCs, enhanced technology transfer and alignment of the updated NDCs with the long-term strategy. If adopted, these recommendations provide a starting point to comprehensively address WASH in the revised NDCs and subsequently contribute to the achievement of goal six of Sustainable Development Goals on clean water and sanitation for all.
Ali Rokhman, Rawuh Edy Priyono, Imam Santosa, Sri Pangestuti, Mustasyfa Thabib Kariadi
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v5n2p1

Abstract:
This research examines whether Banyumasan Javanese Language is still commonly used in the current digital era, both in daily interaction and in interaction through digital media. The national language of the Republic of Indonesia is Bahasa Indonesia. Besides the national language, local languages are usually used by local people in a country according to the people’s ethnicities. The local language used by local people is also called the first language. There are about 719 local languages throughout Indonesia. In Java, some local languages are used in specific regions and have their uniqueness as the form of local people’s local wisdom. One of the existing local languages in Java is Banyumasan Javanese Language, also known as Penginyongan Language or Basa Ngapak, used in Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Banyumas, Cilacap, Kebumen and surroundings (Barlingmascakeb). Many researchers have reported that their speakers slowly abandoned local languages because of migration, the young generation’s reluctance to use the local language, and lack of pride in first language factors. A UNESCO report states that nearly 1,500 ethnic languages are becoming extinct every day. Using a quantitative approach, this research randomly took the respondents, constituting Banyumasan language speakers from some regencies. The data were collected through questionnaires that were distributed online. The collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistics technique. The research results show that Banyumasan Javanese Language started to be abandoned by its main speakers and their descendants, both in family communication and online activities on the internet and social media communication.
Xi Chen, Genyuan Zhang
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v5n1p1

Abstract:
In today's increasingly prosperous Internet economy, online brand communities are playing an increasingly important role in marketing. This paper starts with customer participation and studies its relationship with customer innovation behavior. Existing research shows that customers' sense of identity with brand community will make them have more innovative behaviors. Therefore, this paper explores the mediating role of identity (brand identity and community identity) in the relationship between customer participation and customer innovation. The research results show that customer participation has a positive impact on customer innovation behavior, brand identity and community identity have a positive impact on customer innovation behavior, and brand identity and community identity play an intermediary role in customer participation and customer innovation behavior, that is, customer participation can generate more customer innovation behaviors by strengthening brand identity and community identity.
Leslie Rivera Jorge-Acain, Hermogenes Mendiola Paguia
Published: 27 April 2022
Agricultural Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/as.v4n1p1

Abstract:
The study aimed to describe the state of the Duck Raising Industry in the town of Hermosa, Province of Bataan in the Philippines from the point of view of various stakeholders. The study is a qualitative type of research built on a Phenomenological deductive approach. The researcher used interviews as the main tool in gathering the data needed for the study which focuses on the experiences the participants had in association to duck raising and duck egg processing from Mallard Duck locally known as itik. The study revealed that the duck Raising Industry in the town of Hermosa has been part of the growing up years of the participants and has greatly influenced their choice of livelihood and that the second generation of duck raisers in the family take on the business but is unlikely to be favored by the 3rd generation due to shifting careers and varied interests. The duck raising industry remains to be a good source of income and is appreciated by farmers for the quick daily turn out of profits. It is evident that through knowledge acquired from parents and relatives along with personal experiences, Hermosa duck raisers were able to generate best practices, techniques, and methods in duck raising.
Adhi Iman Sulaiman, Sri Pangestuti, Toto Sugito, Ahmad Sabiq
Published: 12 April 2022
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v4n1p1

Abstract:
The development of economic institutions through business groups and Village-Owned Enterprises has become the foundation of the economy at the regional, urban and national levels. The study used the qualitative Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) method to identify community problems and potentials and understand deeply the situation of a community. The research targets are the Soto Klamud Business Group and the Peanut and Seed Economic Business Group which are located in the Toyareja Village, in Purbalingga. which can be used as examples of success in other research locations, namely the Kartadesa Village Owned Enterprise in Sambak Village, Kajoran District, Magelang Regency of Central Java. The data is collected through interviews, documentation, observation, and Participatory Decision Making (PDM). In addition, the informants have decided purposively namely the management of business groups and village-owned enterprises, village governments, and customers. The study used qualitative data analysis by collecting data, reducing, categorizing, verifying, triangulating, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that: (1) The process of developing socio-economic engineering in business groups must be supported by universities or academics and social institutions as activists who sustainably care about community empowerment by conducting counseling, training on institutional and business management as well as marketing, and assisting with access to partnerships. (2) Sustainable development in culinary tourism can be realized through empowerment programs such as counseling, training, and mentoring for the younger generation to become successful entrepreneur.
Naseem Ali Al-Wazeer, Abdulhameed Ashuja'A
International Linguistics Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v5n1p1

Abstract:
The present study aimed at exploring the extent to which WhatsApp (WA) and Facebook (FB) are used in ESP (English for Specific Purposes) contexts and their impact on ESP students' learning performance. To achieve this objective, two questionnaires and a semi-structured interview were developed. Due to Covid-19 restrictions, the questionnaires were administered online to a sample of 13 ESP male and female teachers and 406 ESP male and female students from eight Private Yemeni universities in Amanat Al Asimah and from four disciplines: engineering, computing and information technology, business, and medicine. The interviews with the teachers were also conducted via phone due to the restrictions imposed because of Covid-19.While SPSS was used to analyse the quantitative data, thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. The results of the study revealed that teachers' use and students' use of WA and FB in ESP contexts was moderate. The impact of WA and FB on students' learning performance was moderate from teachers' perspective while it was high from students' perspective. There was also a strong correlation between using WA and FB in ESP contexts and their impact on students' learning performance. The study recommended that universities train their teachers to use these applications and add a requirement course focusing on using technology tools for teaching and learning English language.
Peter Kalina
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v5n1p1

Abstract:
In 1840, organized labor compelled factory owners to limit their workdays to eight hours. Subsequent to this action, management discovered that output actually increased, while mistakes and accidents decreased. In 1916, the Adamson Act established an eight-hour day for railroad workers. This was the first federal law that regulated the hours of workers in private companies. The eight-hour day became a standard for most workers in 1937, when the Fair Labor Standards Act was first proposed under the New Deal (Samuel, 2000). Before COVID changed perceptions about how people could accomplish their tasks, leaders expected employees to put in long days at the office, and then respond to emails at all hours. They were expected to willingly donate nights, weekends, and vacation time; all without complaining (Carmichael, 2015). The organizational charts of many companies have work cascading from the top of the organizational pyramid down to the bottom. In that version, we work long hours because authority figures (our bosses) tell us to. Managers want their employees to be “Humble, Hungry, and Smart” (Lecioni, 2016). The problem with “hungry” is that a work ethic equating with excess work hours (or the perception of busyness) is an old-school management philosophy that is not sustainable. It leads to overwork, diminished effectiveness, and burnout. That’s not to say we can’t work very hard or for very long hours. We can. We just can’t do it routinely. A week of 60 hours to resolve a crisis is very different from chronic overwork. Predictable, required time off makes teams more productive (Perlow, 2009).
Seyi Samson Enitan, Morenikeji Hannah Adeniyi, Surajudeen Alim Junaid, Ernest Chibuike Ohanu, Nwachi Idume Ogbonna, Effiong Effiong Joseph, Grace Eleojo Itodo, Oluyemisi Ajike Adekunbi, Joan Osamouyi Odigie, Ayomide Ruth Olabanji
Published: 17 December 2021
Modern Health Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/mhs.v4n2p6

Abstract:
Background: Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is frequent among Nigerians. Many people are infected without realizing it (asymptomatic) and thus provide a risk of transmission to others. Not only will early treatment prevent TB complications, but it will also help to break the infection cycle in a community. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IgM and IgG antibodies and associated risk factors among apparently healthy undergraduate Students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State. Methodology: The serum samples of 100 consenting participants were collected randomly and screened for TB antibodies using Aria TB IgG/IgM Combo Rapid Antibody Test Cassette (CTK Biotech Inc. Poway, CA 92064, USA). A structured questionnaire was administered to consenting students to obtain information on their bio-data (e.g, the age, sex, study level etc.), as well as clinical information regarding their health (History of TB, history of BCG vaccination, use of anti-TB medications, alcohol consumption, smoking habits etc.). Results: The outcome of this study shows that 15 (15%) out of the 100 participants screened, were positive for TB IgG antibody, while, only 1 (1%) person was positive for TB IgM antibody. There was no significant association (P>0.05) between percentage TB IgG positivity and the socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants (gender, age, study level and tribe), except for religion. The percentage of TB IgG positivity among the study participants was found to be significantly higher than of TB IgM positivity (P<0.05). None of the 15 participants who tested positive to TB IgG indicated any of the signs and symptoms (persistent cough, chest pain, nausea, fever, chills, loss of appetite, fatigue and night sweat) associated with TB), however the only person who tested positive for TB IgM indicated all, except night sweat. Identified risk factors associated with the occurrence of TB IgM include history of TB, lack of BCG vaccination, history of diabetes and physical unfitness. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that asymptomatic and latent tuberculosis infection exists among the study participants, and that if left untreated, it will progress to active tuberculosis with all of its associated complications, including death. This emphasizes the importance of ongoing public health education, BCG vaccination, and periodic screening to detect asymptomatic cases in the study population in order to break the infection cycle.
Huy Anh Quyen, Tan Phung Trieu, Trong Nghia Le, Thai An Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Thuong Huynh
International Journal of Applied Science, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30560/ijas.v5n1p1

Abstract:
This paper proposes a new load shedding method based on the application of intelligent algorithms, the process of calculating and load shedding is carried out in two stages. Stage-1 uses a backpropagation neural network to classify faults in the system, thereby determining whether or not to shed the load in that particular case. Stage-2 uses an artificial neural network combined with an ant colony algorithm (ANN-ACO) to determine a load shedding strategy. The AHP algorithm is applied to propose load shedding strategies based on ranking the importance of loads in the system. The proposed method in the article helps to solve the integrated problem of load shedding, classifying the fault to determine whether or not to shedding the load and proposing a correct strategy for shedding the load. The IEEE 25-bus 8-generator power system is used to simulate and test the effectiveness of the proposed method, the results show that the frequency of recovery is good in the allowable range.
Vibeke Christensen, Peter Hobel
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p38

Abstract:
Students write to learn. Besides, enculturation to the disciplinary discourse happens during writing. Feedback on the assignments from the students scaffolds students’ writing development and learning paths. However, knowledge about the relationship between language, including argumentation in the discipline, on one hand, and the content of the discipline, on the other, is needed. This article is based on a socio-cultural approach to writing in the disciplines, and theory on feedback, and focuses on the relationship between the meso-level of texts (sentences, clauses, word choice) and the content of the discipline. We discuss how insight into the meso-level of texts may be used to improve and to develop feedback and formative evaluation. Cases from an intervention project in a Danish upper secondary school are included, and indicate that teachers and students assign a lower priority to feedback on the meso-level. This article claims that providing feedback on the meso-level strengthens writing development and students’ learning processes. To illustrate how this may be accomplished two texts are analyzed: one from a history class and one from a biology class.
Meike D. Mamentu
Published: 18 October 2021
International Educational Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ier.v4n2p40

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the improvement of student learning outcomes through the online class recitation learning model during the covid-19 pandemic, on the learning process of class X1 students of the Accounting Department at SMK Negeri 1 Tompaso Baru Minahasa, totaling 14 students. The online classroom research method used is in the form of CAR (Classroom Action Research) which refers to classroom action research. In terms of treatment, learning is given that applies an online class recitation learning model. From the results of the analysis obtained by researchers on accounting subjects with service company accounting cycle material with the stages: Recording transactions/documents into general journals (General Entries) and posting from general journals to general ledgers (General Ledger), there is an increase in student learning outcomes. This increase can be seen from the percentage of student learning completeness individually and classically. This increase can be seen from the percentage of student learning completeness individually and classically. At the pre-cycle stage or before the implementation of the action, the average value of the class was 63.92 with the percentage of classical learning completeness only 35%. In the first cycle, it reached an average of 71.78 with a classical mastery level of 64.28%. While the learning outcomes in the second cycle reached an average of 77.85 with the classical learning completeness level reaching 92.85%. Likewise with student learning activities at every face-to-face online class. Student activity at the 1st meeting only reached a percentage of 56.25% with high criteria. At the second meeting it reached a percentage of 72.76% with high criteria, and at the third meeting it reached a percentage of 83.92% with very high criteria. Thus, student learning activities and student learning completeness in online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic increase by using the online class recitation learning model. With learning outcomes reaching 92.85% above the minimum learning completeness.
Kwame Asare Duffour, Waseem Ahmed, Qamar Farooq
Published: 1 May 2021
Culture and History, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30560/ch.v1n1p50

Abstract:
Scholars and companies are making efforts in broadening the knowledge and image of corporate sustainability and corporate social responsibility. In light of this direction, this paper reports on how agro businesses are affecting the well-being of humans, the environment, and the corporate sector. This study adopted to review published electronic journal articles on corporate sustainability and corporate social responsibility shedding light on the challenges, threats, and solutions of agro-business. Furthermore, the study critically analyzes some of the latest value-based sustainability constructs. This review provides a conceptual understanding of sustainability and corporate responsibility. Responsible business practices foster the creation of economic and social value by realigning business objectives with stakeholder management and environmental responsibility. The study adds to the literature and is a critical insight to organizations regarding sustainability in agro business and corporate social responsibility.
Solomon Ali Dansieh, Edward Owusu, Gordon Abudu Seidu
Published: 8 March 2021
Language Teaching, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30560/lt.v1n1p22

Abstract:
Glossophobia, an individual’s anxiety of public speaking, has been observed to be a common phenomenon among students. The present study explores factors associated with glossophobia among ESL students of a tertiary institution in Upper-West Ghana, the Dr. Hilla Limann Technical University, Wa and makes recommendations for improvement in their public speaking skills. The study combined both quantitative and qualitative research approaches in an opinion poll involving 46 participants from the Level 300 class of the Secretaryship and Management Studies of the Business School. Participants acknowledged the importance of public speaking, but conceded that at some point in their student lives, when they had to speak in public, glossophobia prevented them from making a good impression on the audience. Speaking English before a crowd was identified as the most dreaded experience. Low self-confidence in speaking in public; lack of constant speaking experience and lack of knowledge in public speaking; fear of making mistakes and being laughed at; inadequate preparation and timidity were also identified as challenges affecting participants’ ability to speak English in public. To help students overcome that phobia, the study recommends that lecturers should adopt an interactive approach combined with the appropriate communication strategies to promote positive attitudes and create the desirable atmosphere for boosting students’ confidence. Lecturers should also organise seminars on public speaking skills and encourage regular individual oral presentation in class so students can practise to develop positive attitudes towards public speaking.
Jock Matthew Agai
Published: 1 May 2021
Culture and History, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30560/ch.v1n1p29

Abstract:
The last time the Acheulean tools at Mai Idon Toro (NAFOK) were collected and studied scientifically by different archaeologists/historians for the purpose of national and international patronage was in the 1920s through the 1960s. After the 60s up-to-date, many writers have been writing about the Acheulean tools in NAFOK without having a physical contact with the tools or without having a direct understanding of the dilapidated state of the Acheulean site in NAFOK. More so, in the process of this study, I have not come across any single library material that deals specifically and wholly with the Acheulean industry in NAFOK, instead; the subject is casually or indirectly referenced as secondary. The information from the secondary sources I collected about NAFOK was peripheral and in distinct pieces seemingly because a specific author had not wholly dealt with the subject. This instigated the need to visit the Acheulean site in NAFOK in search of primary sources or information. This research is a study of the history of the researches done strictly about NAFOK and its Acheulean finds. The aims of this research are first, to give an update on the history of researches done about the Acheulean in NAFOK and second, to create further awareness on the need to encourage the patronage of public archaeology among Nigerians using the Acheulean site in NAFOK as a case study. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The presence of fossils and bones of early humans found in Eastern, Northern and Southern Africa are often referred to as the “direct evidence” for the existence of early humans in these regions of Africa. This is so because there is a view among many archaeologists, anthropologists and paleontologists according to which bones are reliable evidence for the existence of early humans than stone tools. Bone tools or bone evidence for the existence of early humans in West Africa is scanty. Archaeologists rely on stone tools to explain the probable existence of early humans in West Africa and the stone tools are referred to as “indirect evidence.” It is likely that early humans might have lived in NAFOK not because direct evidence has been found but indirect evidence. This research is a study of the indirect evidence found in NAFOK for the existence of early humans. Historical archeologists and students of anthropology and West African history would find this research of great benefit because it discusses the contentious history of the view according to which early humans lived in NAFOK millions of years ago.
Peng Yang, Jia Hua Liu, Ru Ying Li, Chun Yan Song
Published: 9 December 2021
Land Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/ls.v3n2p1

Abstract:
In order to explore a safe, effective way to use sludge as agricultural fertilizer it is necessary to effectively separate and remove the heavy metals embedded in sludge. In the study, the ozone-electric two-stage treatment was used to transform heavy metal copper in the sludge, and then the treated sludge was used for maize production and the transferring of Cu in cultivation medium and plants, and the enrichment effect of Cu in plant were investigated. According to composition of culture substance, five treatments were set in maize planting experiments: CK, Agricultural soil without addition; T1, Agricultural soil supplemented with raw sludge; T2, Agricultural soil treated with ozone sludge; T3, Agricultural soil with ozone treated and electric treated sludge; T4, Agricultural soil added with common organic fertilizer. The results showed that in different treatments, the Cu content of organs showed the order of root> stem> leaf> cob> grain. Comparing root Cu content, the lowest was in T1 treatment, which was 11.60 mg/kg, while the lowest of grain Cu content was found in CK treatment, which was 1.36 mg/kg. In the upper, middle and lower soil layers, the highest and lowest Cu content was in T4 and CK, respectively. In both middle and lower soil layers, the Cu content of T1, T2 and T3 sludge treatments had a trend of T1>T2>T3; the difference of the Cu enrichment ability between different organs is not significant in the same soil layer. From each treatment, the Cu enrichment ability of plant of CK was higher than that of other treatments. According to the ability of Cu transferring to the above-ground part of plant, treatments are ranked as CK>T3>T4>T1>T2. The transferring of Cu from soil to plant was mainly affected by fertilizer level and the transferring rate of Cu from soil to stem, leaf and root was relatively high, but it was hardly affected by sludge. In summary, after ozone-electro treatment, the application of sludge does not significantly affect the Cu content in maize, and the Cu content in each treatment does not exceed the limit value of agricultural production.
Marc Gandarillas
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p30

Abstract:
This study constitutes an exploratory analysis of the grammaticalization cline of anar (‘to go’) + infinitive in Catalan to express perfective past (e.g., va arribar ‘s/he arrived’). Our research interest primarily lies in diachronically tracing the evolution of this grammatical change, which appears to be unprecedented in other Romance languages (e.g., Spanish, French), in which the construction has instead led to the expression of a near and/or intentional future. A gap in research is found in the fact that there have been few corpus-based, pragmatic approaches to the matter. We base our theoretical framework on the definition of grammaticalization by Hopper and Traugott (2003) and a number of related publications (Alturo 2017, Pérez-Saldanya & Hualde 2003). Critical items (N=346) were retrieved from the diachronic corpus CICA (11th-18th c.) and subsequently analyzed in the light of pragmatic factors, establishing a three-stage cline based on Segura (2012). Results show how informative bridging contexts are in shaping grammaticalization processes, as they highlight the challenges of tracing a grammaticalization process based on corpora of literary texts. A discussion follows on the identification of potential next steps that might be useful in complementing our own research.
Lilly N. Kabata, George L. Makokha, Kennedy Obiero
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n4p70

Abstract:
Maize is the leading food crop produced in most parts of the world and a staple food crop in Kenya. Majority of the maize farmers are smallholders due to reduced land sizes as a result of land fragmentation. Maize farming is rain-fed making it more vulnerable to rainfall variability. Over the years, the farmers have increased their resilience and adaptive potential through indigenous knowledge so as to cope with the climate related risks. However, the increasing rainfall variability, frequency and more severe shocks likely surpass their current adaptive strategies. The study assessed existing adaptive strategies of the small-holder maize farmers in Kieni East sub-County in Nyeri Couny to the seasonal rainfall variability effects. The research adopted a mixed research design. Data was obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was obtained using household structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive methods and presented using charts and tables. SWOT analysis analyzed several underlying aspects affecting maize farmers in the sub-County. The study found that the farmers have several specific adaptive strategies to the effects of seasonal rainfall variability at their disposal which include but not limited to the use of varieties of maize seeds, seeking training, water harvesting, use of manure and fertilizers. Farmers also respond to rainfall variability by planting maize varieties that are early maturing and drought resistant as well as engaging in alternative farming activities and other economic activities.
Chantacha Sitticharoon, Nipith Charoenngam, Issarawan Keadkraichaiwat, Pailin Maikaew, Vasu Lertsiripatarajit
Published: 18 October 2021
International Educational Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ier.v4n2p28

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine factors influencing happiness in preclinical students especially in aspects of teaching and learning, students’ motivation, study habits, and academic achievement. This study was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was validated and approved for clarity, readability, rational analysis, and comprehensiveness by the experts. Questionnaires were sent to all second and/or third-year medical students of the 2018 (328) and 2019 (329) classes, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand. Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.886. The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Science version 18. From open-ended questions, the top 5 ranking factors increasing students’ happiness were teaching of instructors, content satisfaction, content understanding, free time, and handouts. Factors that had positive influences/associations with happiness of preclinical students were happiness in learning subjects taught in a particular year; satisfaction of content, study outcomes, materials, handouts, teaching motivating desire to learn, and applicability of content to medical profession; high motivation to study medicine, expected score, and the percentage of achievement of study targets; less amount of time spent on recorded-e-lecture study and internet for non-academic use; and low stress. Happiness of preclinical students was influenced by satisfaction in teaching and learning, their attitude, study habits, and academic achievement. Further studies on determining students’ happiness after improvement of teaching and learning environments, augmenting activities that enhance students’ motivation, and promoting good study habits among medical students, are required to prove whether enhancement of these factors could effectively increase students' happiness.
, Paulann Grech, Michael Galea, Margaret Mangion,
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v4n4p42

Abstract:
The relationship between artwork and mental health has been the subject of various research endeavours. Whilst artwork has been long used as a means of emotional expression, it is also a method of raising mental health awareness. In this study, an art collection was presented to depict the challenges faced by many individuals living with a mental illness. Through a series of open-ended questions, twenty-nine participants were requested to give a title to each piece and to describe the perceived message and emotions related to each painting. The thematic analysis process of the participants’ descriptions led to the identification of three themes, namely those of Darkness, Solitude and Recovery. Whilst congruence was often observed between the participants themselves and between the viewers and the artist, discrepancies were also noted. Artwork can be an important medium in addressing stigma and in guiding reflections on mental health topics.
Gayane Mkrtumyan
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v4n4p35

Abstract:
The present article discusses the treaties known in the Armenian medieval bibliography by the name of the Prophet Mohammad ("Great" Manshur and "Little Manshur”). It is pointed out that the above-mentioned treaties were given to the Armenians during the Arab invasions in Armenia at the end of the 7th century and at the beginning of the 8th century, but they are considered in the context of the tradition of different treaties named after the Prophet Muhammad given to the Armenians and other Christian nations. In the following centuries, the terms of the above-mentioned treaties were laid down as a basis in similar covenants in the name of the Prophet Muhammad, with the new privilege - expecting the Muslim authorities to protect their rights from possible encroachments.
Deddy Tri Harjanto, Cicih Ratnasih, Yolanda Yolanda
International Journal of Applied Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ijas.v4n3p11

Abstract:
This study will determine how much the influence of the exchange rate, the number of MSMEs, investment, credit, and inflation on MSME exports nationally, and how they contribute to GDP per capita. The research method uses multiple regression with data transformation ln. The results of the study consist of model 1, the exchange rate factor, the number of MSMEs, investment, credit, and inflation are variables that influence increasing the number of product exports produced from the MSME sector. In the second model, the contribution of MSME exports to GDP per capita. The results showed that of all significant positive variables and one significant negative variable. The investment required in Indonesia, whose number continues to increase yearly, affects the high number of products exports from the MSME sector. For this reason, investment factors must continue to be considered to increase MSME exports. In contrast, the contribution of the inflation variable has a significant negative effect, which is an inverse relationship to MSME exports. It is predicted that if inflation is low, MSME exports will increase, and vice versa if inflation is high, MSME exports will decline. Furthermore, model 2 shows that MSME exports significantly contribute to gross domestic product per capita. In this case, the ups and downs of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises' exports need special attention.
Bardha Mulhaxha, Berim Ramosaj
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n4p63

Abstract:
Importance to identifying how diversity affects individual and group productivity in todays globalized world is increasing. The purpose of this research lies in the phenomenon of diversity and further analysis of the impact that diversity has on the work environment. To conduct this research, I interviewed 20 managers and 30 employees of the banking sector regarding the composition of their staff with emphasis on diversity. The data were processed using the statistical analysis of SPSS program. Human resources have positively influenced the increase of success, productivity and has eased problem solving, bettered performance, training, salary, and diversity of employees. This study will have practical significance in the easier approach of problems in human resource management and their motivation.
Rajasekaran Ekambaram, Indupriya Rajasekaran
Published: 16 December 2021
Modern Health Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/mhs.v4n2p1

Abstract:
One of the facts about how nanoparticle assemble and act is revealed using carbon value in biomolecule of living system here. This is how the biomolecules interact to bring about a micro or even macro level interaction in system of interest. This study shows micro level understanding can be better utilized from carbon analysis at nano level. I plan to extend this phenomena of change from nano to micro for building large scale applications in human nature. Applications include corrections in both at sequence and structure level for permanent recovery of defective one, adding flavor to the existing biomolecule for faster delivery or recovery etc. I have demonstrated here the active role played by carbon and all. This might be extended to another system of setup where new applications yet to be created. One can extend this phenomena of change from nano to large scale one.
Damianus Abun, Theogenia Magallanes, B. Ranay Frelyn, Nimfa C. Catbagan, J. Calairo Rodelyn
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v4n4p16

Abstract:
The study aimed to determine the difference in entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward business, the business intention between ABM grade XII and the fourth-year college students of business management course. It also seeks to find out the effect of entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward the business behavioral intention. The study found that entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward business, and business intention of students are high and it further found that there is no significant difference between entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward business, the business intention of ABM grade XII students, and the fourth – year college students of business management course. Thus, the hypothesis is rejected. It also found that there is a significant correlation between entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward the business, and business behavioral intention. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted.
Hansa Edirisinghe, Ruvan Abeysekera
Published: 2 September 2021
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v3n3p39

Abstract:
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is a very popular method of investing overseas but different from a stock investment in a foreign company. It could be purchasing of an interest in a company by an investor located outside its borders and in most cases, governments pay special interest on them. This is a business decision to acquire a substantial stake in a foreign business or to buy it outright as to expand its operations to a new region. Embedding artificial intelligence (AI) across the business requires significant investment and a change in overall approach. It is highly constructive and productive transformation that should be planned professionally, applied systematically, and managed strategically. AI drives meaningful value to business through better decision-making and consumer-facing applications. The general perception about filling a FDI application is a cumbersome job. Some countries manage this stage very methodically and investors always give priority for them as they can commence the production/business activities within a short period. Those countries who fail to gain this competitive advantage tend to lose the FDI opportunities even if they own various other advantages of resources to attract investors. This paper attempts to evaluate the potential of embedding a strategic unification of artificial intelligence in the application forms used to fill by investors at the time of starting foreign direct investment projects.
Dmytro Shestakov
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n4p47

Abstract:
This paper suggests new perspective to evaluating innovation projects and understanding the nature of startup risks. Author consider five principal hypotheses that underlie every innovative project that comprise a bunch of respective assumptions to manage startup risks in a proactive manner. Suggested approach spots the light on a project’s uncertainties and risks, embedded investment and managerial options, and enables more comprehensive and accurate evaluation of innovation. The Hypotheses Testing Method enables to estimate risks and attractiveness of a startup project in a clear and fast manner. It replaces unclear traditional techniques like NPV and DCF, avoiding heavy cash flow modelling.
Gulhan Bizel, Cecil Parmar, Kusum Singh, Supriya Teegala, Vijay Kumar Reddy Voddi
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n4p35

Abstract:
Year after year whenever someone who is considered “high profile” discovers that they have some sort of sickness or if they pass away due to a sickness, there seems to be a heightened interest in that person. At the same time however, there is a heightened awareness of the type of sickness that the person had. Finding the moments in which there is a heightened sense of awareness towards a specific topic can be something of high value to various agencies and organizations. The objective of this study was to explore the moments in which people start to do some initial search queries when there is a high-profile health moment. Once it is understood when this moment occurs, further research can be done to understand where the search behavior shifts to searches of awareness, signs, symptoms, and introspection over time.
Abu Bakarr Tarawalie, Sia Hemore
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n4p25

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of tax revenue in Sierra Leone, over the period 1990Q1 to 2020Q1, within the context of the ARDL estimation procedure. The result from the ARDL Bound test for cointegration suggests that a long-run relationship exists among the variables. The long run analysis indicates that real GDP (Y), openness (Op) and official development assistance (ODA) are the main determinants of tax revenue (TR) in Sierra Leone, with positive coefficients. This result is in tandem with the short run findings, which establishes a positive relationship between tax revenue and its regressors- real GDP and openness. However, the short run result also suggests that inflation has a negative impact on tax revenue. The findings confirm that any short-run disequilibrium to the long-run can be corrected at the 11 percent speed of adjustment quarterly, albeit at a low speed of adjustment. The diagnostic result shows that approximately 75 percent of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by the regressors based on the value of the R-squared. It also confirms that the model is free of serial correlation and heteroscedasticity, whilst the CUSUM test indicates stability of the model coefficients. The policy implication is for government to pursue policies that will enhance economic growth, through investment in growth enhancing sectors including agriculture, health, education, energy and infrastructure development; and ensure a politically stable environment as a recipe for private sector investment.
Hayat Rasheed Alamri, Rania Daifullah Adawi
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p16

Abstract:
This mixed-method study explored the perspectives of Saudi EFL teachers concerning the use of Writing Scoring Rubrics (WSRs) to correct students' written work and instruct EFL writing classes. The study sample included 106 Saudi EFL teachers, who answered the twenty-one close-ended questions and the first open-ended question, with twenty-five answering the second open-ended question. The findings reveal that the teachers frequently employed in-class correction and feedback to correct their students' written work, with nearly one-third used assessment techniques that included WSRs, self-assessment, peer editing, journals, and portfolios. The results of the second question indicate that Saudi EFL teachers generally engage students in creating customized WSRs. The findings also revealed that Saudi EFL teachers consider WSRs beneficial to both students and teachers and might be viewed by some experienced EFL teachers as a practical correction or assessment method that improves students' writing. Therefore, this study contributes to a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of WSRs in teaching and assessing writing skills.
Syofria Meidona, Yolanda Yolanda, Sumarni Sumarni, Elsya Meida Arif, Della Maretha, Heru Subiyantoro
International Journal of Applied Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ijas.v4n3p1

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of Labor Force Participation Rate, Number of Motorized Vehicles, Number of Small and Medium Enterprises, number of tourist Visits, average per capita expenditure, Room Occupancy Rate, and Regional Original Revenue in 19 Cities and Regencies in West Sumatra in 2005-2018. The model used is the OLS method using panel data and using the statistical program e-views 10 for Windows. The results of the study showed either partially or simultaneously that: Labor Force Participation Rate, Number of Motorized Vehicles, Number of Small and Medium Enterprises, Number of Tourist Visits, Average per capita expenditure and Room Occupancy Rate to Regional Original Income are positive and significant. The largest contribution to Regional Original Revenue is Motorized Vehicles, while the lowest is the Hotel Room Occupancy Rate. The coefficient of determination or goodness of fit is 0.742869. The contribution of all independent variables in explaining the dependent variable is 74.29 percent. Other variables outside the research model explain the remaining 25.71 percent.
Di Zhu, Yefei Li, Ejimofor Bruno Chiedozi, Hui Pan
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n4p1

Abstract:
After taking into account the spatial dependence effects in the panel data consisting of all 31 provinces, direct-controlled municipalities, and autonomous regions in China between the years 1998 and 2017, it found significant spatial autocorrelation effects in both traditional absolute and conditional β income convergence models. At the national level, using the spatial econometric models (Spatial Error Model for absolute convergence and Spatial Durbin Model for conditional convergence), the analysis shows that in the past 19 years from 1999 to 2017, there is no absolute β income convergence. However, there is conditional β income convergence after controlling for all growth factors, while the positive effect of fixed asset investment on regional economic growth is significant, and the effect of population growth is significantly negative. The other growth factors such as FDI inflow, export, and higher education enrollment were surprisingly found no statistically significant effects on regional economic growth. From regional level (Spatial Durbin Model and Spatial Lag Model), there is no conditional β income convergence within each four economic regions. Nonetheless, the northeast region showed an income divergence trend, where only the fixed asset investment is positively significant. This study results imply that China should continue to improve fixed asset investment and control population growth to stimulate regional economic growth and income convergence.
Yang Jing, Chen Xuebin
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p9

Abstract:
Aerial ChinaⅠ- Jiangxi has been widely accepted by foreign audiences. In this documentary, there are many culture-loaded words with Jiangxi cultural characteristics. We all know that the translation of Chinese culturally-loaded words has long been a tricky problem. Take the translation of culture loaded words in Aerial ChinaⅠ- Jiangxi as an example, this paper discusses how Newmark's communicative translation and semantic translation theory are applied to the translation of Chinese culture loaded words. It is considered that semantic translation and communicative translation are not completely opposite but complement each other. Good translation works are usually the perfect combination of the two. In order to help translators better translate culture loaded words and achieve the real purpose of cross-cultural communication.
Lalih Edirisinghe, Sampath Siriwardena, Lakshmi Ranwala
Published: 2 September 2021
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v3n3p28

Abstract:
The world entered to knowledge-based economy which is based on the production and use of information. Today computer technology, language proficiency and logistics play a major role. University Curriculum connects the secondary level education and the industry. Therefore, industry inclusiveness is essential in transforming children to an industry worker or an entrepreneur. This paper is derived from an opinion survey, desk research, and a case study. Reports of international institutions were studied extensively in the literatures survey. The respondents of the survey consisted key personnel in the government and private sector covering a cross section of the stakeholders in education and business world. The report analyses are then evaluated and discussed though a case study in Sri Lanka. The practices and procedures in the contemporary education system in the country is systematically explained in this section. The report presents its key recommendation under seven areas as policy recommendations. It includes innovative concepts such as, vertical integration between schools, universities, and industry; extended academic disciplines at tertiary level; changes in the university; review to selection criteria of state universities; new academic disciplines in the school curriculum; technical and vocational education; focus on children with different skills etc.
Venessa S. Casanova, Miracle B. Tuazon
Published: 18 October 2021
International Educational Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ier.v4n2p16

Abstract:
This predictive cross-sectional study explored core self-evaluation, level of writing motivation, and their influence on the business writing performance of junior business students at Occidental Mindoro State College. One hundred fifty junior business students of Occidental Mindoro State College Main Campus in Academic Year 2020-2021 selected through a simple random sampling technique were the respondents in the study. It was found that the student’s level of core self-evaluation was moderate considering their results in the locus of control, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. However, the students are highly motivated in performing their writing activities. Therefore, the improvement in core self-evaluation may slightly improve writing motivation and writing performance. Likewise, improving writing motivation may slightly improve the writing performance of business students. The positive beta coefficients indicate that if the indicators of writing motivation are improved, the students’ writing performance becomes better. Thus, core self-evaluation and writing motivation affect students’ business writing performance.
Constantin Gavan, Mihaela Riza
Published: 1 November 2021
Agricultural Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/as.v3n4p1

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the association of hypocalcemia at calving with health and performance of Holstein cows and their calves. Data were collected January 1st 2017 to December 31st 2020. A total of 431 lactating Holstein Friesian cows (118 primiparous and 313 multiparous) from a research of hypocalcemia was 2 groups (hypo and non-hypo). The overall prevalence of hypocalcemia was 3.4% for first-lactation cows and 18% for multiparous cows. Lactating dairy cows with hypocalcemia had greater proportion of cows with Retained Fetal Membranes (RFM) metritis and culling within 60 days in milk (DIM), compared with non-hypocalcemia respectively. For the first 2 official milk tests milk yield and components (% fat, % protein on SCC) did not differ between hypo and non-hypo cows. The days in milk at first service, mastitis, dystocia and pregnancy at first service were not different between hypo and non-hypo groups. The proportion of stillbirth, survival at 60 days of age in calves did not differ between calves born from hypo or non-hypo cows. Calves born from Hypo cows had greater incidence of diarrhea (38.3%) than calves born (22.3%) from non-hypo cows. The results of this study show that hypocalcemia in calving has significant health implications for both dams and their calves.
Constance Iloh
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v4n4p12

Abstract:
Academic mobbing, bullying, and cyberbullying are pervasive and interconnected harms in academe with scarce conversation and intervention devoted to them. The author discusses what these dynamics are and asserts academia and academic institutions are incubators and beneficiaries of these aggressions. The text illustrates some of the violent consequences for targets of these abuses, refuting other conceptualizations that downplay the severity of academic mobbing and bullying. The author also argues that understanding of academic mobbing and bullying must extend to cyberspace. The text concludes with how both tactical disregard and notions of the academy as a just exemplar sustains these harms.
Logan Mulderrig, Franchino Chambers, Taylor A. Isais, Richard Jeske, , ,
Published: 2 September 2021
Sustainable Development Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/sdr.v3n3p17

Abstract:
Hydrolytic degradation of commercially available 3D printing filament, i.e. poly (lactic acid) with broad molecular weight distribution was induced by incubating 3D-printed parts in deionized water at 3 temperatures. Small changes in orthogonal dimensions occurred due to relaxation of printing stresses, but no mass or volume loss were detected over the time-frame of the experiments. Molecular weight decreased while polydispersity remained constant. The most sensitive measure of degradation was found to be nondestructive, small-amplitude oscillatory tensile measurements. A rapid decay of tensile storage modulus was found with an exponential decay time constant of about an hour. This work demonstrates that practical monitoring of commercially available PLA degradation can be achieve with linear viscoelastic measurements of modulus.
Yang Li, Zicheng Hu, Yongguang Hu, Fenghua Ge, Hongzhi Cai
Published: 29 August 2021
Agricultural Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30560/as.v3n3p1

Abstract:
For controlling the entire drying process of a material, it is crucial to understand the moisture ratio of the material in the drying process. In order to ascertain the moisture change rules of kelp knots in the solar-heat pump combined drying process, an analysis was made on the impacts of different drying temperatures, wind speeds and loading capacities on the drying rate in this research; meanwhile, three common drying dynamic models were selected and compared to know their applicability to the solar-heat pump combined drying of kelp knots. Further, the model coefficient was determined and the optimal model was obtained. The results reveal as follows: drying temperature, wind speed and loading capacity have significant impact on and significant correlation (P<0.05) with the drying rate of kelp knots; under different drying conditions, the drying rate is always high in the early stage, lowered and gradually moderate in the later stage. After fitting the drying dynamic model, it is found that among the experimental data, regression coefficient (R2) is the largest in the Verma model, and the sum of squares for error (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are low. This indicates that the Verma model can be used to accurately express and predict the change rules of moisture in kelp knots during the solar-heat pump combined drying. According to Fick's second diffusion law, the effective diffusion coefficient Deff increases with the increase in drying temperature and wind speed, and decreases with the increase in loading capacity.
Xiao Chang, Taehyung Kim
Humanities and Social Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/hssr.v4n4p1

Abstract:
Death of a Salesman written by Arthur Miller premiered in 1949 to critical acclaim and commercial success. Scholars have been paying attention to research on the female characters, the protagonist from the psychological perspective and father-son relationship, none of these works deals with the husband-wife relationship in Death of a Salesman from a psychological aspect.The paper will examine the family competences of Linda and Willy, dissecting the husband-wife relationship combing the psychological motivation. In the first section, through psychological rejuvenation, Linda embodies a natural force of vigor that infuses in Willy the power of warmth. In the psychological interpretation of Death of a Salesman, the relationship between Willy and Linda formed a sharp contrast between psychological pressure and purifying salvation. Willy suffered from relational anxiety, fearful stress, repressive daily, the loss of body, which brought disaster to his wife, Linda, his sons, Biff and Happy. For this reason, the play arranged a comforting character, his wife, Linda, to contrast the relationship between the couple. Concerning the suppressive daily, Willy’s stubborn personality is linked with frustration and depression in pursuing fantasy; his wife, Linda, gives him warm comfort for his empty dreams with her kindness, love, and above all, intelligence. In the case of his sons, Biff and Happy, especially Biff, on whom Willy places high expectations, Linda saved Willy from the relational tension through her pure nature when the sons frustrate Willy; Linda supports Willy and solves the arguments between Willy and sons to ease the tension. When Willy is faced with an unbearable blow from his job, Linda gives him advice on how to solve problems, such as when Willy loses his job, and the wife advises him to understand the boss and how to deal with the problem. The loneness from family and work also leads Willy to have affairs with an unknown woman; Linda tolerates everything and invisibly reminds Willy. It can be said that the relationship between the wife and her husband is a relationship of dependency, the wife attached to her husband in life and emotion.
David Ellingson Eddington
Published: 21 October 2021
International Linguistics Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ilr.v4n4p1

Abstract:
A recent investigation of 6452 languages (Blasi et al., 2016) uncovered a number of cross-linguistic correspondences between speech sounds and meaning. For example, the phone [z] was associated with the meaning ‘star.’ In the present study, 16 of these sound symbolisms were tested by presenting English and Spanish speakers with pairs of nonce words along with a definition of the words. Their task was to choose the word that sounded best with the meaning given. One member of the pair of words contained phones found to be associated with the meaning of the word while the other did not. For instance, participants were asked to choose between [zolz] and [folf] as the word they felt was most likely to mean ‘star. ‘ Seven of the sound and meaning correspondences observed in the study by Blasi et al. (2016) were corroborated by both Spanish and English speakers. Three additional sound correspondences were only significant in one of the experimental languages.
Ibrahim Al-Hussein, Aidah Mohammad, Mona Al-Zahrani
Published: 17 October 2021
International Educational Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/ier.v4n2p1

Abstract:
The corona (Covid-19) pandemic caused the closure of kindergarten institutions and schools around the world which forced higher authorities to shift focus towards online distance education. The impact of the pandemic was so severe that it affected almost a quarter of the people lives, public health and above all the education sectors. The present study was designed according to the Servqual Model using sample perceptions of early childhood parameters in Saudi Arabia and Jordan utilizing online questionnaires to collect the responses from 157 teachers. The quality of the online education services provided for primary school children due to Covid-19 suffered greatly as the teachers were not accustomed to the technology of distance learning. The present study recommends the need to explore the research of the high level for primary school children’s study tool where teachers and parents will be able to deal with online platforms effectively. During the present unavoidable crisis, the article presents an easier and equitable platform for every child in the family.
Adelina Arifi, Musa Krasniqi, Berim Ramosaj
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n3p26

Abstract:
In the contemporary time in which we live, the approach of leaders plays an important role in implementing the strategy of the “Kujtesa” company. The purpose of this research is to show the application of leadership style to their subordinates. The methodology used in the study is a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. The results of the research were processed with the data of 100 employees and managers of the “Kujtesa” company. The data were processed using the statistical analysis of SPSS program. This research includes the analysis of key factors of leaders' style with their subordinates such as: human resource management, work structure, management readiness to face new challenges and new situations. This study shows a clear picture of the functioning of leaders' approaches to subordinates.
Reni Yendrawati, Arifin Praditya Putra, Rina Asmara
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v4n3p16

Abstract:
This study aims to find empirical evidence regarding the influence of audit tenure, audit firm rotation, audit firm industry specialization, and time budget pressure on audit quality. This research is a quantitative research using secondary data in the form of financial statements. This study uses a population of manufacturing companies in the consumer goods sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2015-2017. The sampling was done by using a non-probability method with a purposive sampling technique. The number of samples used in this study is 34 companies. The data analysis method used is a logistic regression analysis method using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The results of this study indicate that audit tenure and audit firm rotation have no effect on audit quality, PAF industry specialization has a positive effect on audit quality, time budget pressure has a negative effect on audit quality.
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