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Wasfa Ansari, Sohaib-Uz Zaman
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 73-81;

This article aims to investigate the factors that influence the mutual fund industry’s growth in Pakistan. Financial markets are always exposed to systematic risks which are out of one’s control. Mutual funds being part of this market are dependent on the macroeconomic factors in the country. Pakistan’s financial market is quite volatile thus slightly change in any economic indicator can affect the growth of mutual funds. Globally, Mutual fund industry is expanding day by day and Pakistan is still far behind to meet with other country like USA, UK, and India as it contributes only 1.6% of the GDP in the year 2020. In this article, influence of four independent macroeconomic factors i.e. GDP growth rate, interest rate, inflation rate and exchange rate was analyzed against the dependent value of Asset under Management. Fiscal year data from 2011-2020 was taken from different authentic sources to perform the regression analysis using SPSS tool. Study concluded that GDP growth rate, interest rate and inflation rate have negative impact on the growth of mutual fund industry which means the value of AUM decreases when these factors tend to increase in the economy. Further, exchange rate has positive impact indicating that the value of AUM increases with the increase of this factor in the economy in Pakistan. Keywords: Mutual Funds, Growth, Asset Under Management, Macroeconomic Factors, Regression Analysis, Pakistan.
Anieti Nseowo Udofia, Ebong Itoro Basssey, Edemidiong Edem Edemekong
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 53-72;

Civil service unlike any other public organizations is glued by norms and culture that regulate workers behavior and attitudes toward efficiency. These culture and principles serve as mode of operation upon which duties, offices are bound. Hence, employed are expected to adhere to the established norms of organization for efficiency service deliver. However, based on the above highlight, the civil service in Nigeria cannot be said to have up to its expectation of delivery qualify services to the people that will further help the government deliver on its mandate. This poor performance could be traced to low morale and weak morale which makes workers to neglect the culture and principles of the Civil Service which is anchored on meritocracy, impartiality, anonymity etc. The civil service in Nigeria still reels in politicization, merit sacrificed for quota-based recruitment/promotion, fraudulent staff claims, abuse of office/position, bribery and corruption, absenteeism, lateness, lack of organizational commitment, insubordination, aggrandizement etc. The paper adopted survey and descriptive research method and data were drawn from both primary and secondary sources. It was found out that the civil service is currently bedeviled with poor organizational culture and practices such from lateness, insubordination, lack of commitment to work, undue interference from the political office holders and other myriad of systemic problems. Based on the findings, the study concluded with some policy recommendations that civil service principles and culture should be highly adhered to by the civil servants which will in turn usher in the most needed productivity in the service. Keywords: Civil service, Culture, Organizational Culture, and Performance.
Zunnoorain Khan, Fuwad Bashir, Shahzad Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 13-23;

The rationale of the research is to investigate the importance of organizational culture in a Dynamic era of 21st century where only those organizations remain triumphant who transform change in their business. Whenever organization focused on change they encounter intense resistant from their employees as well as for conceptualizing of organization, culture conceived either as a variable or as a root metaphor. Philosophical stance of research was based on positivism and follows more deductive approach for this study. Cross sectional data of ten private sector organizations of Peshawar region were chosen. The findings of the study were moderately interesting in terms of change management with the important role of leadership found insignificant p> 0.051 and but shows weak relevance. However the results of organizational culture and change management were found significant P< 0.01 at 1% level of significance. Recommendation portion of the study suggest us that for the success of an organization culture play pivotal role in the dynamic parameters of change. On the other hand the role of empowerment played significant role for producing better organizational culture. Keywords: Organizational Culture, Organizational change, Leadership, Empowerment.
Nurshahirah Saleh, Irwan Ibrahim
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 42-52;

The purpose of this paper is to answer the relationship between technology, organization, and environment, and the intention factors to adopt Halalan Toyyiban Risk Management Plan (HTRMP). The strongest factor will come out from this research which supports the intention to adopt halalan toyyiban risk management plan among food manufacturers SMEs in Malaysia. 120 samples of halal food manufacturer SMEs in Malaysia was used. The method used is a quantitative approach and using SEM-PLS to analyse the scientific data. The hypothesis of this research is to find the relationship between technology, organization, and environment and intention to adopt HTRMP, halal awareness as mediator. The results find that there are four positive relationships which were compatibility in technology, Organisational readiness and expected business benefit in the Organisation, and halal market in the environment are four criteria that have a favorable link with the intention adopt HTRMP. Compatibility also found as the most influential determinant for HTRMP adoption among food manufacturers SMEs. The data were collected during halal food events, Halal Festival (Halfest) and Selangor International Business Summit in Malaysia. The sample size is small. Findings can supervise the authority in successfully enhancing the application of HTRMP among food manufacturers in Malaysia. The food manufacturer can comply HTRMP accordingly with its benefit. The benefit of this research is to improvise the application of HTRMP among food manufacturers in Malaysia to increase and maintain the quality, safety and halal of their food products. Due to that HTRMP is lack study in halal management research from the previous journal. Keywords: Halal Management, Technology factors, Organization factors, Environment Factors, Mediator, SEM-PLS.
Farhan Khan, Sharif Ullah Jan, Alamzeb Aamir
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 24-41;

The objective of this research is to consider the connections between various corporate governance mechanisms, CEO-Duality, and business performance on Car Assembler Companies listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). The data has been analyzed from 2016-2020. T-test and multiple regressions have been applied to verify the effect of corporate governance on business performance. The investigation results indicate that the Size of the Board, Audit Committee, Annual general meeting, and CEO-duality contain a positive relationship to companies’ performance. As a result, the correlation coefficient explains that return on equity and profit margin has a positive relation with independent variables for example Board size, Audit committee, Annual general meeting, and CEO-Duality but, all of them are statistically insignificant. Moreover, ROE Coefficient Results in Fixed Effects and Random Effects Model indicates that only board size has a negative and significant effect on ROE. More specifically, PM Coefficient Results in Fixed Effects Model explain that the Size of the Board shows a negative and insignificant impact on PM. Moreover, the other two independent variables i.e. Audit Committee and Annual General Meeting show a positive and insignificant effect on PM. While in the PM Coefficient Results in Random Effects Model explain that the Size of the Board, Audit Committee, and Annual General Meeting show a positive and insignificant effect on PM. Besides that, Duality shows a negative and insignificant effect on PM. Keywords: Corporate Governance, Board-Size, Audit Committee, Annual, CEO’s Duality.
Rabia Naseer, Kaleem Ullah, Ghayyur Qadir
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 1-12;

Entrepreneurship has been imagined through the lens of the gender binary where gender influences entrepreneurial decisions and behaviours. Researching entrepreneurship is overlooked to understand trans-gender as entrepreneurs. Grounded in the Heideggerian lens accompanying lifeworld existential, the meaning of trans-entrepreneur was explored through hermeneutic- phenomenology. Fifteen transentrepreneurs were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structure interviews were used to get a rich description that reflects on the meaning they associated with their being as an entrepreneur. Results reflect their being as dual-authentic, revisionist and resilient. Revisionism is the unique insight that this study added as a new aspect of entrepreneurial being. The study has a theoretical implication that counts trans individuals as entrepreneurs and views their potential beyond gender biases. Keywords: Entrepreneur, Gender, Transgender, Heidegger, Hermeneutic-phenomenology, Entrepreneurship.
Kinza Yousfani, Abdul Subhan Kazi, Karim Bux Shah Syed
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 109-122;

In the recent past, research in developed markets has aimed at developing various indices that can be applied to apprehend the impact that financial stress can have on a country’s economic activity. This article reviews the literature on financial stress and its impact on economic activities. It further presents a proposed methodology for constructing financial stress index and its implications for macroeconomic performance in relation to Pakistan. A review of the literature was conducted discussing (a) the formulation of the financial stress index and (b) its impact on the country’s economic activity indicators. The analysis of the literature made it possible to identify the current themes and remaining gaps in the literature on the financial stress index. It is concluded that FSI is beneficial for monitoring and evaluating the usefulness of government economic policies in crisis as well as normal times. Moreover, the index grabs the stresses in the form of financial stress, which is not only from various market sectors but also from their connection through a contagious effect internationally. Therefore, the paper concludes that the FSI could be established and used as an effective tool to measure and monitor financial stress level and its impact on various economic activity indicators in Pakistan. Keywords: Financial Stress Index, GDP, Industrial Production, Foreign Trade, PCA, Emerging Markets, Pakistan.
Imran Anwar Mir
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 94-108;

E-shopping engagement has become a significant user activity in cyberspace. Prior scholarship has found self-escapism a crucial user motivation to engage in e-shopping. The current research identifies dimensions of self-escapism motivation to engage in e-shopping and their influence on shoppers’ attitude, e-cart use, and abandonment. Data were collected from 305 shoppers in Pakistan via an offline survey. Results reveal self-suppression and self-expansion as dimensions of shoppers’ self-escapism motivation to engage in e-shopping. These dimensions of self-escapism motivation determine shoppers’ positive affective attitude towards e-shopping. Nonetheless, they have a differing influence on shoppers’ e-cart use and abandonment. Keywords: Self-Escapism Motivation, E-Shopping, Affective Attitude, E-Cart Use; E-Cart Abandonment.
Muhammad Awais Ejaz Khan, Tasneem Fatima
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 85-93;

Organizational culture has attracted a great interest by theorists and researchers since many years. Leadership in organizations have emphasized on the internal culture strengths and ways to improve the efficiency by incorporating various strategies. Cooperative strategy is being associated with internal strengths and relationship and has been a primary focus area in large organizations with ample opportunity for innovation. Small and medium enterprises however, struggled with innovation and competitiveness. To foster growth, strategic leadership stressed to adopt cooperative strategies and cooperative environment. The current study attempts to reveal the underlying mechanism through which the strategic leadership can improve organizational performance through clan culture and cooperative strategies. Based on the Competing value framework and Resource based view of the firms, This research model was selected and analyzed. Clan culture is used as a moderator variable. The model explores the local Pakistani business leadership strategies in family run businesses as well as small and medium enterprises. Strategic leadership is taken as independent variable while cooperative strategy as dependent variable, Clan culture moderates the relationship between the strategic leadership and cooperative strategies. Resource based view provides a framework to analyze the role of firms tangible and intangible resources to achieve competitive advantage. Data was collected from 294 respondents through survey method. All questionnaires were personally administered. AMOS was used to test the moderated model. The moderated relationship among strategic leadership, clan culture and cooperative strategy resulted significant. Clan culture moderated relationship between Strategic leadership & cooperative strategy. This study contributes towards the enhanced application of clan culture and cooperative environment in the small and medium sized organizations as well as family owned businesses. To combat competition from larger organizations and substitute products, cooperative strategy can be very effective. Keywords: Strategic Leadership, Organizational Culture, Clan Culture, Cooperative Strategy, SME.
Chaudhry Rizwan Riaz, Khalilullah Mohammad
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 73-84;

The main concern of this study was to determine the impact of supply chain collaboration on Gwadar port operational performance. The objective of the study has been achieved through conducting a survey and primary data has been analyzed to assess the linkages between explanatory variable and dependent variable. The survey was conducted to collect the primary data from respondents to determine the impact of supply chain collaboration on port performance. The managers of the companies located in Gwardar port remain the unit of analysis and their responses have been collected. A total of 300 questioners had been distributed and a valid number of questionnaires 225 has been obtained which makes the response rate of 75%. Data properties and respondent characteristics have been outlined. The covariance based structural equation modeling has been employed to statistically signify the relationship between the supply chain collaboration on Gwadar port operational performance. Based on statistical analysis the findings of the study suggest that supply chain collaboration positively triggers the operational performance of Gwadar port. Keywords: Port Performance, Supply Chain Collaboration, Gwadar Port, Supply Chain.
Muhammad Nadeem, Seema Arif, Irfana Rasul
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 42-55;

Teacher’s satisfaction during the conduction of Performance Appraisal System (PAS) is highly dependent on the school management. Therefore, role of the school principal for monitoring the performance of teachers at higher secondary schools is commendable to achieve the targets. Survey research was conducted to review how the school management role impacted achieving the PAS targets for the satisfaction of teachers. Multistage sampling technique was opted for exploring the opinions of school principals and teachers from nine districts of the Punjab by using an already established tool Performance Appraisal Scale for Higher Secondary School Teachers (PAS-HSSTs). This questionnaire comprised of closed-ended items was used to get opinions from 90 principals and 540 teachers of higher secondary schools of Punjab. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Items were factorized using the explanatory factor analysis technique yielding seven factors. Pearson Correlation was conducted to determine the strength of the relationship among the variables, while multiple linear regressions using the stepwise method was conducted to check the critical risk factors associated with the satisfaction of teachers during conduction of Performance Appraisal System. Management facilitation was rendered the best approach for successful Performance Appraisal System implementation. Performance appraisal was a significant and powerful predictor of teachers’ satisfaction; hence school principals focused on the ways and procedures to manage their teachers’ performance in order to enhance the overall effectiveness of PAS. Results revealed a highly complex situation faced by school mangers; though satisfaction of the teachers during PAS might be enhanced through proper training and awareness of the system. PAS might be more effective if teachers were satisfied. Keywords: Performance Appraisal System, Teacher’s Satisfaction, Management Role and School Improvement.
Muhammad Awais Mehmood, Qaiser Rashid Janjua, Faisal Aftab
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 26-41;

The purpose of this research was to explore how HEIs are using Social Media (SM) as a marketing communication tool and to understand their branding focus through SM. It was investigated by understanding the utilization of functional blocks of SM by HEIs, which are believed to contribute towards elements of brand equity. Utilization of functional blocks of SM was studied through theoretical lens of honeycomb framework of SM. This study used qualitative methodology, based on inductive research approach. The data was collected via Netnography method, based on six months usage of SM accounts of seven selected HEIs of Pakistan, out of 225, which exhibited active SM presence. HEIs were found using nine different content types on SM. The content types that showed highest utilization of functional blocks, i.e. endorsements and promotional-messages, were amongst the least preferred content types of HEIs. However, their most preferred content types, i.e. event coverage & announcements, showed lowest engagement level, and were seen contributing towards lower stages of brand building i.e. brand image and awareness only, thus reflecting a myopic focus of HEIs in terms of their brand building through SM. Findings of this study will enable HEIs to revisit their content preference on SM based on the desired branding objectives. This research has extended theoretical knowledge regarding SM Marketing in context of HEIs. Further, it has extended comprehension of various functional blocks of SM, in organizational context, based on literature review. Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Brand Equity, Honeycomb Framework, Higher Education Institutes.
Sayma Zia, Ismat Fatima, Sana Azher
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 12-25;

This purpose of this study aims to determine the impact of decision making styles in organizations operating in Karachi. It focuses on exploring different components of decision making styles and investigates the concept of creative disposition. Moreover, it determines the correlation of different components of decision making styles to creative disposition of employees. It identifies necessary changes in decision making styles to increase its impact on creative disposition. Explanatory technique is adopted to determine the impact of logic, facts and personal experiences in decision making style on creative disposition; followed by primary data collection. Quantitative paradigms are used to perform the analysis. Target population of current study comprises of employees working in organizations of Karachi. Sampling technique used is non-probability convenient sampling. Sample size is of 384. Survey technique has been adopted for data collection process. Instrument used is questionnaire for data collection multiple linear regression technique has been used for analysis. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant role of logic based decision making style, facts based decision making style and personal experience based decision making style to determine positive creative disposition shows that it has a significant impact on it. This study successfully explained importance of decision making styles in developing creative disposition in organizations. Keywords: Logic Based Decision Making Style, Facts Based Decision Making Style, Personal Experience Based Decision Making Style, Creative Disposition.
Seema Arif, Safia Iqbal, Muhammad Nadeem
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 56-72;

Quality assurance has become acceptable, and all private universities are trying hard to achieve better standards executed by Higher Education Commission Pakistan (HEC) every year. The implementation of quality assurance (QA) programs rests upon the performance of university faculty. An exploratory study was conducted with the faculty of seven private universities in Pakistan to determine the leadership effectiveness regarding the implementation of QA programs. The strengths and weaknesses of the university leadership were measured in a three-fold exercise by identifying leadership characteristics, values, and actions taken to implement QA. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed, comprising both close-ended and open-ended responses. Data was collected from 430 faculty members from five private universities in Lahore, Pakistan. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to meet the research objectives. The results indicate that leadership attempts are yet superficial and inadequate to reach the transformational quality. The effectiveness of higher education leadership needs much improvement to meet the needs of the 21st century. Unless the leaders align their efforts with the faculty's expectations and involve them in shared decision making, reaching transformative quality would remain barred; therefore, the sustainability of higher education will remain in danger. Keywords: Higher Education, Leadership Characteristics, Leadership Effectiveness, Private Universities, Quality Assurance.
Nadeem Ahmed Awan, Tariq Jamil, Akram Saddique
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 1-11;

Based on social exchange theory, current study examined the impact of transactional leadership on supervisor rated job performance of employees. Moreover, moderating role of work meaningfulness between this linkage is verified. Primary data from 240 faculty members were collected from different private and public sector universities of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore & Sialkot. Simple random sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Hayes’s PROCESS. Correlations & Regression analysis were applied. The results bolstered the hypothesis of the study. Findings revealed that transactional leadership has a positive impact on job performance of the faculty members. Further, work meaningfulness is proven its moderating role between transactional leadership and job performance. The study will help the managers/leaders in Higher Education Sector to understand the role of transactional leadership and work meaningfulness for improving performance of the faculty members. Keywords: Transactional Leadership, Work Meaningfulness, Supervisor Rated Job Performance, Social Exchange Theory.
Sadia Anwar, Bahadur Soomroo, Muhammad Nawaz Baloch
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 410-422;

This research paper is aimed to explore the influence of personality traits on stress management. As for the achievement of organizational goals, the management has to be assured that its’ employees are not stressed due to any reason for productive outcomes. Stress is unavoidable in any organization especially if it belongs to the teaching sector. However, students and teachers are normally found under stress because of the demanding environment that is generated in physical schools and classrooms. For this purpose, this study has examined to what extent personality traits including extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience influence stress management. This leads to the fact which personality traits of employers especially those that belong to educational institutes can manage their stress and how their personality affects them to take decisions at the time of stress. This research article proposed a descriptive methodology in which cross-sectional data are randomly collected from the different public higher educational universities of Sindh, Pakistan. For the data collection, the survey questionnaire is applied. After the process of data cleaning, 252 responses of teaching faculty as respondents were found accurate for further analysis. By applying the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26.0 the data was data analyzed. The results of Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience have a positive and significant influence on stress management. On the other hand, extroversion and neuroticism have not found a significant influence on stress management. This research study may provide useful insights for policymakers and top management in public higher educational institutions like universities to identify the stress management strategies that are implemented by the management of education institutions to manage workplace stress among the teaching faculty. Keywords: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience and Stress Management.
Ahmed Ullah Shah, Shahzad Khan Durrani, Muhammad Ishtiaq
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 400-409;

The purpose of this paper is to test the relationship between HRM practices and employee’s retention. To test this relationship, data was collected from faculty members of Khyber medical college (KMC), using a convenience sampling technique. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate the aforementioned relationship. The effect of three HRM practices (reward, selection, and training) on employees’ retention were studied. The results reflect that reward and compensation is not associated with retention factors, while selection and retention are associated with each other. Similarly, training also has a significant association with employee’s retention. Results help us to conclude that KMC needs to consider reward and compensation, while selection and training should be further strengthened to enhance employee’s retention. Keywords: Retention, Turnover, HRM practices, Selection, Training, Reward.
Zaibunnisa Siddiqi, Shahzad Nasim, Musarrat Shamshir
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 387-399;

Online purchasing is a valuable opportunity for the new generation in Pakistan. The use of the internet and smartphones is rapidly increasing day by day due to several reasons one of them is emergencies in COVID-19. However, recently the majority of consumers prefer the traditional way of purchasing goods and services instead of online shopping. Hence, numerous studies identified that there is a lack of trust and security in online shopping in the perception of customers. Therefore, the scholar aims to investigate the role of e-trust in the relationship between website quality and e-customer satisfaction in online shopping. The quantitative research technique, the judgmental sampling technique, and the adopted questionnaire are used for the data collection from e-consumer. The findings of the study indicated that through the mediating effect of e-trust, website quality has a significant impact on e-customer satisfaction. Besides, e-trust serves as a primary mediating factor between website quality and e-customer satisfaction. To satisfy the shopper in online purchasing through websites, the development of trust is the crucial factor because of cybercrimes that harm the e- consumers. Keywords: Website Quality, E-customer Trust, E-customer Satisfaction.
Shahzad Nasim, Musarrat Shamshir, Samina Sabir
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 375-386;

Maintaining employee safety and satisfaction can result in increased sales, lower costs, and a stronger bottom line. Employees often support the company's mission and work hard to help it achieve its goals when they believe the company has its best interest at heart. Hence, the study aims to examine the role of employee satisfaction between HR practices and organizational performance. A quantitative research methodology and a deductive research approach are used to assess the relationship between variables. HR practices, such as selection, training, compensation, performance evaluation, and employee engagement, were used as independent variables, and their effect on organizational performance, the dependent variable, was measured, with employee satisfaction as a mediating variable. The primary data was obtained from Pakistani bank employees using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, and the data was analyzed using smart PLS. According to the results of this study, HR practices are found to be substantially and positively linked to organizational success. In the present study organizational performance and employee satisfaction and have been assessed as unidirectional measures in the context of the impact of HR practices on the performance of the banking industry. In the future, the addition of secondary data will add value to the findings of the present study. The study's findings would also act as effective guidance for other organizations in terms of the value of HR practices that result in profit maximization. Keywords: HR Practices, Banking Industry, Employee Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Performance.
Syed Mudasser Fida Gardazi, Muhammad Asim Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Nawaz
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 367-374;

Price reduction is one of the civil law remedies incorporated in the Vienna sales convention. On the other hand, Pakistan is neither the signatory of the convention nor its national sales law posses this remedy. Therefore a research is highly required to fill this vacuum and find out a solution for international buyer who is involved in trade with parties in Pakistan. Thus the study aims to investigate the suitability of price reduction in compatibility with existing legal regime. The study reveals the raison d'être in contract making via relative analysis of the existence of price reduction as an assurance for performance and certainty. The results depict that adding price reduction as remedy will be a good legal cover to the buyer's claims and a better response to the business practices in Pakistan. Especially, where the buyer is facing difficulties to prove his loss he may simply opt to reduce the price. Hence, study recommends that introducing the 'price reduction' as a remedy in the local legal system will enhance the confidence of a commercial buyer from the international community. Keywords: Sale of Goods, CISG, Price Reduction, Remedy.
Asma Rashid, Masud Akhtar, Muhammad Naveed Riaz
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 361-366;

The study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence, emotional regulation and emotional expressivity in employees. Present study was descriptive research based on survey research design conducted in various offices situated in Sargodha. Data from A purposive sample of employees (N =200) was collected using three scales. Results revealed significant relationship between emotional intelligence, emotional regulation and emotional expressivity in employees.: The finding has theoretical and applied significant in term of relationship between three interrelated constructs based on management of emotions at workplace. Keywords: Emotional Expressivity, Emotional Regulation, Emotional Intelligence, Employees.
Mazhar Ali, Huma Amir, Aamir Shamsi
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 345-360;

The purpose of this review paper is to present the application of herding behavior in online buying. The simplest description of herding behavior is the imitation of others in making decisions. Online buying platforms have facilitated observing others' buying behavior, thereby increasing possibilities of social influence on our information search, evaluation, and buying. The concept of herding is multi-disciplinary; however, the literature review on herding behavior is mainly grounded in economics and finance. There is little understanding of herding behavior in marketing literature. Therefore, this study covers herding behavior literature through high-quality research papers published from 2000 to 2020 in journals indexed in the social science citation index, science citation index expanded, and emerging source citation index. This paper discusses the conceptualization of herding in online buying, herding situations, information-processing view of herding, measuring herding effect, herding models and theories, and areas for future research to enrich herding literature in online buying. This paper proposes a herding model (HCMMD) based on the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory to study herding behavior. Keywords: Consumer Herding Behavior, Herding Literature Review, Herding Models, Online Buying, Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) Theory.
Muhammad Tahir Khan, Ihtesham Khan, Adil Zaman
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 497-504;

Besides, the corporate level governance factors and country level governance factors there is another crucial factor that affect the earnings manipulation practices, is country level Financial Development. Financial development would likely act to discipline managers, thereby minimizing their engagement in EM, therefore an effective financial development system helps to reduce the EM practices. Hence the main purpose of this research work is to investigate the impact of Financial development on accruals based earnings management by using panel data analysis taking sample of 257 non-financial firms listed in Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2012 to 2019 through Fixed effect model.The results disclose that the financial development system of Pakistan negatively and significantly influence the EM activities of registered firm’s in Pakistan stock exchange. Hence, conclude that the strong financial system is effectively restrain the EM activities.The overall results are consistent with earlier literature that the advance FD enhance the controlling and analyzing of accounting informationby reducing the interference of management in the procedure of accounting accruals. Keywords: Earnings Management, Financial Development, Financial Development Index.
Adeel Javed, Osman Sadiq Paracha
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 322-335;

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of employee’s perception of HRM system strength and high performance work practices based on ability enhancing, motivation focused and opportunity creating practices on affective commitment. Furthermore, this paper explores the mediation effect of the line manager's ability, motivation, and opportunity to implement human resource practices between the high performance work practices, perception of HRM system strength, and affective commitment. This study is based on a quantitative research design. Data collected from 761 bank employees from different branches of private banks in Pakistan. A structural equational modeling technique was used to analyse the data. The result supported the positive impact of ability, motivation, and opportunity enhancing high performance work practices and HRM system strength on affective commitment. However, the mediation results indicated partial acceptance. The findings of this paper are expected to encourage researchers to be more thoughtful about the connection between these variables. Keywords: High Performance Work Practices, HRM System Strength, Line Manager Role, AMO Framework, SHRM Practices.
Ihtesham Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Shah Raza Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 285-295;

This study sought to ascertain the impact of corporate governance on dividend decisions of non-financial firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange (PSX). Panel data was collected from 2011to 2016. Data was collected from Non financial firms annual reports and State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) data base. The STATA software was used to analyze the data. The study investigates the association of firm’s performance and corporate governance. Specifically, this study investigate dividend decision (dividend per share(DPS)), corporate governance (board independence ,board size, size of firm, leverage, profitability, Insider ownership, individual ownership, and institutional ownership). A total of 42 non-financial firms are used to determine this relationship. The results show a positive significant relation between the Profitability, individual ownership with DPS. This study also found a negative and significant relationship between insiders ownership, financial institution ownership with DPS. It has also been found that Board independence, board size, firm size and leverage have negative and insignificant relationship with dividend per share (DPS). Keywords: Corporate Governance, Dividend Decisions, Dividend Policy.
Kalimullah Bhat, Ghulam Nabi, Naveeda Zeb
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 259-267;

The purpose of this study is to determine the role of anchoring bias in the economic and financial information. An experiment involving the business students is carried out by providing them information about recent economic and financial anchors about stock market, index returns, inflation and exchange rates in groups where one groups is exposed to some relevant anchors. In the first group, which is the “control group” the participants were given no relevant information and were asked to give their best estimate for all the respective indicators. In the second group the “anchoring group” participants were asked the same questions but are provided indicator anchors to deduce their anchoring estimates, for instance the current value of KSE-100 index is provided, and the respondents were asked to predict the current value of KSE-30 index. The results show that there is significant degree of anchoring bias for each of the questions and it is higher for males as compare to females. Similarly, the respondents when exposed to relevant anchors show significant anchoring bias than for irrelevant anchors. Keywords: Anchoring Bias, Relevant Anchoring, Irrelevant Anchoring, Perceived Relevance, Financial Indicators.
Ihtesham Khan, Shah Raza Khan, Adnan Khattak
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 9, pp 483-496;

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the managerial ownership, leverage and dividend Payout. The analysis is performed using GMM estimation on a sample of 40 non-financial listed Firms of Pakistan stock exchange for the period 2010–2016. The results show that there is negative association between Managerial ownership and Leverage, Positive association between Managerial ownership and Dividend payout. Leverage and Dividend payout has negative association. However, conflicting to expectations, managerial ownership is found to have positive impact on dividend. It means that companies with higher levels of managerial holdings are consciously choosing higher level of dividends. Keywords: Managerial Ownership, Leverage and Dividend Policy.
Shabana Gul, Shehzad Waheed, Alam Sher
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 336-344;

The paper focuses on analyzing the relationship between learning organization and employee engagement in the education sector. Data was collected from a sample of 221 faculty members of HEIs in Peshawar, Pakistan. Pearson Coefficient correlation analysis was used for analysis, the result of which suggested a significant relationship between learning organization and employee engagement. The study provides insights into how faculty members will be more committed and involved if they are given a culture of learning and support, where they feel valued. Keywords: Learning Organization, Employee Engagement, Higher Education Institution.
Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Masud Akhtar, Gilnaz Murtaza
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 313-321;

The present research investigated moderating role of decision-making situations between leadership styles and decision-making styles in services providing organizations of Pakistan. The study was based on Full Range Leadership Theory of Bass and Reggio (2006) which comprise of three leadership styles including transformational, transactional, and laissez faire style. The study incorporated five decision-making styles including rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous style. The study comprised of three decision-making situations including certainty, risk and uncertainty. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Decision Situations Scale and General Decision-making Styles Questionnaire were administered on 1200 employees. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that certainty moderated between transformational style and rational style. Uncertainty moderated between transformational style and spontaneous style. Certainty moderated between transactional leadership and rational style. Uncertainty moderated between laissez faire and dependent, avoidant decision-making style. Overall, the present study contributes to style, situational and contingency theories of leadership. Keywords: Decision-Making Situations, Leadership Styles, Decision-Making Styles.
Muhammad Tahir Khan, Ihtesham Khan, Shah Raza Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 304-312;

The main objective of the firm is to maximize the shareholder’s wealth; to achieve this objective the management indulge the earnings information by manipulation practices such practices reduce investors’ confidence. Furthermore, a hypothetical dispute recommends that a better quality of financial reporting reduce the information asymmetry, by refining the corporate governance compliance, result in reducing earnings management practices. Thus the main aim of this study is to explore the impact of corporate governance on earnings management by using panel data sample of 257 non-financial firms listed in Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2012 to 2019 through Fixed effect model along with control variables. The results disclose that the CG system of Pakistan negatively and significantly impacts the EM activities of the companies registered in Pakistan stock exchange. Hence, concludes that the CG system is more effective to prevent the EM process. The entire results are seamless with prior research work that the effective CG scheme of the firms controls the EM and collapse of businesses. Keywords: Earnings Management, Corporate Governance, Corporate Governance Index.
Hazrat Bilal, Ashfaq Ahmad, Palwasha Bibi
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 296-303;

The aim of this paper was to study the impact of intrinsic rewards on loyalty of employees working in restaurants situated in district Swat. This cross-sectional study was quantitative in nature and used non-probability sampling of 202 employees from restaurants. The self-administered questionnaire included demographic section, the intrinsic rewards and Swat Loyalty Scale (SLS). The data was analysed by applying Pearson Correlation and Regression. The results of the study confirmed a positive and significant relationship between intrinsic rewards and employee loyalty of employees working in restaurants. This study contributes to the employee loyalty Literature and, more specifically, to the relationship between intrinsic rewards and loyalty in the restaurants sector of district Swat. The outcome of the study draws the attention of decision makers to the importance of intrinsic rewards and its impact on the employee loyalty. Keywords: Intrinsic Rewards, Employee Loyalty, Swat Loyalty Scale, Restaurants.
Masud Akhtar, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Shazma Waheed
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 268-284;

The present study is based on the Process Model of Time Management by Macan (1994). The study aimed to examine the mediating role of perceived control of time between time management behaviour and psychological outcomes among university teachers. Data of university teachers (N = 300) was collected through Time Management Behaviour Scale, Perceived Control of Time Scale, Warwick Edinberg Mental Well-being Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, In Role Performance Scale and Role Overload Scale. Regression analysis explained that perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and well-being among university teachers. Perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and stress among university teachers. Perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and job satisfaction among university teachers. Similarly, perceived control of time mediated between time management behaviour and job performance among university teachers. The study has both theoretical as well as applied significance. The findings confirmed the underlying theoretical assumptions of the Process Model of Time Management Overall the findings are valuable in the fields of educational and organizational psychology. Keywords: Time Management Behaviour, Perceived Control of Time, Well-Being, Scale, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Role Overload.
Muhammad Aqib Ali, Talat Hussain
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 247-258;

The study is aimed at assessing the opinions of vital Islamic banking stakeholders including members of various Islamic banking Shariah Supervisory Boards (SSBs) and pertinent personnel from Pakistan’s central bank – The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). The research analyzes the percepts of respondents regarding various aspects relevant to Islamic banking (IB) products, service and objectives. The paper employs qualitative research approach in analyzing the Shariah and regulatory experts’ viewpoints regarding Islamic banking. The study is conducted using semi-structured interviews of twelve Shariah supervisors and nine SBP staff members serving in the Islamic banking department and Islamic banking focus groups in the regional/field offices of the State Bank of Pakistan. The study is of pioneering nature involving qualitative research design and inclusion of two of the most significant stakeholder groups from the Islamic banking sector of Pakistan who have not been included in the past studies regarding Islamic banking perceptions. The research findings highlighted that Shariah objectives are top priority of Islamic banks as per the views expressed by members of Shariah boards of various banks while in opinion of Islamic banking regulators, Islamic banks’ major concern is to achieve their business objectives. Keywords: Islamic Banking, Islamic Finance, Pakistan, Products, Perceptions, Shariah Compliance.
Muhammad Nawaz, Tayyaba Rafique Makhdoom, Azeem Akhter Bhatti
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 235-245;

Student Citizenship and dysfunctional behaviour impact the performance of higher educational institutions. Furthermore, some students can display both behaviours due to various antecedents. There has been some debate on the occurrence of both behaviours from same individuals within a business context. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated within Pakistani higher educational context. The objective of this research is to investigate these behaviours through accounts of students who are experiencing the behaviours withy in Pakistani higher educational context. Qualitative approach was used by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews to capture in-depth experiences of students related to SCB and SDB The findings of the study suggest that students may exhibit both behaviours simultaneously under same and different stimulus. Furthermore, these behaviours are influenced by rewards and justice perception of the students. Keywords: Citizenship Behaviour, Dysfunctional Behaviour, Phenomenology, Social Exchange Theory, Qualitative.
Nosheen Sarwat, Ammar Hussain, Tariq Iqbal Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 227-235;

Competitive pressures and dynamic workplaces have presented individuals with numerous challenges at the work place. Work seems more like a necessity and lacks passion and purpose and meaning. Moreover, unemployment rates in developing countries force individuals to take up work in which they are not even interested. The present study investigated the effect of work to family enrichment (WFE) on psychological well-being of individuals through the mediating role of meaningful work based on the assumptions of spillover theory. Resources acquired at work enrich individual’s family life which make work look more meaningful and in turn has positive consequences for psychological health of an individual. The unit of analysis for this study was individuals working in various banks of Pakistan. Data were collected from 215 full time bankers working in public and private banks of Pakistan. Banking industry was chosen in part due to its complex nature and further because of the lucrative incentives and training and development it offers to individuals working for these banks. Data were analyzed using model 4 given in PROCESS MACRO based on bootstrapping which is considered one of the best techniques for mediation analysis. Results supported all the hypotheses of this study. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that work should be designed in such a way that it enriches the family life of individuals, this creates a purpose and meaning in work and has positive consequences for the psychological health of individuals. Keywords: Work-Family Enrichment, Meaningful Work, Psychological Well-Being, Spillover Theory.
Rimsha Kanwal
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 216-226;

This paper explores the relationship between perceived risk, fear, and consumer purchase intention towards luxury brands in the case of COVID-19. An online survey was conducted on 750 consumers of luxury brands in Pakistan with a purposive sampling technique. The validity of the scale and the connection between the research model were identified by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The study uncovered how COVID-19 wreaks havoc on luxury brands in Pakistan. It was found that perceived risk has a negative and significant effect on consumer purchase intention towards luxury brands in the case of COVID-19. Moreover, fear negatively moderating the relationship between perceived risk and consumer purchase intention towards luxury brands in the case of COVID-19. As fear playing a dominant role in the reduction of purchase intention in the case of an outbreak, a brand's industry needs to prepare some strategies in advance that control the negative emotions of consumers for shopping. Considering the uniqueness of the study, it is based on two theories include Psychometric Paradigm and Expectancy-Value model that explains how perceived risk changes the consumer purchase intention during an outbreak. Keywords: COVID-19, Perceived Risk, Fear, Consumer Purchase Intention, Luxury Brands.
Noor Un Nisa, Muhammad Nawaz, Tayyaba Rafique Makhdoom
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 183-191;

The aim of this study to put a light on basics of organizational politics and its negative and positive effects on the employee work related attitudes, more specifically in education sector. In universities administration and faculty are busy in dirty political games rather to pay more attention towards facilitating students for their educational purposes. In universities politics is considered as a dangerous element as the ultimate victim of this politics will be students. Although some studies claimed that politics could be a positive element in organizational growth and development. But, the negative side is heavier than imagination that needs more consideration. A survey has been conducted through a well-structured questionnaire among 100 respondents as well as teaching and administrative staff from different public universities of Sindh Province. The study concluded some significant work related attitudes and outcomes of politics. The main effects of analysis have also revealed that perceptions of politics have significant its impact on employee job attitude and creativity. Keywords: Organizational Politics, Job Attitude, Creativity, Work Related Attitude, Higher Education.
Bushra Usman, Sheikh Usman Yousaf
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 150-167;

Improving women entrepreneurship is about improving the societies and economies. Women across the globe have impactful participation in the field of entrepreneurship yet they receive relatively lesser attention from entrepreneurship researchers. The field lacks in its own theories and measures hence, employs borrowed ones. Further, most of the researchers use the same tools to measure entrepreneurial performance and success for both male and female entrepreneurs while ignoring the basic differences of their motives to become entrepreneurs. Similarly, women centric success measuring instruments have not been given due attention in past studies and it remained a big gap in research. This study aims to reveal what success is for women entrepreneurs and develops a success measuring tool. Hermeneutic Phenomenology approach was used to attain these objectives. Interviews were conducted from Malaysian female entrepreneurs. The study explored first, second and broader constructs to understand the true meanings of success which is found to be a multifaceted phenomenon having its roots embedded in the dimensions of autonomy, intrinsic-satisfaction, customer-base, business-growth, family, networking and business-performance. Furthermore, it develops a success measuring instrument for women entrepreneurs based upon identified themes. The devised success instrument may practically contribute in gauging women entrepreneurship success for academicians, researchers, women entrepreneurs, policy makers and others. Women entrepreneurship can significantly contribute in economic development and understanding/measuring their perceived success would assist all related stakeholders. Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship, Success Instrument, Hermeneutic Phenomenology.
Ghulam Murtaza Shah, Noor Ahmed Memon, Ghazala Tunio
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 168-182;

Human resources’ is one of the pivot elements in business enterprises to achieve set goals and objectives of new millennium. Competent and skilled workforce have to be permanent stakeholders of a corporation where they use acquired knowledge and gained skills to achieve set milestones in particular industry. Talent management is the task of attracting, acquiring, developing and retaining skilled workforce to achieve desired goals of corporation. The main objective of this research study is to explore the need for talent management and investigating its impact on the organizational performance of higher education institutes. Three factors of talent management are taken into consideration; talent attraction, talent development and talent retention. Using simple random sampling method, one hundred questionnaires were distributed to academic and administrative heads of three public sector universities in jamshoro city. Data is analyzed using cronbach’s alpha, Mean and standard deviation, regression analysis and one sample t test. After analyzing observed data results show positive and significant effect of all three factors of talent management i-e talent attraction, talent development and talent retention on the organizational performance of higher education institutes. It is concluded that talent management is integrated part of better performance and key factor in achieving standards of excellence in higher education institutes. Practicing and implementing talent management will upgrade ranking of institutes at national and international level. Furthermore higher education institutes will show impetus for continuous improvement in imparting quality education to the masses. Faculty and administrative staff of higher education institutes will have opportunity to develop their careers and top management will surely retain skilled employees and have opportunity to grow at par excellence. Keywords: Talent Management, Organizational Performance, Higher Education Institutes.
Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Hafiz Muhammad Zeeshan Iqbal, Gulnaz Murtaza
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 202-207;

The direct and indirect consequences of decision situations in cellular companies were investigated in this research. Prior literature suggests that usually two types of decisions are made in the modern organizations broadly categorized as programmed and non-programmed decisions. Study was conducted which focused on examining the direct effect and indirect effect and (through programmed and non-programmed decisions) on subsequent decision styles of managers which were rational and intuitive. Three scales were used for data collection from managers in cellular companies (N = 400). Hierarchical regressions confirmed that decision situations have both direct and indirect effect on the decision styles of managers. Keywords: Certainty, Uncertainty, Programmed, Non-Programmed Decisions, Rational Style, Intuitive Style.
Jawwad Muhammad Shujaat, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Humaira Yasmin
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 208-215;

The present study was sought to examine the role of rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous decision styles in the prediction of transformational, transactional, and laissez faire leadership styles. Research questionnaire were Urdu-translated versions of General Decision styles Questionnaire (Scott & Bruce, 1995) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 2000). The sample of the current study consisted of 300 business managers from different regions of Pakistan. Purposive sampling was employed to collect the data. Multiple Regression analysis and Stepwise Regression analysis demonstrated impact of decision styles on leadership styles. Rational and intuitive decision style displayed positive effect and avoidant decision style displayed negative effect on transformational leadership style. Rational, intuitive, and dependent positively predicted transactional leadership style. Avoidant decision style displayed positive effect whereas rational and spontaneous decision style showed negative effect on laissez faire leadership style. The study shed light on the fact that the decisions of the leaders can be used as determining factors to assess their leadership in the business organizations. Keywords: Decision Making Styles, Leadership Styles, Business Managers.
Sayyed Adnan Shabbir, Fauzia Syed
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 192-201;

Positive emotions have drawn considerable interest of researchers in the recent past. One such emotion is happiness. The current study attempts to discover the underlying mechanism through which consumer happiness transforms into positive outcomes. Based on the “broaden and build theory of positive emotions” a model was developed and tested. Gratitude has been taken as a mediating variable. The proposed model explains the Pakistani customers’ shopping considerations from well known clothing outlets. Consumer happiness in this study has been used as an antecedent of repurchase intentions and customer advocacy, whereas, gratitude mediates the relationship between consumer happiness and positive outcomes. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from 330 respondents through survey method. All questionnaires were personally administered. PLS-SEM techniques have been used through smart PLS 3 for testing the model. The relationship between consumer happiness and customer advocacy was found significant. Gratitude was found as a significant mediator among consumer happiness and outcomes. However, repurchase intention from branded clothing stores in Pakistan was found to be insignificantly affected by consumer happiness. The study contributes towards the better comprehension about the shopping experience of Pakistani shoppers towards branded clothing stores in true letter and spirit. The study contributes to the existing body of literature by incorporating experiences of shoppers from emerging economies like Pakistan and establishing the mechanism through which consumer happiness transforms consumer experiences into positive outcomes. Keywords: Consumer Happiness, Gratitude, Repurchase Intention, Customer Advocacy.
Qudsia Arshad, Rashida Khatoon Malik
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 56-67;

This study aims to deepen the understanding of the issues of an intellectual brain drain in academia. There is no doubt that higher education is vital to the growth and development of a country. Hence, the universities need to maintain highly qualified human resources to ensure effectiveness and competitiveness. This research study is focused to investigate the experiences of the academicians who are foreign qualified and migrated to advanced countries, they were asked to describe their experiences, using their own stories and interpretations of their personal experiences. The qualitative research approach was adopted to get the gist of the real reason that prompts the academicians to stay or leave their home country after getting education from abroad. The study employed social constructivism as an interpretive framework analysis method and used purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. Semi-structured interviews were recorded and analyzed. Findings suggested that career opportunities, economic, social, education, technological factors, and adjustment issues caused the brain drain of academicians of public sector universities of Islamabad. The knowledge drawn from this research can operate as a piece of useful reference information for current and future recruitment efforts, support services, and helpful in minimizing the brain drain. Keywords: Academicians, Brain Drain, Human Resource, Higher Education Institutions (HEI), Push Pull Factors.
Zahoor Hussain Javed, Mahmood Ul Hasan, Iqra Aroog
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 33-37;

The foremost intention of this study is to investigate the influence of macroeconomic variables on the growth of assets in Islamic banks of Pakistan for 11 years from 2008-2018. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, and ordinary least square technique are used for data analysis. Thus, the findings indicate that the provision of domestic credit (% GDP) has positive and a significant influence on the growth of assets in Islamic banks in Pakistan. The consumer price index has a negative influence on the growth of assets in Pakistan because as the consumer’s price index has been risen up, consumers reduce their expenditures on goods and services, thus gathering assets in Islamic banks will be reduced. Thus, the consumer’s price index has negative effect on the growth of assets in Islamic banks. The outcomes of this research are consistent with the previous studies and shows same results. Keywords: Macroeconomics Variables, Growth of Assets in Islamic Banks, Domestic Credit, Consumer Price Index, Pakistan.
Muhammad Munir, Majid Ali, Syed Karim Haider
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 135-149;

There is an ample body of knowledge showing significant association between five factor model (FFM) of personality traits and workplace bullying, yet exploring cause-and-effect relationship between them is still under addressed. To address this issue, current study has analyzed personality traits of Five-Factor Model as a potential antecedent of workplace bullying and its three sub-facets (verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying). Study analyzed responses of 266 respondents to draw inferences. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data from the respondents. Correlation analysis showed a positive association of extraversion with physical bullying; negative association of agreeableness with workplace bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying; negative association of conscientiousness with workplace bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying; and negative association of emotional stability with physical bullying. Results of regression analysis showed significant effect of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experiences on workplace bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying. Current study has identified personality as an important predictor of workplace bullying through which organizations may control incidence of bullying at their workplace environments. Current study also has highlighted important insights for future research directions. Keywords: Five Factor Model (FFM), Personality Traits, Workplace Bullying, Physical Bullying, Verbal Bullying, Social Bullying.
Inayatullah Khan, Mohammad Afzal
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 9-22;

Pakistan’s economy is mainly dependent on textile industry. Textile manufacturers and policy makers are giving priority to improve production efficiency in the textile industry. To compete with rival firms, production efficiency appeared more important than before. This study has analysed the production efficiency of textile manufacturing and exporting firms in Pakistan. The data from annual reports of limited companies registered on the stock exchanges of Pakistan has been used. Cobb-Douglas (half - normal) Stochastic Frontier output model and MLE technique have been applied. Empirical results demonstrate that on average, during the 2016-17, the variable “Cost of material” has the highest elasticity of output (0.719) while the variable “Salaries and wages” has the second larger elasticity of output (0.154). The third input (Energy charges) has elasticity of output 0.096, and the fourth input (Value of operating fixed asset) has the lowest elasticity of output (0.039). The level of production efficiency of the firms in Pakistan ranged from 66.5 percent to 96.73 percent with a mean 89.55 percent during the year. The average estimated value of “” indicated that majority (approximately 71.95%) of the variations in the firms’ output were due to difference in technical inefficiency (ui) and small (28.05 %) variations were due to random error (vi). Keywords: Textile Manufacturing and Exporting Firms, Technical Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Output, MLE Technique, Cobb-Douglas Production Function.
Aleena Mukarram, Sajjad Hussain, Mehwish Ali Khan
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 38-55;

The present study is an attempt to give a brief overview of despotic leadership research in a chronological order. Starting from the pre-historic era, the study links the concept of despotic leadership with Greek era and explains its existence in other domains which includes sociology and political science. It briefly addresses questions like how despotic leadership evolved from the broader construct of destructive leadership. What are the different types of destructive leaders and how despotic leadership differs from other type? It also covers different consequences of the despotic leadership with multiple themes. The study deeply analyzes the integration of despotic leadership research with multiple behavioral and attitudinal work-related outcomes. Finally, current trends and future directions are proposed for further scientific and logical validation. Keywords: Despotic leadership, Historical Review, Multiple Dimensions, Current and Future Trends.
Zaheer Abbas, Annes Fatima, Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 23-32;

Women as leaders have been facing challenges in workplace as well as at homes. However, the focus of this research is to explore the challenges which women face in different leadership and managerial positions in public and private organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan. Employing qualitative research method, data was collected from eight (8) females who were in leadership and management positions in different public and private organizations in the context of Gilgit-Baltistan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the data. The analysis of the data showed that women mostly face challenges regarding their job related duties due to household responsibilities, stereotypes of the masses about their abilities to manage public administration and the lack of equal opportunities for promotions and rewards as compared to their male counterparts in the organizations. It is recommended that both public and private organizations should develop women friendly policies to provide equal opportunities so as to facilitate them in their job responsibilities. Keywords: Leadership, Management, Challenges, Organizations, Stereotypes, Feminist Lens.
Rummana Zaheer, Adeela Khalid
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 80-99;

This paper explores the impact of institutions on economic growth, measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. A wide range of economic, non-economic, social, environmental and political factors contribute to economic growth and prosperity. Institutions are discussed as a range of array of regulatory and accountability mechanisms, beyond the boundaries of market functioning. This paper takes composite values of democracy index, vested interests, accountability, human rights and freedom of association and uses it as a proxy for institutions. A range of theoretical and empirical evidence, in addition to panel data analysis indicates positive role of institutions in economic growth. Keywords: Institutions, Democracy, Economic Growth, Investment, Fertility, Education, Inequality, Education, Government, Political Stability, Rule of Law, Life Expectancy, Panel Data.
Filzah Isa, Nor Azila Mohd Nor, Shaista Noor
International Review of Management and Business Research, Volume 10, pp 68-79;

Women entrepreneur plays a catalytic role in economic development, as women constitute half of Malaysia's population. The contribution of women entrepreneurs in the country's economy is significant and may not ignore. Malaysia is a multicultural and multiethnic society comprised of Malays, Chinese, Indian and other local ethnics. The present study investigates the leadership and decision-making style among Malaysian women entrepreneurs. The present study adopted the qualitative research strategy, and ten women entrepreneurs are interviewed. A semi-structured interview technique is applied, and 6 Malays and 4 Chinese entrepreneurs made the study population. The result highlights that both Malay and Chinese entrepreneurs used democratic leadership styles for business management. Regarding decision-making, Malaysian women experienced failures in making the right decision. However, they considered the failure as a learning process for future decision-making. The present study will help new entrepreneurs persevere in their business ventures, and policymakers look into the best supports to enhance Malaysian women entrepreneurs' success. Keywords: Women Entrepreneur, Decision-making Process, Leadership Styles, Malaysia.
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