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, J. F. Cane, Alan P. Dargantes
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1417

Abstract:
The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices (KAP), and financial losses of buffalo raisers due to Trypanosoma evansi infection (surra) and its control in Agusan del Sur Province. One-hundred and sixty (160) buffalo raisers from eight villages in four municipalities (towns) in Agusan del Sur, Mindanao, Southern Philippines were personally interviewed. Majority (63.65%) of respondents provided information about surra. Mean knowledge score of 12.54 was quite low to consider the respondents well informed about surra. Financial losses from mortalities among livestock in eight villages (in four towns) in Agusan del Sur amounted to 9.3 million Philippine Pesos (PHP) (US$ 0.2 M) with additional losses for treatment and diagnosis amounting to PHP 657,000 and PHP 229,500, respectively. The estimated mass treatment and diagnostic costs were PHP 2.4 and PHP 1.1 million, respectively. The estimated overall total financial losses was PHP 13.7 million, averaging PHP 1.7 million per village, and an estimated PHP 538 million (US$ 10.7 M) of total financial losses among livestock in Agusan del Sur due to surra. In conclusion, buffalo raisers in Agusan del Sur Province lack adequate knowledge, attitudes and practices to effectively control surra, a disease that has caused high financial losses among livestock in the province.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1407

Abstract:
The transfer of animal genetic improvement strategies in the environments of resource-poor smallholder producers in developing countries has not been successful. Therefore, the access by farmers to sources of animals with high genetic potential is difficult or just not possible. As producers improve or intensify their systems to capture market opportunities, this access need is accentuated. This paper reviews identified constraints to the transfer of breeding plans, the need for a new approach, and the lessons learned in applying a better-targeted approach. The issues and thoughts were derived from the experience of a working group involving the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas; Austrian University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences; Argentinean National Institute of Agriculture Technology; Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa Goats and Sheep); and National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Animal Production-Mexico. The transfer of breeding strategies in smallholder systems is not a straightforward task. Contrasting a successful application in commercial livestock production environments, the achievement of the primary objectives in smallholder systems requires a holistic approach beyond pure technical matters. Of all identified aspects with direct incidence in the implementation of breeding plans, the lack of specific national policies coupled with long-term funding to support the improvement of smallholder production systems, and the lack of involvement and participation of the communities emerge as issues that gravitate more to achieve sustainability and meet the objectives of a given breeding plan.
Arie Febretrisiana, Fitra Aji Pamungkas
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1412

Abstract:
Gestation is the main goal for in vitro fertilization. The embryo that has been developed outside the body will be transferred directly into uterus leading to the process of hatching, implantation, and pregnancy. However, approximately 85% of embryos that have been transferred were failed to implant and it might be caused by hatching failure. Hatching is the process of releasing embryo from zona pellucida. If this process does not occur, it will cause pregnancy failure. Assisted hatching is a mechanism that dealing with thinning, slicing or artificially making holes in the zona pellucida to improve hatching. The process can be applied both in fresh or frozen embryos. This review describes various methods in assisted hatching such as enzymatic, chemical, mechanical, and laser beam as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Generally, some researches show that the technology of assisted hatching can improve the percentage of hatching and implantation of the embryo. However, in spite of the benefits, there are such weaknesses find in the zona pellucida of the embryo that has been manipulated such as toxic hazard medium, the risk of damage to the blastomeres or monozygotic twinning. Therefore, it is advisable to perform assisted hatching in certain cases that tends to face obstacles during the process of hatching such factors as age, embryo quality, the thickness of the zona pellucida and the number of failures in the in vitro fertilization program.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1368

Abstract:
Special efforts (UPSUS) to make cows pregnant (SIWAB) is a program to accelerate cattle population to meet the demand of animal origin food through artificial insemination or intensification of natural mating. Experience shows that a similar program that has been conducted previously was less successful. This paper aims to give some information on science, technology, and management of cattle reproduction that require attention to achieve SIWAB program successfully. Several things should be concerned for this program are: (1) Selection of fertile females and bulls; (2) Natural mating or artificial insemination (availability of semen, liquid nitrogen, supporting equipment, and inseminator); (3) Early detection of pregnancy; (4) Feed and feeding management; (5) Control of reproduction disease and other diseases; and (6) The supervision and handling of pregnant cows during and after birth. Another important thing that should be taken into account is the preparation of mating calendar so that the birth will occur during the period of abundant feed resources, and management of optimal forage and supplements to ensure good body condition of cows at the time of calving. With an understanding of science, technology, and applying reproductive management, it is expected that the targeted pregnancy cows by UPSUS program can be obtained.
Tjeppy D Soedjana,
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1411

Abstract:
ASEAN is one of the fastest growing regional economic communities and its combined human population of around 600 million people. Heterogeneity of ASEAN member countries includes population size, cultural background, structure and development of the economy, and level of income. Agriculture is well known as one of the key engine of economic growth of the ASEAN member countries, seen from the fact that most of the countries in this region are strongly depend on this sector including animal production. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the competitiveness of Indonesian production costs of selected livestock products compared to other ASEAN member countries. The following member countries are at their first rank or competitiveness status for the livestock and poultry commodities, namely Cambodia for beef cattle, Malaysia for pigs, the Philippines for sheep and goats, and Thailand for broiler chickens. Indonesia with the highest poultry population in the region, compared to Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines has not yet performed as that good in terms of production costs. The position of Indonesia based on production cost was at the fourth rank for beef, third for sheep and goat, and fourth for broiler compared to other ASEAN member countries. Therefore, Indonesia should improve the efficiency production of livestock and poultry to achieve better competition status.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v27i1.1303

Abstract:
KUB chicken is a new breed of local chickens as the result of selection by the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi-Bogor. KUB chicken has been developed in South Kalimantan since early December 2013 at farmers assisted by livestock services in South Kalimantan and animal house belongs to the Assesment Institute of Agricultural Technology (AIAT) South Kalimantan. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potency, production performance, and development opportunities of KUB chicken in South Kalimantan. KUB chickens have several advantages i.e. high egg production (160-180 eggs/hen/year), low brooding (±10%), faster growth, more savory meat taste, and adaptable to environment. Problems encountered in the development of KUB chicken in South Kalimantan are low hatchbility, expensive feed prices, and susceptible to diseases such as Newcastle Disease (ND) and Avian Influenza. Performance of KUB chicken at small farmers in South Kalimantan include egg production 65-67%, egg weight of 36.12-38.12 g/egg, feed consumption 85-105 g/head, feed conversion ratio 3.8-3.9, eggs fertility ranged between 90.21-92.61%, hatchability of eggs is 79.67-81.80% and DOC weight ranged from 34.50-36.86 g/head. Efforts to prevent diseases are the use of herb medicine, ND vaccination, and biosecurity. Appropriate feed technology, disease prevention and strengthen the marketing network are strategies that should be applied to develop KUB chicken in South Kalimantan. This will lead new job and increase farmers’ income.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1574

Abstract:
Limited availability of forage diet throughout the year could be overcome by utilization of crop by-products. Corn cob, a by-product from maize production is potential to be used as a fiber source for grass replacement. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of two different basal diets (basal grass diet and corn cob silage) with or without Calliandra supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, rumen fermentation and growth of sheep. The study used 20 male sheep St Croix breed. The sheep were divided into 5 groups based on body weight. Each group was fed with one of four diet treatments for 13 weeks. The treatments were grass basal diet + concentrate, Corn cob silage (CCS) + concentrate, Grass basal diet + concentrate + 5% Calliandra leaf meal, CCS + concentrate + 5% Calliandra leaf meal. The ratio of basal diet (grass or CCS) to concentrate was 40 : 60% and was formulated in iso protein (crude protein content 14%). The diet was offered in total mix ration. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design and arranged in factorial 2 x 2 (2 type basal diets and 2 Calliandra supplementation levels) with 5 replications. Results showed that there was no interaction between basal diet and Calliandra supplementation on feed consumption, average daily gain (ADG), nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, except for crude protein (CP) intake. Feed consumption was not affected by basal diets or Calliandra supplementation. Feed conversion ratio and protein conversion ratio were better in grass basal diet than CCS. CP digestibility was higher in corn cob silage than basal grass diet without Calliandra supplementation. N retention was higher in corn cob basal diet than basal grass diet. Rumen fermentation was significantly affected by basal diet in which rumen ammonia and VFA concentrations were higher in grass basal diet. Grass basal diet had higher propionic acid production than CCS basal diet. From this study, it could be concluded that in iso protein diet, basal grass diet was comparable to corn cob basal diet as revealed by average daily gain was similar in both diets with average 107.5 g/head/day. Calliandra supplementation at 5% in the grass or CCS basal diet did not improve sheep performance.
Nurhayati D. Purwantari, Irawan Sugoro
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1520

Abstract:
Phosphorus availability in soil as a mobile mineral influences forage growth. The purpose of doing this research is to enhance the soil phosphorus availability and grass production of Panicum maximum cv Riversdale by intercropping system with legums. The experiment was conducted based on with randomized design with five treatments of mixcropping of: (i) Gliricidia sepium + P. maximum; (ii) Calliandra calothyrsus + P. maximum; (iii) Leucaena leucocephala cv Taramba + P. maximum; (iv) Calopogonium mucunoides + P. maximum; (v) P. maximum as negative control. Plants were grown in pots with split-root technique using partition with a whole to allow some legume roots grew in the grass side. After growing for three months, on the legume areas 32P isotop solution was injected for 50 ml (11.23 μci/ml). After 21 days incubation samples were collected from both soil areas and both plants. The translocation of 32P was determined using geiger counter from legumes into the grass and the concentration of 32P was also determined in all plants. Forage productions was determined both in the legumes and grass. Result showed that soil phosphorus concentration in the grass area was significantly improved by intercropping with G. sepium and C. callothyrsus, while the one with L. leucocephala was similar, and the one with C. mucunoides was significantly lower than that of negative control (without legume). Detection of 32P showed that there was P translocation in the system. P. maximum grass production depending on kind of legumes (P<0.05) those with G. sepium was significantly higher, L. leucocephala and C. callothyrsus were not significantly higher, while the one with C. mucunoides was 26.2% lower from the control although not significantly. However, C. mucunoides produced the highest forage from the legume plant. It is concluded that grass-legume intercropping had a positive impact on phosphorus soil concentration in the grass area and grass production. Kind of legumes influenced the effectivity.
, Sofjan Iskandar, Tike Sartika, T. Wardhani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 174-181; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1397

Abstract:
The aim of doing this experiment was to observe the growth response of improved native breeds of chicken under diets differed in energy and protein content. Three groups of improved native breeds, obtained from mating of ♂KUB to ♀KUB (Line 1), of ♂SenSi to ♀KUB (Line 2) and of ♂Gaok x ♀KUB (Line 3), were subjected to three experimental diets, differed in metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) content. The experimental diets consisted of Diet 1 (2,800 kcal ME/ kg with 17,81% CP), Diet 2 (2,950 kcal ME/ kg with 18,61% CP) and Diet 3 (3,100 kcal ME/ kg with 19,25% CP). The experiment was designed as factorial 3 x 3 with 7 replications of each treatment combination, consisted of 5 birds per treatment combination. The chickens were raised up to 10 weeks of age. Results of the experiment showed that Line 2 (♂SenSi mated to ♀KUB) had highest body weight at 10 weeks of age (P<0.05), lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and highest European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), compared to other two lines. The appropriate diet for Line 2 was Diet 2. It could be concluded the crossbred line that was resulted from crossing of ♂SenSi to ♀KUB (Line 2), had potential to be used as improved native chicken for the industry in Indonesia supported by appropriate diet containing 2,950 kcal ME/kg with 18.61% crude protein.
Debora KanaHau, Jacob Nulik
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 159-164; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1586

Abstract:
A series of experiments on techniques and time of sowing, and weed management of legumes Clitoria ternatea cv Milgarra, Centrosema pascuorum cv Cavalcade and cv Bundey, and Lablab purpureus cv Highworth, was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara (in the islands of Timor, Flores, and Sumba) in order to determine proper technique and time of sowing and weed management, which would be efficient in labor use and sufficient biomass production. Treatments of sowing techniques included dibble, furrow (covered and not covered), and broadcast (harrowed and not harrowed); while sowing time consisted of early wet season (December-January), mid of wet season (February-March) and the end of wet season (April-May), while weed managements consisted of weeded and unweeded treatments. The experiments employed block randomized design with four replications using plot sizes of 3 x 4 m to 4 x 5 m, depending on the availability of land for the experiments. The results of the experiments showed that the best sowing technique with the highest plant population at 4 weeks after planting was dibbling (42 plants/m²), followed by furrow, while the lowest plant population was obtained at the broadcast technique (9-20 plants/m²). Similarly, the highest biomass production was obtained in the dibbling technique (1.75 to 2.5 tons DM/ha per harvest at 12 weeks after planting in Ende, and 4-5 ton DM/ha in Nagekeo), followed by furrow technique covered or not covered (1-1.3 tons DM/ha in Ende and 3.5-4 tons DM/ha in Nagekeo), and the lowest in broadcast technique (0.3-1 ton DM/ha in Ende and 2-2.5 ton DM/ha in Nagekeo). However, considering the labor requirement and cost, it was recommended that furrow technique to suit the small farmer practices in the region. Weed management showed that weeded treatment (keep legume cleaned of weeds) gave significantly better (P<0.05) biomass production compared with to that of unweeded treatment. It can be seen also that weed had more suppressing effects on Clitoria ternatea, compared to that of Lablab purpureus, especially when the plants were sown in the early wet season.
Chalid Talib
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 163-172; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1400

Abstract:
The cacao farmers generally experienced problems on low cacao productivity and hence farmer’s income. The aim of this paper is to describe concept on the development of feed and organic fertilizer bioindustry based on cacao-goat integration to enhance productivity and farmer’s income. The potential cacao-goat integration covers 1.4 million hectares of cacao plantation and 7.8 million head of goats in nine provinces. Implementation of cacao-goat integration allows to use cacao biomass as feed for goats, and goat’s manure can be applied as fertilizer for cacao plantation. Bioindustry of feed is developed from 3.3 million tons biomass of cacao that consisted of 1.9 million tons of cacao pods and 1.4 million tons of cacao leaves. Bioindustry productions of solid and liquid organic fertilizer are 0.6 million tons and 344 million liters, respectively. The development of feed and organic fertilizer bioindustry is appropriate to improve cacao and goat productivities lead to increase farmer’s income.
Eko Saputro
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 183-190; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1399

Abstract:
Efforts to control meat spoilage, safety and palatability in the production of meat products become essential for humans. These control efforts should keep good quality of meat products at ambient temperature. Curing using NaNO2 is one of meat preservation techniques. However, the Indonesian Agency for National Standardization prohibits the use of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in the organic food production process due to its negative effect on health and food safety. Therefore, substitutes of NaNO2 as natural curing agent and supported technologies have to be found. This article discusses the curing process using curing agents in the form of nitrate from natural resources and a starter culture for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The addition of accelerators in the form of reductant and acidulant from natural or organic resources is also required to enhance curing process. Natural curing processes of beef products have been proven to produce similar meat quality of sensory, physico-chemical, and microbiological characteristics with curing process using NaNO2.
Fifi Afiati, Farha Elein Kukihi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 182-189; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i3.1414

Abstract:
Immunomodulatory activity assay and characterization of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) was done in Bogor. Bacteria used in this study was LAB strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Exopolysaccharide was extracted from L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus then characterized with FT-IR spectrophotometer to determine the functional group. IR spectrum analysis using Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) showed that EPS from both LAB isolates were carbohydrate compounds. Immunomodulatory activity in vivo from EPS was measured using phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity macrophage cells from mice peritoneal cavity fluid. Exopolysaccharide were given orally to mice in concentrations of 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml for 14 days then the mice were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Result showed that EPS from both LAB isolate enhanced either phagocytic activity and phagocytic capacity macrophage cell from mice peritoneal fluid. EPS from L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus concentration 300 μg/ml showed the highest phagocytic activity of macrophage cells and EPS from S. thermophilus concentration 300 μg/ml showed the highest phagocytic capacity. It is concluded that EPS potency tested as immunomodulatory derived from a culture of L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus subsp.bulgaricus are able to increase the activity and phagocytosis murine peritoneal macrophages.
, Eny Martindah
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1402

Abstract:
Zoonotic Arbovirus diseases which are caused by the genus of Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Bunyavirus, are transmitted through potential vectors. These diseases are commonly occurred, especially in tropical countries, including Indonesia. They can affect the economic development because of the high morbidity and mortality. This paper describes the incidence of zoonotic Arbovirus in Indonesia and the strategy to control its vector. Factors that support the occurrence of zoonotic Arbovirus diseases are environmental, demographic and behavioral changes, as well as advanced technology, transportation and global trade. These diseases would not occur without the role of vectors. Vector control can be carried out effectively through longitudinal surveillance to identify types of potential vectors in the area. Therefore to prevent the increased incidence of the diseases, controlling the vector is necessary.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 173-182; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1401

Abstract:
Dairy goat farming in Indonesia is growing because goat milk is attractive as nutrient supplement and alternative medicine for human health. Selling fresh goat's milk often becomes a constraint because not all consumers can drink it due to unpleasant smell. Effort on diversification of fresh goat's milk into processed milk products is considered a good option, but only few farmers have done it. Milk processing is useful to eliminate the smell of fresh goat's milk and to increase value-added. Goat population is around 19.01 million head, while dairy goat population has not been known yet. The paper describes the benefit of processing fresh goat milk to increase goat farming profit through the improvement of feed management, and selling the processed milk. Better management increase lactation period from 170 to 250 days, milk production from <1 to 2 liter/head/day, and higher price of processed milk. Investment on 59 does and 7 bucks for five years through the goat milk diversification has increased profit by 33.53%. Diversification of processing goat milk product is necessary to increase productivity and value added of fresh milk.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 191-202; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i4.1398

Abstract:
Native chicken can be found in almost every region of Indonesia. There are three systems of raising native chicken, i.e. extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. Raising native chicken under intensive system could enhance productivity and revenue. The prospect of raising native chicken has a potential market with a nieche segmented consumer. Native chicken business for meat and egg production is feasible to provide economic benefit for stakeholders, such as farmers, traders, wholesaler and retailers. Institutional empowerment towards cooperative with simultaneous upstream through downstream agribusinesses could increase farmers’ income. This could be applied by individual business or cooperative to attain higher efficiency of production system. Government support as farmers’ motivator and supervision is needed to achieve the success of native chicken business that improves farmers’ welfare.
Matheus Sariubang, A Nurhayu, A Ella
Proceedings of International Seminar on Livestock Production and Veterinary Technology; https://doi.org/10.14334/proc.intsem.lpvt-2016-p.85-89

Abstract:
Study was conducted at the Livestock Farms in Pinrang 2015. The purpose of the study was to improve Bali cattle cow feeding with maize straw silage and concentrate. The study used 20 Bali cattle cow with the age of about 2.5-3 years and an average weight of 200 kg, were divided into four treatments with five replicates, namely: (A) Maize straw silage 30% + elephant grass 60% + concentrate 10%; (B) Maize straw silage 50% + elephant grass 40% + concentrate 10%; (C) Maize straw silage 70% + elephant grass 20% + concentrate 10%; (D) Maize straw silage 100% + concentrate 10%. The results showed the protein content of maize straw silage was 9.30% with crude fiber content of 25.14% and 1.63% of fat. Treatment B and C gave weight gain of 0.32 kg/head/day, treatment D of 0.30 kg/head/day, and the lowest weight gain was treatment A 0.23 kg/head/day. Feed consumption maximum was 6.36 kg/head/day obtained from treatment B followed by treatments D, C, and A respectively 6.18 kg/head/day, 5.45 kg/head/day and 5.28 kg/head/day. The lowest feed conversion obtain from treatment C was 17.03, then a treatment B, D, and A with respective values of 19.8, 20.6, and 22.9. It can be concluded that feeding maize straw silage up to 100% as a forage source, supplemented by concentrate as a protein source were able to improve the body condition of the Bali cattle cow.
Daniel L Aquino, M V Del Rosario, K F Vergara, L C Cruz
Proceedings of International Seminar on Livestock Production and Veterinary Technology; https://doi.org/10.14334/proc.intsem.lpvt-2016-p.104-114

Abstract:
Twenty five pregnant and primiparous Brazilian buffaloes were allotted in a Randomized Completed Block Design involving five dietary treatments namely; without (T1) or with (T2) augmented feeding plus supplementary by-passed amino acid (BPAA, T3); slow-released non-protein nitrogen (SRNPN, T4) and its combination (T5) to assess their milk peak, lactation persistency and post-partum reproductive performance. Five cows were assigned per treatment and each cow served as a replicate. The feed ration was composed of corn silage (67.3%), rice straw (9.5%) and dairy concentrate pellets (23.2%). The supplementary concentrates, BPAA and SRNPN were given at 0.5kg/kg milk production, 100 grams and 50 grams/hd/day, respectively. Results showed that augmented feeding alone or with supplementary BPAA and SRNPN gave significantly higher (P<0.05) peak milk of 12 and 12.5 kg/d, respectively. The milk peak was observed during 68 (T1) and 71 days (T5) in milk of the cows. The dry matter and crude protein digestibility were significantly increased in T2 andT5. No significant differences were observed on lactation persistency but the observed value of 91.8% was closer to the reported ideal lactation persistency of 95% in dairy buffaloes. No significant differences were observed on the post-partum reproductive performance, feed intake, and the feed cost to produce a kilogram of milk. At 146 days service period using artificial insemination, 80% of the buffaloes were already confirmed pregnant. The use of augmented feeding with BPAA and SRNPN supplements gave a significant (P<0.05) net income of P33,762.00 (US$ 720/cow) per lactation of the buffaloes.
Harry Clark
Proceedings of International Seminar on Livestock Production and Veterinary Technology; https://doi.org/10.14334/proc.intsem.lpvt-2016-p.5-13

Abstract:
Emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural activities currently comprise 10-12% of the world’s total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. They are also forecast to rise by 30% above current levels by 2050. At the Conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in December 2015, more than 100 countries indicated that they would reduce agricultural GHG emissions as part of the global effort to keep warming to a maximum of 2°C. Emissions from ruminant livestock present a particular challenge as enteric CH4 emissions alone comprise ~40% of total agricultural emissions. Estimating emissions from animal agriculture can be done through simple estimates, generically available data on animal populations and regional-level fixed emission factors per animal. But these estimates are subject to very large uncertainties and their appropriateness for estimating emissions at the country level is questionable. More appropriate country-specific methods can be developed using local data and expert opinion in the first instance, even in the absence of country-specific emission factors. Reducing GHG emissions from ruminant livestock is challenging technically even if livestock production is constant, and is particularly challenging if the sector is increasing in size. Internationally the quantity of GHG produced per unit of product has been declining consistently and for both cattle meat and milk than 50 years ago. This decline is largely due to increased efficiency of production. Increasing efficiency is therefore a key component of agricultural GHG mitigation. Increasing efficiency,while essential, may not be enough on its own. New technologies are therefore needed and for ruminant livestock there are some promising products; compounds that inhibit enteric CH4, vaccines, low emitting sheep have been successfully bred and, a variety of low emitting feeds, and feed additives.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 057-068; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1326

Abstract:
Phytic acid has been considered as an antinutrient in broiler diet due to its strong chelator of divalent minerals. Phytic acid has ability for binding positively charged proteins, amino acids, and/or multivalent cations or minerals. The resulting complexes are insoluble, difficult to be hydrolyzed during digestion in poultry, and thus, nutritionally less available for absorption. The reduction of phytate activity can be carried out by phytase supplementation. The application of phytase with respect to animal feed supplement is reviewed in this paper. Application of phytase in broiler diet may liberate cations and other nutrients bound by phytate-P complexes resulting in improved production parameters in broilers. This is because phytase supplement increased nutrient (protein, minerals, amino acid, energy, and carbohydrate) digestibilities and availabilities. Overall, phytase could increase nutrient utilization in broiler, hence, increase the economic efficiency of broiler production and reduce the phosphor pollution to the environment.
Nurhayati D. Purwantari
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 051-056; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1325

Abstract:
Forage crops are planted mostly in marginal land or integrated with other crops. Estate crops land is one of the alternative areas for forage crops plantation. Shortage of forage crops development under crop plantation is caused by limited light intensity, due to crop shading. Selecting forage crops adapted to estate crops plantation is crusial to achieve its high production and quality. Several grasses and legumes have been identified as forage crops that tolerant to shading of less than 40%, 40-60% and more than 60% light intensity. Some of them have been applied in the area of oil palm plantation to support the acceleration of livestock population.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 133-142; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1395

Abstract:
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 of 1994 on Ratification of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 117/Permentan/SR.120/10/2014 regarding the concession and release of animal breed or strain in Indonesia should be followed up. This paper aims to improve the understanding of concession and release of animal breed or strain. Requirements of breed or strain concession has to declare (a) Its origin; (b) Original geographic distribution where the breed or strain formed; (c) Characteristics; (d) Genetic information; (e) The animal number and structure of their population; and (f) Animal picture. Requirements for the release of breed or strain should have (1) The method to obtain animal breed or strain; (2) Characteristics; (3) Genetic information; (4) New invention, unique, uniform and stable (NUUS); (5) The current number of animal; (6) Animal picture; (7) A guarantee certificate of quality standard; and (8) At the time of receipt of the request release, breed or strain has never been traded/distributed in Indonesia or already traded less than five years. Therefore, the government operational policy is necessary to regulate the preservation and improvement of animal genetic resources either breed or strain beneficial for future generations.
, S Sopiyana
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1394

Abstract:
One of the ex situ conservation techniques for poultry that recently developed was to collect primordial germ cell (PGC) or gonadal primordial germ cell (gPGC) that isolated from embryo development. Primordial germ cells (PGC) are embryonic cells that migrate to the gonads and form the precursors of gametes. The unique nature and accessibility of PGC during the early development provides an opportunity to manipulate the poultry germplasm, for example by forming germline chimeras. There are some stages that must be done through isolation and collection of PGC from its resources i.e. blastoderm, embryonic circulation blood and gonad. PGC collection originating from the gonads is one of existing PGC resources and technologies. gonadal PGC have advantages compared with other sources, namely (1) A large number of gonadal PGC can be taken from an embryo; and (2) A collection of gonadal PGC can be used in developing management systems of local avian germplasm conservation. This review is intended to describe the usefulness of isolation and collection technology of gonadal PGC as the local poultry germplasm conservation in Indonesia.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1327

Abstract:
Increasing demand of protein source for animal feed, particularly fish meal and soybean meal has led to a problem in the future. It is a need to look for an alternative protein source, in order to meet amino acid requirements maintaining livestock production level. Insects possesing high quality, efficient dan rich protein content at all life stages such as Black Soldier Fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) could be used as one of the alternatives. The flies grow and reproduce easily, have high feed efficiency and can be reared on bio-waste streams. These are neither pests nor vectors of diseases. Insect meal generally possesses levels of chemical contaminants which are below recommended maximum concentrations. The larvae have antibacterial (Escherichia coli O15:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis) and antiviral (enterovirus and adenovirus ) properties. Larvae of BSF could be scaled up easily and possess 40-50% protein content, including some essential amino acids that can be used to replace both fish meal and soybean meal in feed.
Prima Mei Widiyanti, Romsyah Maryam
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 091-101; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1329

Abstract:
The climate in Indonesia as a tropical country is very condusive for the growth of mycotoxins producing fungi. Mycotoxins have properties as carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxic. Mycotoxins reduce performance, appetite, weight, and immunity. They also cause reproductive disorders and generate the residues in animal products that affect human health. These can be prevented by controlling mycotoxins contamination in agricultural products that used for feed ingredients through good management practices (during planting, harvesting, and storage). Mycotoxins contamination can also be minimized by physical, chemical and biological treatments as well as the application of mycotoxin binders. This review describes the use of mycotoxin binders in animal feed. They are used as feed additives, may be derived from organic, inorganic materials or their combination. Combination of organic and inorganic substances proven to be more effective and efficient in controlling mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, it is recommended to use mycotoxin binders to prevent animal health disorder and to decrease mycotoxin residues in animal products.
Broto Wibowo
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 079-090; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i2.1328

Abstract:
The development of duck farming in Indonesia significantly increases because of the higher demand of duck products. Duck farming has been developed throughout Indonesia, however it has not been evenly distributed because most of duck population are located in Java, which reaches 20,657,778 birds or 47.1% of the national duck population. Several business opportunities based on duck farming are: (1) Duck farming to produce consumption and hatching eggs; (2) Egg hatching to produce day old duck, either male or female duck; (3) Raising duck to produce pullet duck; (4) Fattening to produce male duck (three months old); (5) Production of salted egg; and (6) Egg distribution. These businesses are economically feasible.
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1396

Abstract:
The utilization of marginal land, especially the acid soil, for cultivation of forages is promising. Forage as a source of feed for ruminants, can also be used to improve soil fertility. Brachiaria sp is found widely grow in marginal areas, especially on acid soil showing its high adaptability. The diverse of genotypes have become interesting because the mechanism of its adaption can be studied by observing the physiological response of Brachiaria on acid soil. Brachiaria decumbens has high tolerant, while Brachiaria ruziziensis is sensitive to acid soil. Variance of physiological and morphological responses to acid soil are the foundation for determining the traits of selection in breeding activities of Brachiaria sp. This paper aims to provide the knowledge of physiological response of Brachiaria sp and this information is useful for selection of Brachiaria sp tolerant on acid soil.
, Sjamsul Bahri
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 115-124; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1393

Abstract:
Mycotoxins contamination in animal feed is harmful to livestock and leads to residues, such as aflatoxin and its metabolites (aflatoxin M1, aflatoxicol, aflatoxin Q1 and aflatoxin P1) which are deposited in meat, milk, and eggs. The existence of mycotoxins has been widespread; and mycotoxin is the most important contaminant in the food chain because it has implications for human health. Mold growth and mycotoxin production mainly depend on the weather, such as warm temperatures (28-31°C) and high humidity (60-90%). Some types of mold can produce more than one type of mycotoxin and some mycotoxins can be produced by more than one species of fungi. Mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin, fumonisin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, deoxynivalenol, and T2 toxin present in feed and feedstuffs that have to be controlled. Mycotoxins are not only harmful to the health of consumers, but will also reduce the quality of the product that is contaminated, and cause economic losses. The risk of mycotoxin contamination in animal feed could be reduced by inhibiting the mould growth and toxin production, through crop rotation, using proper fungicides, and applying regulation of mycotoxins maximum limit in feed and food in order to prevent any danger to public health.
Rini Damayanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 26, pp 103-114; https://doi.org/10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1391

Abstract:
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an immunoproliferative and lethal disease of many species of the order Artiodactyla (such as families Bovidae, Cervidae and Suidae) caused by a member of the MCF virus (MCFV) group belongs to the genus Macavirus in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. There are two types of MCF i.e. Wildebeest-Associated MCF (WA-MCF) which is caused by Alcelaphine Herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) with wildebeest as reservoir animal; and Sheep-Associated MCF (SA-MCF) which is caused by Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) with sheep and goats as reservoir animals. AlHV-1 virus has already been isolated whereas OvHV-2 has not been isolated so that vaccines are not yet available. Both types cannot be differentiated by clinical and pathological findings. This disease was previously diagnosed based on the epidemiological information and clinicopathological findings, but now it can be diagnosed by using molecular biological tests. This paper describes the epidemiology of MCF virus, MCF cases in Indonesia and efforts to control this disease. In Indonesia, SA-MCF cases have been reported almost in all provinces as endemic as well as epidemic nature. Separation of reservoir animal with susceptible species, "producing" a SA-MCF virus free sheep and attempt to develop a recombinant vaccine against SA-MCF is the main control strategy that can be suggested.
Mohammad Azri Bin Azmi, S. Alias, A.A.A. Ghani, M.S. Shahudin, Y.M. Goh, M.M. Noordin, M.T. Yusof, Z. Zunita, H.A. Hassim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 144-150; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1362

Abstract:
Oil palm fronds (OPF) is widely used as the source of roughage for the farm animals. However, the full potential of OPF as animal feed is limited by their high lignin content which limits the rumen microbe’s access to the cellulose and hemicellulose. White rot fungi (WRF) are a group of fungi belonging to basidiomycete phylum and are commonly found in decaying woody plant. They possess the ability to degrade lignin. This experiment aims to identify the phylum of the best lignin decaying fungi based on their enzymes activity. In this experiment, 11 fungi species were isolated from decaying oil palm fronds. They are labelled as WR1, WR 2, WR3, WR4, WR5, WR6, WR7, WR8, WR9, WR10 and WR11. Their fibernolytic enzyme activities which includes laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, avicelase, carboxylmethylcellulase and xylanase are analysed using the solid state fermentation method. It is was found that 5 fungi species which are the WR1, WR2, WR4, WR7 and WR10 produced the highest ratio of lignin degrading enzyme to cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzyme. The fungi are then analysed under microscope to determine the phylum of the fungi. From the observation, the fungi are identified to belong to the phylum basidiomycetes due to presence of clamp connection.
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 135-143; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1361

Abstract:
Oil palm estate area in Indonesia is generally located in a sub-optimal land that has great opportunity for the development of forage supply. This study aims were to determine productivity of Indigofera zollingeriana under various canopy level. This research used factorial randomized block design with 3 canopy levels (under 2, 5, and 7 year oil palm canopy) and 2 levels of soil acidity (neutral and acid soil) treatments, where each treatment was repeated 4 times. Parameters observed were production and nutrient content of Indigofera zollingeriana. Research results showed that there was no interaction between the canopy levels and soil acidity on the production of fresh leaves, stems/branches, biomass, and leaves/stem ratio of I. zollingeriana. Production of fresh leaves, stems, biomass, and leaves/branches ratio of I. zollingeriana significantly (P <0.01) decreased along with increase of canopy level. Soil acidity significantly (P <0.05) decreased production of fresh leaves, stems, biomass, and leaves/branches ratio. Level of canopy treatment significantly (P <0.05) increased content of crude protein, crude fiber and energy, otherwise value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibilyity (IVOMD) were decrease. Soil acidity significantly (P <0.05) decreased calcium content, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of I. zollingeriana.
Yeni Widiawati, M.N. Rofiq, B. Tiesnamurti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 101-111; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1358

Abstract:
Methane emission from enteric is a sub-category considered under the Agriculture sector greenhouse gas emissions by UNFCCC, thus Indonesia developed calculation on enteric CH4 EF for ruminant using Tier-2 method as country-specific emission factors (EF). Indonesia has huge amount of beef cattle population, which contributes significant amount to national enteric methane emission. The aim of this study was to estimate enteric methane EF for beef cattle in Indonesia using IPCC Tier-2 method. The EF generated from this study is then used to estimate the methane emitted from beef cattle. Data on beef cattle population was obtained from BPS, data on energy content of feed, feed intake and digestibility were compiled from laboratory analysis and published paper. Equations were adopted and followed the instruction of IPCC 2006. Local cattle has different CH4 EF among each sub-category, which are ranging from 18.18 to 55.89 Kg head-1 yr-1, with the average of 36.75 head-1 yr-1. Imported beef cattle has lower CH4 EF (25.49 kg head-1 yr-1) than the average for local beef cattle. Overall, the national CH4 EF of beef cattle calculated by using IPCC Tier-2 method in Indonesia is 33.14 head-1 yr-1. The value is lower than default EF from IPCC for Asia country (47 kg head-1 yr-1). The conclusion is enteric CH4 EF for beef cattle in Indonesia calculated using Tier-2 method shows the real livestock system in Indonesia condition. Further research needed to be addressed are calculation of EFs for various breeds and feeding systems, since large variations of breeds and types of feed among provinces in Indonesia.
, D.A. Lestari, D.M. Malini
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1360

Abstract:
The process of freezing and thawing of semen could lead spermatozoa death and low fertility for alive spermatozoa. This research was subjected to determine the optimum concentration of vitamin C in diluent media to improve the quality of non-sexing and sexing result of thawed dairy cattle (Bos taurus) spermatozoa. The method used was completely randomized design with 3x4 factorial consisting of spermatozoa isolation and vitamin C concentration. Spermatozoa isolation factors were non-sexing and sexing results (X and Y spermatozoa). Vitamin C concentrations factors were 0% (K); 0.25% (P1); 0.50% (P2) and 0.75% (P3). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test 95%. The optimum concentration of vitamin C in diluent media to improve the quality of non-sexing thawed dairy cattle (Bos taurus) spermatozoa was 0.25%. While the optimum concentration of vitamin C in diluent medium to improve quality of thawed dairy cattle (Bos taurus) spermatozoa both X and Y was 0.50%. Administration of vitamin C in diluent media could improve the quality of thawed non-sexed and sexed (X and Y spermatozoa) spermatozoa in dairy cattle (Bos taurus).Kata Kunci: Spermatozoa, Bos taurus, Vitamin C, Sexing, Diluent, Thawing
, J.H. Lee, H.L. Choi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1359

Abstract:
South Korea has declared to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% compared to the current level by the year 2020. The greenhouse gas emissions from the cattle production sector in South Korea were evaluated in this study. The greenhouse gas emissions of dairy cattle, Non-Korean native cattle, and Korean native (Hanwoo) cattle production activities in 16 local administrative provinces of South Korea over a ten-year period (2005–2014) were estimated using the methodology specified by the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of the IPCC (2006). The emissions studied herein included methane from enteric fermentation, methane from manure management, nitrous oxide from manure management and carbon dioxide from direct on-farm energy use. Over the last ten years, Hanwoo cattle production activities were the primary contributor of CH4 from enteric fermentation, CH4 from manure management, NO2 from manure management and CO2 from on-farm energy use in the cattle livestock sector of South Korea, which comprised to 83.52% of total emissions from cattle production sector.
Supriyati, R. Krisnan, I.G.M. Budiarsana, L. Praharani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1356

Abstract:
Dairy goat contributes to food and nutrition security. However, information on nutrient consumption and milk yield, as well as milk composition of Saanen x Etawah (SAPERA) grade goat is limited. This experiment was done to evaluated nutrient intake, milk yield and its composition of lactating SAPERA goats fed with different levels of dietary energy and protein in concentrate diet. Thirty multiparous SAPERA goats were used in a randomized block design with three treatments (R1, R2 and R3) and ten replications for 12 weeks of lactation. The concentrate diets were formulated to contain: 18% CP and 72% TDN (R1), 17% CP and 75% TDN (R2), 16% CP and 78% TDN (R3). Those does were penned individually, and fed by basal diet (fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum, 500 g of fresh mixed forages) and 1 kg of experimental concentrate. Results showed that the treatments had significant (P0.05) effects on DM and TDN intake. No significant differences were found in milk yield and milk composition between treatments. In conclusion, this trial suggested that the best feed for lactating SAPERA goats was the mixture of chopped grasses, mixed forages and concentrate diets (16% CP and 78% TDN) with 160 g/kg CP and 750 g/kg TDN of the total DM, produced a milk of 1.55 kg/d with 90 g/day of milk fat, 43 g/day of milk protein and 75 g/day of milk lactose.
, E. Ghoneim, A.H.M. Ibrahim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1353

Abstract:
This study was carried out to investigate variance components, direct heritability, maternal genetic parameters, estimated breeding values and factors affecting pre-weaning growth criteria of Romney sheep. Data were collected over the period from 2006 to 2012 with records of 4989 lambs descended from 76 rams and 2190 ewes of Romney sheep maintained at S. Island of New Zealand via Gene Marker Lab., Faculty of Agric. and Life Sci., Lincoln Univ., New Zealand. Results proved that genetic and non-genetic factors affecting studied criteria had significant effects (P<0.05). Genetic and environmental estimates of live body weights at birth (LBW), weaning (LWW) and Kleiber ratio (KR) were 0.20±0.074, 0.15±0.042 and 0.14±0.052 for direct heritability (h2a±SE); 0.59±0.219, 0.41±0.023 and 0.08±0.002 for maternal heritability (h2m±SE); 0.11684, 2.6378 and 0.27565 for additive variances (σ2a), 0.34596, 7.1179 and 0.14532 for maternal variances (σ2m); and 0.002395, 10.1262 and 0.509339 for permanent environmental variances (σ2e), respectively. EBV’s of LBW, LWW and KR ranged from -0.555: 0.502, -1.554: 3.006 and -0.633: 0.242 direct, -0.863: 0.954, -4.942: 2.554 and -0.469: 0.179 maternal for rams, respectively; and -0.664: 0.830, -2.996: 4.586 and -1.651: 0.677 direct, 1.429: 1.142, -7.541: 4.920 and -1.223: 0.492 maternal for ewes, respectively. Results suggest the importance of considering the non-genetic factors in pre-weaning growth performance of lambs. Moderate heritability and positive coefficients of phenotypic and genetic correlation for studied criteria indicate to the possibility of improving them using traditional selection.
A.F.M. Azmi, A.A.A. Ghani, A.S. Saadan, A. Mokrish, K.S. Lai, M. Zamri-Saad, A.B. Zuki, H.A. Hassim
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1357

Abstract:
Histological changes of liver in does with pregnancy ketosis were characterized. Twenty pregnant does at day 80 of pregnancy were used for this experiment. A total of 10 does were fed by grass (Napier) and goat concentrate with water ad libitum. Those 10 goats considered as healthy pregnant goat, and another 10 goats showing clinical and subclinical signs of ketosis considered as unhealthy pregnant does. Liver biopsies were performed when clinical signs appeared. Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), free fatty acid (FFA), and glucose were dosed. Histological preparation revealed similar incidence and intensity of mild liver steatosis with lower cellular vacuolation in hepatocyte presence in healthy late pregnant does. Almost all of the pregnant does with ketosis state (n=8/10) had large amount of small lipid droplets in almost every hepatocyte over the whole liver acinus with higher number of cellular vacuolation, and related with higher BHBA and FFA levels while low in glucose level.
, M. Hayashida, M. Miralestari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 83-87; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i2.1355

Abstract:
Sweet potato plant is produced in Indonesia in large quantities. Sweet potato leaves and stems can be used as a source of protein and the tuber can be used as an energy source. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of feeding of sweet potato biomass on the rumen fermentation characteristics, digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as rumen microbial population of thin tail sheep. This study used a randomized block design by applying four feed treatments, i.e., T0 (100% Napier grass), T1 (70% of Napier grass + 30% concentrate), T2 (50% of Napier grass + 50% sweet potato leaves), and T3 (70% sweet potato leaves + 30% sweet potato tuber) with three replicates. Rumen fluid samples were taken with stomach tube method using a vacuum pump. Results showed that the T3 diet has higher (P<0.05) digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, concentration of NH3 and VFA, and rumen bacterial population than those of T0 and T1diets but similar to that of T2 diet. Rumen pH and protozoa population was not different among the treatments. It can be concluded that the use of sweet potato biomass can improve the quality of rumen fermentation of sheep.
Yelly M. Mullik, Muhammad Ridla, Iwan Prihantoro, Marthen L. Mullik
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1301

Abstract:
Chromolaena odorata is a potential feed source but its usage is hampered by presence of various secondary metabolic compounds in plant’s tissues. One group of them is tannin. This experiment was aimed to evaluate various pre-treatment methods on total tannin concentration and in vitro digestibility of dry- and organic-matter. An 8 x 3 completely randomized experimental design was employed to test 8 different treatments. The treatments were: Fresh = freshly-chopped chromolaena leaves as control, Sun-dried = sun-dried (3x 24 hours) chromolaena leaves, Oven-dried = oven-dried (60oC for 24 hours) chromolaena leaves, Boiled = water-boiled (5 minutes) chromolaena leaves, RenWater = water-soaked (4 hours) chromolaena leaves, RenNaOH = NaOH-soaked (4 hours) chromolaena leaves, RenHCl = HCl-soaked (4 hours) chromolaena leaves, and Fermented = anaerobically-fermented (21 days) chromolaena leaves. Parameters measured were concentration of total tannins and nutrient content. The results showed that application of low heat (Sun-dried), hot water (Boiled), water soaking (RenWater), or unaeobic fermentation technique significantly reduced total tannin by 43% into 62% compared to control. The highest suppression (62%) was achieved by Fermented treatment. In the contrary, medium heat application (oven-dried at 60°C) or chemicaltreatments (HCl or NaOH) had no effect. Protein content of chromolaena was improved by 60% and crude fiber was reduced by 32% in Fermentaed treatment compared to the control. It could be concluded that anaerobic fermentation can be used an effective strategy to reduce tannin concentration in Chromolaena odorata without affecting its feeding value.
, Sumarningsih
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1251

Abstract:
Rapid diagnostic tools or point-of-care (POC) test is needed in the effort to control and eradicate the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Indonesia. Accuracy of a POC test is determined by the specificity of antibodies, which is the main component of a POC test. Recently a linear epitope, CNTCKQTP epitope, located at 274-281 amino acid residue of H5 hemagglutinin has been confirmed to be present all clade of H5N1 viruses. This study aimed at producing and evaluating the reactivity of a monospecific, polyclonal antibody against the epitope. The Antibody was produced by immunising a goat with the peptide in the form of multiple antigen peptide (MAP). The specificity of the antibody was estimated by assaying its reactivity against influenza virus subtypes H3N3, H4N4, H5N1, H6N5, H7N7, H9N2, H10N7 and H11N9; and recombinant hemagglutinins H1-H12, H14 and H15 with ELISA and immunoblot. The results of the assay showed that CNTKCQTP antibody was not specific for H5 haemagglutinin because it cross-reacted with other haemagglutinins especially H7, H8 and H9. The potential of the peptide containing the epitope, GNCNTKCQTPMGAINSS. as an ELISA reagent for assaying H5 antibodies in chickens previously vaccinated and challenged with the H5N1 virus was also evaluated in this study. In contrast, the results of previous studies, the ELISA using GNCNTKCQTPMGAINSS as coating antigen was not sensitive in detecting antibody to haemagglutinin H5 in chickens.Key Words: AI Virus, Hemagglutinin H5, CNTKCQTP Epitope, MAP, Immunoassay
, Tresnawati Purwadaria, Tuti Haryati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1389

Abstract:
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effectivity of an enzyme complex produced by Eupenicilium javanicum BS4 on the performance of laying hens fed with different feed ingredients. Three diets were formulated with similar nutrients (protein, ME, digestible amino acids, Ca and available P) value to meet the nutrient requirement of laying hens. Diets were formulated based on maize, palm kernel cake (PKC) or rice bran. The diets were either supplemented or not with BS4 enzyme complex and fed to Isa Brown pullet from 19 to 37 weeks old. Each diet was fed to 24 birds and the performances were recorded. Data were analysed statistically with 2 X 3 factorial design with six replicates. Results showed that supplementation of BS4 enzyme into laying hens diet did not influence body weight change, feed intake, mortalities, egg weight and egg shell thickness but significantly increased egg production (P<0.05) and the FCR (P<0.01) in any feedstuff tested. It also improved egg yolk colour score on diet contained 20% PKC. Laying hens fed 20% PKC produced more eggs than those fed maize or rice bran. The egg shell of laying hens fed rice bran were thicker than those fed with maize or PKC. It is concluded that BS4 enzyme complex is effective when supplemented into laying hens diet.
, Ria Sari Gail Sianturi, Elizabeth Wina, Diana Andrianita Kusumaningrum
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21, pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1343

Abstract:
A controlled release delivery system of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone helps to overcome the rapid degradation of hCG hormone in the blood, to avoid the use of multiple injections for ovulation induction and to enhance reproductive efficacy. This study aimed to prepare chitosan nanoparticles hCG (CS-NPh) and to determine its efficacy as nasal spray of CS-NPh. The observed parameters include physico-chemical characteristics of CS-NPh and the follicle size, corpus luteum, the time of ovulation and onset of estrus performed after administration of CS-NPh as a nasal spray compared with intramuscular hCG (control) at a dose of 1,000 IU in dairy cattle. The result showed that the formation of the hormone hCG nanoparticles is still in the size range of nanoparticles with a well and more stable molecular mass distribution, so it can be used as a carrier component of hormones. The result showed that the time of ovulation after hCG by intramuscular (day to 3.13±0.35) and CS-NPh as a nasal spray (days to 3.33±0.49) with the follicle size by 1.62±0.22 and 1.76±0.28 cm showed no significant differences (p> 0.05), likewise the size of the corpus luteum and onset of oestrus. This indicates that administration of CS-NPh as a nasal spray can be used in enhancing the induction of ovulation in dairy cattles.Key Words: Nanoparticles, hCG, Nasal Spray, Ovulation
, Iman Supriatna, M. Agus Setiadi, Mohamad Fahrudin
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1315

Abstract:
In poultry embryos, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are progenitor cells for gametes, which have unique migration pathway. Primordial germ cells arise from epiblast in germinal crescent and circulate through the bloodstream for a short period of time, then leave blood vessel to migrate toward gonads. The aim of this study was to determine the potential production capacity of circulated-PGCs of KUB chicken at different developmental stages of embryo using a rapid and simple method. Seventy five KUB chicken fertile eggs were divided into five groups and incubated at 38.5 0C with a humidity of 60%. Hatching was set to the embryonic development stage of 14-18. The blood was collected through dorsal aorta using micropipette under microscope. The collected blood was placed in a 1.5 ml eppendorf tube which was previously filled with 100 µl phosphate buffered saline without Ca2+ and Mg2+ (PBS-) mixed with fetal bovine serum (FBS) with a ratio of 90%:10%. The PGCs were purified using lysis buffer ammonium chloride potassium method. The results showed that average production of circulated-PGCs per embryo of KUB chicken were significantly affected by stage of embryonic development (P <0.05). The average production of circulated-PGCs at stage 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 were 37.9; 53.5; 49.8; 38.3; and 33.5 respectively. The number of circulated-PGCs was not different among stages 14, 17 nor 18. The highest number of circulated-PGCs of KUB chicken was obtained at stage 15, so that the isolation and collection of PGCs through the blood circulation was recommended in stage 15.Key Words: KUB Chicken, PGCs, Embryonic Development Stage, Ammonium Chloride Potassium
Muhammad Imron, Iman Supriatna, Amrozi, Mohamad Agus Setiadi
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v21i1.1349

Abstract:
Superovulation treatment on PO cattle (Bos indicus) was less responsive compared to Bos taurus breed. It might due to the difference of their follicular dynamic. This study was conducted to investigate the follicular dynamics and its repeatability in PO cattle. Follicular dynamics observations conducted on 9 cows trough ultrasound scanning every day. Observations of wave patterns repeatability were performed in 6 cows which its wave pattern already known on the next consecutive IOI. Research result indicated that PO cattle had 3 (66%) and 4-waves (34%) pattern. The first wave of 3 and 4-waves pattern emerged on day -0.4+0.9 and 1.4+1.1 respectively. The second wave of 3 and 4-wave pattern emerged on day 9.8+1.5 and 7.4+1.9 respectively. The pattern of 3 waves has a longer follicle dominant duration (11.6+1.5 day) in the first wave of estrous cycle, compared with 4 waves pattern (10+2.92 and 7+1.00 day respectively). The growth rate of dominant follicle was not different significantly between the 3 and 4-waves pattern (0.87+0.23 and 0.94+0.25 mm/day respectively). Similarly, ovulatory follicle diameter between 3 and 4-waves pattern was also not different significantly (12.24+12.34 and 12.30+12.23 mm respectively). Observation of wave patterns repeatability in 6 PO cows indicated that PO cattle had high repeatability in follicular wave pattern (0.88) and the number of growing follicle was 0.91. This study resulted data for dynamic of follicular development, wave pattern, its repeatability which be expected to design the protocol of superovulation treatment or other reproduction technologies based on follicular dynamic to improve its result in PO cattle.
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