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Amira Rahana Abdullahi, Sani Malami, Lawal Alhassan Bichi
Published: 27 October 2021
Abstract:
Background: Malaria is a parasitic infection that is common in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is estimated to kill one million individuals annually. Detarium microcarpum (Fabaceae family) is used traditionally for the treatment of malaria, diabetes, hypertension, convulsions, pneumonia, leprosy, and meningitis. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the antiplasmodial potential and safety profile of the methanol extract of D. microcarpum stem bark. Methods: The extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and oral median lethal dose (LD50) estimation. Using curative, suppressive, and prophylactic experimental animal models, antiplasmodial activity was assessed in mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei. Biochemical and hematological tests were conducted in rats orally administered with the extract for 28 days. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data, followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. Results: Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and glycosides were found in the extract through phytochemical analysis. When compared to the negative control group, the extract at the tested doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.001) curative, suppressive, and prophylactic effect and significantly (P < 0.001) prolonged the survival time of mice in the treated groups. The extract had an insignificant (P > 0.05) effect on the biochemical and hematological parameters tested. Conclusions: The results suggest that the stem bark extract of D. microcarpum at the doses tested possesses antiplasmodial activity and is relatively safe after short-term use.
, Zahra Mahboubi-Fooladi, Zahra Siavashpour, Afshin Rakhsha, Sahar Mirbaha, Alireza Fatemi, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar
International Journal of Cancer Management, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijcm.115735

Abstract:
Background: Malignancy is a known risk factor of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severe involvement. Information about this infection in patients with cancer is limited. Objectives: This study aimed at reporting the clinical and imaging characteristics of COVID-19 infection in patients with cancer. Methods: All the patients were known cases of a solid tumor with COVID-19 infection in one center, between February and May 2020. Clinical presentation and imaging involvement of COVID-19 infection in addition to cancer features were documented from medical records/patient interviews. Results: Thirty-one patients with solid tumors and COVID-19 involvement were included. The most prevalet presentation was fever, cough, and myalgia. Breast and gastrointestinal malignancies were the most common cancer types. The mortality rate was 22.5% and all deceased patients suffered from stage 4 of their underlying cancer disease. Lung computed tomography scan (CT scan) features in these patients were not different from the non-cancer patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 involvement in patients with cancer seems to be more severe with higher mortality rates especially in patients with other comorbidity and in metastatic cases. Treatment modifications during the pandemic era sound to be logical in decreasing the infection rate.
Behzad Rigi Kooteh, Behrooz Dolatshahi, Nour-Mohammad Bakhshani, Yazdan Naderi Rajeh
International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.115515

Abstract:
Background: Craving has an important place in the structure of the literature on consumption disorders. Objectives: The present research investigates the relationship between emotional factors (such as positive and negative effects, emotion regulation, emotion regulation strategies, emotional processing, emotional stimulation, attention to emotional stimuli, emotional separation, and emotional response) with consumption craving. Patients and Methods: The statistical population of current descriptive-correlational research consisted of all opium-dependent patients living in medium-term accommodation centers (camps) in Zahedan, Iran, from 2018 to 2019. Among 21 allowed accommodation centers, 12 were randomly selected. A purposive sampling method was used to select 243 patients. For collecting data, multiple questionnaires were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software. Results: The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that among emotional factors, emotional excitement could only predict 0.020 of variations in instant craving, and other emotional factors did not have much explanatory power. However, to predict drug carvings and desires, more emotional variables (emotional arousal, emotional processing, affection, emotion regulation, and emotional separation) were entered into the equation, and the set could predict 0.156% of drug carving. Conclusions: Cultural factors play an important role in the discussion of emotion, and it is important to consider them in the field of drug prevention. Concurrent attention is needed to be paid to the biological, psychological, and social dimensions. In addition, concurrent treatment can lead to interdisciplinary collaboration.
Pantea Izadi, Mina Tabrizi
Journal of Human Genetics and Genomics, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.5812/jhgg.120343

Abstract:
Keywords Obituary Dr. Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz
Fariba Zarei, Maryam Moini, Mahsa Abedi, Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, Banafsheh Zeinali-Rafsanjani
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.112589

Abstract:
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the second most common cause of liver transplantation in the United States, with a continuously growing prevalence. There are several non-invasive methods to detect liver fibrosis, which is defined as the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, particularly collagens. It is most commonly associated with chronic liver diseases, such as NAFLD. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the concordance between transient elastography (TE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) for liver fibrosis staging and also to examine the congruence between the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and the B-mode hepatorenal ratio for hepatic steatosis grading in patients with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted during March 2018 - 2019, NAFLD patients, referred to the liver clinic of our center for the non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis, were enrolled. However, patients with sonographic features of cirrhosis, multiple hepatic masses, or moderate to large ascites were excluded; also, patients who were uncooperative during the tests were excluded. Measurements obtained by different tools were recorded. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Chi-square test, independent t-test, or Mann-Whitney tests, as well as Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, were used to analyze the data. Results: Sixty-five patients (male-to-female ratio, 1:13), with a median age of 47 years, were included in the study. The tools for assessing fibrosis (r = 0.9538, 95% CI: 0.9252 - 0.9717, P < 0.0001) and steatosis (r = 0.429, 95% CI: 0.2048 - 0.6104, P < 0.0001) were perfectly and moderately correlated, respectively. Sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) did not affect the results. Conclusion: The two elastography modalities showed a strong correlation for fibrosis staging in our study population. Also, the CAP and B-mode hepatorenal ratio were moderately correlated for grading hepatosteatosis. Overall, selection of the best assessment method among the studied modalities depends on factors other than internal validity.
Azamalsadat Navabi, , Mahboobeh Khorsandi,
Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.5812/jjhs.117452

Abstract:
Background: The neonatal period is one of the most sensitive stages of life, requiring proper understanding and attentive care. Objectives: Accordingly, this study was done to investigate the effectiveness of theory of planned behavior (TPB)-based educational intervention on newborn care in pregnant mothers. Methods: This study was conducted as quasi-experimental research on 100 pregnant mothers who were assigned randomly to two groups of intervention (N = 50) and control (N = 50). The data collection tool was a valid and reliable questionnaire based on TPB, which was completed by both groups before the intervention. Considering the effective constructs of this theory, the educational intervention was performed in the form of four 60-minute education sessions in one month for the intervention group. One month after delivery, the data were recollected from both groups and analyzed using statistical tests. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the mothers’ age in both intervention and control groups were 26.14 ± 4.7 and 26.10 ± 5.19 years, respectively (P = 0.48). Before the educational intervention, the behavioral intention of the intervention group was 3.33 (out of 5), which significantly increased to 4.54 after the educational intervention (P < 0.001). Also, the performance of mothers regarding neonatal care in the intervention group increased from 2.86 to 4.64 (P = 0.001) after the education. Conclusions: The TPB-based educational intervention, along with active follow-ups, led to better and more principled behavioral intention and care provided by pregnant mothers to their newborn infants. Therefore, providing TPB-based education in other healthcare centers is recommended.
Hamid Reza Sameni, AbbasAli Vafaei, Sam Zarbakhsh, Afsaneh Talebian, Mohammadreza Aldaghi
Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies; https://doi.org/10.5812/mejrh.115127

Abstract:
Background: Memory loss is the main disorder accompanied by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objectives: We aimed to investigate the protective effects of aminoguanidine (Amg) on cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region and memory impairment in male rats received scopolamine (Scop). Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were randomly divided into the three groups of saline-saline group, Scop + saline, and Scop + Amg groups. The rats received intraperitoneal injection of Scop (3 mg/kg) for seven days, and subsequently, 100 mg/kg of Amg or normal saline were intraperitoneally administrated for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze test was used to study memory deficits. Finally, the animals were anesthetized, hippocampi were quickly removed, histological study was performed, and hippocampal cell apoptosis was evaluated by the cresyl violet staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling test, respectively. Results: Scop injection resulted in reduced pyramidal cells and increased cell apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 area, and impaired spatial learning and memory. The administration of Amg significantly improved memory and improved the density of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 area of the rats (P < 0.01). Also, the number of apoptotic cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the Scop + Amg group decreased compared to the Scop + saline group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the intraperitoneal injection of Amg declined the number of apoptotic cells in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and improved memory impairment in the Scop-induced rat model of AD. It is suggested that Amg may have protective effects against AD.
Go Eun Yang, Soo Jin Kim
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.106627

Abstract:
: An axillary breast is a common condition, which can cause various diseases arising from the breast tissue. Among these diseases, phyllodes tumors are very rare fibroepithelial tumors, which resemble fibroadenomas. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice for phyllodes tumors to prevent recurrence. Inpatient treatment and general anesthesia are required for surgical removal, and fibrosis, skin scarring, and neurological symptoms may occur after surgery. Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision, because of its advantages, is an alternative to surgical excision for clinically benign breast masses. Therefore, in cases of clinically benign or concordant benign lesions, following a core needle biopsy, ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted excision can be considered with sufficient preoperative measures and close follow-up of the ectopic axillary breast.
, Wren Ronan, Lauren Myers, Haven Wheelock, Melinda Butler, Lisa Nelson, Beth E. Williams, Atif Zaman
Published: 26 October 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.114781

Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) treatment in people who inject drugs (PWID) is a key component of elimination models but PWID face substantial barriers to treatment access. Despite data showing treatment outcomes among PWID on medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) are similar to non-PWID outcomes, few studies examine PWID treatment outcomes with only syringe services support. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of recruitment for HCV treatment with elbasvir/grazoprevir (E/G) in a syringe services program (SSP) as compared to an MOUD program for people with opioid use disorder. Methods: This real-world, multi-site prospective open-label pilot study compares treatment of PWID with aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio (APRI) < 0.7 and genotype 1a, 1b, and 4 HCV with E/G, engaged in MOUD (n = 25) or an SSP (n = 25). The MOUD arm was enrolled through a federally qualified community health center and SSP arm through a nearby SSP. Prospective arms were compared to an academic hepatology clinic group (n = 50). Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12), medication adherence, and treatment discontinuation were evaluated. Results: In the MOUD vs SSP arms, substance use throughout treatment was found in 36% (9/25) vs 100% (25/25); good adherence (> 90% pills taken) in 100% (25/25) vs 68% (17/25); treatment completion 100% (25/25) vs 64% (16/25); and SVR12 rates were 96% (24/25) vs 60% (15/25). In the community standard comparison group, SVR12 was achieved in 94% (47/50). There were two virologic failures or re-infections in the SSP group; all other non-responders were due to missing SVR12 data. Conclusions: While recruitment and follow-up are challenging in SSPs, preliminary data suggests adherence, treatment completion, and SVR12 are high in PWID treated with E/G engaging in SSP or MOUD. All metrics are comparable to community standards for non-PWID for treatment of HCV with direct-antiviral drugs.
Ranjan Kumar, Thokchom Biswajit Singh, , Sandeep Bhalla
Journal of Archives in Military Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.5812/jamm.116374

Abstract:
: Acute appendicitis is one of the common surgical emergencies performed by general surgeons. The abnormal position of the appendix may cause a diagnostic dilemma for the treating surgeon. A high index of suspicion along with radio imaging can prevent the delay in the diagnosis and the associated complications of the disease. We report a case series of sub-hepatic appendicitis managed at two different institutions in North-East India and advocate surgical management as the modality of treatment for this condition.
Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.5812/jkums.111808

Abstract:
Context: The unprecedented rise in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is a challenging dilemma, urging the development of novel and effective antibiotics for the treatment of such infections. Anti-virulence therapy is a promising solution in this regard. Unlike antibiotics, these drugs could lower the selective evolutionary pressure on a bacterial population and target the virulence factor rather than the growth pathways, thereby targeting and repressing the propagation of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in bacteria. The present study aimed to investigate anti-virulence therapy against bacterial infections, as well as the mechanisms of action and challenges. Objectives: This literature review aimed to discuss the issues of antibiotic resistance developed in bacterial infections, the difficulties in antibiotic treatment, the mechanisms involved in anti-virulence therapy, and the approved anti-virulence drug therapeutics. Results: We outlined the success in overcoming antibiotic resistance by using anti-virulence therapy as an alternate treatment option, while also discussing the drawbacks associated with their use and safety against bacterial infections. Conclusions: According to the results, anti-virulence therapy combined with antibiotic treatment is effective in the treatment of several bacterial infections.
Niloofar Tabaar, Samira Bahramian, Fardin Mir Ahmadi
Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Volume 25; https://doi.org/10.5812/jkums.114693

Abstract:
Background: Probiotic products with valuable nutritional and therapeutic properties have attracted great attention in the fields of industry, nutrition, and medicine. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic bacteria in capsulated and non-capsulated forms in malt products during storage. We also evaluated the pH, brix, sugar content, and organoleptic properties of the three products, a control malt (non-probiotic extract), an extract containing the probiotic bacteria without capsules, and an extract containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria. Methods: The probiotic strain of L. plantarum was inoculated into a barley malt extract in free and encapsulated forms. Bacterial microencapsulation was performed using the extrusion technique with sodium alginate. In addition, bacterial viability was determined using the mixed culture method in MRS agar medium at the temperature of 37°C for 48 hours. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the Minitab 16 software. Results: The count of L. plantarum in the non-capsulated form did not change significantly although it increased in the capsulated form. No significant changes were observed in the sugar content, pH, and brix during the storage of the three products. Moreover, the sensory acceptance of malt with capsulated bacteria was higher compared to the other samples. Conclusions: According to the results, the probiotic strain of L. plantarum in the free and microencapsulated forms was maintained in the barley malt extract for two months of storage at the temperature of 4°C. Therefore, it seems that barley malt extract may be a favorable environment for the preservation of probiotic L. plantarum.
Afsaneh Reiazat, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Somayeh Farhang, Sakineh Rakhshanderou, Hamidreza Mirzaei, Payam Azadeh, Mansour Rezazadeh Azari,
International Journal of Cancer Management, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijcm.113744

Abstract:
Background: Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs causes the production of free radicals and their reaction with macromolecules in the body. Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by using urinary oxidative stress indices of the oncology staff in Iranian hospitals. Methods: Healthy full-time oncology and pharmacy staff (n = 45) participated in this prospective interventional study. The training of the personnel for proper handling of the antineoplastic drugs was given. During their work shift, their performance was recorded in a checklist. Urinary oxidative stress indices of the staff and scores of their performances were obtained before and after their training. Results: The mean performance score of all oncology staff was statistically higher than after 2 months of educational intervention (P < 0.001). The mean activity levels of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase enzymes of all oncology staff was statistically lower than after 2 months of educational intervention (P < 0.001). The mean level of Malondialdehyde of all oncology staff was statistically lower than after 2 months of educational intervention (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Educational intervention increased oncology staff performance score and it affected the level of the oxidative stress parameters 2 months after the educational intervention by decreasing the activity of enzymes and the level of malondialdehyde.
Zahra Eslami, Ommolbanin Younesian, , Wilza Arantes Ferreira Peres, Alireza Norouzi, Sara Hosseinzadeh, Hosein Naseh, Abdorreza Eghbal Moghanlou, , Javad Azari Bideskan
Published: 25 October 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.117696

Abstract:
Background: Accumulation of fat in the liver is one of the causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which affects about 30% of the world's population. Animal models have been useful tools for investigating the mechanisms involved in the etiology of NAFLD and developing new drugs. Objectives: This study aimed to present a new model for the detection of NAFLD in rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into six experimental groups: (1) control; (2) 45% fructose + 35% olive oil + carbon tetrachloride (FFC1); (3) carbon tetrachloride (1: 4 in olive oil) (C1); (4) carbon tetrachloride (1: 6 in olive oil) (C2); (5) 12.5% fructose + 12.5% olive oil (FF); and (6) 20% fructose + carbon tetrachloride (1: 4 in olive oil) (FC1). Blood samples were taken in three steps, and liver tissue was dissected at the end of the sixth week for histopathological assessments. Results: After six weeks, the alanine transaminase (131.63 ± 1.51), aspartate transaminase (275 ± 1.0), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (4.30 ± 0.1) levels increased significantly in the C1 group (P < 0.05). The serum lipid profile showed significant changes in all groups compared to the controls (P < 0.01). According to the histological results, all experimental groups, except the C2 group, showed symptoms of NAFLD; nevertheless, a higher NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) was found in the C1 group, followed by the FC1 group, compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The present results revealed that injection of 0.1 mL/kg of carbon tetrachloride (C1 group), alone or along with a diet containing 20% fructose (FC1 group), provided useful animal models of NAFLD, although carbon tetrachloride injection alone is the most effective model in inducing NAFLD model that can be used as a new strategy in nutritional and pharmacological studies.
Masoumeh Rostami-Moez, Khodayar Oshvandi, Ziba Niazy, , Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi
Journal of Medical Education; https://doi.org/10.5812/jme.116707

Abstract:
Background: Medical ethics has emphasized the necessity of respecting patients’ rights. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of teaching patients’ rights to midwifery students on their compliance with patients’ rights in Fatemieh Maternity Hospital in Hamadan. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on all of the midwifery students in the last academic year in 2018. Also, a sample population of 300 pregnant women who were hospitalized for normal vaginal delivery (150 cases in the control group and 150 in the intervention group) was included. A researcher-made checklist was used for assessing compliance with patients’ rights, which was completed for midwifery students before and after training. Also, pregnant women's satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. A workshop in two days was implemented for the midwifery students group about the patients' rights charter. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups of pregnant women in terms of education, age, gravida, and para (P > 0.05). The mean score of the adequate services had a significant difference between the before and after training (P < 0.01). The other dimension of patients’ rights was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in pregnant women’s satisfaction in psychological domain (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The patients’ rights charter workshop for midwifery students is recommended to improve awareness of them and patient satisfaction.
Farokh Seilanian Toosi, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Mona Maftouh, Ahmadreza Tavassoli
International Journal of Cancer Management, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijcm.104715

Abstract:
Introduction: Cutaneous metastasis is an uncommon manifestation that mostly occurs in patients with previous gastrointestinal or gynecological malignancies. Local recurrence usually can be seen in surgical incisions. Dysgerminomas are rare ovarian tumors that usually have local invasions, but metastases are infrequent. Here, we described a case of dysgerminoma and cutaneous metastasis in the surgical incision. Case Presentation: The patient was a 39-year-old woman previously known as ovarian dysgerminoma, who had undergone surgery one year ago. Ultrasound examination a year after surgery showed a 35 × 33 millimeters hypoechoic solid tumor in the left ovary and another 3 masses with similar echo pattern and vascularity were found in the surgical incision. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were compatible with cutaneous metastasis of pervious dysgerminoma. Pathologic evaluation and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed dysgerminoma's skin metastasis. She received chemotherapy due to the recurrence of malignancy. Conclusions: Local recurrence and metastases (even in the skin) should be kept in mind and the clinician must examine the surgical site skin in patients with a history of malignancy.
Zahra Vahedi Langaroudi, , Ahmad Abdi,
Published: 25 October 2021
Abstract:
Background: Volleyball requires high anaerobic and aerobic capacity, so to evaluate this important issue, there are various tests such as Bruce maximal test. There is no standard field test to measure cardiovascular function for women volleyball according to exercise mode. Objectives: This study aimed to design and validation of functional cardiorespiratory exercise field tests in women volleyball players. Methods: In a diagnostic value study, 64 competitive female volleyball players with three years of playing experience (Age: 27 ± 6) were voluntarily selected from Tehran’s first division league. To evaluate VO2max, the Bruce test and the newly designed test, which was fully explained in the methodology section, were used. Data were analyzed using the ROC curve test. Results: The results showed that the area under the curve exceeded 0.71%, and the sensitivity and specificity values were 70.8% and 75%, respectively. The PPV obtained in this study was 89.5, and also the NPV values were 46.2, indicating relatively good reliability for screening. Conclusions: The present study shows that the newly designed test for women volleyball players, which uses a special exercise mode in modeled volleyball, has relatively good reliability. This test may be used as an efficient and inexpensive field test to measure the VO2max in women volleyball players.
Sevda Riyahifar, Reza Ali Akbari Khoei,
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijp.105984

Abstract:
Background: Congenital malformations are one of the most important and common types of anomalies in infants, and they are considered as the leading causes of disability and mortality in children. These malformations impose enormous costs on families and organizations involved in the treatment, maintenance, and education of patients. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors affecting the incidence of congenital anomalies in infants born in Iran. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, we registered various information of all newborns examined and their mothers, including gender, family relationship of parents, type of delivery, types of congenital malformations, anomalies of the hands and feet, and anomalies of the nervous and reproductive systems in the maternity wards of hospitals in Iran. Data were gathered using a checklist. The relationships between different factors were assessed by chi-square test, and the factors influencing congenital malformations were investigated by logistic regression using SPSS-26 software. The significance level of all tests was 0.05. Results: According to the results, 7.5% of newborns had congenital malformations. Eclampsia and diabetes mellitus increased the risk of congenital malformations by 15 and 11%, respectively. The risk of congenital malformations in rural areas was 12% higher than in urban areas. Factors such as consanguineous marriages, history of abortion, and gender also affected the risk of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Necessary measures and plans in the field of premarital counseling, regular pre-pregnancy and post-pregnancy tests and controls, especially in rural and deprived areas, are essential and effective in reducing the incidence of congenital malformations.
Nima Hasanzadeh, Azadeh Niknejad
Jentashapir Journal of Cellular and Molecular Biology; https://doi.org/10.5812/jjcmb.119223

Abstract:
Context: Glioblastoma, previously known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a grade IV astrocytoma common in patients over the age of 45, on average. It is generally categorized into primary and secondary subtypes, based on research conducted by Hans Joachim Scherer. Evidence Acquisition: This review concentrates on cellular and genetic drawbacks that can lead to the appearance of glioblastoma. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) was the main source used for writing this review article, followed by Google scholar. The following keywords were used to retrieve articles: 'glioblastoma', 'brain tumors', 'glioma', 'LOH', and 'cellular and signaling pathways in glioblastoma'. Results: Several genetic alterations and cellular pathways are involved in the appearance and progression of glioblastoma, including loss of heterozygosity (LoH), TP53 mutation, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, P16INK4/RB1 pathway, and EGFR/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway. The majority (70%) of primary glioblastomas are caused by (LoH), and it mostly occurs in older people. Secondary glioblastoma is mainly manifested by TP53 mutation and usually affects younger people. Understanding the alterations and cellular mechanisms involved in glioblastoma is important to develope new therapeutic regimes. Surgery, radiation therapy, temozolomide, and TTFields are the four most important therapeutic options available for treating patients. Conclusions: In this review, the genetic alterations and cellular pathways which could lead to the appearance of this tumor were highlighted, and the latest options for treating patients dealing with glioblastoma were discussed.
Chenao Zhan, Dazhong Tang, Lu Huang, Yayuan Geng, Tao Ai, Liming Xia
Iranian Journal of Radiology; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.113335

Abstract:
Background: The clinical manifestations of amyloid cardiomyopathy (AC) are not specific; therefore, AC is often misdiagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or hypertensive heart disease (HHD). A differential diagnosis of these three conditions is often necessary in the clinical setting. Objectives: To investigate the differential diagnostic performance of radiomic analysis, based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) native T1 mapping images for the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) etiologies. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study was conducted on 91 participants (68 males and 23 females; mean age: 48 ± 13 years), including 22 patients with HHD, 27 patients with AC, 28 patients with HCM, and 14 controls in Tongji Hospital (Shanghai, China). All participants underwent 3.0T CMR imaging. Besides, radiomic analyses were performed using T1 mapping images. The cases were divided into training and test datasets using a random seed. Next, the models were constructed with the training dataset and evaluated with the test dataset. Results: A total of 1,033 radiomic features were extracted in this study. Overall, 11, 28, 19, and eight features were selected to construct the basal T1 mapping, mid-chamber T1 mapping, apical T1 mapping, and multi-module conjoint models, respectively. Optimal performance was reported in the mid-chamber and basal T1 mapping models. The area under the curve (AUC), precision, recall, and F1 score were 0.96, 0.84, 0.82, and 0.83 for the mid-chamber T1 mapping model and 0.96, 0.90, 0.89, and 0.88 for the basal T1 mapping model in the independent test dataset, respectively. The lowest diagnostic performance was observed in the apical T1 mapping model. The AUC, precision, recall, and F1 score of the apical T1 mapping model were 0.86, 0.71, 0.70, and 0.70 in the independent test dataset, respectively. Conclusions: The radiomic analysis of T1 mapping could accurately distinguish the three causes of myocardial hypertrophy, including HCM, HHD, and AC. It may be also a suitable alternative to late gadolinium enhancement-CMR.
Ali Ghanbaribarzian, Davoud Zahrani, Hamid Dehghani
International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.112258

Abstract:
Keywords Iranian Sexual Life Sex Typology Sexual Identity Relationship
, Hassan Ziaaddini, Nozar Nakhaee, Azam Kermanian
Trends in Medical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.5812/tms.115848

Abstract:
Background: It is generally accepted that due to various reasons, the age of drug abuse prevalence continues to decline, which imposes numerous personal and social dysfunctions. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of drug abuse among adolescents in Kerman, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2,000 10th - 12th-grade students in the academic year of 2017 - 2018 selected by random cluster sampling. Data collection tools included demographic characteristics checklist and alcohol smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST). Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the highest prevalence of substance abuse among students was related to tobacco, alcohol, and sedatives. It was also demonstrated that the use of cigarettes, sedatives, cannabis, and amphetamine was significantly higher among male subjects compared to female participants (P < 0.05). Moreover, 16.4, 12.9, and 5.1% of the tobacco, alcohol, and sedative users required low interventions, respectively, whereas 1.5, 0.8, and 0.4% of them required high interventions, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, there was higher drug abuse prevalence in male students compared to female students. As such, it seems that consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics in adolescents requires serious intervention.
Nasim Shokouhi, Sara Saeedi, Soheila Sarmadi, Behnaz Moradi, Elham Feizabad
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.113682

Abstract:
: Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube is a rare, but fatal gynecologic cancer. The preoperative diagnosis of this carcinoma is challenging due to the absence of specific symptoms and signs, and in most patients, it is an intraoperative finding. A 55-year-old patient (G3Ab1P2) was referred to the urogynecology clinic of our hospital with the chief complaints of heavy, prolonged menstrual bleeding and a persistently abnormal yellow discharge, which could not be distinguished by the patient from urinary leaks. After a complete diagnostic work-up, the patient was identified as a candidate for hysterectomy due to abnormal vaginal bleeding resistant to megestrol acetate, family history of malignancy, and abnormal vaginal discharge. Laparotomy revealed unusual left fallopian tube features (large, bulky, and vegetative), suggesting malignancy. The intraoperative frozen-section analysis of the left fallopian tube and the ovarian specimens indicated the mass as a high-grade serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and partial omentectomy were performed for the patient. The definitive histopathological diagnosis was high-grade serous carcinoma of the left fallopian tube (stage 2b) with omental involvement, without any evidence of lymphovascular invasion. High-grade serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube is likely to have non-specific symptoms, causing a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment, which negatively affects the prognosis and survival of these patients.
Maryam Khalajmehri, Parsa Yousefichaijan, , Bahman Salehi, Bahman Sadeghi-Sedeh, Hassan Taherahmadi
Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.5812/amh.111806

Abstract:
Background: Nocturnal enuresis is a symptom defined as enuresis in children over 5 years of age that might have mutual connection to sleep disturbances. This condition might be a stressful factor for children and their families. Objectives: This study aimed to find the correlation between primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE), as a stressful factor and sleep disorders. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 132 children, including 66 children with nocturnal enuresis as the case group and 66 healthy children as the control group. The two groups were homogenous in age, gender, and other demographic characteristics. The organized sleep disorder questionnaire based on sleep disorder diagnostic criteria (using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) was used in this study. The correlation between PMNE and sleep disorders was investigated based on the Chi-square test on SPSS software (version 23). Results: The mean scores of the subjects with sleep disorders in the control and case groups were 0.38 ± 0.78 and 2.24 ± 1.73, respectively. Therefore, there were significant differences between the two groups in sleep disorders (P = 0.001). In addition, primary insomnia, hypersomnia, circadian sleep rhythm, and sleep terror disorders in the case group were higher than the control group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The PMNE has been defined as a risk factor for sleep disorders.
Mana Goodarzi, Mohammad Noori, Maryam Aslzakerlighvan, Imaneh Abasi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.113164

Abstract:
Background: Social appearance anxiety refers to the fear of negative evaluation and judgment about appearance in social situations. Previous scales have focused more on body dysmorphic, and a tool that can measure this anxiety in social situations has not been previously introduced. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) in the student community. Methods: This psychometric study was conducted on a sample of 415 Iranian students in 2020 using the convenience sampling method. The participants completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale, Body Dysmorphic Scale, and Body Shape Scale. Cronbach’s alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and convergent validity were used to examine internal consistency. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 24) and AMOS software (version 21). Results: Cronbach’s alpha for total score was 0.95. The relationship between the SAAS and Body Dysmorphic Scale (r = 0.73; P < 0.01), Body Shape Scale (r = 0.46; P < 0.01), and Social Physique Anxiety Scale (r = 0.79; P < 0.01) showed good convergent validity. The EFA extracted one factor that explained 0.60 of the total variance. After testing the one-factor model in CFA, the analysis showed good fitness indexes (comparative fit index = 0.95; goodness of fit index = 0.91). The item-total correlation of the Iranian SAAS was within a range of 0.51 - 0.84. Conclusions: The present scale has a high internal consistency and reliability and can be used for research and evaluation objectives in clinical settings in Iranian society.
Sajjad Azmand, , Maryam Fatemi
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.118177

Abstract:
Context: COVID-19, like the other pandemics, apart from its impacts on peoples' health, has had diverse huge impacts on psycho-socio-economic aspects of societies globally. Hence, applying appropriate interventions to reduce the indirect burden of this pandemic is as important as patients’ care. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to review the main interventions against the economic and psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This scope review was conducted to determine what measures have been taken by governments against different non-medical (economic and psychosocial) consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors reviewed the relevant articles published from December 2019 to December 2020 through three databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The interventions in three areas of economic, social, or psychological were exerted, and in the review of the articles, the country and the target population were considered. Finally, the results were categorized and presented descriptively. Results: Regarding the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in psychosocial and economic aspects of societies, governments, especially in developed countries, have established measures to reduce the burdens of these consequences. Apart from interventions related to the general population, at-risk and vulnerable groups and also those with low socio-economic status are specific target populations for interventions. Conclusions: The future of the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain and unpredictable. Governments and their decisions will play a vital role in determining the trend of the pandemic. Therefore, it is the responsibility of governments, especially in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), to support vulnerable people and protect them against the devastating socio-economic and psychological effects of this pandemic using all their capacity.
Mostafa Shanbehzadeh,
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.114456

Abstract:
Context: Contact tracing is a cornerstone community-based measure for augmenting public health response preparedness to epidemic diseases such as the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is no an agreed data collection tool for the unified reporting of COVID-19 contact tracing efforts at the national level. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the COVID-19 Contact Tracing Minimal Dataset (COV-CT-MDS) as a prerequisite to develop a mobile-based contact racing system for the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: This study was carried out in 2020 by a combination of literature review coupled with a two-round Delphi survey. First, the probable data elements were identified using an extensive literature review in scientific databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Web of Science (WOS). Then, the core data elements were validated using a two-round Delphi survey. Results: Out of 388 articles, 24 were eligible to be included in the study. By the full-text study of the included articles and after the Delphi survey, the designed COV-CT-MDS was categorized into two clinical and administrative data sections, nine data classes, and 81 data fields. Conclusions: COV-CT-MDS is an efficient and valid tool that could provide a basis for collecting comprehensive and standardized data on COVID-19 contact tracing. It could also provide scientific teamwork for health care authorities, which may lead to the enhanced quality of documentation, research, and surveillance outcomes.
, Gholamali Maamouri, Maryam Abbasi, Elahe Heidari
Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics; https://doi.org/10.5812/compreped.109539

Abstract:
Background: Neonatal jaundice is highly prevalent in Asia and has serious complications, such as kernicterus. Therefore, it is very important to identify the risk factors of jaundice requiring exchange transfusion since it can be helpful in the prevention of the disease and early diagnosis of its complications. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the causes of neonatal jaundice requiring blood exchange. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 251 term and preterm neonates. The studied newborns were 2-14 days old (born at ≥ 35 weeks of gestation) with jaundice and bilirubin of more than 17 mg/dL and received exchange transfusion during 2011 - 2020 in Ghaem teaching hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The required data of the study variables, such as hyperbilirubinemia risk factors, laboratory tests, the documented history of the mothers and neonates, and physical examination results, were collected through a questionnaire and the medical records of the patients. Finally, the collected data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 20). Results: Based on the results, the mean value of the total serum bilirubin level in neonates who received exchange transfusion was 27.53 ± 10.05 mg/dL. The blood types of about 40% of mothers and their neonates were O and A/B, respectively. Moreover, 11.4% of mothers were Rh-negative; however, their neonates were Rh-positive. The results also revealed that the causes of exchange transfusion were unknown, ABO incompatibility, Rh incompatibility, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD), and sepsis in 52.7 %, 24%, 7.1%, 5.3%, and 5.3% of the neonates, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that after unknown causes, the most common causes of exchange transfusion were ABO incompatibility, Rh incompatibility, G6PDD, and sepsis. Therefore, since most of these causes can be recognized, it is recommended to perform related tests and take related measures in the Midwifery Department of the hospital to prevent the occurrence and exacerbation of jaundice. Moreover, it is recommended to perform an early follow-up after the discharge.
Mahsa Asadollahi Hamedani, Alireza Salar,
Medical - Surgical Nursing Journal, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.5812/msnj.117259

Abstract:
Background: Nowadays, the high prevalence of hypertension and its serious complications for affected patients have made this disease a major health issue worldwide. Hypertension, like other chronic diseases, reduces the patients’ quality of life. Maintaining and improving their lifestyles requires the serious support of families. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effect of the family-centered empowerment model on the quality of life of patients with hypertension. Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 70 hypertensive patients who were referred to two comprehensive health centers in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in Zahedan, southeastern Iran, in 2020. The participants were selected and randomly allocated based on the inclusion criteria to the intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups using the consort. The participants in the intervention group received training in four 60-min sessions individually based on the family empowerment model. To collect data, a personal information form and the Quality of Life Questionnaire for hypertensive patients were used. The questionnaire was completed before the intervention and one and three months after the intervention by a self-report method. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS-22 using the independent samples t test, chi-square test, and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The results of repeated-measures analysis of variance regarding the effect of time and group on the quality of life showed a statistically significant difference in the second and third phases between the two groups. In other words, the two variables of intervention and time affected the mean score of quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was observed in the measured time intervals (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that implementing the family-centered empowerment model improves the quality of life of patients with hypertension. Therefore, we recommend employing this method by nurses to engage the patients with chronic diseases and their families in the process of treatment.
Mesut Dursun, Umut Zubarioglu
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijp.117193

Abstract:
Background: Respiratory severity score (RSS) is a simple, non-invasive respiratory failure assessment tool that its appropriateness for lung disease severity is well-established. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the potential value of early-life RSS values in predicting mortality or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Methods: Following a retrospective approach, the current multi-center study intended to estimate the RSS and RSS/kg values in the first three days of life and time-weighted means of these values in ELBW babies who received invasive mechanical ventilation. Participants were categorized into two groups of survival without severe BPD and those with severe BPD or death. All RSS values and other risk factors were compared between groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting severe BPD or death. The sensitivity and specificity of RSS values in predicting severe BPD or death were estimated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: A total of 101 infants met the inclusion criteria. All RSS and RSS/kg values in the first three days of life were found to be significantly higher in the severe BPD or death group. The maximum area under the curve (AUC) in the ROC curves created for the respiratory severity score values was determined as RSS/kg mean with a cut-off value of 3.62 (85.3%), (P = 0.001). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included risk factors that may affect the development of severe BPD or mortality, both the mean RSS/kg score and the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation maintained statistically significant. [RSS/kg mean; OR = 2.28 (1.37 – 3.78), P = 0.001], [invasive MV duration; OR = 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03 – 1.14), P = 0.003]. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that high RSS/kg mean values in the early periods of life are valuable in predicting severe BPD or death in ELBW babies undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, mean RSS had more predictive power than single RSS determinations, and incorporating body weight was associated with improved sensitivity of the score.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.115702

Abstract:
Background: Spiritual care (SC) is an appropriate source for adaptation and coping with disease and life stressors. Although SC contributes to the quality of life and mental health of clients, there are barriers to the provision of such care. Objectives: This study aimed to explore barriers to the provision of SC in mental health care centers from the viewpoints of mental health care provider (MHCP) experts. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on conventional content analysis on 19 participants who were selected from different groups of MHCPs. The participants were selected by purposive sampling method from December 2019 to December 2020 in Karaj and Tehran, Iran, by considering the maximum diversity. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with participants during an average time of 60 min per interview until data saturation. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: Barriers to SC were obtained in four categories and 10 subcategories. The categories included “SC concept-related barriers”, “barriers related to MHCPs”, “organizational barriers”, and “barriers related to SC recipients.” Conclusions: This study demonstrated various barriers to the provision of SC to the clients of health care centers that should be removed to promote the level and quality of SC.
Hamed Taheri, Roya Rafaiee, Hamed Ghazvini, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Raheleh Rafaiee
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.119448

Abstract:
Keywords SARS-CoV-2 Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia COVID-19
Fereshteh Mansoury, Soheila Abdi, Nahid Babaei, , Abbas Doosti, Fatemeh Mashayekhi
Jentashapir Journal of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.5812/jjcmb.118967

Abstract:
Background: In recent years, the relationship between cancer cells and electromagnetic radiation has received much attention. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different intensities of electromagnetic fields on gastric cancer cell lines (AGS). Methods: After preparing AGS and Hu02 (normal) cell lines, they were exposed to magnetic flux densities of 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 millitesla (mT) for 18 h. The cell viability was studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression levels of hes1 and hsa-circ-0068530 RNAs were studied by the quantitative Real-time-PCR technique. Results: The inhibition of gastric cancer cell line growth was observed under the influence of electromagnetic fields at different intensities. However, they did not affect the viability of normal cells. A sharp increase in the expression of hes1 and hsa-circ-0068530 genes was observed in normal cells exposed to 2 mT electromagnetic fields. Conclusions: In general, it can be concluded that the effect of electromagnetic fields on gastric cancer cells depends on their intensity. Magnetic flux densities of 0.25 and 0.5 mT had anti-cancer effects and magnetic flux density of 2 mT showed carcinogenic effects.
Elham Majidi, Gholamreza Manshaee
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.115684

Abstract:
Background: Dentophobia can reduce the number of regular visits to dentists and endanger the oral health of people. New technologies such as virtual reality (VR) can be used in the treatment of psychological problems such as dentophobia. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) on dentophobia in clients of dental offices in the cities of Isfahan, Tehran, and Shahrekord in 2020. Methods: The research method was quasi-experimental with a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up design and a control group. The statistical population of this study consisted of all clients with dentophobia visiting private dental clinics of Isfahan, Tehran, and Shahrekord in 2020. Thirty clients with dentophobia who were willing to participate in the research were selected as the sample using convenience sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 15 per group). The experimental group underwent eight sessions (15-minutes sessions per week) of virtual reality exposure therapy, while the control group received no intervention. The follow-up was performed after 45 days. The research instruments included the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Samsung Gear 360 (2017 Edition), and HTC VIVE Pro Virtual Reality Headset. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: The results showed that virtual reality exposure therapy effectively decreased dentophobia in clients of dental offices in the experimental group (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: According to research findings, virtual reality exposure therapy was an efficient therapy for improving dentophobia and reducing phobia symptoms in clients of dental offices.
, Raheleh Rafaiee
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/zjrms.119598

Abstract:
Background: The idiopathic peptic ulcers (IPU) or non-Helicobacter pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug non-NSAIDs associated peptic ulcers are a serious therapeutic challenge. The prevalence of IPU is increasing in some parts of the world. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IPU in southeastern Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 367 patients with active peptic ulcer were diagnosed by endoscopy between Jan 2018 and Feb 2019. The patients were assessed for history of medication use (including NSAIDs) in the past month, smoking, alcohol, as well as a complete history of health problems related to underlying disease such as cardiopulmonary, hepatic, renal problems, and chronic pancreatitis. Biopsy samples from antrum were performed for rapid urease test (RUT), and if RUT was negative, then biopsies were sent for histopathology. If both RUT and pathologic findings were negative for H. pylori, in patients who had treatment for H. pylori eradication, anti-H. pylori IgG antibody of blood samples was assessed. Patients were considered infected with H. pylori if any of the diagnostic tests had a positive result. Results: According to the results, 336 (91.3%) cases had at least one of the two main etiologic factors (H. pylori and NSAIDs) for peptic ulcer. While 323 (87.7%) patients were H. pylori-positive, 45 (12.3%) patients were H. pylori-negative. However, out of 45 H. pylori-negative cases, 13 patients had a positive history of using NSAIDs, and 32 (8.69%) patients were IPU. Conclusions: Our study showed that both H. pylori infection and NSAIDs use remain the main cause of peptic ulcers, and the prevalence of IPU is relatively high in Zahedan.
Mohammad Rostami, Yahiya Salimi, Fereshteh Jalalvandi
Journal of Clinical Research in Paramedical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/jcrps.119585

Abstract:
Background: Preoperative anxiety is a common problem of surgical patients because it causes a range of emotional, psychological and physical problems. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods have been used to reduce the level of anxiety in patients undergoing general surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electronic education on preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods: The present study was a randomized controlled trial on 88 patients who were candidates for LC in two intervention and control groups in one of the Kermanshah hospitals. Patients in the intervention group received electronic education before surgery. The Visual Analog Scale Anxiety (VAS-A) questionnaire was used to measure anxiety before surgery in the study. Data analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the level of basic anxiety between the intervention and control groups. In second VAS-A evaluation, a significant mean difference was observed between the two groups so that the anxiety of the intervention group was calculated as 26.1 ± (SD = 16) vs. the control group as 45 ± (SD = 21). The mean of post-intervention anxiety compared to pre-intervention anxiety significantly decreased in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our findings highlight that electronic-based education can reduce the preoperative anxiety level in LC patients. Therefore, it's recommended to medical staff for delivering pre-surgery electronic educational interventions for LC surgical patients in order to reduce the level of preoperative anxiety.
Mohammad Shooriabi, Sedigheh Modarres Mousavy
Jundishapur Journal of Chronic Disease Care; https://doi.org/10.5812/jjcdc.112603

Abstract:
Background: The number of patients suffering coronavirus (COVID-19) is increasing worldwide, and given that there is now no vaccine against this virus, the best prevention technique is to observe health protocols and social distancing. This issue is of paramount importance in dentistry clinics. Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists in Ahvaz regarding COVID-19. Methods: The study population encompassed all dentists who were the WhatsApp group members of the Iranian Dental Association in Ahvaz, Iran. The online questionnaire link was shared on the social network on October 1, and the member dentists were asked to answer the questionnaire addressing demographic characteristics, knowledge about the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 disease, virus transmission method, and infection control method. These items assessed the dentists’ attitude and practice in the treatment procedure of the COVID-19 patients. Results: Out of 227 group members, 171 dentists observed the questionnaire link, and 108 persons answered the questions. Most of the respondents were 40-49 years old and male. Moreover, 19% of the participants had dentistry specialization, 60% of the dentists had received no training on infection control in dentistry, 66% of these individuals had passed the COVID-19 training course, and 23% of the dentists believed that the COVID-19 incubation period was 7-14 days. Most of the dentists were aware of the symptoms of COVID-19 and the diagnosis techniques for patients with COVID-19. They correctly reported the disease transmission and the disease prevention methods in the dental clinic. The dentists acted differently in using personal equipment, and only 75% of these individuals used the N95 Mask during the treatment of patients. About 13% of the dentists did not study the protocol proposed by the Ministry of Health for reopening the dental clinic during the COVID-19 outbreak period. Conclusions: The Ahvazian dentists are aware of the symptoms of COVID-19, its transmission, and the infection control protocol in dental clinics. However, they did not fully observe the protocols on wearing personal protective equipment for themselves and clinic staff; hence, barriers to using personal protective equipment should be eliminated, and the implementation of the protocols in dental clinics should be monitored more strictly.
Mohammad Bagher Khosravi, Farid Zand, Arvin Hedayati, Seyedeh Maryam Tabibzadeh, Ehsan Amiri-Ardekani,
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.119033

Abstract:
Keywords Medical Education Shiraz Burnout COVID-19
, , , Fatemeh Azizmohammadi, Amir Keshavarzian
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.115669

Abstract:
Context: according to the corruption perceptions index (CPI) 2018, Iran ranked 148 among 183 countries. This position shows the crucial importance of considering corruption and its negative effect on Iran and its health care system. In this review, we aimed to shed the light on corrupt practices in Iran’s health care system and recommend some practical strategies to combat them. Evidence Acquisition: This is a narrative review based on Vian's conceptual model of corruption in the health sector to evaluate and analyze corruption in Iran's health system. Review of the literature and documents without any time limitation were conducted in several databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Farsi sources including Iran Medex, scientific information database )SID(, and Magiran, and also the official websites of the Ministry of Health and news agencies. Results: Unfortunately, to the best of our review, there is less published evidence about the extent and types of corruption in Iran's health system. Based on Vian’s model, reviewed literature revealed that Iran's health system is prone to corruption. This system is monopolistic and self-authorized, low transparent and accountable, and required law enforcement in many areas. Evidence to clarify the situation of citizen voice was not found. Conclusions: Based on this study, evidence shows corruption in financing, service provision, and resource generation of Iran's health system. It could affect not only performance of this system but also its responsiveness and effectiveness. To combat, Iran should apply multiple strategies such as; improving good governance, strengthening legal system over the health system, reducing monopoly and discretion stepwise and manageable, enhancing community participation, and finally updating ethics codes in the health system.
Alireza Sedaghat, ,
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine; https://doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.109400

Abstract:
Objectives: The study aimed was to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) levels and muscle markers in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 among school students from Isfahan, Iran. Using cluster sampling, 159 students aged 7 to 18 years were selected. In addition to the physical examination, the PA level was assessed using a valid questionnaire. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The samples included 79 girls and 80 boys with a mean age (standard deviation) of 12.72 (3.06) years and a mean body mass index of 18.30 (3.70) kg/m2. The mean AST and CPK were significantly higher in boys than in girls (P < 0.05). Participants with higher PA levels had significantly lower LDH and ALT than other participants (-0.20, P = 0.003, and 0.044 P = 0.295, respectively). There was no significant relationship between PA level and muscle enzyme levels. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that higher PA level was associated with lower serum muscle markers other than LDH. This suggests that the best types of PA for children and adolescents are those activities with rest sets to prevent muscle damage.
Tian Xia, Ying Pang, Huimin Xiong
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 31; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijp.115288

Abstract:
Background: Myopia is a very common eye disease with an unknown etiology. Increasing evidence shows that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an active role in the pathogenesis and progression of this disease. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) variants and high myopia (HM). Methods: The entire mt-tRNA genes of 150 children with HM, as well as 100 healthy subjects, were PCR-amplified and sequenced. To assess the pathogenicity, we used the phylogenetic conservation analysis and pathogenicity scoring system. Results: We identified six candidate pathogenic variants: tRNALeu (UUR) T3290C, tRNAIle A4317G, tRNAAla G5591A, tRNASer (UCN) T7501C, tRNAHis T12201C, and tRNAThr G15915A. However, these variants were not identified in controls. Further phylogenetic analysis revealed that these variants occurred at the positions, which were very evolutionarily conserved and may have structural-functional impacts on the tRNAs. Subsequently, these variants may lead to the impairment of mitochondrial translation and aggravated mitochondrial dysfunction, which play an active role in the phenotypic expression of HM. Conclusions: Our results suggested that variants in mt-tRNA genes were the risk factors for HM, which provided valuable information for the early detection and prevention of HM.
Narges Mohamadi Parsa, Abbas Mohamadi, Fatemeh Einabadi
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.114235

Abstract:
Background: The mental state of the mother is one of the factors influencing the development of infants. Besides, the quality of the child's relationship with her/his parent is very important in childhood development. Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the mother's depression and developmental disorders in infants. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a sample size of 311 subjects. The study population included all infants and their mothers who were referred to health centers of the city of Hamadan, Iran, to receive the usual one-year care. Mothers’ depression was assessed with the second edition of the Beck Depression Inventory, and children’s developmental disabilities were assessed with one-year Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Results: The mean age of mothers in this study was 29.7 ± 5.6. The prevalence of developmental disorders in infants was 3.5%. This study showed that mothers' depression had no significant relationship with any of the developmental domains in infants. None of the developmental domains in infants were related to the mother's occupation and education. However, the gross motor skills (P-value: 0.007) and problem-solving skills (P-value: 0.031) were significantly related to the socioeconomic level, and communication (P-value: 0.034), and personal-social skills (P-value: 0.026) of the infant were directly related to the mother's age. Conclusions: Mother's depression is not related to the infant's developmental disorders. There is a relationship between the socioeconomic level of the family and gross motor and problem-solving skills of the infant. The mother’s age is directly related to communication and personal-social skills of the infant.
, Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Maryam Poostkar, Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijp.117380

Abstract:
Background: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is a disease presenting with severe cholestasis and progressing to the end-stage liver disease later. Liver transplantation is a treatment modality available for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, especially in patients with end-stage liver disease or those who are unsuitable for or have failed biliary diversion. Objectives: To evaluate clinical and pathological characteristics of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis patients who had undergone liver transplantation and to determine post-transplant steatosis and steatohepatitis. Methods: We evaluated 111 progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis patients with normal gamma-glutamyl transferase that performed liver transplantation in Shiraz Transplant Center in Iran between March 2000 and March 2017. Results: The most common clinical manifestations were jaundice and pruritus. Growth retardation and diarrhea were detected in 76.6% and 42.5% of the patients. After transplantation, growth retardation was seen in 31.5% of the patients, and diarrhea in 36.9% of them. Besides, 29.1% of the patients died post-transplant. Post-transplant liver biopsies were taken from 50 patients, and 15 (30%) patients had steatosis or steatohepatitis, five of whom (10%) had macro-vesicular steatosis alone, and 10 (20%) had steatohepatitis. Only one patient showed moderate bridging fibrosis (stage III), and none of them showed severe fibrosis. Conclusions: Liver transplantation is the final treatment option for these patients, and it can relieve most clinical manifestations. However, post-transplant mortality rate was relatively high in our center. Diarrhea, growth retardation, and steatosis are unique post-transplant complications in these patients. The rate of post-transplant steatosis and steatohepatitis in patients with liver biopsy in our study was 30%, with a significant difference from previous studies.
Fatemeh Karami, Mojgan Mirghafourvand
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.99711

Abstract:
Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects various dimensions of women's lives. The present study aimed to compare infant care behavior and maternal self-efficacy between depressed and non-depressed mothers. Objectives: This case-control study was conducted among 80 (n = 40 per group) postpartum women. Methods: A socio-demographic characteristics form, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Maternal Self-efficacy Questionnaire (MSQ), and Infant Care Behavior questionnaire were used for data collection. Independent t-test was run for data analysis. The mean score of maternal self-efficacy in the depressed group was 29.3 (3.6), and it was 33.0 (3.3) in the non-depressed group, which was significantly higher in the non-depressed group compared to the depressed group based on independent t-test results (adjusted mean difference: -3.7; 95% Confidence Interval: -2.2 to 5.3; P < 0.001). Results: The mean score of infant care behavior was 72.2 (5.2) in the depressed group and 73.0 (9.0) in the non-depressed group, indicating no significant differences between the two groups according to independent t-test (P = 0.627). Conclusions: Depressed women were less self-efficient; thus, given the central role of mothers, some strategies should be adopted to minimize mothers' postpartum physical and mental problems and promote their self-efficacy and infant care behaviors.
, Maryam Tabatabaee, Vandad Sharifi, Fattaneh Abdi Masouleh, Farid Abolhassani
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/ijpbs.115045

Abstract:
Background: This study aimed to investigate factors associated with adherence to follow-up in patients diagnosed with a depressive disorder in the collaborative care program in Tehran between May 2017 to October 2017. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed in three community mental health centers (CMHCs) in Tehran. Results: A total of 435 cases were recruited, and their adherence to follow-up rate was 41.6%. According to multivariate regression, being visited in a particular center, having a high school or higher level of education, having a positive family history with effective treatment, taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), experiencing a lower level of perceived mental health before the first visit, and referral to a psychiatrist could predict adherence to follow-up. Patients who had a chief complaint of typical depressive symptoms and those who were employed were less likely to be adherent to follow-up. Conclusions: More population-based studies in various settings and cultures are needed to enhance our knowledge regarding interventions necessary to deliver quality care to depressed patients.
Raana Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Mobin Sokhanvar, Khadijeh Motahari, Yegane Partovi, Mohammad Taghi Khodayari
Published: 17 October 2021
Abstract:
Background: The visit length is considered one of the indicators for assessing patients’ satisfaction. Factors such as waiting time for getting a visit affects the desirability of the visit. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the visit length and waiting time of patients in public and private clinics in Tabriz. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted in five clinics in 2018. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data from 386 participants recruited through simple random sampling. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to analyze the data using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Overall, the mean visit length was 25.5 and 25.4 min in public and private centers, respectively, while the mean waiting time was 141.2 and 156.4 min in public and private centers, respectively. There was no significant difference between public and private centers regarding the visit length (P > 0.05); however, there was a significant difference between public and private centers in terms of waiting time (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The waiting time was too much, especially in private clinics, which can negatively affect patient satisfaction. Therefore, suggested interventions may consist of using internet and telephone admission, scheduling a waiting list, and requiring physicians to be present on time.
Maryam Maghsoudipour, Elham Akhlaghi Pirposhteh, Leila Azizi Fard, Nastuna Ghanbari Sagharloo, Shiva Hosseini Foladi, Ali Salehi Sahlabadi, Nasim Soleimani Farsani
Trends in Medical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.5812/tms.119453

Abstract:
Background: Nursing is associated with many stressful situations that can cause problems such as fatigue, reduced quantity and quality of patient care, as well as physical and mental illness. Safety climate is one of the most important indicators of safety management performance that evaluates employees' attitudes toward safety issues. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between safety climate and occupational fatigue in nurses. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on nurses working in hospitals affiliated with Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences in 2018. We selected 216 nurses by a proportional quota sampling method. A demographic questionnaire, the nurses' safety climate questionnaire designed by the USA, and the occupational fatigue questionnaire designed by Sweden were used to collect information. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires were confirmed. Statistical tests for two independent samples, analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data by SPSS version 21 software. Results: The results showed that the mean scores of occupational fatigue and safety climate were 72.23 ± 7.75 and 3.46 ± 0.305, respectively, and 72.23% of nurses reported occupational fatigue. There was no significant relationship between safety climate and the education level, gender, and job satisfaction (P < 0.05). Also, there was no significant relationship between occupational fatigue and job satisfaction and education (P < 0.05), but there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and gender, age, and marital status (P < 0.05). Having a second job by nurses increased their occupational fatigue by 19%. The effect of safety climate on occupational fatigue was about -0.09. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that demographic variables have significant effects on occupational fatigue, and increasing the safety climate can reduce employees’ occupational fatigue.
Mona Sadeghizade, Javad Baharara, Farzaneh Salek, Elaheh Amini
Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products; https://doi.org/10.5812/jjnpp.117429

Abstract:
Background: Melanoma is the most serious kind of skin cancer which has significantly increased in recent decades, and the importance of its primary treatment is increased widely. Ficus carica leaves have various therapeutic impact such as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity. Objectives: Hence, regarding the F. carica effect on the treatment of various diseases, the present research was conducted to identify the effect of methanolic extract of F. carica leaf on apoptosis induction in B16F10 melanoma cancer cells. Methods: Cell survival was estimated by MTT assay after treatment of B16F10 cells in various concentrations of F. carica leaf extract (150, 250, 350, 450, 550, 650, 750 and 850 μg /mL) for 24 and 48 h. Cell apoptosis was analysed by AO/PI and DAPI staining, Annexin V/Propidium Iodide flow cytometry. Moreover, Real-time PCR was utilized to evaluate the expression of apoptotic genes including p53, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 genes. Results: MTT assay results indicated that methanolic extract of F. carica leaf prevented the proliferation of B16F10 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. AO/PI staining results showed an elevation in apoptotic cells in treated groups and DAPI indicated that F. carica extract resulted in chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Annexin V revealed the increasing percentage of apoptotic cells after treatment. In addition, the up-regulation of apoptotic genes confirmed the apoptosis inducing potential of F. carica leaves in B16F10 cells by Real-time PCR. Conclusions: Thus, methanolic extract of F. carica leaves could be suggested as an effective anti-cancer agent for further studies on melanoma cancer.
Hadi Hamidi Parsa, , Alireza Koohpaei, Babak Farzinnia, Mohsen Barouni
Shiraz E-Medical Journal; https://doi.org/10.5812/semj.114421

Abstract:
Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed heavy direct and indirect economic burden on the people and the health system. Objectives: The present study aimed to estimate the economic burden of COVID-19 in Qom Province, using the step-down cost accounting (SDCA) method. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study included all COVID-19 patients in Qom Province from February 19, 2020, to June 19, 2020. The patients’ data were collected in the form of major cost groups with integrated health system (IHS), health information system (HIS), and a financial software called Roozamad. The governmental, out-of-pocket, and opportunity costs paid by patients and hospitals were calculated and evaluated using SDCA in Microsoft Excel software. Results: The incidence of COVID-19 infection was 518 per 100,000 populations in Qom Province in the aforementioned period. The total government costs for the treatment of the patients were calculated to be 2,229,216,930,370 Rials (8,916,867 $). Among the major governmental cost groups, personnel costs accounted for the highest total expenditures. In addition, out-of-pocket costs of patients and their families equaled 30,038,013,060 Rials (120,152 $). The costs of final service departments accounted for more than half of the total costs. The opportunity costs were calculated as 420 billion Rials (15.68% of total costs). Conclusions: According to the findings, the direct and indirect costs associated with the treatment of COVID-19 patients can impose a heavy economic burden on the households and health care system. Therefore, disease prevention strategies such as observing health protocols are recommended to reduce the burden of the disease.
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