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, , Mohammad Mahdi Zangeneh, Akram Zangeneh, Maryam Qorbani, Sogand Paydarfard
Published: 15 October 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142350

Abstract:
Introduction The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using medicinal plants is not only economical but also environmentally friendly as well as having miscellaneous biomedical applications. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were green-synthesized using the aqueous extract of Calendula officinalis. Material and methods The synthesized [email protected] officinalis were characterized by analytical techniques including EDX, FE-SEM, XRD, UV-Vis., and FT-IR. The anti-human colorectal cancer activities of [email protected] officinalis were evaluated using MTT assay. Results The nanoparticles were formed in a spherical shape in the range of 38.05 to 75.41 nm for the particle size. On the other hand, the MTT assay was run to evaluate anti colorectal cancer activity of [email protected] officinalis. In the cellular and molecular part of the recent study, the treated cells with [email protected] officinalis were assessed by MTT assay for 48 h about the cytotoxicity and anti-human colorectal carcinoma properties on normal (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma cell lines i.e. WiDr, SW1417 [SW-1417], and DLD-1. In the antioxidant test, the IC50 of [email protected] officinalis and BHT against DPPH free radicals were 222 and 124 µg/mL, respectively. The viability of malignant colorectal cell line reduced dose-dependently in the presence of [email protected] officinalis. The IC50 of [email protected] officinalis were 430, 326, and 392 µg/mL against WiDr, SW1417 [SW-1417], and DLD-1 cell lines, respectively. Conclusions After the clinical study, silver nanoparticles containing Calendula officinalis leaf aqueous extract may be used to formulate a new chemotherapeutic drug or supplement to treat the several types of human colorectal carcinoma.
Aleksandra Skwarek, Aleksandra Gąsecka, , , ,
Published: 15 October 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142103

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The three key principles in management of the COVID-19 pandemic are prevention, early detection and targeted treatment. Vaccine-based prevention together with early detection have already proven their efficacy in controlling the pandemic, early detection of the infected patients could substantially accelerate the implementation of treatment, but also help to identify the infection hotspots, whereas the targeted treatment might destroy the virus and minimize damage to healthy tissue. Nanoparticles hold great promise with respect to these above-mentioned aspects. They may also be the solution to the emerging clinical problems, such as: reinfection, pregnant-related COVID-19 and coinfection. Here, we aim to discuss the potential applications of nanoparticles to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
Published: 15 October 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/131789

Abstract:
Introduction This study aimed to discuss the necessity of a second prostate biopsy in patients with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) and to develop a scoring system and risk table to be used as new criteria for a second biopsy. Material and methods The study reviewed the data of 2,845 patients; who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy in the period between January 2008 and May 2019. A total of 128 patients with ASAP were included in the study. The tPSA, fPSA, f/tPSA, and PSA-Density levels before the first and second biopsies and changes in the measured levels between the values obtained before the first and the second biopsies were recorded. “ASAP Scoring System and risk table” (ASS-RT) was evaluated before the second biopsy. Results The mean age of 128 patients with ASAP was 62.9±7.8 years. The ASS-RT scores of prostate cancer patients were significantly higher compared to patients without prostate cancer (p: 0.001). In the ROC curve analysis of ASS-RT, the area under the curve was 0.804 and the standard error was 0.04. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher than 0.5 (p:0.001). The cut-off point of ASS-RT scores in diagnosing cancer was ≥ 7 with 60.8% sensitivity and 80.5% specificity Conclusions The cut-off value of 7 determined for the ASS-RT score in this study suggests that patients with ASS-RT scores of ≥7 should undergo a second prostate biopsy. We think that there may be no need for a second biopsy if the ASS-RT score is <7, especially for low-risk patients.
Published: 15 October 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142465

Abstract:
Introduction The present study investigated the anti-acute myeloid leukemia effects of Ziziphora clinopodides Lam leaf aqueous extract conjugated cadmium nanoparticles. Material and methods To synthesize CdNPs, Z. clinopodides aqueous extract was mixed with Cd(NO3)2 .4H2O. The characterization of the biosynthesized cadmium nanoparticles was carried out using many various techniques such as UV-Vis. and FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, and EDS. Results The uniform spherical morphology of NPs was proved by FE-SEM images with NPs the average size of 26.78cnm. For investigating the antioxidant properties of Cd(NO3)2, Z. clinopodides, CdNPs, and Daunorubicin, the DPPH test was used. The cadmium nanoparticles inhibited half of the DPPH molecules in a concentration of 196 µg/mL. To survey the cytotoxicity and anti-acute myeloid leukemia effects of Cd(NO3)2, Z. clinopodides, CdNPs, and Daunorubicin, MTT assay was used on the human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines i.e., Murine C1498, 32D-FLT3-ITD, and Human HL-60/vcr. The IC50 of the cadmium nanoparticles was 168, 205, and 210 µg/mL against Murine C1498, 32D-FLT3-ITD, and Human HL-60/vcr cell lines, respectively. In the part of in vivo study, DMBA was used for inducing acute myeloid leukemia in mice. CdNPs similar to daunorubicin ameliorated significantly (p≤0.01) the biochemical, inflammatory, RBC, WBC, platelet, stereological, histopathological, and cellular-molecular parameters compared to the other groups. Conclusions As mentioned, the cadmium nanoparticles had significant anti-acute myeloid leukemia effects. After approving the above results in the clinical trial studies, these cadmium nanoparticles can be used as a chemotherapeutic drug to treat acute myeloid leukemia in humans.
Published: 10 October 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142428

Abstract:
Introduction Lipotoxicity due to obesity is known to lead to cardiac dysfunction. In an earlier study, we found that an increase in the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the membrane of cardiomyocytes causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Such stress is hypothesized to be involved in development of SFA-related cardiomyopathy. Another factor affecting the membrane SFA/MUFA ratio is suppression by SFA of SIRT1-mediated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which is involved in converting SFA to MUFA. Therefore, we evaluated whether increasing dietary intake of MUFA can improve the membrane SFA/MUFA ratio. Material and methods Wild-type mice (n = 30) and cardiomyocyte-specific SIRT1 knockout mice (n = 30) were randomly divided into 3 groups and assigned to 16 weeks of a standard mouse diet, 16 weeks of an SFA-rich high-lard diet (HLD), or 8 weeks of a HLD followed by 8 weeks of a MUFA-rich high olive oil diet (HOD switch). Results Compared with the control group, the wild-type mice on the HOD diet showed normalized SIRT1-mediated SCD1 signaling, increased membrane SFA/MUFA ratio, decreased ER stress, and improved cardiomyopathy variables. The HLD-fed SIRT1 knockout mice showed greater changes in the SFA/MUFA ratio, ER stress, and cardiomyopathy variables than the wild-type mice. Switching from HLD to HOD ameliorated these phenotypes, although it did not restore the reduced expression of SCD1. Conclusions The MUFA-rich diet was found to have a therapeutic effect on SFA-induced cardiomyopathy with diastolic dysfunction by directly rebalancing membrane fatty acid oversaturation and indirectly through the de-inhibition of SIRT1/SCD1 signaling.
, Rui P Costa, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, Cláudia Camila Dias, António Vidigal, Alípio Araújo, Ana Catarina Certal, António Castro, António Parreira, Joaquim Arenga, et al.
Published: 5 October 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/140727

Abstract:
Introduction Recommendations have been issued to prevent workplace-related SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. To discuss their impact, we assessed non-healthcare workers of a company which implemented such recommendations from early on. . Material and methods We performed molecular and serological tests to SARS-CoV-2 in workers of a Portuguese electrical company, in June 2020. Workers were also subject to an epidemiological survey. . Results A total of 1359 workers (out of 5850) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and answered the survey. Twenty-five participants (1.8%) had positive testing results. Conclusions We observed low frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a company that early on implemented policies to decrease COVID-19 risk.
Ioannis Leontsinis, , Vasilios Papademetriou, Christina Chrysοhoou, Maria Kariori, Ioannis Dalakouras, Panayotis Tolis, Christos Fragoulis, Theodoros Kalos, Fotios-Panagiotis Tatakis, et al.
Published: 23 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/141243

Abstract:
Introduction Corona virus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic provoked unprecedented disturbance in hypertension care, while alarming concerns arose about its long-term consequences. We assessed the impact of COVID-19 spread on population behavior regarding hypertension urgencies during its first wave. Material and methods Data from daily unscheduled visits and admission counts in the Cardiology sector were collected from the Emergency Department database of a tertiary General Hospital in Athens, Greece from January 15th-July 15th 2020. This data was compared with the ones from the previous year. Cases presented with hypertensive urgency or admitted due to uncontrolled hypertension were separately analyzed. Results A total of 7,373 patients records were analyzed. Hypertension urgency cases demonstrated a “U” shaped distribution in 2020, showing declining trend during the rapid virus spread, an image that was reversed after the transmission rate’s fade. COVID-19 incidence in Greece was inversely associated with uncontrolled hypertension admissions during its declining phase (r=-0.64 p=0.009), whereas total attendance exhibited a similar correlation during the first and the following months of the pandemic (r=0.677, p=0.031, r=-0.789, p=0.001). Uncontrolled hypertension rate on admission was positively related to the national incidence of COVID-19 cases during the first months of 2020 (r= 0.82, p=0.045). Conclusions Hypertensive urgency-related visits followed a “U” shape distribution during the pandemic’s first wave with attendance nadir coincidence to the virus spread peak. The initial relative increase in uncontrolled hypertension-related admissions rate, combined with the later increment of hypertensive urgencies may indicate blood pressure deregulation among the studied population which is multifactorial and potentially detrimental.
Published: 19 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142407

Abstract:
Introduction The successful introduction of immune checkpoint blockade approaches to renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment indicates the importance of molecules regulating the T cell response to RCC risk and progression. Material and methods In this study, we evaluate the association of variations in the CTLA-4, BTLA and CD28 genes with overall survival (OS) of RCC patients and specifically clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients. The following previously genotyped using RFLP method or TaqManSNP Genotyping Assays single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed: CTLA-4 gene: c.49A>G (rs231775), g.319C>T (rs5742909), g.*6230G>A (CT60; rs3087243), g.*10223G>T (Jo31; rs11571302); CD28 gene: c.17+3T>C (rs3116496), c.-1042G>A (rs3181098); BTLA gene: rs2705511, rs1982809, rs9288952, rs9288953, rs2705535 and rs1844089. Results During long term observation (6.5 years) we discovered that possessing of A allele at BTLA rs1844089 SNP, together with advanced disease (stage >3, tumor grade >3, tumor diameter ≥70mm), is an independent risk factor of death which increases the HR (hazard ratio) of death by more than two-fold (HR=2.21, 95%CI 1.28-3.83). Furthermore, the OS of patients bearing this allele is 6 months shorter than for homozygous [GG] patients (42.5 vs. 48.2 months). Conclusions Our results indicate for the first time that genetic variation within the gene encoding the BTLA is significantly associated with overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.
Wenshi Liu, Dongdong Zheng, , Ying Hua, Rong Huang,
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142102

Abstract:
Introduction This study aimed to identify novel differentially co-expressed genes and to investigate the features of immune cell infiltration in PAH. Material and methods The GSE113439 and GSE117261 datasets were acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. And the differentially expressed genes between PAH and control groups were identified based on the GSE117261 dataset. Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) was adopted to analyze the pre-processed data. Functional enrichment analysis was then carried out to explore the biological functions of these genes modules. The differentially co-expressed key genes modules were in-depth verified by GEO2R analysis. The immune infiltration in PAH was investigated by Cell type Identification By Estimating Relative Subsets Of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT). Results WGCNA analysis found 15 differentially co-expressed genes modules, amongst which module blue indicated that it exhibited the strongest positive link to PAH, whereas module green presented the strongest negative association with PAH. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that the genes in module blue were largely enriched in Lysosome, Complement, and coagulation cascades, and others, while the genes in module green were primarily enriched in the Chemokine signaling pathway, Platelet activation, etc. Integrin subunit alpha M (ITGAM) was identified as the differentially co-expressed key gene. Immune infiltration analysis by CIBERSORT showed that the differences between PAH and control groups or between PAH subgroups. Conclusions ITGAM was considered a promising biomarker to discriminate PAH from the control. Obvious differences were observed in immune infiltration between patients with PAH and normal groups.
, , , Patricia Palomo López, , , Daniel López López, Blanca De La Cruz Torres
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/140294

Abstract:
Introduction Ultrasound imaging (USI) is useful to evaluate structures of the foot to guide treatment, but the reliability of USI technique needs to be clarified. The goal of the study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of USI image capture, and measurement of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) for experienced and novice examiners Material and methods FHL images were captured for 20 healthy adults. Reliability of image capture was evaluated between images repeated at 10-min interval for an experienced and a novice examiner. Reliability of image-based measurements was evaluated for one experienced and one novice rater, using all images. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated Results Intra-examiner reliability of image capture for the FHL muscle examined by USI was excellent for both thickness (ICC3,1, 0.944–0.976; SEM, 6.8%–10.0%) and CSA (ICC3,1, 0.954–0.979; SEM, 10.8%–16.5%), with no effect of examiner experience. Reliability was also excellent for measurement of thickness (ICC3,1, 0.954–0.972; SEM, 1.2%–9.6%) and CSA (ICC3,1, 0.961–0.986; SEM, 9.2%–14.1%), with no effects of experience. Conclusions Reliability of image capture and image-based measurements developed by USI of CSA and thickness for the FHL muscle in healthy individuals was excellent, independent of the examiner experience.
Paula Aleksandra Łasica, Teresa Sierpińska, Dorota Cylwik-Rokicka
Published: 17 September 2021
Prosthodontics, Volume 71, pp 234-243; https://doi.org/10.5114/ps/142329

Joanna Maria Gadomska, Anna Kochanek-Leśniewska
Published: 17 September 2021
Prosthodontics, Volume 71, pp 244-254; https://doi.org/10.5114/ps/127077

Qian Chen, Junjun Zou, Beilei Zhang, Feifei Cui, Meifen Shen, Mingyan Qu
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/141894

Abstract:
Introduction Reducing the extubation failure is vital to the early recovery of patients with mechanical ventilation(MV). We aimed to explore the predictive value of the change of intra-abdominal pressure(ΔIAP) before extubation on the extubation failure in MV patients. Material and methods Patients undergone MV for more than 24 hours were selected. We used a urodynamic monitor to measure ΔIAP 30 minutes before extubation. The characteristics and prognosis of MV patients were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve was drawn to analyze the predictive value of ΔIAP for extubation failure. Results A total of 173 MV patients were included. The risks of extubation failure increased with the decrease of ΔIAP. The risk of extubation failure in ΔIAP≤21mmHg group was 5.7 times that of the ΔIAP≥38mmHg group (OR 5.7, 95%CI 1.5-22.0), the risk of extubation failure in ΔIAP 22~37 mmHg group was 3.8 times that of the ΔIAP≥38mmHg group (OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.0-15.3). The area under the curve (AUC) predicted by ΔIAP for extubation failure was 0.721, the cutoff value was 31mmHg with 82.8% sensitivity and 48.6% specificity. There were no significant differences in the duration of MV, length of ICU stay, and death in ICU of the three groups of patients (all P>0.05). Conclusions The ΔIAP has good reference value for predicting extubation failure, which is negatively correlated with the risk of extubation failure in patients with MV. For MV patients with ΔIAP≤31mmHg, they may have higher risk of extubation failure, early alert and interventions are highlighted for those patients.
Zhengdong Zhang, Hui Wang, Zhe Yan, Kaihua Zhu
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/141821

Abstract:
Introduction To investigate clinical significance of YKL-40 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B (HBV) related cirrhosis. Material and methods The present prospective observational study included 129 cases of HCC patients. Besides, 152 patients with only hepatitis B related cirrhosis and 110 HCC patients with no cirrhosis were also enrolled during the same period. Additionally, 100 healthy individuals were enrolled as control. Serum YKL-40 levels were determined using ELISA method. Levels of serum albumin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) as well as HCC related biomarkers of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), gamma glutamyltransferase (GCT-II), α-L-Fucosidase (AFU), CEA and CA19-9 were measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed. Results The expression of YKL-40 was the highest in HCC patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and the lowest in the healthy control, and the difference was significant compared with other groups. And HCC patients showed markedly higher YKL-40 levels than the HBV-related cirrhosis patients. Patients with higher expression of YKL-40 showed higher ratio of TNM IV, lymphatic metastasis and Child-Pugh C, and higher serum levels of AFP, AFU and CA19-9 than those in the patients with lower levels of YKL-40. YKL-40 level was positively correlated with AFP and AFU. Survival analysis showed patients with higher expression of YKL-40 had shorter 1-year survival time than the patients with lower YKL-40. Conclusions YKL-40 was elevated in HCC patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and high expression of YKL-40 predicted poor prognosis and shorter 1-year survival.
, Dilyara Kaidarova, Zhamilya Zholdybay, Marianna Zagurovskaya, Oxana Shatkovskaya, Akmaral Ainakulova, Madina Orazgaliyeva
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142101

Abstract:
Introduction Increased natural killer cells activity (NKCA) is linked to the reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Several prior studies investigated the association of NKCA and the incidence of CRC in high-risk subjects. The aim of our study was to investigate NKCA sensitivity in diagnosing advanced neoplasia and CRC in average risk population. Material and methods NKCA was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) blood test in average risk subjects with a range of 25-2500 pg/mL set for ELISA. NKCA higher than 200 pg/mL was defined as negative. The performance of NKCA was evaluated using the measures as sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, clinical utility index, etc. In addition, odd ratios for developing CRC using logistic regression models were calculated. Results NKCA was evaluated in 354 average risk individuals (mean age 58.5 years-old; 36.2% males). The diagnostic accuracy of NKCA for CRC and AN has reached 75.5% and 72.3% respectively, with 96.4% NPV. NKCA test demonstrated good negative clinical utility index for CRC and AN (0.664 and 0.741, respectively). Individuals with low NKCA had 6.84 times higher odds to have CRC (95% CI 2.31-20.27; p<0.001). NKCA was higher in men vs. women (548.5 pg/mL vs. 500.0 pg/mL) and lower in smokers (412 pg/mL vs. 544 pg/mL), non-exercisers (413 pg/ml vs. 653.5 pg/mL), alcohol users (389 pg/mL vs. 476 pg/mL), and native Kazakhs and other Asian ethnic groups (446 pg/mL against 514 pg/mL). Conclusions Our study suggests that high NKCA level has potential ability to rule out CRC and AN in average risk population.
Wenhao Luo,
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/142322

Abstract:
Introduction Both Dmab and ZA have been widely used in the prevention and treatment of bone-related diseases, while which drug is an optimal treatment in terms of safety and efficacy remains controversial. Material and methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched up to 1st January 2021, and were evaluated by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Randomized controlled trials comparing Dmab versus ZA in patients with bone-related diseases were included. Results A total of 13 studies involving 21042 participants were included. The incidence of total adverse events was significantly lower in patients receiving Dmab treatment than in those undergoing ZA treatment(OR= 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75–0.94, P = 0.003). 9 trials comparing Dmab with ZA further showed that Dmab was significantly better than ZA in controlling serious adverse events (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85–0.99, P = 0.02). Compared to ZA, Dmab was correlated with a lower incidence of skeletal-related events (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.70–0.85, P = 0.00001). However, no significant difference was found in the rate of infection events between Dmab and ZA (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.93–1.20, P =0.39). Conclusions This study demonstrated superiority of Dmab over ZA in treating bone-related diseases in terms of safety and efficacy.
, , Ihab Aboueleyoun, , Mohamed Abo-Elsoud,
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/141986

Abstract:
Introduction Glycogen storage disease III (GSD III) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism that involves mainly the liver and skeletal muscles with rare potential systemic complications as osteoporosis. The aim of work of the current study was to screen children with GSD III for osteoporosis using Dual-emission-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and to measure associated parathormone (PTH) and vitamin D. Our secondary objective is to correlate between the degree of osteoporosis and the muscle state as well as the metabolic control. Material and methods This cross sectional study included 25 GSD III pediatric cases. The liver biochemical profile, creatine kinase (CK), vitamin D2, PTH levels were tested in addition to electromyogram (EMG), echocardiography and DXA. Twenty-five age and sex matched normal healthy controls were subjected to vitamin D2 analysis and compared to cases. Results The mean ±SD age of the patients was 10.52 ± 3.1 years ranging between 5-18 years. Twenty-one patients (84%) had elevated CK levels, 14 patients (56%) had myopathy and three (12%) had sensory polyneuropathy and almost half of the patients had a mild degree of cardiac muscle hypertrophy. Ten patients (40%) had elevated PTH levels. Twenty-one patients (84%) and 96% of the controls had vitamin D2 deficiency. Thirteen patients (52%) had low BMD; two of them had osteoporosis. Patients with high CK levels significantly had low BMD (P= 0.04). Conclusions Pediatric GSD III patients have a significant prevalence of developing low BMD. It is strongly associated with myopathic changes but not significantly related to metabolic control.
, Shahram Mohammadpour, Naser Abbasi, Ali Aidy, , Hori Ghaneialvar
Published: 17 September 2021
Archives of Medical Science; https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms/136485

Abstract:
Introduction Alternative medicine is important in cancer treatment. The apoptotic effect of Thymol and extracted Thymol from Thymbra spicata on non-small-cells lung cancer was studied. Material and methods Thymol was evaluated in Thymbra spicata extract by HPCL. Cell viability was assessed by MTT method. DCF and flu3-AM probe was used for ROS and cai2+ analysis, respectively. Western blotting was performed to measure NOX2 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Results Obtained data showed that Thymol was 1.51 mg/g in Thymbra spicata extract. Treatment with Thymol and extracted Thymol from Thymbra spicata resulted in cell death at high concentrations [LC50= 111±4.5 and 119±5.2 μM, respectively]. Subsequently, Thymbra spicata extract and its bioactive component increased ROS and Cai2+ production, NOX2, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Conclusions This study revealed the anticancer effects of Thymol and Thymbra spicata extract on non-small-cells lung cancer and at least part of that effect was related to the increase in the NOX2 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results demonstrated that TSE and Thymol at high concentrations (180, 120, and 80 μM) decreased the growth of A549 cells. It appeared that cytotoxic activity was exerted through activation of NOX2, ROS generation, increase in Cai2+, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Present results demonstrated that TSE and thymol may be potential therapeutic agents for human lung cancer.
Agnieszka Bogusławska-Kapała, Agnieszka Barańska, Katarzyna Brus-Sawczuk, Izabela Strużycka
Published: 17 September 2021
Prosthodontics, Volume 71, pp 289-298; https://doi.org/10.5114/ps/142374

Sahira Aaraj, Sabeen Abid Khan, Naurin Ali, Munir I. Iqbal Malik, Faisal Saud Dar
Published: 3 September 2021
Annals of Transplantation, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.12659/aot.932606

Lucija Pribožič, Mojca Žerjav Tanšek, Primož Herga, Damjan Osredkar, Simona Rajtar Osredkar, Ivan Vidmar, Barbka Repič Lampret, Simona Klemenčič, Nataša Bratina, Tadej Battelino, et al.
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.932864

Jamilya Saparbay, Mels Assykbayev, Saitkarim Abdugafarov
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.933168

Beka Aroshidze, Sos Nalghranyan, Gregory Gotlieb, Burak Erdinc, Alok Aggarwal, Cherif El Younis, Boris Avezbakiyav
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.931877

Andrzej Mazurek, Mirosław Dziuk, Ewa Witkowska-Patena, Agnieszka Gizewska, Stanisław Piszczek
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.933320

Alexandros A. Moniakis, Mathaios E. Flamourakis, Ioannis G. Gkionis, Michail I. Giakoumakis, Eleni S. Tsagkataki, Georgios M. Kazamias, Konstantinos G. Spiridakis, Manousos S. Christodoulakis
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.933341

Stefka Neycheva, Boycho Oparanov, Adriana Kamburova, Rositsa Karalilova, Vera Stoeva
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.933012

Yukihiro Sanada, Yasunaru Sakuma, Yasuharu Onishi, Noriki Okada, Naoya Yamada, Yuta Hirata, Go Miyahara, Takumi Katano, Toshio Horiuchi, Takahiko Omameuda, et al.
Published: 31 August 2021
Annals of Transplantation, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.12659/aot.932994

Beiping Ouyang, Xiaobao Zou, Chunshan Luo, Tingsheng Lu, Hong Xia, Xiangyang Ma
Published: 31 August 2021
Medical Science Monitor, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.12659/msm.932026

Maria Salomé Bezerra Espinola, Antonio Simone Laganà, Gabriele Bilotta, Giuseppe Gullo, Cesare Aragona, Vittorio Unfer
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.932722

Tomoko Tomioka, Shuhei Tanaka, Hiroki Takeuchi, Tomohiro Ito, Yosuke Ikumi, Yoshitaka Ito, Hiroki Shioiri
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.933867

Takumi Fukaya, Hajime Kasai, Toshihiko Sugiura, Jun Nagata, Kenichi Suzuki, Kana Ohashi, Nozomi Tanaka, Mitsuhiro Abe, Masaki Suga, Seiichiro Sakao, et al.
American Journal of Case Reports, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.933187

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