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Palto Datta, David M J Graves
International Journal of Higher Education Management, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijhem/v08n01/art-5

Abstract:
Due to increased demand for quality education worldwide, the Higher education sector globally has been undergoing an unprecedented level of changes over the past several decades. These result in increased public expectations towards the institutions’ provision, new tasks and responsibilities for scholars and administrators, new modes of knowledge production and transfer. The abundance of individual and organisational change processes requires higher education institutions to rethink the quality of their provision in higher education. This study aims to examine the importance of the Fundamental of Quality Assurance of Higher Education Sector and the influence of a short training programme on quality assurance in developing excellence in education. Micro-CQAP (micro compass quality assurance programme) provides direction and focus that is based on evidence, appraisal, and experience. The study is based on the recent venture by the authors of this study providing a 5-days training programme to Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Maritime University (BSMRMU) and its impact on their overall quality assurance system within the university. The outcome of the training programme and findings of this study suggest that a short training programme on quality assurance within the institution enhances the overall understanding of Quality Assurance and help to implement it in practice more effectively and efficiently. The short programme was based on providing basic knowledge about what quality in higher education is, where it comes from, why quality assurance should & must be carried out, and how the process can be set up and managed at Higher Education institutions. This study is original as it was based on the experience, observations and feedback received after conducting the training programme from the participants. It has significant implications for the bother Higher Education Institutions, Government, and various stakeholders in Bangladesh.
Yilin Huang, Sohani Gandhioke
International Journal of Higher Education Management, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijhem/v08n01/art-6

Abstract:
To solve the problem of Chinese EFL students’ passive and ineffective vocabulary learning, task-based language teaching (TBLT) methods were introduced to English classes at a university. With TBLT, students interacted with each other by using English, especially English words learnt, in order to fulfil the tasks designed by teachers. Based on second language acquisition theories, students were able to understand input and produce output during this process. This paper focuses on using TBLT in English vocabulary teaching in three non-English major classes of a Chinese university, involving the use of some word games. The word games’ features, organization, and a skill set built through those games, will be discussed. In terms of methodology, an online questionnaire survey was conducted among 93 university students from the three classes. Also, results of the students’ before-task and after-task word quizzes on Moodle platform and exam paper results were analysed. The research findings showed that students enjoyed playing word games in the English class and benefitted from it, in terms of language development and building skills. This paper recommends teachers to use TBLT in English vocabulary teaching and learning, as it is practical and can assist in EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition.
Roberto Acevedo, Andrés Soto-Bubert
International Journal of Higher Education Management, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijhem/v08n01/art-1

Abstract:
This research article aims to tackle the many challenges that the academic communities all over the country should face and resolved with reference to several items such as the introduction into new methodologies. The strategies to overcome our weakness and the facilities which should be made available to become highly competitive and therefore to contribute to our nation and citizens. The main ideas discussed in this article are the result of several decades of doing both research and lecturing for both undergraduate and the postgraduate levels. For a rather long period of time, we have been through a critical state and in a short period of time, senior professors and the whole academic staff have been working online and several crucial activities have shown a growing state of deterioration. Some experimental activities have been declared non-essential due to this biological crisis and therefore, these duties will have to be redefined soon. In agreement with the above reflections, we may anticipate the need for a new strategy and methodology to fulfil the requirements to achieve the knowledge and experience needed to become a highly qualify professional and /or a member of the academic community in all the levels of the undergraduate and postgraduate studies. In the first place, we must be aware of our weakness and strengths. Once the problems have been defined clearly, the next step of our article will be based upon the evidence at our disposal. Chile as a country, for a rather long time, has based its economy on exporting minerals (metallic and non-metallic) and non-renewable resources. The above-mentioned strategy adopted by the country for many decades, has proved to be the wrong approach when compare with the status of developed countries in the United States of America, Europe, and Asia. We must, then proceed to a complete change of paradigm. We have formidable challenges in front of us and it is our main duty to deal with this rather complex scenario. As a result, we need to include in this research article some additional items such the direction of new studies, some implications, and contributions to illustrate the readers with a more precise and comprehensive approach. In our view, we must move from the stage of diagnosis to that of the action to reach a reasonable position in the world economy. Without any doubt a highly qualified and well recognized of education is a key factor in our approach. Finally, but not at last, we discuss the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship for our students and professionals.
Cao Thuy Xiem, Truong Doan The
International Journal of Higher Education Management, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijhem/v08n01/art-2

Abstract:
Continuous quality improvement of service is a crucial factor for the existence and development of educational institutions. Clarifying and judging the importance of the service’s quality factors are essential elements of quality improvement. The quality of the training services provided by universities in Vietnam have been examined by numerous pieces of research. They focused on a group of subjects, a branch of the university, a major, and assessment of student satisfaction with the use of a toolkit introduced by the MoET or by a school of the university. From these foundations, the purpose of this research is to identify the quality factors of the training service provided by the National Economics University (NEU) as a whole. Education quality is a complex concept and cannot easily be assessed by only one indicator. However, because of the timeframe and the lack of finance, we examined the service quality of NEU from the student perspective by assessing their satisfaction using the SERVQUAL model. The data collection was done by through an online survey. The empirical analysis resulted in 5 factors influencing the quality of the service, assurance, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, and tangibles. From these factors, three suggestions were made for improving the quality of the service: adjusting course structures; retraining communication skills for office staff; upgrading Wi-Fi/internet connection; optimize physical facilities usage. The research findings also have social significance, as empathy was identified as a quality factor. At the same time, the practical implications proposed for NEU’s governors have equal value for state-owned universities in general.
Anita P Bobade, Kasturi R Naik
International Journal of Higher Education Management, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijhem/v08n01/art-3

Abstract:
Objective: Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a considerable threat with its associated high mortality, infection, and hazard of physical, mental, emotional, financial, and spiritual stress (WHO, 2020). A large number of students are affected due to a chronic break from classroom academic activities, the pressure of being hired for an internship or final placement and staying at home. The main focus of this learning is to know the stressors of graduate and post-graduate Indian students and their major hurdles during the COVID-19 lockdown. Further, the study aims to facilitate a proposed model of training, by combining 7 psychosocial variables of emotional resilience which might empower the students to cater to stressors and improve personal, academic, and professional effectiveness (Chen et.al, 2020; Horesh et.al, 2020) Methods: Using a convenience method, an internet survey of the 6-item COVID-19 Student Stress Questionnaire (CSSQ) (modified version Zurlo et.al, 2020) was conducted on students across India. together with their demographic details, the participants also reported their study patterns and challenges during their confinement period. The statistical scores for the responses were calculated and also the demographic variables were analyzed using the factor analysis technique. (Ahorsu et. al,2020) Findings, Discussion, and implications: The findings suggest that self-awareness, self-regulation, mental agility, optimism, self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and psychological safety may be the important emotional resilience to be developed among the Indian students to cope with physical, mental, emotional, financial, and spiritual stressors confronted by them during COVID 19 pandemic to increase personal and professional effectiveness (Maria et.al, 2020, Zurlo et.al. 2017) Conclusion: The study has several practical implications for counselling psychologists, academicians, parents, life coaches handling youth and mental health workers related to the graduate and post-graduate education sector (Taylor et.al, 2020; Sahu et.al, 2020).
Antoine Trad, Ibistm. France
International Journal of Higher Education Management, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijhem/v08n01/art-4

Abstract:
This article analyses the role of Global Education System (GES) and proposes the Applied Holistic Mathematical Model for GES (AHMM4GES). The AHMM4GES is based on many years of research on business & educational transformations, Artificial Intelligence (AI), applied mathematics, software modelling, business & organizational engineering, skills & educational systems, financial analysis, security and enterprise architecture. The used research methodology is based on the author’s authentic mixed research method that is supported by a mainly qualitative reasoning module. AHMM4GES’s formalism mimics the human brain, by using empirical processes that are based on heuristics. The AHMM4GES is used to implement a decision-making system (or an expert system) to support a GES and uses a behaviour-driven development environment that can be easily adopted by any organization. The development environment can be used by any team member without any prior computer sciences qualifications. The AHMM4GES is used to estimate the Role of AI based Security in GES’s (RAISGES) context and tries to estimate the roles of the giants in this domain, like the USA, China, and India; and what would be the real role of the European Union and France. The uniqueness and originality of this research is that the AHMM4GES promotes a holistic unbundling process, the alignment of transformation strategies to support GES’ evolution. For a successful integration of AHMM4GES in projects, the manager’s profile, education, skills and role are crucial, where his decisions are supported by the selection, implementation and processing of critical success factors. The main implication is a systemic approach that is the optimal to integrate an RAI4GES.
Abdul Alim
International Journal of Maritime Crime and Security, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijmcs/v02is01/art-2

Abstract:
Climate change is predicted to have an extremely destructive effect on Bangladesh. Natural disasters may take place even more frequently and be greater in magnitude. A rise in sea levels could submerge a considerable proportion of the country. The legal regulations per specific aspects of maritime law are the priority of lawyers as natural risks like rising sea levels, storm surges, or tsunami waves, the pollution of the marine environment all represent a severe threat to coastal inhabitants. Global climate change will thus not only cause environmental degradation but will drive massive social changes as innumerable people migrate from devastated areas. This might further overstretch inadequate infrastructure and governance mechanisms and will lead both to a collapse in living standards and a rise in social disorder. Thus, the article contributes to the expansion of the current regime whereby using the bay water cooling atomic energy plants prevents its use for fish farming purposes, or an oil spill on the high seas pollutes beaches that are essential for tourism within the coastal zone. Such activities destroy our natural climate and change the water level, and promote ocean acidification, ocean stratification, coral bleaching, change species; distributions and make other biological changes to the sea and littoral including the discharge of ballast wastewater which may carry alien invasive species.
Katinka Svanberg
International Journal of Maritime Crime and Security, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijmcs/v02is01/art-1

Abstract:
This article discusses the use of PCASPs as an alternative or additional layer of protection on board ships in the fight against maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea from an international law perspective based on legal positivism. A concern is that clear-cut, international legal rules are missing on PCASPs. A particular concern is the use of force by PCASPs. The IMO, the shipping- and PMSC industry have had to resort to soft-law instruments and self-regulations. The perceived lack of legal rules concerning PCASPs and PMSCs has resulted in a lot of criticism. But does international law on maritime piracy need to develop binding international legal rules’ that are directly applicable to PCASPs? My findings are that the existing legal framework, in the Law of the Sea, SOLAS Convention, customary international law on self-defence together with the non-binding IMO guidelines and the shipping industry’s and PMSC’s self-regulations, as implemented by national laws, gives the necessary framework to adequately address the issue of PCASPs as protection against maritime piracy. The article describes maritime piracy, piracy hotspots and how interventions against piracy differ according to regions. It analyses the current legal framework on maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea in UNCLOS and the SUA Convention, flag-state jurisdiction and national laws. It defines “soft-law” and goes through regulations on PCASPs from the Montreux Document and ICoC to regulations that directly address the use of PCASPs on board ships, as the IMO Guidelines, ISO Standards, the industries standard agreements and the Guidance on the use of force.
Msc Spyridon Chiotis, Cso Dpa
International Journal of Maritime Crime and Security, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijmcs/v02is01/art-3

Abstract:
This article is a distillation of the dissertation submitted for the author’s MSc in Maritime Operations and Management at City, University of London, submitted in 2019. In the summer of 2019, a Bulk Carrier of 22,000GT with a complement of 21 crew members was at anchor within the territorial waters of a Gulf of Guinea coastal state, 2.5 n.m. from the breakwater entrance to the port, awaiting daylight so the ship could enter the port and commence the discharge of its cargo. At midnight with all the regular security measures in force for the anchorage area, a group of armed men boarded the ship and proceeded to kidnap nine seamen. The kidnappers abducted the nine-crew comprising the ship’s Master, Chief Engineer, Third Officer, Third Engineer, Chief Cook, and four ratings, all of them Filipinos. It was later proven the kidnappers came from a neighbouring state, and during their captivity, the nine men were held on a small island off the borders of the two states. All parties concerned were informed of the incident, and a company specialised in negotiating was appointed. The nine hostages were finally released after 41 days in captivity. Piracy affects shipping for centuries, with some periods of peace. It has returned more robust and aggressive, profoundly affecting shipping in specific geographical areas, exposing maritime trade and the seafarers’ lives in danger. From 2008 to 2012, piracy off the coast of East Africa drew the attention of the global community. The measures taken have suppressed piracy, and the incidents have dramatically reduced. On the other hand, piracy and kidnapping incidents in the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa have risen over the past years. The global community seems to tolerate the insecurity in the area, and only a few measures by the European Union and the United States have been introduced. The regional countries have announced measures, so did the continental African Union organisation and some local states individually, but all these efforts seem to be un-synchronised, and the actions of one party disorientate the others. The causation of piracy is not at sea: it is ashore. The spotlights of the initiatives should focus on the mainland. The global community has the expertise, experience, and mechanisms to fight this ancient crime. Both the academic and maritime communities have numerous papers about countering piracy, but none that the author has found is based on the details of one incident; they tend to focus on theoretical aspects. The author, being a permanent member of the Crisis Management Team of a shipping company, endured the hijacking of a vessel under its management in the Gulf of Guinea, and part of the vessel’s crew was taken hostage and moved ashore into the criminals’ hideout. It then became a race against time involving specialised negotiators, the P&I Club of the ship, and a PMSC to negotiate the ransom and its delivery and release of the crew as quickly as possible. Apart from the first-hand experience of being part of the Crisis Management Team for more than 40-days and nights of a ship hijacking and hostage negotiation process, the author has researched the background widely to piracy and specifically its impact in West Africa. He interviewed members of the crew held hostage and spoken with experts in the field. The principal reason for writing the dissertation and this article was to share the experiences and insights of a hijacking in the Gulf of Guinea, from the perspective of a shipping company with ships visiting the Gulf of Guinea on a regular basis, so that others may learn from the experiences and hopefully prepare seafarers more effectively for this maritime peril.
Simon J. Best
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v121nu01/art-28

Abstract:
What HRM structures and schedules are most likely to characterize the post-pandemic period? This paper, taking a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of the future of work and hybridized workforces, straddles the fields of HRM, business economics, and organizational behavior. It seeks to provide insights into the evolving post-pandemic’s new normal. The gains from the vaccination efforts in the US, in particular, are leading to shifts from the pandemic’s dismissal as a short-term phenomenon, to one that is now manageable. This paper, hence, analyzes the emerging trends and patterns that will most likely influence and shape the use of the human resource in companies, especially within the United States of America. It highlights the various discovered types, intensities, modalities, related to a range of worker types and work conditions associated with hybridized HRM, and the expected patterns and changes in employer-employee relationships likely to be maintained or expanded, that, informed by the Gratton framework of time and place. The paper maintains that not all work types are suitable for remote work. Additionally, certain gender biases are retained in the pandemic induced HRM hybrid models, while some are even reinforced. New work-life balance issues have also entered into work structuring and scheduling arrangements, with implications for the education attainment of the young, especially if, for example, hybrid education delivery becomes more widespread. The paper concludes with suggested research recommendations prompted by the pandemic’s activated sectoral labor supply challenges.
Wei Li
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v121nu01/art-29

Abstract:
The paper proposes a hybrid approach to design and implement an integrated and sustainable waste management system that is carbon-efficient and cost-effective. This system will bring benefits for socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Former research has shown that relying only on a bottom-up approach might fail to resolve conflicts and garner for sufficient external resource support; relying merely on top-down approach could fail to obtain community’s trusts and sustain the system. The paper suggests combining community-led innovation and top-down policy/regulatory changes to avoid the tension. The paper recommends using both academic and action research methods to design and implement such a system. As for the academic research method, the paper suggests conducting institutional and stakeholder analysis. As for the action research method, the paper suggests assisting the target communities to establish and utilize an inclusive and adaptive governance structure, in order to mobilize social, political and economic resources.
Manishimwe Theoneste, Ndifreke Clinton-Etim, School of Business and Entrepreneurship American University of Nigeria
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-03

Abstract:
Entrepreneurial orientation resulting from entrepreneurship education in tertiary institutions has produced mixed findings in the developed context, especially in Northeast Nigeria, where the insurgency has been disrupting education over the years. This study investigated the level of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of students in Yola, a region in Northeast Nigeria grappling with the onslaughts of the Boko Haram insurgency. This quantitative study examined the difference between the level of Entrepreneurial Orientations of Students before (BEO) and after taking entrepreneurship modules (AEO) while relying on primary data collected from three different categories of tertiary institutions in Nigeria (a polytechnic, a college, and a university) through a structured questionnaire. Relevant literature was reviewed to enrich the understanding of the researcher on different extents of the study. In the absence of a sample frame in the target population, a sample size of 270 students was selected based on the research eligibility criteria. Out of this sample, 191 respondents filled and returned the questionnaires. Descriptive statistical analysis and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used to analyze the data collected. The level of Entrepreneurial Orientation among students was measured to determine how students were innovative, proactive, risk-taking, and competitive aggressive before and after taking entrepreneurship modules. A significant difference between the level of EO before and after taking entrepreneurship modules, a meaningful relationship between the entrepreneurial orientation of students, and desire for self-employment after graduation was indicated. SEM results showed a significant positive impact of entrepreneurial orientation on students' willingness to self-employment after graduation. This research enriched the literature with a new understanding of entrepreneurial orientation. It provided modest empirical findings pertinent to policymakers interested in advancing Entrepreneurship Education (EE) in tertiary institutions. Based on the findings regarding factors affecting the entrepreneurial orientation of students, the study recommends solutions for improving and developing an effective entrepreneurial orientation strategy in tertiary institutions.
Ndifreke Clinton-Etim, Theoneste Manishimwe
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-11

Abstract:
The rapid population growth and the ongoing globalization of the economies result in increased competitiveness. Customers now prefer organizations’ that do not just meet but also exceed their needs. Vertical Integration (VI) has been used as a vital tool to increase competitiveness by aligning organizational functions and promoting new opportunities through supply chain management. Though, there has been ambiguity in findings on the impact of vertical integration on financial performance worldwide. Hence, the purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence regarding the impact of vertical integration on financial performance in African emerging economies, a case study of Olam Nigeria Limited. The secondary data was obtained from Olam's cross-sectional financial record between 2010-2018, and the primary data was from 175 respondents out of the 183 questionnaires administered to the employee sample frame. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The findings indicate a positive impact between the components of vertical integration and financial performance measures in Olam Nigeria Limited. This study is one of the first studies conducted in emerging economies after the International Monetary Fund (IMF) upgraded 9 African countries, including Nigeria. These findings can serve as a strategic, operational guide for business managers who may be considering vertical integration to improve their financial performance. This study also adds to the secondary source on the subject matter in the Nigerian Agribusiness sector, and it reiterates the three theories: transaction cost theory, resource-based theory, and property rights theory. However, the financial performance measurement metrics are limited to Olam's recommended parameters to gauge its progress, and the study did not cover the moderating variables.
Antoine Trad, Ibistm. France.
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-08

Abstract:
This article analyses the role of Global Business Education (GBE) and proposes the Applied Holistic Mathematical Model for GBE (AHMM4GBE). The AHMM4GBE is based on a lifetime long research on business transformations, Artificial Intelligence (AI), applied mathematics, software modelling, business engineering, educational systems, financial analysis, security and enterprise architecture. The used research methodology is based on the author’s authentic mixed research method that is supported by a mainly qualitative reasoning module. AHMM4GBE’s formalism mimics the human brain, by using empirical processes that are mainly based on heuristics. The AHMM4GBE is used to implement a decision-making system (or an expert system) to support a GBE and uses a behaviour-driven development environment that can be easily adopted by any organization. The development environment can be used by any team member without any prior computer sciences qualifications. The AHMM4GBE is used to estimate the Role of AI in GEB’s (RAIGBE) context and tries to estimate the roles of the giants in this domain, like USA, China, and India; and what would be the real role of the European Union and France. The uniqueness of this research is that the AHMM4GBE promotes a holistic unbundling process, the alignment of transformation strategies to support GBE’s evolution. For a successful integration of the AHMM4GBE in projects, the manager’s profile and role are crucial, where his decisions are supported by the selection, implementation and processing of critical success factors. A holistic systemic system approach is the optimal choice to integrate an RAI4GBE.
Kingston Xerxes Theophilus Lamola Lamola
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-22

Abstract:
The adoption of enterprise application architecture (EAA) for supply chain management (SCM) in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is influenced by the Owner’s Physiognomies & Incitements on a routine basis. EAA is essential for optimum SCM performance since it enlightens and enhances enterprise services, software, and hardware. The purpose of this study is to examine the Owner’s Physiognomies & Incitements for using EAA for SCM in SMEs in the Capricorn District Municipality. The empirical analysis is presented using data from a dissertation for a master's degree in commerce from 2018 to 2020. The study employs a quantitative approach based on a linear regression model. Cronbach's Alpha, descriptive statistics on the normality test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson Correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's Coefficients, and linear regression are all included. Empirical investigation demonstrates that both the Owner’s Physiognomies & Incitements are directly associated with EAA adoption. Overall, the model accounts for a substantial proportion of the variation in EAA adoption for SCM in SMEs. This work leads to the conclusion that there is a positive correlation between variables. The findings of this study will confirm the positive and negative impact of owner physiognomies and incitements on the adoption of EAA for SCM in SMEs. More research is required to examine the links between psychographic and behaviouristic owner incitements.
Surada Chundasutathanakul, Suthawan Chirapanda
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-13

Abstract:
The research aims to explain Thailand’s value-based economy and its implications on wellness business. The research uses political and management theories namely, developmental state theory, neo-authoritarian developmental state theory, social network theory, social capital theory, diffusion of innovation theory, resource-based theory, and image theory to portray and applied into the case. Moreover, the research is a qualitative research by nature as it uses semi-structure interviews and focus groups to find the answers. The main finding of this research is that since 2002 where the Thai government has set “Medical and Wellness Tourism” as the country’s development strategy to make Thailand a “hub” for medical and wellness tourism—though the country’s politics has faced two coup d’états and the country’s administrations have been rough as it is controlled by different political groups—both, civilian and military, governments have followed the strategy and have highlighted medical and wellness business sector as one of their development strategies as well as policies. The conclusion of the research is that the military government has stepped forward from solely being authoritarian state and transform the country to become a neo-authoritarian developmental state where it practices capitalism while limits people participation in politics. On top of that, the state implements policies that benefit healthcare and wellness industry, especially SMEs, to assure that it achieves the goal of being a medical and wellness hub of the region.
Sandor Bozsik, Judit Szeman, Zoltán Musinszki
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-24

Abstract:
Innovation is a key element of economic development and a key factor in social processes. Technological and economic innovations cannot respond to all social challenges. However, innovation - the search for new and innovative solutions - needs to be interpreted more broadly than before. In line with social changes, the European Union pays more attention to the context of social innovation. The social enterprises play a vital role in modern societies. The subject of our study is social cooperatives, which are a type of social enterprise. The social cooperatives offer an opportunity to improve the employment skills. However, the management of this enterprises faces several dilemmas how can build up an effective control system of a social enterprises in Central-Europe. As our questionnaire stated, the major problem of social cooperative is the quality of available labour force. This paper focuses the applicability of the traditional Balanced Scorecard system to the special needs of a social cooperative. Here one area of the Balances Scorecard will be highlighted – the Human Resource management and how the tools can be effectively adapted to the social cooperatives. A report system and a ratio analysis tool are developed to help the work of social cooperative managers. The focus of this paper research question how can improve the monitoring of Human Resource Management in social enterprises like social cooperatives. In the introduction part of this paper the importance of social innovation is emphasized, and a brief introduction to the development of controlling tools is provided. Next, part of our broader questionnaire is presented to highlight the importance of Human Resource Management in the Hungarian social cooperatives. In the discussion part a special BSC is presented which is based on Bull’s social enterprise Business Scorecard system. The Human Resouce Management should consider the regulatory requirements of granting authority, so these are briefly introduced. Finally, some indicators and tables are presented which can help the Human Resource Management in a social innovation enterprise.
Nazmi Pllana, Sotiraq Dhamo
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-21

Abstract:
Kosovo's economy is young and dynamic. It has been transformed from a decentralized economy to an open market economy. As an important place for business development, Kosovo offers several advantages such as a young and well-qualified population, natural resources, etc. Creating an environment for sustainable economic growth and improving competitiveness has been the main focus of supporting various donors (World Bank/WB, United States Agency for International Development/USAID, etc.) for Kosovo from the transition from crisis to long-term development, working closely with the Government of Kosovo to face challenges and mitigate obstacles by building a sound and market-based economy. This paper is bringing an overview of economic development in Kosovo and provides an analysis of the impact of donors in the development of various economic sectors, especially during the most delicate period that Kosovo has gone through and specifically the transition to an open market economy. The purpose of this study is to prove and demonstrate the impact of donor assistance on economic development in various sectors in Kosovo as a necessary tool to maintain the sustainability of best practices in any field of economics and based on the findings of the study to express our views.
Anita P Bobade, Kasturi R Naik
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-12

Abstract:
Objective: Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a considerable threat with its associated high mortality, infection, and hazard of physical, mental, emotional, financial, and spiritual stress (WHO, 2020). A large number of students are affected due to a chronic break from classroom academic activities, the pressure of being hired for an internship or final placement and staying at home. The main focus of this learning is to know the stressors of graduate and post-graduate Indian students and their major hurdles during the COVID-19 lockdown. Further, the study aims to facilitate a proposed model of training, by combining 7 psychosocial variables of emotional resilience which might empower the students to cater to stressors and improve personal, academic, and professional effectiveness (Chen et.al, 2020; Horesh et.al, 2020) Methods: Using a convenience method, an internet survey of the 6-item COVID-19 Student Stress Questionnaire (CSSQ) (modified version Zurlo et.al, 2020) was conducted on students across India. together with their demographic details, the participants also reported their study patterns and challenges during their confinement period. The statistical scores for the responses were calculated and also the demographic variables analyzed using the factor analysis technique. (Ahorsu et.al,2020) Findings, discussion, and implications: The findings suggest that self-awareness, self-regulation, mental agility, optimism, self-efficacy, sense of belonging and psychological safety may be the important emotional resilience to be developed among the Indian students to cope with physical, mental, emotional, financial, and spiritual stressors confronted by them during COVID 19 pandemic to increase personal and professional effectiveness (Maria et.al, 2020, Zurlo et.al. 2017) Conclusion: The study has several practical implications for counseling psychologists, academicians, parents, life coaches handling youth and mental health workers related to the graduate and post-graduate education sector (Taylor et.al, 2020; Sahu et.al, 2020).
Amr Elfawal, Mohamed A. Ragheb, Riham Adel
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-07

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for examining the impact of innovation and supply chain management practices on operational performance of FMCG organizations within the Middle East and North Africa Region. The quantitative data is collected through 519 questionnaires as the research population refers to Henkel across the Middle East and North Africa. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is adopted to examine the causal relationships between’ supply chain management practices, innovation capabilities and operational performance. The findings of this paper reveal that Supply chain management practices have a positive influence on operational performance. Supply chain management practices have a positive influence on innovation capabilities. The direct effect between innovation capabilities and operational performance is statistically significant. However, the results of the mediation effect indicate that there is partial mediation effect of the innovation capabilities between supply chain management practices and operational performance.
Cm Mashabela
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-18

Abstract:
The government of South Africa adopted Local Economic Development (LED) as part of its development policy in its quest for an inclusive economic development and growth. LED is intended to create a conducive environment for an inclusive local economy. However, unemployment and poverty rates are high in local communities with some SMMEs struggling to secure funding. Although municipalities do not create jobs directly through LED, they should, however, ensure that strategies implemented talk to inclusive economic growth, particularly the mitigation of unemployment and poverty rates. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the efficacy of LED in South African municipalities. The paper aims to evaluate and analyse the impact of implementing LED in South Africa. The quantitative research approach was adopted, and questionnaires were utilised to collect primary data. The paper found that LED in South Africa produces desired results at a low rate in that only a small fraction of the participants agrees that the municipality facilitates funding for SMMEs; only a small fraction of the participants is of the view that LED units provide adequate infrastructure and create industries. Moreover, the paper found that only a fraction of the participants is able to create job opportunities. Consequently, the paper recommends that municipalities should facilitate SMMEs funding, provide adequate infrastructure, develop industries and design LED strategies that enhance job creation. The paper argues that effective measures of implementing LED will enhance LED impact rate and fast track the prospects of inclusive economic growth in South African municipalities.
Vivence Kalitanyi
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-17

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Previous studies have highlighted the important role, fashion can play in one’s cognition and behaviour and how one’s body is impacted, especially people with disabilities. Due to the inconclusive results on the topic, we decided to undertake an empirical study in South Africa to determine how fashion can be used to help women with disabilities deal with issues of body image, low esteem and negative mindset. The study reviewed the literature on body image and disability, body image and fashion as well as on fashion therapy and body image. The study adopted a qualitative research design while interviews were used as means of primary data collection. Data analysis was done by means of coding the participants’ responses before conclusions were drawn about the participants’ views. Findings reveal that fashion can help women with disabilities to deal with issues related to low self-esteem and body image. The study ends with recommendations to include other segments of the disabled community in the study, as well as to expand the study in the other parts of the country.
Ian Wise
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-04

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Entities in the developing nations of Africa, just like other entities in the developed world need to demonstrate good stewardship in order to attract and retain investment. This means that African countries need a robust accounting infrastructure to deliver reliable and comparable financial information. This paper reviews the current status of accounting in Africa, by looking at the structure of the accounting profession, oversight of accounting entities, currency and monetary control, the status of adoption of International Financial Accounting Standards, the level of accounting research in Africa, and developments in accounting pedagogy at African institutions of higher education. This overview is intended to provide a baseline from which future researchers can develop further investigations into the accounting profession across the continent or a region of Africa.
Riley Carpenter, Lily Roos
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-23

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The South African accounting profession needs racial transformation. Consequently, students pursuing the chartered accountant (South Africa) (CA(SA)) designation, especially at-risk Black students, require adequate support. To be successful, the support must be driven by factors influencing students’ academic performance. As prior academic performance is one such factor, this study examines the relationship between the National Senior Certificate (NSC) exams and the National Benchmark Test (NBT) for students enrolled in an accounting degree at a South African university. Due to numerous moderate and strong correlations between NSC and NBT results, without multicollinearity, it was concluded that both sets of results should be considered as factors contributing to students’ academic performance. The findings highlight the need for further empirical research on NSC and NBT results as determinants of success for accounting students.
Eyitayo Francis Adanlawo, Makhosazana Vezi-Magigaba
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-09

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Constant electricity supply enhances smooth running and performances of SMEs. However, electricity outages in Nigeria have been identified as one of the factors hindering SMEs’ performance. This study aimed at exploring the impact of electricity outages on the operations and contributions of SMEs to Nigeria economy. Hence, the study evaluated the impacts of electricity supply on the growth of SMEs in Nigeria. It analysed the hindrances that deficient electricity supply could have on the growth and development of SMEs. Survey method was employed to administer structured questionnaires to 110 SMEs operators in three local government areas of Mainland, Shomolu and Agege in Lagos state, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics was utilised to analyse the collected data. A chi square method was used to test the formulated hypothesis. Findings revealed that electricity outages have significant effects on SMEs in Nigeria. The study recommends among other things that, state and local governments should join hands with federal government in generating electricity to ensure stable electricity supply; cost-benefit back-up generating plant is also recommended to keep business operative.
David Ahn
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-02

Abstract:
The unprecedented COVID-19 global pandemic radically changed the way we do things. The face mask is now a must to put on, and you do not handshake anyone. We are not even allowed to go near any person within six feet to maintain social distancing. The sudden pandemic lockdown forced all face-to-face classes into online classes overnight. It added immense pressure and stress to both instructors and students that brought many negative consequences. The sustained disruption has challenged higher education institutions to maintain academic continuity and put them into a grave financial situation due to a substantial decline in cash flow. This paper presents a case study of the transition to online learning for the Computer Information Systems classes at Medgar Evers College during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. We present the method we used to maintain academic continuity, examine the challenges of abrupt online transition, and assess what we learned from its outcome. In conclusion, we discuss the threats and opportunities for higher education institutions in the post-pandemic, which might change the entire landscape of higher education.
Hoda Ahmed Ibraheem, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Arab East Colleges, Alhanof Mohammed Alshuraym
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-25

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Despite the importance of promoting entrepreneurship in business activities to achieve a competitive advantage, a large proportion of business firms fail to make entrepreneurship a reality in their work. In addition, these constraints make it possible to gain a competitive advantage in the problems of the market in particular that modern markets are full of rivals and fast-paced changes in various variables. In light of this, the researcher carried out this study to investigate the role of entrepreneurship in achieving competitive advantage in SMEs. By using the descriptive-analytical approach, developing a questionnaire tool and distributing it to a sample of 100 administrators working in SMEs in Saudi Arabia. The results of the study showed that there is a positive relationship in the role of entrepreneurship in achieving competitive advantage in small and medium enterprises in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Veronica Udeogalanya
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-26

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In this paper the alignment of computer and digital literacy as well as student academic success were examined. Lack of adequate functional digital literacy training and the unreadiness of higher education institutions for the impact of random shocks such as COVID-19 pandemic has gravely affected teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to make the case for preparedness of students to meet the needs of technology jobs by mandating and aligning digital literacy and student success. As COVID-19 Pandemic was spreading through the communities of the United States, institutions of higher education transitioned to fully online teaching and learning. Prior to the pandemic, fully online education was secondary to face-to-face format. Only about 20% of classes were fully online while 80% were face-to-face. Digital literacy was given a token treatment as a percentage of the entire curriculum and relegated to only the departments of computer information systems and computer sciences. Faculty, students, staff, families, and communities were not trained for the intensity of fully online education as the only format. Many of them never heard of most of the digital literacy tools. Both faculty and students were forced to learn the use of computers and digital literacy tools to survive the spring 2020 semester. Low-income families were left to the operational schedules of local libraries, many of whom did not have internet presence. The institutions provided limited training for faculty and students to meet the urgency of the time. Faculty and students were forced to purchase expensive tools and hardware to withstand the intensive demand of teaching and learning. Many students were overwhelmed by the pressure of the new way of learning; some dropped out of school while many performed very poorly in their examinations which negatively impacted their overall grade point averages. One year later in spring 2021, the student success outcomes have barely changed. At the same time, technology is advancing despite the raging COVID pandemic. Millions of technology-enabled jobs remain unfilled while millions of university graduates are unemployed. There continues to be a mismatch between current job requirements in the industries and graduating students’ skills. This paper discusses the indispensable value of building computer and digital literacy training into all undergraduate curriculums. We argue for mandated computer and digital literacy exit skills assessment test for all graduating students irrespective of their discipline. We also make the case for increased institutional investment in faculty training in computer and digital literacy readiness. There are a number of remedies suggested to address the speed of advancement in technology, faculty and student functional mastery of basic computer and digital literacy skills. We conclude that all institutions must be proactive rather than reactive to systemic shocks by preparing students for academic success and technological readiness for today’s job markets.
Antoine Trad, France Ibistm, Damir Kalpic
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-10

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Damir Kalpic University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Croatia This article proposes the fundaments of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and is the basics to support Virtual Reality Systems (VRS) for Education and Sports (VRS4ES). The Applied Holistic Mathematical Model (AHMM) for AI (AHMM4AI) is the result of research on AI, business, education, digital sport, financial and organizational transformations using a mathematical model’s concept. This research project is based on an authentic and proprietary mixed research method that is supported by an underlining mainly qualitative holistic reasoning model module that uses quantitative functions (Trad & Kalpić, 2020a). The VRS4ES uses the Artificial Intelligence Pattern (AIP) to manage eActivity (eEducation or eSports) processes. Such projects are cross-functional and complex undertakings, developed using selection-based classification and weightings of critical success factors and areas, which are used as global variables in VRS4ES. In this article the main subject is VRS4ES that uses AIP for optimal integration purposes. Such transformation projects can be applied to various types of VRS, like team competition, personal training, intelligent support activities and other. People have become addicted to virtual environments and videogames since the 80s, but what is interesting, is the attractiveness they boast nowadays. eActivity, or competitive videogame playing, have exponentially expended in the last decade, to the level that in 2017 the second most watched sporting event in the USA, after the Superbowl, was an eActivity competition (Acer, 2018).
Roseline Tapuwa Karambakuwa, Ronney Ncwadi
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-15

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The proportion of household debt to disposable income is very high in South Africa, signifying over-indebtedness which reduces the welfare of households and ultimately reduces economic growth. This paper presents the determinants of the household debt in South Africa and comes up with a framework of recommendations on how to manage household debt. The objectives are achieved through systematic literature review, document analysis and secondary data analysis. Our findings suggest that households are over-indebted because they lack the necessary finance management skills, lack proper protection from the predatory practices by lenders and fail to obtain disclosure of vital information pertaining credit which affects their decision to borrow. Household indebtedness is also caused by the rising cost of living and low household disposable income, low household savings, high interest rates, misfortunes or adverse trigger events and living in urban areas. Education, age and being a recipient of a social grant all have positive and negative impacts on household indebtedness. Findings also suggest that female-headed households, renting households, large households, households with a mortgage and households where head is not working, is sick or disabled are more likely to be over-indebted. We develop a framework with recommendations for managing household debt in South Africa. We recommend upskilling to help households to effectively manage their finances and take responsibility. Moneylending institutions are encouraged to disclose vital information pertaining credit which affects decision to borrow by households and to avoid predatory lending. We also recommend a review of interest rates on debt and availability of consumption insurance on all loans to cover for cases when the household faces unforeseen circumstances affecting repayment.
Arlinda Ymeraj
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-19

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The paper “Social Business under the Youth Guarantee: Experience from the ground in Albania” deals with the model of Social Business, piloted in Albania, as a sustainable mode to encourage youth entrepreneurship and employment. The Albanian social business model, named Youth Albanian Parcel Service (YAPS), which employs exclusively disadvantaged youth, is an innovative example of new thinking on tackling social exclusion and reducing poverty. Case analysis of YAPS (Youth Albanian Parcel Service), the successful Social Business Model established almost 20 years ago thanks to a harmonized multidimensional effort of key stakeholders, is used to bring in evidence from the ground to promote the novel concept of using efficiency and in-built sustainability of free markets to generate social wealth. The evidence provided here shows that a new approach is emerging vis-á-vis social policies. A shift in thinking on social policy foresees the emergence of a social capital approach to social exclusion. This approach involves the mobilization of the entire community-including business actors and civil society leaders-in tackling social exclusion and empowering disadvantaged members of society. Therefore, it is the government, which should bear the burden of finding ways to harmonize economic development with social policies. Although social business is perceived as relevant by all stakeholders, people are looking for clear guidance from the government because they still miss innitiative, financial resources and entrepreneurship education. Hence, the government may utilize economic levers to encourage the development of markets and competition; it may exercise its social role by implementing active labour market policies. Nevertheless, alongside them, the government must boost the education of people with the rules of democracy and the market, alike. These three roles are inextricably linked as they reflect the new political, social and economic order in which we live and secondly, because they determine a new relationship between citizen and the state in the post-communist era.
Mabeba Sj, University of Limpopo Department of Public Administration
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-16

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One of the topical challenges facing South African municipalities recently is corruption. From time-to-time citizens learn about and witness the corrupt practices of public officials in the Local Government sphere. Arguably, the phenomenon of corruption has both direct and indirect impact on service delivery with specific focus to municipalities. Section 152(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996) states that the Local Government sphere has the mandate to ensure the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. Subsequently, some of the communities across the country still wish to have access to basic services namely: water, electricity, community halls and proper tar roads to name a few. As a result, at times it seems impossible for municipalities to smoothly render such services due to corrupt practices emanating in the South African Local Government sphere. This article aimed to explore the impact of corruption on service delivery in the South African municipalities. The article fully relied on secondary data as it collects information from newspapers, books, journal articles, conference proceedings, officials report and academic dissertations. In pursuit of all this, Afrocentricity: a theory of social change has been placed in context with a view that the needs of the society should be placed at the center of the local government sphere. To be specific, these needs are but not limited to water and electricity. Looking at the findings of the study, indeed literature can confirm that corruptions have negative impact on the ability of the municipalities in South Africa to provide basic services. Because the interests of the public are competing with those of the municipal officials. Therefore, at the end of the day service delivery is compromised due unlawful practices.
Ahmed Atries, Aiman A. Ragab, Mohamed A. Ragheb, Mohamed Wahba
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-05

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This research aims to study the impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) (information quality, system quality and system use) and human resource management (HRM) practices (training and development, information exchange, recruitment and testing, compensation and benefits, safety and health and employee relations) on organizational performance. Through the Balanced scorecard (financial performance, customer performance, supplier performance and employee performance) in the rebar sector companies within the Arab Republic of Egypt. Therefore, the researcher used the positivism philosophy in this study and the deductive approach because they are more compatible with the nature of the research and with what the researcher wants to reach. He also followed a quantitative method in collecting data, as he prepared a questionnaire and distributed it to 260 individuals working in the reinforcing steel sector. The data is analyzed using some statistical methods such as: correlation, and the structural equation model. The results fully accept the study hypotheses that there is a statistically significant relationship between ERP and organizational performance through the balanced scorecard. In addition to, relationship between ERP and HRM practices, moreover, relationship between HRM practices and organizational performance through the balanced scorecard. While it partially accepts that here is a statistically significant role for HRM practices, in the relationship between ERP and organizational performance through the Balanced Scorecard.
Ermias Ashagrie
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-06

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The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical and analytical framework by explaining the sustainable livelihoods framework and farming system model from a sustainable point of view. The author studied over 200 publications downloaded using the electronic database search of EBSCO through UNISA online library in June 2018. Keyword combinations of ‘land’, ‘tenure’ and ‘sustainable use’ were used to search for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 to May 2018. The article examines most relevant literature to consolidate the necessary theoretical and analytical foundation in analysing individual and group motivations towards sustainable land management practices. The literature review affirmed that a comprehensive theoretical and analytical framework is scant to empirically analyze the determinants of sustainable land management practices. To partially fill this knowledge gap, the paper provided a generic analytical framework that gives insight not only on pre-decisional processes, but also on post-decisional processes of continued and sustained use of conservation technologies. The analytical framework is developed by combining the sustainable livelihoods framework with the farming system model. It is concluded that the economic theory of property rights may not be adequate as a model to guide land tenure studies and policy. It is recommended that a holistic approach and comprehensive analytical framework is vital for research and development endeavours to ensure sustainable land management practices.
Simon J. Best
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v121nu01/art-27

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What HRM structures and schedules are most likely to characterize the post-pandemic period? This paper, taking a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of the future of work and hybridized workforces, straddles the fields of HRM, business economics, and organizational behavior. It seeks to provide insights into the evolving post-pandemic’s new normal. The gains from the vaccination efforts in the US, in particular, are leading to shifts from the pandemic’s dismissal as a short-term phenomenon, to one that is now manageable. This paper, hence, analyzes the emerging trends and patterns that will most likely influence and shape the use of the human resource in companies, especially within the United States of America. It highlights the various discovered types, intensities, modalities, related to a range of worker types and work conditions associated with hybridized HRM, and the expected patterns and changes in employer-employee relationships likely to be maintained or expanded, that, informed by the Gratton framework of time and place. The paper maintains that not all work types are suitable for remote work. Additionally, certain gender biases are retained in the pandemic induced HRM hybrid models, while some are even reinforced. New work-life balance issues have also entered into work structuring and scheduling arrangements, with implications for the education attainment of the young and underserved, especially if, for example, hybrid education delivery becomes more widespread. The paper concludes with suggested research recommendations prompted, in part, by the pandemic’s workforce and HRM challenges.
Surada Chundasutathanakul, Suthawan Chirapanda
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-14

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The research aims to explain Thailand’s value-based economy and its implications on wellness business. The research uses political and management theories namely, developmental state theory, neo-authoritarian developmental state theory, social network theory, social capital theory, diffusion of innovation theory, resource-based theory, and image theory to portray and applied into the case. Moreover, the research is a qualitative research by nature as it uses semi-structure interviews and focus groups to find the answers. The main finding of this research is that since 2002 where the Thai government has set “Medical and Wellness Tourism” as the country’s development strategy to make Thailand a “hub” for medical and wellness tourism—though the country’s politics has faced two coup d’états and the country’s administrations have been rough as it is controlled by different political groups—both, civilian and military, governments have followed the strategy and have highlighted medical and wellness business sector as one of their development strategies as well as policies. The conclusion of the research is that the military government has stepped forward from solely being authoritarian state and transform the country to become a neo-authoritarian developmental state where it practices capitalism while limits people participation in politics. On top of that, the state implements policies that benefit healthcare and wellness industry, especially SMEs, to assure that it achieves the goal of being a medical and wellness hub of the region.
Onesmus Ayaya, Department of Business Management University of Pretoria, Marius Pretorius
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-20

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Purpose of the research: To identify and explore the construction of professionalism in a multiple professional bodies (MPB) landscape in South Africa (SA) and demonstrate how such construction can be used to enhance professional accreditation regime. Design of research and methodology: The study used a qualitative research design. This required five consecutive steps of (a) interviewing member services managers at four professional bodies (PBs); (b) systematic content analysis of codes of professional conduct (CPCs) and policy statements to identify constituent professionalism notions; (c) a systematic search of the literature to identify notions of professionalism mentioned in definitions and explanations of the construct; and (d) analysis of notions of professionalism using the constant comparison procedure to reveal key themes. The results in (a) through to (d) were used to advance a programmatic framework to construct professionalism in an MPB landscape. Research results: The construction of professionalism is linked to services rendered and competencies in the MPB landscape. The existing licensing regime encapsulates the increased importance of the MPB landscape, leading to a shift away from a conventional conceptualisation of professionalism in a single professional body (PB) setting. A total of 90 separate notions of professionalism were identified in the 192 scholarly papers included in our study. The identified theme within BRP professionalism (emphasising relational aspects) point to practitioner dealings with (i) clients (business rescue candidates); (ii) government and others; (iii) the PB; and (iv) oneself to gain the essence of occupation. There is fragmentation between the constructed conceptualisations of professionalism among PBs, leading to an incoherent and inconsistent expert accreditation regime. Practical implications and value: The findings of the study are useful in the integration of practitioner learning and development practices in the PBs whose members serve as BRPs. BRP is a regulated occupation and requires a distinct professional accreditation framework (PAF) to integrate multidimensional professionalism in the MPB landscape. Approaches to enhance accreditation should consider delineating BRP services and task from interview results from a community of practitioners. The PAF will structure the construction, investigation, and documentation of occupational professionalism required by the licensing authorities. It will also help delineate BRP as a discipline worth of academic and professional pursuits with known competencies.
Kenneth B. McEwan
The Business and Management Review, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.24052/bmr/v12nu01/art-01

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International business has grown rapidly in recent years as companies seek to take advantage of expanding supply chain opportunities. As companies enter into contracts to take advantage of engineering, production, and cost reduction capabilities of the global supply chain, they may be creating a foreign currency exchange rate risk. The quantitative study examined the 60-day EUR/USD exchange rate fluctuation and the use of currency call options to hedge the risk associated with EUR/USD currency fluctuations. The researcher analyzed 13 years of historical EUR/USD currency data and 10 years of actual EUR call options premiums for this research paper. The researcher concluded that the variability of the EUR/USD over 60-days does pose financial risk to a company. The study also found that using currency call options to hedge this 60-day exchange rate risk resulted in an overall transactional financial loss as compared to no hedging. However, research studies have shown that the use of hedging instruments to smooth financial results may result in lower overall financing costs which could offset the hedging transactional costs. This study did not address the benefits of the use of hedging to smooth financial results or obtain other related financial benefits. The researcher recommends that a firm should recognize the exchange rate risks it may be establishing within 60-day EUR or USD payable contracts and develop an appropriate hedging strategy.
Ermira Repaj
International Journal of Business & Economic Development, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijbed/v09n01/art-05

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As a form of a public-private partnership with local authorities, the business improvement district (BID) is created when most businesses or business property owners agree through balloting to manage a delimited commercial area with prior authorization by the local authority. The district is managed through a non-profit organization that provides additional public services such as security, maintenance, infrastructure improvement, and marketing, to improve decaying commercial and residential areas. BIDs have been praised as engines for urban development, filling the need gap between the public and private sector by providing entrepreneurial local public management and augmented public services for socioeconomic revitalization. The business improvement districts (BIDs) and similar forms of a public-private partnership, as a new mechanism for urban renewal and economic development, have emerged in North America five decades ago and quickly adopted in many cities worldwide. Since 2011, the model has been applied in 8 districts in Albania, contributing to improved business life, infrastructure improvements, and enhanced general public services. This time is considered long enough to offer insights regarding their evolution and transformative effects. This study aims at exploring the adaptation of the business improvement district (BID) model in urban areas in Albania and, at the same time, point out its characteristics, operational and functional activities, accountability, and contribution to business development and area revitalization. The methodology used in this study adopts a qualitative method, including a case study approach to data gathering Primary data sources include semi-structured interviews with BID association members, administrators, and consultants in Albania, businesses, local government officials, and lawyers. This study will contribute to a more robust contextual understanding of the establishment and effectiveness of BIDs in developing economies The findings presented demonstrate BID’s transformative role for area regeneration, economic and social development. Furthermore, this study provides additional insights regarding the effects of development organizations’ involvement in this public-private partnership model for area regeneration. The results have important implications for Albania’s public and development policies and provide practical lessons for practitioners in these fields. Furthermore, it contributes to the international literature on BIDs, including evidence of this model applied in a developing economy.
Rahul Gupta Choudhury
International Journal of Business & Economic Development, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijbed/v09n01/art-04

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China is a very interesting country, and the entire world is looking at it. This is not only because of its spectacular rise in the world stage and the fact that it has become one of the largest markets in the world. China has become a superpower economically as well as militarily. Simultaneously it has a penchant for doing things differently – from the established norms and practices, as followed primarily by the West. It is likely that China will be in a position to challenge USA shortly as the number one power in the world. It is also likely that China will soon be influencing world events in a major way. These are the primary reasons for undergoing this study. The specific objective is to understand in detail one of the grandest and most ambitious schemes floated by any country in modern times - that of the Belt and Road Initiative by China. The author is sure that this project will have a very substantial impact on the strategies and politics of the entire world. The originality of this study is that it takes a macro-view of the entire initiative and dissects the implications for each major region of the entire world - in terms of strategy as well as politics. It wishes to connect Asia and Europe and also bring Africa into the project and thus form a unified market known as Afro-Eurasia. China, also known as PRC (People’s Republic of China), has developed tremendously in the past few decades and has now spare capacities as well as resources. So, it has initiated the project BRI wherein they are giving loans to underdeveloped countries to build infrastructure of these nations. There are two primary routes which PRC aims to develop. One of them is the land route called the BELT, which connects Europe to China over land. The other is the maritime route through the oceans which again connects the Eastern parts of China right up to Europe – and including Africa in between. The countries along these routes are being helped by China to develop their infrastructure like railways or seaports so that they may also emerge as modern logistics and distribution hubs for transporting goods between China and Europe. PRC thus ensures that it receives its continuous supply of energy requirements and other commodities for consumption. It will also be able to increase its exports right up to Western Europe through these routes which will save them a lot of time and costs also. Some nations are however skeptical about the real intentions of China. These countries think that China is emerging as a major superpower of the world and one day, it might want to dominate this part of the world entirely. Whether China has military intentions or not will be clear sometime later. As of today, China claims that its intentions are completely peaceful.
Ismail Hussein Ismail, Abeer Mohamed Ali Abd Elkhalek
International Journal of Business & Economic Development, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijbed/v09n01/art-02

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Individuals everywhere and every day take decisions and make choices that affect the environment either positively or negatively. By understanding and analysing the determinants and incentives of humans' decision-making process, behavioural economics helps change behaviours toward more sustainable practices using efficient and well- designed policies. Using a survey targeting 4000 households' participants from 11 Egyptian governorates in 2019, the paper explores attitudes' determinants and behaviour's motivations concerning environmental concerns, which- in turn- help policymakers to design effective policies considering households' attitudes. Using a structural equation model, the paper examines the critical links among attitudes, values, and behaviours related to sustainability. It provides empirical evidence from a data set collected from the surveyed sample. The paper also indicates how insights and tools from behavioural economics could help understand attitudes, values, and behaviours. The current study builds on contemporary literature and develops last research to explore how behaviour economics helps policymakers design cost-effective policies to change behaviours toward sustainable environmental practices. The results indicated that behavioural economics has a minimal role in designing sustainable development policies and environmental interventions in Egypt- as a developing country- and showed that there is an overall willingness to change the way of thinking toward more environmentally friendly choices, specifically if policy interventions derive the behaviours in that direction. Finally, many essential recommendations and policy implications were concluded to develop public policies according to environmental sustainability considerations.
Juliette Brathwaite, Barbados
International Journal of Business & Economic Development, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijbed/v09n01/art-01

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COVID-19 impacts both direct and indirect and at various levels, are currently ominous, and significantly challenge systems in society, economy and environment, influencing governance (GVRN), development (DVMT) and related poverty (PVTY) elements. This research explores relationships between GVRN and DVMT effects in developing countries (DCs), proposing that transport, supply chain and logistics management (TSCLM) incorporating agility, can enable GVRN more supportive and responsive. In so doing, efforts for DVMT and PVTY eradication can improve, alleviating problems for individuals and systems left unprepared, bereft and vulnerable. It is vital to pursue this area of research for theoretical and managerial features in the underexplored contexts are generally still novel. To heighten research and practical consciousness of interactions between GVRN, TSCLM and DVMT, especially PVTY effects, this paper engages literature review and associated conceptual model with propositions. The conceptual model focuses on relationships and interactions, combining institutional theory and organisational learning theory incorporating networking or collaboration, presenting four propositions to sustain further exploration, management and practice. In concluding, this researcher presents implications, and suggests future research avenues with respect to interrelationships of GVRN, TSCLM and DVMT. The incorporation of elements to better enable GVRN relationship with DVMT beneficial to PVTY eradication in business context with COVID-19 hindrances, can assist individuals and firms to be more agile and effective in planning, implementation and output systems and to sustain advantageous outcomes. This research contributes to augmenting theory and practice in supply-chain management, GVRN and DVMT, so researchers, managers and others can benefit from value added in improving processes and practices including success with eradicating COVID-19 hindrances to significant attainments.
Thomas E. Rotnem
International Journal of Business & Economic Development, Volume 09; https://doi.org/10.24052/ijbed/v09n01/art-03

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This paper examines Russia's Arctic Strategy, in general, and the development of the Northern Sea Route, in particular. The current Russian regime regards the successful development of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as the linchpin of its Arctic endeavors and the harbinger of Russia's economic future, focusing upon not only creating a faster and cheaper shipping route from Asia to Europe, but also spiriting out to world markets the vast fossil fuel and mineral deposits that lie in Russia's frozen north. After discussing recent factors causing Russia's leaders to invest significant resources in its Arctic region and the novel transportation artery, we then focus upon recent steps made toward building out the NSR. The article concludes with an examination of significant problems plaguing the route's development and provides a tentative assessment of the project's overall soundness.
Estone Musakabantu Muyobo, Evangelia Fragouli
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-07

Abstract:
This research paper suggests the Means-End Chain theory, has relevant and potential application in domestic tourism research and, as such, should receive wider debate in emerging tourism destinations. It is argued that the theory is particularly useful for understanding personal values as the basis of tourist behavior. This paper argues a personal values approach is a more potent way to understanding domestic tourist participation in contrast to previous survey research findings. A dominate narrative in most developing nations is to target domestic tourist with amenities envisioned for global tourists as a result of failure to generate international tourist demand. The review of literature method was used in this research paper as methodological approach. The study shows the effectiveness of Means End Chain analysis in understanding travel markets and demonstrated the use of motivation chains as a basis for segmenting, positioning, and targeting domestic tourist; The study deduces that means end chain analysis has advantages over quantitative research methods in cross-cultural research given the ability of the approach to reveal unique insights.
Rosa Lemel
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-01

Abstract:
This article surveys the available academic literature on using the proper metrics to measure the effectiveness of a social media marketing campaign. The academic literature is sadly outdated and incomplete when compared to the trade literature. There is no consensus on which metrics matter, but research points to the importance of developing social media objectives at the very beginning of the process. This lays the foundation for choosing a platform with the target audience in mind and then analysing the metrics that measure whether those objectives were ultimately achieved. This paper first compares the metrics offered for each of the five most commonly used social media platforms. A conceptual framework is then proposed to determine which metrics to use in evaluating the effectiveness of a social media campaign. This proposed four-step process must begin at the same place a social media campaign must start, by determining the campaign's marketing objectives. Only then can the proper metrics be determined.
Zoleka Mthembu, Seugnet Bronkhorst
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-04

Abstract:
Traditional banking methods evolved and included services as a method of differentiation, reducing operating costs, and providing additional benefits to the customer. Banks re-invented themselves and provide innovative solutions to remain competitive. This research explores whether using value added services contributed to changes in transactional banking behaviour and was done in one of the largest banks in South Africa over a period of four months. Two banking products in the youth customer segment were selected. The control group received one treatment at the beginning of the four-month period, and the experimental group received a further three treatments at different times of each month. Two data sets (1) VAS usage and (2) bank transactions were analysed. The results showed that the intervention had a positive effect on transactional banking behaviour. Additional causative factors were identified that increased the usage of value-added services and increased transactional banking behaviour.
Maphelo Malgas, Wellington .B. Zondi
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-06

Abstract:
This paper is based on the study that sought to identify the core competitive factors that differentiate foreign national small business retailers from local South African small business retailers in the way they operate their small retailing businesses. Primary research was conducted in two of Cape Town’s (South Africa) townships, Delft and Eindhoven. The population of the study comprised two groups, namely, South African and foreign national small business retailers operating grocery retailer stores. The first group consisted of 55 South African small business retailers while the second group consisted of 75 migrant small business retailers. A random sample was targeted from each group and the quantitative research methodology was used in this study using a structured questionnaire with close-ended questions. The results showed growth of foreign national retailers and decline in the number of the local retailers in the two townships. The study showed that migrant retailers have a competitive edge over local retailers. The study also revealed that most local traders have a lower level of education compared to their migrant trader counterparts. Furthermore, the study revealed that most of local small business retailers have never had a business finance mentor in their entire trading life. The study revealed that there is a need for a targeted funding model for potential and current local small business retailers. The study proposes a three-stage business intervention model to assist South African small business retailers to become more competitive in township retailing environments.
Evangelia Fragouli
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-02

Abstract:
Effective leadership in dealing with a crisis is of critical importance since crisis situations often put companies or organizations at high risks threatening their reputation, stability & survival. Considering that a crisis can present itself in a number of different ways, as well as there are multiple factors that affect individual leadership styles. a leader must be able to distinguish between these ways and adapt the right style and behaviours accordingly. This paper, through a critical literature review methodology, explores ‘how’ leadership underpins corporate reputation in a crisis situation reviewing also the key factors influencing leadership effectiveness in such stressful situations. The study concludes that the leadership role is important in supporting the corporate reputation in a crisis situation and suggests that practitioners must comprehend different dimensions of crisis that affect leadership styles, allowing for effective management of the situation. Additionally, the study emphasizes that different preparations, precautions and adaptations must be considered before choosing a leadership style to effectively navigate the organisation through crisis. The study confirms that a good reputation helps corporations to gain the trust of consumers and reduce the losses caused by the crisis, as well as corporations in crisis should choose appropriate leadership style so that leaders to create a culture that could predict threats and risks.
Ever Bedoya
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-03

Abstract:
The growth of computer-mediated communication (CMC) has influenced the communication process channels and the possible effects of the interaction between job satisfaction, communication satisfaction, and leadership. The aim of the current research is to test how transactional, transformational, and level 5 leadership styles influence the relationship between communication satisfaction and job satisfaction in CMC environments. The sample included 103 participants from Colombian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the tertiary sector. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, SPSS was used to determine the relationships between variables and test the moderating effects. Results show that 65.4% of organisational communication is performed via the Internet. Findings also demonstrate that level 5 leadership is the only style that influences the relationship. Results also indicate that the influence of level 5 leadership increases the relationship between communication satisfaction and job satisfaction. Implications are particularly relevant during the current global COVID19 pandemic when people have been required to move to a virtual work environment. In this scenario, the findings are valuable for scholars and managers as contributions for literature, research, evaluation, decision-making, and policy creation that help to understand and improve communication satisfaction, job satisfaction, and leadership practices in CMC environments. Outcomes offer new insights in the literature about leadership styles on SMEs in CMC environments. Level 5 is a recent leadership approach which has not been widely studied by researchers and scholars. The moderating effect of level 5 in relation to transactional and transformational leadership styles is an important theoretical input for literature.
Gairik Das, Kolkata Iiswbm, Sohini Dutta
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.24052/jbrmr/v15is02/art-05

Abstract:
Purpose of Research: The present paper studies the effectiveness of the factors in motivating the employees working in the retail industry. It also analyses the perception of the employees about the effectiveness of the factors influencing staff motivation and the difficulties faced by them in their workplace and their opinions on being better off. This study is very crucial in present day context as competition in retailing is getting steeper. Particularly after the economic slowdown in a highly volatile economic environment, retailers must analyse the factors affecting their employee motivation. Methodology: In this study, the researchers have tended to highlight the positivist philosophical approach. The research has been carried through the survey done on the staffs of operations and sales team of some top organised retailers in Kolkata by a standardised questionnaire, blended with open ended and close ended questions. It also delves into the effect of demographics and psychology of the staffs and their perception about the factors influences their motivation level in the workplace, by using various statistical tools like Chi-Square Test, Cronbach’s Alpha and Factor Analysis in the study. Findings: Reward and Recognition structure and Cash Benefit structures are the most influential factors in motivating the staffs to work in retail sector, closely followed by Career growth opportunities. Again, the Incentive structure influences the staff motivation to perform better in sales. Practical Implications and Conclusions: The components give an unadulterated and fulfilling experience to the staffs which makes them feel good about their work and also make them feel hopeful in order to make betterment in their career. These leads to positively influencing the motivation level of the staffs in the retail industry. This leads to better performance from the staffs in both quality and quantity. This also reduces employee turnover. This helps in maintaining a healthy environment work balance with a healthy relationship between the staffs and the management, in the retail sector. This in turn helps the retail sector to grow and prosper.
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