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Published: 28 February 2017
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i2.2284

Abstract:
This article is conducted within the framework of the inter-contextual dialogue between the Western and African notions of practical theology. It sets out to probe the usefulness of the notion of decolonisation in the design of practical theology. The application of this notion in Emmanuel Lartey’s Postcolonializing God – An African practical theology (2013) is investigated. An overview of Lartey’s work is provided with the following question as subtext: Does the resultant African practical theology remain within ‘hearing distance’ from Western notions of practical theology that is traditionally reliant on a Christian epistemology? The finding is that decolonisation is of restricted use in the design of such a practical theology. While it provides insight into an authentic African practical theology, a critical discussion raises concerns regarding inclusivity, the perceived African context, the interrelatedness between culture and faith as well as the theological nature of the proposed African practical theology. The concluding section of the article suggests that inter-contextual dialogue can move forward on the basis of seeking the theological middle ground. In this regard the notion of Esther Acolatse’s pastoral hermeneutic of primal speech is introduced that provides valuable parameters for inter-contextual dialogue. In creating room for intercultural dialogue, it operates from the stance of a perichoretic relationship between theology and culture. The resulting theologies thus retain their trinitarian character. Such an approach promises to keep dialogue partners from different contexts within hearing distance from one another, opening the possibility for symbiotic co-existence.
Stephanie Rossouw
South African Journal of Economic and management Sciences, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v20i1.1766

Abstract:
Background: The authors of this article ‘Measuring the vulnerability of sub-national regions in South Africa’ (Naudé, McGillivray and Rossouw 2009b) present an exploration into economic vulnerability from a sub-national perspective. It is an important contribution because it recognises the heterogeneous nature of vulnerability across areas within a country, but its analysis is aspatial because it does not explicitly account for the relative location of or the potential for spillovers between areas. Aim: This article aims to provide a purely methodological contribution towards the debate surrounding the measurement of multidimensional vulnerability by: (1) augmenting Naudé et al. (2009b)’s model to take account of spatial contiguity, (2) comparing spatial and aspatial local vulnerability indices estimates to illustrate the presence and importance of spatial spillovers between contiguous areas and (3) extending their methodology on the Vulnerability Intervention Index to present results which highlight areas that are performing better and worse than expected. Methods: Principal components analysis, queen-contiguity weight matrix and local indication of spatial association (LISA) maps were utilised. Results: Application of the methodological extensions to South African Magisterial District data illustrates the presence and importance of spatial spillovers in shaping local vulnerability. Conclusions: Our results illustrate a clear urban–rural vulnerability divide and the need for appropriate policy. It is argued that account of spatial spillovers is an important issue if full and accurate vulnerability indices are to be identified.
Kelebogile T. Resane
Published: 8 February 2017
Hts Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i3.4548

Abstract:
Commercialisation, technology, and globalisation impact all facets of religion.Commercialisation of religion contributes towards society’s obsession with success. One areathrough which commercialisation manifests itself is in theological education. This isexacerbated by the celebrity cult whereby the leader’s success is measured by wealthyappearance. The current legal accreditation requirements put pressure on the Neo-PentecostalCharismatic ministerial formation. The online courses come at a high price, as they alsopromote the popular literature that is not scholarly insightful. The Neo-Charismatic leadersundermine the formal theological training, since they claim to be taught by the Holy Spirit.
, Christian M. Boness,
Published: 5 November 2003
SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v15i0.921

Abstract:
Orientation: Chinese organisations have a long tradition of operating in Tanzania, and even today, Tanzania is the gateway for Chinese interests entering sub-Saharan markets. Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore and understand the perceptions of Chinese and Tanzanian employees working in a private Chinese organisation in Tanzania. Motivation for the study: The authors would like to contribute to the discourse on Chinese and Tanzanian collaboration in southern Africa to improve context-based intercultural collaboration from a human resource management perspective. Research design, approach and method: The study used a case study approach within a hermeneutical research paradigm. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observation in a selected private Chinese organisation. Data were analysed by content analysis using Terre Blanche’s five-step model of content analysis. Main findings: The findings show that intercultural collaboration is a challenge for both Chinese and Tanzanian employees. Chinese employees share a mostly positive view of their organisation, while Tanzanians tend to be more critical. Members of both groups, however, feel that intercultural collaboration could improve if members of ‘the other group’ made recommended changes. Despite this, both groups adhere to their perceptions of ‘the other’ and maintain a favourable view of the self. Practical/managerial implications: Chinese organisations need to create opportunities for the improvement of intercultural collaboration by reflecting on the self and ‘the other’ in terms of understanding thought styles, experiences, knowledge, and the impact of cultural values on collaboration behaviour. As such, cultural knowledge-sharing might contribute to a sustainable long-term intercultural collaboration. Contribution: The study contributes to filling the gap of in-depth qualitative research on perceptions of Chinese and Tanzanian intercultural collaboration between employees in the field of human resource management in Africa.
Charles K. Bafinamene
Published: 31 January 2017
VERBUM et Ecclesia, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v38i1.1716

Abstract:
The present article examines the appropriateness of Stanley Hauerwas ecclesial ethic for the sub-Saharan African churches. Thus, it consists in a Christian ethical assessment of the metaethical foundational categories of his ecclesial ethic. In brief, his proposal is eclectic and pluri-disciplinarily applicable to the churches of various denominations. It reflects the marks of the Aristotelian ethical tradition endorsed by Thomas Aquinas and recovered by several communitarian philosophers. It also includes some discernible ecclesio-centric and postliberal theological accents. The promising insights of this proposal include: (1) the necessity to ordain the churchs worship, polity and its entire way of life to the spiritual and moral formation of church members; (2) the stress on Christian virtuous life, identity formation, witness and non-conformism in social ethics. However, essentially designed against the background of a Western, liberal, autonomous and individualist self, Hauerwas ecclesial ethic is not a definitive answer for the holistic, normative and communalist moral self, characteristic of the traditional African ethos and influencing a large majority in Africa. Moreover, it stresses the purity of the church in a way that restricts cooperation between Christians and nonChristians for socio-economic justice and the common good. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, Hauerwas virtue, narrative, community and social ethics provide some valuable insights for moral formation in African churches as it explores the interplay between ecclesiology, Christian ethics, practical theology and philosophical ethics. For sure, other relevant resources should come from African spirituality, developmental psychology and sociology of religion.
Joseph R. Mulvihill
Published: 27 February 2017
In die Skriflig / In Luce Verbi, Volume 51; https://doi.org/10.4102/ids.v51i1.2294

Abstract:
Over the last 30 years, there has been an attempted return to a particular way of framing and interpreting the primary Jesus narratives. This approach contextualises Jesus against the backdrop of the wider religious world. Proponents claim that the primary Jesus data was culled from a wide pagan template or common stock of ubiquitous religio-mythic concepts. I refer to this position as ‘the strong homogeneity thesis’. Though this way of assigning literary causation and activity to the Gospel tradents has been largely rejected by scholarly community, it has been offered recently by some academics. In what follows, I offer a new way of evaluating this thesis that tends to avoid the shortcomings associated with past and present efforts to establish this way of explicating the Jesus tradition.
, Mariana M. Van Der Heever, Anneleen Damons
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v9i1.1350

Abstract:
Background: The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University has a sub-division, a sexual health clinic, which provides sexual health services. The clients of the sexual health clinic consist of staff members and students. Aim: This article reports on the perceptions of clients that relate to awareness and the geographical location of the clinic. Setting: The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University’s main campus.Method: A descriptive qualitative approach was applied utilising in-depth interviews. A sample of n = 15 was drawn through purposive sampling and data saturation was achieved with the sample. Results: The following themes emerged from the data: location of the clinic, awareness of sexual health services and marketing and advertising. Conclusion: The findings of the study revealed that accessibility of the clinic is influenced by the geographical location of the clinic and that marketing and awareness of services require attention.
L.M. Magda Hewitt, Faul La Grange
Published: 5 November 2003
SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v15i0.879

Abstract:
Orientation: The South African retirement fund industry ranks among the 15 largest retirement fund industries internationally, with some 8 million members and assets under management of close to R2 trillion. However, to be successful, retirement funds need good governance. Research purpose: To explore the most critical servant leadership qualities required that can serve as profile in the selection, appointment and training of retirement fund trustees (RFTs) to serve on boards of trustees of retirement funds in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The South African National Treasury’s retirement reform proposal clearly articulates government’s concern for the poor governance of retirement fund assets by appointed boards of trustees and the broader implications on social and economic security in retirement. It promotes the regulation of standards relating to the minimum qualifications and expertise needed to be appointed to serve on a board of trustees (BoTs). Although the measures proposed by government to improve fund governance and the role of the RFTs are sound in principle, it does not inform the character, leadership qualities or leadership competence desired for RFTs, thus leaving the management of funds in the hands of people who must make investment decisions when they themselves are not fully committed. Research design, approach and method: The research question was addressed through an extensive literature review and a qualitative methodology using a semi-structured interview; fieldwork that included personal observations; and notes with six active, high-profile, respected, purposefully selected RFTs. An interpretive approach was adopted to provide elaborative interpretations of phenomena without having to rely on numerical measurement. Main findings: A strong similitude exists between servant leader qualities, as found in the literature, and those qualities identified and required to be appointed as a RFT. Literature findings support that limitations impacting on good retirement fund governance are (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of experience, (3) independence and (4) lack of capacity of RFTs. Legislative and regulatory framework changed in recent years, resulting in an increased complexity in managing the affairs of retirement funds. A great need for qualified and skilled RFTs was expressed. Practical and managerial implications: Servant leadership qualities proved useful to profile and aid the selection, appointment and training of RFTs in a meaningful way, thereby benefiting the broader South African retirement fund industry and social welfare of all South Africans. The importance of the role human resources practitioners can play to aid their employees to correctly select and appoint a RFT cannot be emphasised enough. Contribution: The many practical contributions of the study were evident from the real and tangible outcomes of using a servant leader’s profile to select, appoint and train prospective RFTs to serve on the BoTs of pension funds, to ensure that social justice is upheld for those members of society who cannot protect themselves.
Kelebogile D. Magano, Adèle Thomas
Published: 5 November 2003
SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v15i0.920

Abstract:
Orientation: Over a period of 6 years, a South African pharmaceutical company had been involved in several mergers and acquisitions. These changes had proved difficult for staff and staff attrition had risen. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract. The sub-objectives were to determine what organisational factors contribute to changes in the psychological contract during periods of change, and the implications of the breach of the psychological contract for the company and its employees. Motivation for the study: As the company was set to embark on further mergers and acquisitions, the opinions of senior managers about how such changes should be addressed are important for the company. Research design, approach and method: A case study approach was used in this qualitative study. The population comprised 60 senior managers of whom 12 were purposefully selected for inclusion in the study. A semistructured interview schedule was used to capture the views of these managers and themes were extracted by means of content analysis. Main findings: Seven themes emerged which encapsulated the perceptions of senior managers about the impact of change on the psychological contract during periods of mergers and acquisitions – lack of communication, an absence of planning, lack of employee engagement, less than optimal human resources involvement, lack of preparation of the organisational culture and poor change management processes. These factors need to be addressed to strengthen the psychological contract of employees during periods of change. Practical/managerial implications: The study highlighted areas that leaders and managers of the company should consider when embarking on mergers and acquisitions if the psychological contract of employees is not to be negatively impacted. Contribution: While caution must be exercised in the generalisation of the findings, companies in the same industry or those in other industries could use the findings as points of departure for considering the elements that should be addressed in change initiatives.
Jade C. Mogambery, , Douglas Wilson,
Published: 31 January 2017
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v18i1.732

Abstract:
Introduction: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a consequence of HIV infection of the central nervous system. The prevalence ranges between 15% and 60% in different settings.Objectives: This prospective study determined the prevalence of HAND at a peri-urban HIV clinic in KwaZulu-Natal. Factors associated with HAND were examined, alternate neurocognitive tools were tested against the international HIV dementia scale (IHDS) score and an association between HAND and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) was explored. Methods: Between May 2014 and May 2015, 146 ART-naïve outpatients were assessed for HAND. IHDS score ≤ 10 established a diagnosis of HAND. Functional capacity was assessed using Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score. Chi-squared test was used to identify risk factors for HAND. The get-up-and-go test (GUGT) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale – revised (CESD-r) were tested against the IHDS. HIV viral load done six months after initiating ART was used as a surrogate marker for adherence to ART. Results: The prevalence of HAND was 53%. In total, 99.9% of patients with HAND had no functional impairment. Age > 50 years old was associated with HAND (p = 0.003). There was no correlation between the GUGT, CESD-r and the IHDS score. HAND was not associated with non-adherence (p = 0.06). Conclusions: While the prevalence of HAND is high, it is not associated with functional impairment which suggests that asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment is prevalent. Age > 50 years old is a risk factor for HAND. The GUGT and CESD-r are not useful diagnostic tools for HAND. The relationship between HAND and non-adherence should be further explored.
, Edgar H. Dekker, Charles Byaruhanga, Tommy Reardon,
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 84; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1414

Abstract:
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive, endospore-forming and soil-borne bacterium Bacillus anthracis. When in spore form, the organism can survive in dormancy in the environment for decades. It is a controlled disease of livestock and wild ungulates in South Africa. In South Africa, the two enzootic regions are the Kruger National Park and the Ghaap Plateau in the Northern Cape province. Farms on the Plateau span thousands of hectares comprising of wildlife – livestock mixed use farming. In 2007–2008, anthrax outbreaks in the province led to government officials intervening to aid farmers with control measures aimed at preventing further losses. Because of the ability of the organism to persist in the environment for prolonged periods, an environmental risk or isolation survey was carried out in 2012 to determine the efficacy of control measures employed during the 2007–2008, anthrax outbreaks. No B. anthracis could be isolated from the old carcass sites, even when bone fragments from the carcasses were still clearly evident. This is an indication that the control measures and protocols were apparently successful in stemming the continuity of spore deposits at previously positive carcass sites.
ONDERSTEPOORT Journal of Veterinary Research, Volume 84; https://doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v84i1.1425

Abstract:
One hundred milk samples were collected from camel’s milk for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty-one isolates were S. aureus, 45 were other forms of staphylococci and 24 represented other bacteria. Five isolates from S. aureus were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 26 samples were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The whole genome sequence of S. aureus was annotated and visualised by rapid annotation using subsystem technology (RAST) which is a fully-automated service for annotating complete or nearly complete bacterial genomes. Four isolates from MSSA strains were subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Three multilocus sequences types or sequence types (MLST/ST) were found, namely ST15, ST1153 and ST130. The phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the seven genes forming the MLST profile of S. aureus classification revealed a high degree of similarity and close relationship between the ST15 and ST1153 while the third ST (ST130) was located in a different cluster.
, Joy A.C. Geerdes, Oluyemisi A. Akerele, Bjorn Reininghaus, ,
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Volume 88; https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v88i0.1529

Abstract:
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0–3 months excluded) among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% – 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah). For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16) to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.
Juliet I. Puchert, Nicole Dodd, Kim L. Viljoen
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1416

Abstract:
Orientation: Details of applicants’ secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be a useful screening tool when processing large applicant pools. Here, the relationships between secondary education (incorporating subject choice) and the reasoning and visual perceptual speed components of the Differential Aptitude Test are explored. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be used as a substitute for reasoning (verbal and non-verbal) and/or visual perceptual speed aptitudes in the selection of operators for an automotive plant in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as the selection needs of the automotive industry. Research design, approach and method: This research adopted a quantitative approach. It involved a non-probability convenience quota sample of 2463 work-seeking applicants for an automotive operator position in South Africa. Participants completed a biographical questionnaire and three subtests from the Differential Aptitude Test battery. The Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) and selected cognitive aptitudes. Main findings: The study’s findings revealed statistically and practically significant relationships between type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice), verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning and visual perceptual speed. Broad performance levels in the three aptitude subtests employed in this study were significantly associated with the type of matriculation certificate held by applicants. The findings specifically indicated that the secondary education types that included the subjects mathematics or both mathematics and science were associated with higher levels of performance in the three aptitudes. This had consequences for these applicants’ success in the screening process which could lead to enhanced chances of employability. Practical and managerial implications: Applicants’ type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be regarded as a key criterion in human resource selection and be instructive in the screening process. This could reduce the candidate pool prior to more costly psychometric assessments. Contribution or value-add: The findings are specifically relevant to the South African automotive industry in terms of their human resource selection practices. The insights gained from the findings may also be used as a guide to human resource practitioners in the selection of similar level employees in other working contexts. The study makes a case for a multiple-hurdle approach to selection.
Published: 31 January 2017
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v18i1.712

Abstract:
Background: Approximately 3 million adolescents and young adults (AYA), between the ages of 15 years and 24 years, are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be a promising HIV prevention tool to bridge the high-risk years of AYA between sexual debut and adulthood. Objectives: Concerns have been raised that the use of PrEP could lead to an increase in sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in general and less condom use in particular among adolescents. Methods: This study assesses condom use among South African adolescents enrolled on a demonstration PrEP study, called Pluspills, being conducted in Cape Town and Soweto. A questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour was administered at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Three different questions on condom use were asked at each visit. Unless all answers indicated condom use at all times, a participant was scored ‘at risk’. McNemar’s tests and a Cochran’s Q test were used to investigate changes in condom use over time. Results: We interviewed 148 adolescents (66% female) at baseline. Eighty-nine participants completed all visits. In this group, an increase in condom use was observed over the period of 12 weeks. Most participants who reported behavioural changes mentioned an increase in condom use. Conclusion: There was no sign of sexual risk compensation in the 12 weeks of the study. Observed increase in condom use can be explained by an increased awareness of personal HIV risk or by social desirability or recall biases. In future research, additional data including other biomarkers of unprotected sex and longer follow-up time would be useful to help understand the relationship between PrEP use, sexual risk perception and consequent behaviours, especially in adolescents.
Published: 5 December 2012
South African Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7196/sajp.362

Abstract:
Background. Socio-environmental factors are associated with an increased incidence of psychosis and may affect the pathway to care in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Objective. To determine the relationship between individual- and neighbourhood-level socio-environmental factors (household income and rated measures of neighbourhood social capital) and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in South Africa. Methods. We obtained data regarding sociodemographics, evolution of symptoms and pathway to care from interviews with 54 consecutively admitted FEP patients at Town Hill Hospital. Caregivers and clinical notes were also consulted. A population-based survey of social capital was conducted in the residential neighbourhood of each patient at onset. Cox regression analyses were used to test whether socioeconomic factors and overall neighbourhood social capital scores and sub-scores were associated with DUP. Results. After controlling for age at onset, gender and income, a shorter DUP was independently associated with police involvement in pathways to care, while non-black ethnicity and greater levels of total social capital were associated with a longer DUP. Community participation, neighbourhood connectedness, and trust and safety were specifically associated with a longer DUP. Conclusions. Individual factors including greater age at onset and police involvement in the care pathway were significantly associated with shorter DUP in this middle-income setting. Paradoxically, aspects of social capital pertaining to greater community involvement were associated with delays in pathways to appropriate care. It is possible that community members opted to care for individuals with early psychosis longer before sending them to formal health services. This is especially likely in contexts where mental health services are scarce and inaccessible, which has important implications for mental health education campaigns.
Robert Dibie, Josephine Dibie
Africa’s Public Service Delivery and Performance Review, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4102/apsdpr.v5i1.167

Abstract:
This article examines the nature of the paralysis of public governance, leadership, conflict and economic development in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that ineffective political leadership and conflict will serve as a lever to poor economic growth and social development. Servant leadership and democratic representation are the continuous process of development that could be accomplished through the participation of the citizens in their own development. The dynamics of development and participation at both national and grassroots levels must involve the exposure of government change agents to peace, participatory learning and action models. The article uses data derived from primary and secondary sources to analyse the problem of political conflict, peace, leadership and economic growth. The conceptual framework is based on the structural conflict theory, negative and positive peace theories, frustration-aggression theory, physiological theories, human needs theory and economic theories. The findings show that there is a negative correlation between authoritarian political leadership and economic growth in Africa. In addition, there is a positive relationship between authoritarian political leadership and conflict in several countries in Africa. The article recommends internal and external mediation and peace education mechanisms to prevent conflict from escalating or degenerating into avoidable crises. Thus, government, private sector and nongovernmental organisations should collaborate to restore justice and equality by liberating citizens from cultural, and ethnic elements that subjugate them. The nations in sub-Saharan Africa need to establish capacity-building initiatives that could help to nurture changes in behaviour, attitudes, peace and humanist paradigm, as well as offer not only the basis for self-reliance, participatory sustainable development, but also a means to peaceful shared governance and inclusive democracy.
Douglas N. Raza, Peter J. Kilbourn
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v11i0.304

Abstract:
Background: In modern days’ dynamic consumer markets, supply chains need to be value driven and consumer oriented. Demand planning allows supply chain members to focus on the consumer and create optimal value. In demand planning, Point-of-Sale (POS) data are an essential input to the process thereof; however, literature suggests that POS-based demand planning is often overlooked by demand planners in practice.Objective: The main purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which South African clothing retailers use POS data in demand planning.Method: This study followed the grounded theory approach based on the collection of qualitative data. The data collected was analysed following the grounded theory analysis using codes that resulted in various categories which then developed into themes.Findings: Findings suggest that companies within the clothing retail industry make considerable use of POS data and is a fundamental input factor in the demand planning process. However, this study also found that POS data cannot be applied in the planning for all types of clothing products, and that there are variables other than POS data that form a critical part of the demand planning process.Conclusion: POS data plays a fundamental role is the demand planning process and should be accurately collected and used with other qualitative and quantitative factors as an input factor to the demand planning process. The role of POS data in demand planning is expected to grow as customers are becoming increasingly demanding concerning customer service levels.
, , Justin Mackenzie, Jacques Lombaard
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4102/jtscm.v11i0.323

Abstract:
Background: Reverse logistics (RL) practices have previously been viewed as a cost drain, but have received greater attention from practitioners because of increasing competition and dwindling margins. Purpose: The purpose of this generic qualitative study was to uncover the main internal and external drivers and barriers of RL within major South African grocery retailers. Method: Eleven face-to-face, semi-structured interviews and one telephonic interview were conducted with participants from four large grocery retailers. Findings: Optimising profitability and cost reduction goals are the identified internal drivers, whereas the main external driver was to reduce the organisations’ environmental impact. A lack of information systems – such as enterprise resource planning systems or warehouse management system software – and infrastructure were revealed as the main internal barriers for organisations’ RL practices, whereas supplier non-compliance and transportation inefficiencies were the main external barriers exposed. Managerial implications: In order to optimise the efficiency of the reverse flow, managers are recommended to devote more capital to RL infrastructure, develop policies to manage supplier behaviour, focus on RL as a revenue generating stream as well as implement information systems to manage the entire reverse flow. Conclusion: All participating grocery retailers follow similar RL processes. Growth in RL practices as well as infrastructure to perform those practices is a future priority for all the reviewed grocery retailers. RL is no longer only a key cost driver, but also provides organisations with many additional opportunities.
Published: 5 November 2003
SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v15i0.797

Abstract:
Orientation: A growing movement of foreign nationals is settling in South Africa. Given this, there is a need to understand not only those factors influencing foreign nationals to settle in South Africa but also their lived experiences as a basis for individual career development. Research purpose: To investigate the expatriation motivational factors and experiences of selfinitiated academic expatriates in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Calls have been made within the careers literature for more empirical focus on understanding career development using some of the neglected sample groups. Research approach, design and method: The interpretive paradigm was adopted to understand the main purpose of the study. Guided by study objectives, unstructured interviews were conducted using a sample of foreign academics working in South Africa (n = 25). Main findings: Individual stories and narratives highlighted that academics relocated for the following reasons: (1) individual preference, (2) economic meltdown and (3) political conditions. Furthermore, the lived experiences of the expatriates reflected discrimination within the workplace and the community of residences in South Africa. Practical and managerial implications: Research findings indicate that the human resources (HR) function can come up with interventions that positively influence the lived experience and career development of foreign academics working in South Africa. Contribution: The expatriate experience framed in this study provides a picture of the career development processes of neglected sample groups in the extant literature. Such an understanding is key in advancing literature and proposing interventions. All this is important given the global trend on labour and skills movement added to the role South Africa plays in the international arena.
Jele S. Manganyi,
Published: 8 February 2017
Hts Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i3.4372

Abstract:
This article is about the juxtaposition of the notion of perichoresis in the work and theology of the Cappadocian Fathers and the notion of Ubuntu in the African Traditional Religion (ATR). Perichoresis was a result of an attempt to understand and to resolve the relationships within the Trinity. The issue at hand was how to make sense between the one and the many at the same time. The Cappadocian Fathers understood the oneness of God as unity in plurality, not a singularity. One Ousia and three hypostases were based on the understanding of the relationships within the trinity. The question of three yet one God (the church in Jerusalem continued worship of God the Father and Jesus Christ in the Power of the Holy Spirit), the apostles according to the information we have never question nor try to resolve the position and status of Jesus within the oneness. It appears as though they celebrated the tension rather than resolving it. They heard from Jesus, who said to them ‘you believe in God believe also in me’ and ‘if you had known me, you would have known my Father also. From now on you do know him and have seen him … whoever has seen me has seen the Father’. They also heard him when he said ‘I am in the Father and the Father is in me’. The article is going to investigate and analyse the two notions, Perichoresis and Ubuntu, within the African Christian context. Yet there is a tension between Jesus and the ancestors. Can this tension be resolved? The notion of Ubuntu is based upon the understanding that a person becomes fully a person in the presence of other persons. It is a notion that deals with the relationships from an individual to the community and from physical to spiritual perspectives. The article shall also attempt to analyse any categories of thinking that are within the ATR that may better explain the relationship within the Trinity.
Published: 28 February 2017
Hts Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i1.4621

Abstract:
The research addressed the issue of symbolic walls that divide, segregate, preserve and institutionalise. The way in which institutions and especially the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria facilitated symbolic ‘walls’ was discussed in the overview of the Department of Science of Religion and Missiology in the first century of the Faculty of Theology. The concepts of ‘gatekeepers’ and ‘traders’ were then applied because walls, paradoxically, need gates to facilitate control, movement and, eventually, life. Gatekeepers were described as the guardians of the status quo, and traders as agents who, in one way or another, facilitate movement, trade, flow and life in the midst of the shadows of walls. Missionaries are, by the very nature of the missionary enterprise, more traders than gatekeepers. Here, the work of Bosch – specifically his ground-breaking work on mission as contextualisation – provides an explanation of the art of mission as breaking down walls, opening gates and empowering traders. That is precisely why Missiology is particularly well suited to assist the church and theology in the art of breaking down walls. The theological imperative of contextualisation means that the life of the church, theology, and thus theological training, cannot do without Missiology. The concept of ‘deep contextualisation’ was discussed as a particularly relevant approach to include a post-anthropomorphic discourse in Missiology. It can assist with the reorientation of the history of mission on the whole of history and, thus, also deep history. The concept also provides a way to address the discourses on colonialisation and includes a reorientation on the future and embracing hope.
Dieter H. Reinstorf
Published: 28 February 2017
Hts Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i1.4708

Abstract:
From personal experience, this article shares to what degree the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria was and continues to be a gateway to the future, challenging among others the divisions that characterise the Church of Christ worldwide. The article argues that for the 16th-century Reformers the unity of the church was a given and that the (Lutheran) confessions were written to establish such a unity through agreement in confession and joint rejection of false doctrines. However, such statements of faith did not overcome the divisions, but institutionalised them, leading to a divided Church of Christ. Political intervention to work unity between Lutherans and Reformers deepened divisions more than ever, leading among others to a break of fellowship at the Lord’s Supper. Applying Luther’s hermeneutical principle of was Christum treibet (what drives Christ), the author seeks to rediscover a way of interpreting Scripture by focusing not on literal differences, but on that which is foundational to Scripture, namely the Christ event. This is applied in particular to the topic of table fellowship and divisions in Corinth with regard to the Lord’s Supper, addressed in 1 Corinthians 11, culminating in a critical deconstruction of past practices in confessional Lutheran churches. In view of doctrinal differences, a hermeneutics of conversation is proposed that can vigorously debate differences of understanding, without threatening the unity that is worked by Christ himself.
Published: 29 August 2017
African Journal of Disability, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v6i0.298

Abstract:
Background: The marginalisation of youth with disabilities from employment opportunities is evident from literature in as far as they form part of the larger groups ‘people with disabilities’ and ‘youth’. A focused view of programmes that assist youth with disabilities into employment has not been presented, despite the worldwide crisis of youth unemployment.Aim: This review aimed to identify evidence on work transition programmes that are effective in assisting people with disabilities into open labour market (competitive) employment, as well as to highlight gaps in knowledge to inform future research on this topic.Methods: Literature and policy on programmes that support such transitions were considered, firstly from a global perspective and then with a view from developing countries. The SALSA (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) framework was used to source and analyse information from a diverse set of documents. Various online databases were searched for research papers published between 1990 and 2016, and websites were searched for reports pertaining to this topic.Results: Ninety-nine documents were selected to inform the review, out of an identified 259 scientific journal articles, policy documents, acts, organisational reports and book chapters.Conclusion: A synthesis of findings was presented in a narrative that reflects the themes of youth with disabilities and employment in the world, work transition endeavours in the developing world and a specific focus on this group in South Africa. The review revealed a gap in knowledge and evidence pertaining to youth with disabilities and employment, highlighting these as research foci, and emphasising the need for youth-focused research that generates knowledge about disability and transitions into the labour force.
Sanchen Henning, Kabira Akoob
The Southern African Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajesbm.v9i1.91

Abstract:
Background: Informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of North-West strive to progress from poverty to prosperity. There is a growing appreciation that the conditions that support women’s ability to start and grow ventures may be different from those that help men and therefore there is a need to examine the motivational factors affecting women’s enterprise development. Aim: The study aimed to identify the motivational factors of women in the Mahikeng area to start informal enterprises, the barriers they experience and their developmental business needs. Setting: The study focussed on informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of Mahikeng in the North-West province. Methods: In total, 80 face-to-face questionnaires were completed with women entrepreneurs. A principal component analysis of 15 items of the total questionnaire was performed on the data to determine which items could be reduced and transformed into new components. Results: ‘Destitute conditions’, ‘Entrepreneurial Spirit’ and ‘Passion for Product’ emerged as the three underlying motivational factors. The component ‘Destitute conditions’ was ranked as the most important reason for starting an informal business. The need to transcend impoverished conditions (a push factor) and the need for self-determination (a pull factor) were almost equally strong amongst the 80 participants. ‘Lack of financial and business skills’ was ranked as the biggest obstacle to keeping the business running. Ninety-one per cent of the women entrepreneurs reported that they had never received any training from the government or the private sector. Conclusions: Access to basic infrastructure, training, funding and business networks will enable self-efficacy behaviour of women entrepreneurs in the Mahikeng district to move beyond poverty. Recommendations included the establishment of a regional database of informal women entrepreneurs, the improvement of basic facilities and infrastructure and access to microloans as well as training by the formal sector.
Desmond Henry, Jacques Malan
Published: 31 January 2017
VERBUM et Ecclesia, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v38i1.1742

Abstract:
Most articles evaluating the African traditional worldview focus an attack on the ancestor cult or highlight positive aspects of the worldview. In either case, mention of the this-worldly religious focus tends to be in passing. An evaluation of this aspect of the worldview is a gap in the research, which this article seeks to address. The findings should significantly affect evangelical ministry method to many people in the country. The this-worldly religious focus of the African traditional worldview as found in South Africa is considered. It is a focus which hardly, if ever, looks beyond this world and this age. The this-worldly focus is a significant feature of the African traditional worldview and related African Traditional Religion (ATR). The concern raised is that this feature of the worldview is prevalent in the country, is unbiblical and is a major problem affecting the church. The article first describes the this-worldly religious focus and how it is expressed in ATR and in those strongly influenced by ATR. It then discusses its prevalence in South Africa. A biblical evaluation is then done, considering what the Bible has to say on the matter and considering the views of some evangelicals. Finally, some proposals are made for responding to the challenge. There are significant steps that can be taken to counteract the problem and so design evangelism and discipleship that the African believers are moved to resist rather than follow the this-worldly religious focus and so more faithfully follow the way of our Lord. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Most articles evaluating the African traditional worldview focus an attack on the ancestor cult or highlight positive aspects of the worldview. In either case, mention of the this-worldly religious focus tend to be in passing across the research spectrum. An evaluation of this aspect of the worldview is a gap in the research across many disciplines, which this article seeks to address. The findings should significantly affect evangelical ministry method to many people in the country working within these communities. This approach considers anthropological and Biblical insights in a compelling manner.
, Shepherd Shamu, Moses J. Chimbari,
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v9i1.1317

Abstract:
Background: Malaria is a serious public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality.Aim: To estimate the economic burden of malaria in rural households.Setting: The study was conducted in Gwanda district of Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe. A total of five malarious wards and all their households were selected for the study frame, out of which 80 households were chosen using clinic records.Methods: A retrospective analysis of secondary data and a cross-sectional household survey were conducted to estimate the household economic burden of malaria. Eighty households from five rural wards were identified from the health facility malaria registers and followed up. A household was eligible for inclusion if there had been at least one reported malaria case during the period of 2013−2015. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect household data on economic costs of malaria.Results: Our findings showed that households spent an average of $3.22 and $56.60 for managing an uncomplicated and a complicated malaria episode respectively. A household lost an average of eight productive working days per each malaria episode resulting in an average loss of 24% of the monthly household income. An estimated 35%, mostly poorer households suffered catastrophic health expenditures.Conclusion: Malaria imposes significant economic burdens particularly on the poorer and vulnerable households. Although there are no user fees at rural clinics, households incur other costs to manage a malaria patient. These costs are far worse for complicated cases.
, Cornelis H. Van Schalkwyk,
South African Journal of Economic and management Sciences, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v20i1.1695

Abstract:
Background: Inadequate retirement savings is an international challenge. Additionally, individuals are not cognisant of how asset allocation choices ultimately impact retirement savings. Life cycle and balanced funds are popular asset allocation strategies to save towards retirement. However, recent research is questioning the efficacy of life cycle funds that switch to lower risk asset classes as retirement approaches. Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of life cycle funds with balanced funds to determine whether either dominates the other. The study compares balanced and life cycle funds with similar starting asset allocations as well as those where the starting asset allocations differ. Setting: The study has a South African focus and constructs funds using historical data for the main local asset classes; that is, equity, fixed income and cash, as well as a proxy for foreign equity covering the period 1986–2013. Method: The study makes use of Monte Carlo simulations and bootstrap with replacement, and compares the simulated outcomes using stochastic dominance as decision-making criteria. Results: The results indicate that life cycle funds fail to dominate balanced funds by first-order or almost stochastic dominance when funds have a similar starting asset allocation. It is noteworthy that there are instances where the opposite is true, that is, balanced funds dominate life cycle funds. These results highlight that while the life cycle funds provide more downside protection, they significantly suppress the upside potential compared to balanced funds. When the starting asset allocations of the balanced and life cycle funds differ, the stochastic dominance results are inconsistent as to the efficacy of the life cycle fund strategies considered. Conclusion: The study shows that whether one fund is likely to dominate the other is strongly dependent on the underlying asset allocation strategies of the funds. Additionally, the length of the glide path and the risk and return characteristics of the investable universe are also likely to influence the findings.
Lucy Robinson, Boitumelo Diale
South African Journal of Childhood Education, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v7i1.500

Abstract:
Background: The shift in recent years towards the lifespan concept of career development, which views career behaviour as occurring in stages beginning in childhood and continuing throughout life, has meant that it has become increasingly important to assist learners in fulfilling their career goals. There is, however, a scarcity of research on the career aspirations of primary school learners, especially those from low socio-economic backgrounds.Aim: This article describes research conducted on the career aspirations of Grade 7 learners at a community school.Setting: The study is set within an interpretivist paradigm and utilises a generic qualitative research design.Methods: The study involved a purposefully selected group of Grade 7 learners from a local community school. As part of the study, each learner completed a collage and sociogram, and took part in a group interview.Results: Themes that emerged from the data analysis were: career aspirations that seek to fulfil hopes and dreams, the role of the family in shaping career aspirations and counting the ‘cost’ of career aspirations.Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that there is a need to explore learners’ career aspirations from an early age in order to expose them to various career choices in the constantly changing world of work.
Gideon J. Kühn
Published: 8 February 2017
Hts Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i3.4663

Abstract:
The essence of number was regarded by the ancient Greeks as the root cause of the existence of the universe, but it was only towards the end of the 19th century that mathematicians initiated an in-depth study of the nature of numbers. The resulting unavoidable actuality of infinities in the number system led mathematicians to rigorously investigate the foundations of mathematics. The formalist approach to establish mathematical proof was found to be inconclusive: Gödel showed that there existed true propositions that could not be proved to be true within the natural number universe. This result weighed heavily on proposals in the mid-20th century for digital models of the universe, inspired by the emergence of the programmable digital computer, giving rise to the branch of philosophy recognised as digital philosophy. In this article, the models of the universe presented by physicists, mathematicians and theoretical computer scientists are reviewed and their relation to the natural numbers is investigated. A quantum theory view that at the deepest level time and space may be discrete suggests a profound relation between natural numbers and reality of the cosmos. The conclusion is that our perception of reality may ultimately be traced to the ontology and epistemology of the natural numbers.
Jan Albert Van Den Berg
Hts Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i4.4626

Abstract:
Social media makes an important contribution to a rapidly changing world in which various domains of meaning are described anew. The evolving nature and dynamic character of social media therefore provides for a rich praxis terrain with which to interact from a practical theological orientation. More specifically associated with the theme of this contribution, the social media sphere also provides an excellent space not only to rethink but also to reenact expressions of dignity in society. The research is facilitated from a practical theological orientation, with particular focus on a normative dimension as embodied in aspects of dignity. Through the use of an interdisciplinary approach and methodology, some contours of dignity specifically associated with South African politics as well as the so-called Charlie Hebdo attacks in 2015 in Paris expressed on the social media platform, Twitter, are described and discussed. From this empirical analysis, description and discussion, a practical theological reflection is offered in which aspects of dignity associated with a normativity function are described. Some practical theological perspectives contributing to future relevant tweeting on dignity are also formulated and provided in conclusion.
Published: 27 January 2017
Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v9i1.411

Abstract:
This article aims to examine the impact of climate change on food security in South Africa. For this purpose, the article adopted a desktop study approach. Previous studies, reports, surveys and policies on climate change and food (in)security. From this paper’s analysis, climate change presents a high risk to food security in sub-Saharan countries from crop production to food distribution and consumption. In light of this, it is found that climate change, particularly global warming, affects food security through food availability, accessibility, utilisation and affordability. To mitigate these risks, there is a need for an integrated policy approach to protect the arable land against global warming. The argument advanced in this article is that South Africa’s ability to adapt and protect its food items depends on the understanding of risks and the vulnerability of various food items to climate change. However, this poses a challenge in developing countries, including South Africa, because such countries have weak institutions and limited access to technology. Another concern is a wide gap between the cost of adapting and the necessary financial support from the government. There is also a need to invest in technologies that will resist risks on food systems.
Paul Poisat, Michelle R. Mey
Published: 5 November 2003
SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v15i0.858

Abstract:
Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM) by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR) as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain). In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.
Anthony Solomon,
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1436

Abstract:
Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates. Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles. Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships. Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium effect. Practical/managerial implications: The findings can be used by organisations to guide the selection of leaders and to focus initiatives for their development. Contribution and value-add: The study adds to the cultural intelligence and leadership literature by offering empirical evidence of the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive leadership styles.
Laurence Wright
Published: 19 January 2017
Journal: Literator
Abstract:
This article investigates the origins and early history of the device known as the ‘Greathead Shield’, an important innovation in Victorian engineering crucial to constructing the London Underground. The aim is to explore the basis on which, many years later, a South African engineer, James Henry Greathead, was accorded prominent public acknowledgment, in the form of a statue, for ‘inventing’ the Shield. From a cultural studies perspective, how is the meaning of ‘invention’ to be understood, given that several other brilliant engineers were involved? The question is adjudicated using the notion of cultural ‘extelligence’, seen in relation to several contemporary and historical accounts, including Greathead’s own record of his achievements in the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and presented in The City and South London Railway (1896), edited by James Forrest. The paper was first delivered at the conference on ‘Novelty and Innovation in the Nineteenth Century’ held at the North-West University in May 2016.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, Volume 88; https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v88i0.1520

Abstract:
Impalas (Aepyceros melampus) are increasingly valuable in the South African wildlife industry, and there is a greater need to chemically immobilise them, ideally with minimal risk. This study aimed to compare the times to recumbency and physiological effects of thiafentanilmedetomidine versus etorphine-medetomidine immobilisation. A combination of thiafentanil (2 mg) + medetomidine (2.2 mg) and etorphine (2 mg) + medetomidine (2.2 mg) was administered (to nine impalas; crossover design) via a dart. After darting, a stopwatch was started to record times to recumbency (time from darting until recumbent without attempts to stand). If apnoea was present, the impalas received one or more boluses of butorphanol (1:1 potent opioid dose). Data collection included arterial blood gas analysis and the number of butorphanol boluses. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare differences between combinations. The time to recumbency for thiafentanil-medetomidine was 12.2 (± 6.8) min and no different from 14.5 (± 5.2) min for etorphine-medetomidine (p = 0.426). The thiafentanilmedetomidine combination required more butorphanol boluses (median: 2; interquartile range: 2–3) compared to etorphine-medetomidine (median: 0; interquartile range: 0–1) (p = 0.001). Despite butorphanol treatment and resolution of apnoea, all impalas suffered hypoxaemia (PaO2 ± 44.0 mmHg). Thiafentanil-medetomidine did not immobilise impalas more rapidly than etorphine-medetomidine, and resulted in more apnoea that required rescue butorphanol boluses. Marked hypoxaemia resulted from both combinations, mainly because of right-to-left intrapulmonary shunting and not because of hypoventilation. Butorphanol and oxygen supplementation should be considered as essential rescue interventions for all impalas immobilised with these potent opioid combinations.
Patrick N. Ntontolo, , , Jean-Pierre L. Fina, Léon N.M. Kintaudi
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v9i1.1385

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide increasing health problem of which type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent. Previously considered as a problem of industrialised countries, diabetes is currently a huge concern in developing countries and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is one of the sub-Saharan countries with a high prevalence rate of diabetes. Deficit of knowledge has already been shown to be one of the barriers preventing diabetic patients from controlling their disease. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge of type 2 diabetic patients seen at the Institut Médical Evangélique (IME) Kimpese Hospital diabetic clinic, DRC, and the factors associated with their knowledge. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 184 respondents was conducted at the diabetic clinic of the IME Kimpese Hospital, DRC. We administered a pre-tested questionnaire. Out of a total of 10, scores of < 5, 5 to < 7, and ≥ 7 were classified as ‘poor knowledge’, ‘moderate knowledge’ and ‘good knowledge’, respectively, according to expert consensus. All statistical tests were performed using p < 0.05 as the level of statistical significance. Results: The mean age of respondents was 57.5 years (s.d. ± 1.4, ranging from 40 to 83 years), with 56% being male. The mean diabetes knowledge score was poor: 3.2 out of a total of 10 (s.d. ± 1.7), with the range between 0.2 and 7.7. The majority of respondents (72.3%) had poor general knowledge about diabetes mellitus. Respondents also scored poorly in areas of the causes (35.6%), risk factors (39.3%), clinical features (34.9%), complications (20.5%) and management (42.4%) of diabetes mellitus. Using the student t-test analysis, it was found that age (p = 0.001), gender (p = 0.002), educational level (p = 0.007) and duration of disease (p = 0.032) were significantly associated with poor knowledge of diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among type 2 diabetic patients seen at our setting was poor. Areas of deficiency and factors associated with knowledge of diabetes were identified. Our findings suggest the need for a health education intervention programme for our diabetic patients.
, Ankie Van der Broek, Christel Jansen, Hilde De Bruijn, Constance Schultsz
Published: 24 February 2017
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v6i1.578

Abstract:
Background: The 2008 Maputo Declaration calls for the development of dedicated national laboratory policies and strategic plans supporting the enhancement of laboratory services in response to the long-lasting relegation of medical laboratory systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: This study describes the extent to which laboratories are addressed in the national health policies and plans created directly following the 2008 momentum for laboratory strengthening. Method: National health policies and plans from 39 sub-Saharan African countries, valid throughout and beyond 31 December 2010 were collected in March 2012 and analysed during 2013. Results: Laboratories were addressed by all countries. Human resources were the most addressed topic (38/39) and finances and budget were the least addressed (< 5/39). Countries lagging behind in national laboratory strategic planning at the end of 2013 (17/39) were more likely to be francophone countries located in West-Central Africa (13/17) and have historically low HIV prevalence. The most common gaps anticipated to compromise the implementation of the policies and plans were the disconnect between policies and plans, under-developed finance sections and monitoring and evaluating frameworks, absence of points of reference to define gaps and shortages, and inappropriate governance structure. Conclusion: The availability of laboratory policy and plan implementation can be improved by strictly applying a more standardised methodology for policy development, using harmonised norms to set targets for improvement and intensifying the establishment of directorates of laboratory services directly under the authority of Ministries of Health. Horizontal programmes such as the Global Health Security Agenda could provide the necessary impulse to take the least advanced countries on board.
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v9i1.1355

Abstract:
Background: Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. Aim: This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. Setting: The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. Conclusion: South Africa’s HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13–2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.
South African Journal of Economic and management Sciences, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v20i1.1416

Abstract:
Background: Despite technological advances that offer new opportunities for solving societal problems in real time, knowledge management theory development has largely not kept pace with these developments. This article seeks to offer useful insights into how more effective theory development in this area could be enabled. Aim: This article suggests different streams of literature for inclusion into a theoretical framework for an emerging stream of research, termed ‘probabilistic innovation’, which seeks to develop a system of real-time research capability. The objective of this research is therefore to provide a synthesis of a range of diverse literatures, and to provide useful insights into how research enabled by crowdsourced research and development can potentially be used to address serious knowledge problems in real time. Setting: This research suggests that knowledge management theory can provide an anchor for a new stream of research contributing to the development of real-time knowledge problem solving. Methods: This conceptual article seeks to re-conceptualise the problem of real-time research and locate this knowledge problem in relation to a host of rapidly developing streams of literature. In doing so, a novel perspective of societal problem-solving is enabled. Results: An analysis of theory and literature suggests that certain rapidly developing streams of literature might more effectively contribute to societally important real-time research problem solving if these steams are united under a theoretical framework with this goal as its explicit focus. Conclusion: Although the goal of real-time research is as yet not attainable, research that contributes to its attainment may ultimately make an important contribution to society.
Willie T. Chinyamurindi
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Information Management, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v19i1.811

Abstract:
Background: The South African construction industry is noted to be one of the most popular industries heavily dependent on projects. Calls exist for research that ascertains not just how entrepreneurs act as project managers but also the evaluation of project success and the role information management plays in all this.Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand the views and experiences of entrepreneurs in how: (1) project management success is conceptualised, and (2) the role that information management played to this within a South African construction industry space. Method: The study adopts a qualitative research approach using semi-structured interviews to generate narratives and themes around how: (1) project management success is conceptualised, and (2) the role that information management played to this. A sample of 15 entrepreneurs working within the construction industry was used for this study. Results: Based on the analysis of the narratives of the 15 entrepreneurs, project success was conceptualised mainly along three themes. Firstly, project success was about keeping the customer happy. Secondly, project success in the construction industry meant meeting the set targets, especially those of a financial nature. Finally, project success was about channelling internal synergies to realise external gains. Further, the 15 entrepreneurs espoused one main sub-theme around the role of information management to this conceptualisation of project success. This posits the role of information management to be a currency in effective decision-making. Conclusion: The study concluded by focusing on the implications and recommendations based on the identified themes.
, Charlotte Barnard, Zimkhitha Luhlaza, Kelisha Naidoo,
Published: 3 February 2017
South African Journal of Physiotherapy, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajp.v73i1.384

Abstract:
Background: Palliative care encompasses holistic management of patients and families facing life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. There is currently little known about South African physiotherapists’ palliative care knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, experience and training needs. Objectives: To describe the amount and adequacy of palliative care training received by South African physiotherapists, and their interest, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences of palliative care. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey study of a convenience sample of physiotherapists, using an adapted Physical Therapy in Palliative Care-Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Experiences Scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale). Likert scale scores were converted to continuous data for analysis, presented as median (IQR). Seven universities were contacted to determine undergraduate palliative care curriculum content. Results: A total of 303 participants (8.4% response rate) completed the questionnaire, and 289 responses were included (5.35% margin of error with 95% CI). Participants had 16 (6–27) years of experience, with 85.5% in private practice. About 66.7% and 79% of participants reported not receiving any training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, respectively, with more than 80% expressing that training was inadequate at both levels. Universities (n = 4/7; 57.1%) reported a maximum 3 hours undergraduate palliative care training. Seventy-nine percent of respondents had clinical experience in providing palliative care; however ‘knowledge’ was the lowest scoring domain (56.3% (43.8%–62.5%). The ‘beliefs’ domain scored highest at 82.6% (69.6%–91.3%). Conclusion: Many South African physiotherapists manage patients requiring palliative care, despite inadequate training and limited knowledge in this field. More under- and postgraduate learning opportunities should be made available for physiotherapists in the area of palliative care.
Anca Nel, Ina Joubert, Cycil Hartell
South African Journal of Childhood Education, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v7i1.482

Abstract:
This qualitative study makes recommendations to help teachers understand how an outdoor learning environment could be designed and used to enrich perceptual development through sensory and motor stimulation for the Grade R learner. This was done by establishing design principles that create better teaching and learning environments from the perspective of Grade R educators in the South African context. Three purposively selected case studies (preschools) enabled the collection of data using collection methods such as photos, video clips, interviews and observations. Content analysis was conducted and four themes emerged: contradictory perspectives on outdoor learning environments, outdoor play is valuable, creating the ideal outdoor learning environment and increased deficiency of sensory and motor development among Grade R learners. Findings of the study aid educators and other professionals to create a valuable outdoor learning environment for sensory and motor stimulation of Grade R learners.
, , Wynand Mostert
Published: 31 January 2017
Journal: Acta Commercii
Acta Commercii, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4102/ac.v17i1.487

Abstract:
Background: The increasing complexity and levels of competition facing firms have reiterated the need to integrate the flow of goods and information within and between firms. Limited research has, however, been done regarding this integration in terms of reverse logistics. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perspectives of retailers regarding supply chain integration in the context of product returns for consumer electronics. Method: A generic qualitative research strategy was used for this purpose. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with managerial staff involved with the product returns process at large retailers. Findings: The main findings indicate that the retailers made efforts to increase internal integration relating to improving information availability, aligning cross functional processes and improving inter-firm relationships. External integration efforts attempted to improve the intra-firm flow of information, reduce the number products returned to suppliers, expedite the returns process in specific instances and align processes. A narrow supplier-orientated span of integration was identified in this context, with integration efforts mainly targeting the start of the returns process to reduce return volumes. The study identified benefits attributed to both internal and external integration and barriers to internal and external integration relating to transactional relationships and suppliers who are incapable of integration. Contribution: Academically, this study expands the literature on supply chain integration in an unexplored context. For managers, this study identifies various reverse logistics integration barriers and details what practices and strategies improve the probability of successful integration efforts.
, Rob E. Dorrington, Haroon Moolla
Published: 31 January 2017
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v18i1.695

Abstract:
Background: HIV prevalence differs substantially between South Africa’s provinces, but the factors accounting for this difference are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and incidence trends by province, and to identify the epidemiological factors that account for most of the variation between provinces. Methods: A mathematical model of the South African HIV epidemic was applied to each of the nine provinces, allowing for provincial differences in demography, sexual behaviour, male circumcision, interventions and epidemic timing. The model was calibrated to HIV prevalence data from antenatal and household surveys using a Bayesian approach. Parameters estimated for each province were substituted into the national model to assess sensitivity to provincial variations. Results: HIV incidence in 15–49-year-olds peaked between 1997 and 2003 and has since declined steadily. By mid-2013, HIV prevalence in 15–49-year-olds varied between 9.4% (95% CI: 8.5%–10.2%) in Western Cape and 26.8% (95% CI: 25.8%–27.6%) in KwaZulu-Natal. When standardising parameters across provinces, this prevalence was sensitive to provincial differences in the prevalence of male circumcision (range 12.3%–21.4%) and the level of non-marital sexual activity (range 9.5%–24.1%), but not to provincial differences in condom use (range 17.7%–21.2%), sexual mixing (range 15.9%–19.2%), marriage (range 18.2%–19.4%) or assumed HIV prevalence in 1985 (range 17.0%–19.1%). Conclusion: The provinces of South Africa differ in the timing and magnitude of their HIV epidemics. Most of the heterogeneity in HIV prevalence between South Africa’s provinces is attributable to differences in the prevalence of male circumcision and the frequency of non-marital sexual activity.
Joel M. Chigada, Benedikt Hirschfelder
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Information Management, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v19i1.789

Abstract:
Background: The purpose of this study was to review existing research on mobile banking diffusion and investigate the adoption of mobile banking in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).Objectives: Based on the failure of the M-Pesa in South Africa, this article also attempted to determine why mobile money service systems are difficult to apply transnationally. Method: This was a literature survey, analysing mobile money literature during the period 2006–2016. Because of the current explosiveness of mobile money in SSA, the focus of this literature survey was limited geographically to South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya. Results: The results of the literature survey and the real-world examples mainly show that a transnational application of mobile money service systems is difficult to implement. Conclusion: This research elucidates the demand and need for mobile money service systems in SSA while underlining the explosiveness promoted mainly by rapid technological progress.
South African Journal of Economic and management Sciences, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v20i1.1660

Abstract:
Background: This article adds to scarce sub-Saharan African and South African literature on monetary policy transmission mechanisms by looking into: (1) the Keynesian interest rate channel of monetary policy transmission in South Africa, focussing on the behaviour of household credit and household consumption; (2) using the time-varying parameter vector autoregressive (VAR) techniques with stochastic volatility to capture the time-varying nature of the underlying structure of the South African economy to see whether it performs better than the constant parameter VAR in so doing and (3) policy implications emerging from the findings of the study. Aim: In testing the hypotheses of the interest rate channel of monetary policy transmission, the aim is to see how household credit and ultimately household consumption have evolved in South Africa: (1) before inflation targeting (1994–1999), (2) after inflation targeting (2000–2007) and (3) during the global financial crisis (2007–2012) in response to different monetary policy positioning. Setting: We focus on three periods: post transition from apartheid, during inflation targeting and during the global financial crisis, periods which saw changes in the monetary policy stance in South Africa. Methods: Quarterly data from 1994Q1 to 2012Q4, constant parameter VAR and time-varying parameter vector autoregressive (TVP-VAR) techniques are used in this study. The use of the TVP-VAR is to capture the time-varying nature of the underlying structure of the South African economy and also to investigate whether it performs better than the constant parameter VAR in so doing. Results: The results show that household credit and consumption declined and stayed negative post transition and after inflation targeting – periods of monetary tightening in South Africa - but increased during the global financial crisis, which saw expansionary monetary policy measures aimed at mitigating the negative output gap in South Africa. Conclusion: These changes in household credit and consumption across the different time periods show evidence of the cost of credit effect of monetary policy on household consumption in South Africa. They further reflect the impact of different structural changes and exogenous shocks on monetary policy conduct in South Africa and its pass through effect on household consumption in South Africa. We further conclude that the time TVP-VAR with stochastic volatility performs better than the constant parameter VAR in capturing the time-varying nature of the underlying structure of the South African economy.
Kelebogile T. Resane
Published: 31 January 2017
VERBUM et Ecclesia, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.4102/ve.v38i1.1736

Abstract:
The focus of this article was to explore the historical, theological and biblical miracles in light of the modern-day miracles in the Neo-charismatic churches. It is hereby intended to address and redress these manifestations to evaluate their authenticity and genuineness. The history regarding miracles in this article starts with the Reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin. The historical scholarliness unfolds through the centuries to show how philosophies and theology grappled with this subject. The climax is the theological debate in the 20th century leading to the current miraculous signs in the Neo-charismatic churches in South Africa. The solution is the teaching on proper hermeneutics. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article focuses on interdisciplinary, that is, church history, systematic theology and ethics in ecclesiastical practices of the Neo-charismatic churches. The article contributes towards the historical knowledge, identifying some constructive theological understanding of authenticity of miracles, as opposed to the modern way of miracles. It opens opportunity for a systematic theological discussion on miracles in Neo-charismatic churches.
, Seyi L. Amosun, Mary P. Shilalukey-Ngoma, Esther Munalula-Nkandu, Zuhayr Kafaar
Published: 24 July 2017
African Journal of Disability, Volume 6, pp 15 pages-264; https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v6i0.264

Abstract:
Background: Very little is known on outcome measures for children with spina bifida (SB) in Zambia. If rehabilitation professionals managing children with SB in Zambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa are to instigate measuring outcomes routinely, a tool has to be made available. The main objective of this study was to develop an appropriate and culturally sensitive instrument for evaluating the impact of the interventions on children with SB in Zambia. Methods: A mixed design method was used for the study. Domains were identified retrospectively and confirmation was done through a systematic review study. Items were generated through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Qualitative data were downloaded, translated into English, transcribed verbatim and presented. These were then placed into categories of the main domains of care deductively through the process of manifest content analysis. Descriptive statistics, alpha coefficient and index of content validity were calculated using SPSS. Results: Self-care, mobility and social function were identified as main domains, while participation and communication were sub-domains. A total of 100 statements were generated and 78 items were selected deductively. An alpha coefficient of 0.98 was computed and experts judged the items. Conclusions: The new functional measure with an acceptable level of content validity titled Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure (ZSBFM) was developed. It was designed to evaluate effectiveness of interventions given to children with SB from the age of 6 months to 5 years. Psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity were tested and are reported in another study.
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