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Christopher H. Jackson, Gianluca Baio, Anna Heath, Mark Strong, Nicky J. Welton, Edward C.F. Wilson
Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-statistics-040120-010730

Abstract:
Value of information (VoI) is a decision-theoretic approach to estimating the expected benefits from collecting further information of different kinds, in scientific problems based on combining one or more sources of data. VoI methods can assess the sensitivity of models to different sources of uncertainty and help to set priorities for further data collection. They have been widely applied in healthcare policy making, but the ideas are general to a range of evidence synthesis and decision problems. This article gives a broad overview of VoI methods, explaining the principles behind them, the range of problems that can be tackled with them, and how they can be implemented, and discusses the ongoing challenges in the area. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Statistics, Volume 9 is March 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Galin L. Jones, Qian Qin
Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-statistics-040220-090158

Abstract:
Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is an essential set of tools for estimating features of probability distributions commonly encountered in modern applications. For MCMC simulation to produce reliable outcomes, it needs to generate observations representative of the target distribution, and it must be long enough so that the errors of Monte Carlo estimates are small. We review methods for assessing the reliability of the simulation effort, with an emphasis on those most useful in practically relevant settings. Both strengths and weaknesses of these methods are discussed. The methods are illustrated in several examples and in a detailed case study. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Statistics, Volume 9 is March 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Judith McCool, Rosie Dobson, Robyn Whittaker, Chris Paton
Published: 14 October 2021
Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052620-093850

Abstract:
This article reflects on current trends and proposes new considerations for the future of mobile technologies for health (mHealth). Our focus is predominantly on the value of and concerns with regard to the application of digital health within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is in LMICs and marginalized communities that mHealth (within the wider scope of digital health) could be most useful and valuable. Peer-reviewed literature on mHealth in LMICs provides reassurance of this potential, often reflecting on the ubiquity of mobile phones and ever-increasing connectivity globally, reaching remote or otherwise disengaged populations. Efforts to adapt successful programs for LMIC contexts and populations are only just starting to reap rewards. Private-sector investment in mHealth offers value through enhanced capacity and advances in technology as well as the ability to meet increasing consumer demand for real-time, accessible, convenient, and choice-driven health care options. We examine some of the potential considerations associated with a private-sector investment, questioning whether a core of transparency, local ownership, equity, and safety are likely to be upheld in the current environment of health entrepreneurship. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz
Published: 14 October 2021
Annual Review of Linguistics, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-032521-053009

Abstract:
Attitude verbs, such as think, want, and know, describe internal mental states that leave few cues as to their meanings in the physical world. Consequently, their acquisition requires learners to draw from indirect evidence stemming from the linguistic and conversational contexts in which they occur. This provides us a unique opportunity to probe the linguistic and cognitive abilities that children deploy in acquiring these words. Through a few case studies, we show how children make use of syntactic and pragmatic cues to figure out attitude verb meanings and how their successes, and even their mistakes, reveal remarkable conceptual, linguistic, and pragmatic sophistication. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Linguistics, Volume 8 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Xue Dong He, Steven Kou, Xianhua Peng
Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-statistics-030718-105122

Abstract:
Risk measures are used not only for financial institutions’ internal risk management but also for external regulation (e.g., in the Basel Accord for calculating the regulatory capital requirements for financial institutions). Though fundamental in risk management, how to select a good risk measure is a controversial issue. We review the literature on risk measures, particularly on issues such as subadditivity, robustness, elicitability, and backtesting. We also aim to clarify some misconceptions and confusions in the literature. In particular, we argue that, despite lacking some mathematical convenience, the median shortfall—that is, the median of the tail loss distribution—is a better option than the expected shortfall for setting the Basel Accords capital requirements due to statistical and economic considerations such as capturing tail risk, robustness, elicitability, backtesting, and surplus invariance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Statistics, Volume 9 is March 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Mary M. Gardiner, Helen E. Roy
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 67; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-072121-075258

Abstract:
Community (or citizen) science, the involvement of volunteers in scientific endeavors, has a long history. Over the past few centuries, the contributions of volunteers to our understanding of patterns and processes in entomology has been inspiring. From the collation of large-scale and long-term data sets, which have been instrumental in underpinning our knowledge of the status and trends of many insect groups, to action, including species management, whether for conservation or control, community scientists have played pivotal roles. Contributions, such as pest monitoring by farmers and species discoveries by amateur naturalists, set foundations for the research engaging entomologists today. The next decades will undoubtedly bring new approaches, tools, and technologies to underpin community science. The potential to increase inclusion within community science is providing exciting opportunities within entomology. An increase in the diversity of community scientists, alongside increasing taxonomic and geographic breadth of initiatives, will bring enormous benefits globally for people and nature. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 67 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Sarah E. Blutt, Mary K. Estes
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042320-023055

Abstract:
Infectious diseases affect individual health and have widespread societal impacts. New ex vivo models are critical to understand pathogenesis, host response, and features necessary to develop preventive and therapeutic treatments. Pluripotent and tissue stem cell–derived organoids provide new tools for the study of human infections. Organoid models recapitulate many characteristics of in vivo disease and are providing new insights into human respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neuronal host–microbe interactions. Increasing culture complexity by adding the stroma, interorgan communication, and the microbiome will improve the use of organoids as models for infection. Organoid cultures provide a platform with the capability to improve human health related to infectious diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Roger Cotterrell
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 15-29; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-102720-020551

Abstract:
This article identifies points of comparison between legal theory and social theory and possibilities for research communication between them. The current range of both fields is such that each must be seen as a compendium of very diverse intellectual projects. So, the article explores particular contemporary themes around which the interests of juristic scholars and social theorists are converging, albeit that their theoretical aims often differ. Contrasting and complementary juristic and social theoretical perspectives are considered in relation to the following: the future of legal individualism, the identity of law as a social phenomenon, the relations of law and power, the contribution of law to societal integration, and the changing relation of law and the state. The article argues that these five themes reveal major intellectual challenges for both legal theory and social theory and productive future areas for inquiry.
Benjamin Justice
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 31-51; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-120920-084831

Abstract:
Researchers have written a good deal in the last two decades about the relationship between public education and criminal justice as a pipeline by which public school practices correlate with or cause increased lifetime risk for incarceration for Black and Latinx youth. This article flips the script of the school-to-prison pipeline metaphor by reversing the question. What are the effects of criminal justice on public schooling? Reviewing recent social science research from multiple disciplines on policing and incarceration, this article describes the relationship of criminal justice to public education as hobbling, a social process by which the massification of policing and incarceration systematically compromises the ability of target demographics of American children to enjoy their rights to a free and appropriate public education.
Fleur Johns
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 53-71; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-120920-085138

Abstract:
Law and social science scholars have long elucidated ways of governing built around state governance of populations and subjects. Yet many are now grappling with the growing prevalence of practices of governance that depart, to varying degrees, from received models. The profusion of digital data, and the deployment of machine learning in its analysis, are redirecting states’ and international organizations’ attention away from the governance of populations as such and toward the amassing, analysis, and mobilization of hybrid data repositories and real-time data flows for governance. Much of this work does not depend on state data sources or on conventional statistical models. The subjectivities nurtured by these techniques of governance are frequently not those of choosing individuals. Digital objects and mediators are increasingly prevalent at all scales. This article surveys how scholars are beginning to understand the nascent political technologies associated with this shift toward governance by data.
Linsey McGoey
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 391-409; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-120220-074323

Abstract:
This article discusses the rise of an approach to philanthropic giving known as philanthrocapitalism. I relate it to a new paradigm in management theory that has claimed that private profit making naturally aligns with improved public welfare. I show how growing belief in the inherent “compatibility” of corporate missions and public benefits has led to new laws and contributed to major shifts in how giving practices are structured and legitimated. The original point made in this article is that the philanthrocapitalist turn is more than simply an organizational change in the structure of different philanthropic institutions. Rather, the belief that profit-making and public welfare are naturally aligned also has significant, undertheorized implications for different principles in European-American legal traditions. The ascendancy of the philanthrocapitalist approach represents a subtle but profound displacement of belief in the need for democratic checks and balances on the use of public funds for private enrichment.
John Braithwaite
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 205-225; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111720-013149

Abstract:
Restorative justice may be effective because it is a street-level meta-strategy that is responsive and relational. Nonresponsive, nonrelational strategies that are enacted from desks are less likely to be effective; best-practice strategies may be less likely to be effective than wisely sequenced meta-strategies. Responsive regulation is conceived as a strategy of moving among strategies, as opposed to selection of any best strategy. Restorative justice is a way of selecting strategies to heal the hurts of injustice. Empathic empowerment of stakeholders who take turns to speak in a circle is at the heart of its strategy for strategy selection. Restorative justice can complement responsive regulation; at their best, they are mutually constitutive. Responsive regulation may work best when restorative justice is a first preference at the base of a pyramid of strategies. Responsive regulation involves listening and flexible deliberative choice among strategies arrayed in a pyramid. At the bottom of the pyramid are more frequently used, noncoercive strategies of first choice. Despite encouraging evidence that restorative and responsive regulation can work better than less dynamic top-down enforcement, the effectiveness of restorative justice and responsive regulation depends mainly on the efficacy of the interventions that are responsively chosen. It is time to redirect research and development to improving the quality of restorative-responsive strategy selection and the quality of the diverse strategies on offer.
Keith J. Bybee
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-120920-084221

Abstract:
The United States, like many countries around the world today, is experiencing the disruption of traditional patterns of governance and the breaking of norms of everyday behavior. If we identify the norms of governance with the rule of law, and if we consider the norms of everyday behavior to constitute civility, then we can approach the current state of affairs by asking how law and civility relate to one another. I survey and discuss three different understandings of the law/civility relationship: law and civility, law or civility, and law as civility. Each of these understandings is an analytical resource, and as such, each understanding captures a facet of a complex relationship and provides a way to think about our current age of unrest.
Eve M. Brank, Lindsey E. Wylie
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 93-108; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-021721-091626

Abstract:
The decision of whether to hold someone legally responsible raises both philosophical and psychological questions. Philosophically, legal responsibility derives from either what someone did or who someone is—deed or role responsibility. For both the young and the very old, responsibility for bad actions is intertwined with psychological definitions of competency and capacity. For the young, the law assumes incompetence until a certain chronological age or court determination. For the old, no automatic chronological age is determinative; rather, the law assumes competence until a court determines otherwise. These automatic or court determinations impact legal responsibility in both the civil and criminal law contexts for both the young and the old. Additionally, special circumstances create responsibilities for others in relation to the young and old.
Michael McCann, Filiz Kahraman
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 483-503; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111720-012237

Abstract:
Scholars conventionally distinguish between liberal and illiberal, or authoritarian, legal orders. Such distinctions are useful but often simplistic and misleading, as many regimes are governed by plural, dual, or hybrid legal institutions, principles, and practices. This is no less true for the United States, which often is misidentified as the paradigmatic liberal constitutional order. Historical and critical scholarship, including recent studies of law under racial capitalism, provide reason to identify American law as a dual state in which legal forms that govern property ownership, contract relations, and civil liberties of free citizens differ from the more illiberal, authoritarian legal forms that rule over subaltern populations, particularly racialized, low-wage workers, Indigenous populations, the poor, immigrants, and women. This dual state, we argue, did undergo changes to adopt more procedurally liberal, professional, overtly deracialized legal forms after World War II, but these changes masked more than tamed the continuing illiberal, authoritarian violence that targeted marginalized citizens. While constantly changing, the American legal system is best understood not as a singular liberal order but instead as a hybrid system of mutually constitutive liberal and illiberal and authoritarian legal practices.
Andrew G. Alleyne, Christopher T. Aksland
Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-control-042920-012513

Abstract:
This article outlines the importance of electrified mobility (e-mobility) in modern transport. One key goal of this review is to illustrate the role that control has played, and must continue to play, as e-mobility grows. The coordination of power in multiple modes (mechanical, electrical, and thermal) requires sophisticated controller algorithms. This review advocates for model-based approaches to control since there may not be readily available physical systems from which to gather data and do data-based control. A second goal of the article is to present methods for modeling these powertrain systems that are modular, scalable, flexible, and computationally efficient. A graph-based approach satisfies many of the desired criteria. The third goal is to review control approaches for these classes of systems and detail a hierarchical approach that makes trades across different domains of power. Optimization-based approaches are well suited to achieving the regulation and tracking goals, along with the minimization of costs and the satisfaction of constraints. Multiple examples, within this article and the references therein, support the presentation throughout. This field of e-mobility is rapidly growing, and control engineers are uniquely positioned to have an impact and lead many of the critical developments. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Volume 5 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Paul D. Bates
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 54; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-030121-113138

Abstract:
Every year flood events lead to thousands of casualties and significant economic damage. Mapping the areas at risk of flooding is critical to reducing these losses, yet until the last few years such information was available for only a handful of well-studied locations. This review surveys recent progress to address this fundamental issue through a novel combination of appropriate physics, efficient numerical algorithms, high-performance computing, new sources of big data, and model automation frameworks. The review describes the fluid mechanics of inundation and the models used to predict it, before going on to consider the developments that have led in the last five years to the creation of the first true fluid mechanics models of flooding over the entire terrestrial land surface. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 54 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Carl Glen Henshaw, Samantha Glassner, Bo Naasz, Brian Roberts
Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-control-042920-011106

Abstract:
This article provides a survey overview of the techniques, mechanisms, algorithms, and test and validation strategies required for the design of robotic grappling vehicles intended to approach and grapple free-flying client satellites. We concentrate on using a robotic arm to grapple a free-floating spacecraft, as distinct from spacecraft docking and berthing, where two spacecraft directly mate with each other. Robotic grappling of client spacecraft is a deceptively complex problem: It entails designing a robotic system that functions robustly in the visually stark, thermally extreme orbital environment, operating near massive and extremely expensive yet fragile client hardware, using relatively slow flight computers with limited and laggy communications. Spaceflight robotic systems are challenging to test and validate prior to deployment and extremely expensive to launch, which significantly limits opportunities to experiment with new techniques. These factors make the design and operation of orbital robotic systems significantly different from those of their terrestrial counterparts, and as a result, only a relative handful of systems have been demonstrated on orbit. Nevertheless, there is increasing interest in on-orbit robotic servicing and assembly missions, and grappling is the core requirement for these systems. Although existing systems such as the Space Station Remote Manipulator System have demonstrated extremely reliable operation, upcoming missions will attempt to expand the types of spacecraft that can be safely and dependably grappled and berthed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Volume 5 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Richard D. Sandberg, Vittorio Michelassi
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 54; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-031221-105530

Abstract:
The current generation of axial turbomachines are the culmination of decades of experience, and detailed understanding of the underlying flow physics has been a key factor for achieving high efficiency and reliability. Driven by advances in numerical methods and relentless growth in computing power, computational fluid dynamics has increasingly provided insights into the rich fluid dynamics involved and how it relates to loss generation. This article presents some of the complex flow phenomena occurring in bladed components of gas turbines and illustrates how simulations have contributed to their understanding and the challenges they pose for modeling. The interaction of key aerodynamic features with deterministic unsteadiness, caused by multiple blade rows, and stochastic unsteadiness, i.e., turbulence, is discussed. High-fidelity simulations of increasingly realistic configurations and models improved with help of machine learning promise to further grow turbomachinery performance and reliability and, thus, help fluid mechanics research have a greater industrial impact. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 54 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Onur Bakiner
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 73-91; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111620-010000

Abstract:
This review surveys the philosophical underpinnings, conceptual frames, and methodological choices informing the scholarship on truth commission impact to examine whether, how, how much, and why truth commissions influence policy, court decisions, and social norms. It focuses on three areas: ( a) truth commission impact as the product of complex interactions between politicians, civil society activists, and truth commissions; ( b) conceptual and methodological debates and disagreements in studies of impact; and ( c) normative visions guiding expectations and assessments. The findings of empirical scholarship range from partial confirmation of bold and at times vague expectations to damning accounts of commissions’ failure to deliver. In addition to conceptual and methodological choices, scholars’ normative assumptions and expectations also explain divergent accounts of truth commission impact. Three sets of normative frameworks set the expectations in particular: building liberal democratic institutions; transforming socioeconomic, gendered, and racialized hierarchies; and reflecting local values, norms, and power dynamics.
Megan Ming Francis, Leah Wright-Rigueur
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 441-458; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-122120-100052

Abstract:
This review examines the Black Lives Matter movement. Despite a growing body of literature focused on explaining the formation and activities of the present Black Lives Matter movement, less attention is given to the historical antecedents. What are earlier Black-led movements centered on ending state-sanctioned violence? This article situates Black Lives Matter in a much longer lens and examines the long struggle to protect Black lives from state-sanctioned violence. We draw from existing research to provide a historical genealogy of the movement that traces the beginnings of a movement to protect Black lives to the work of Ida B. Wells and follows it up to the work of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the urban rebellions that have followed.
Surya Deva
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 139-158; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-113020-074527

Abstract:
In recent years, various approaches to transnational regulation of business conduct have evolved as an alternative to the command-and-control model focusing on conduct of domestic businesses and the soft law approach of international human rights law to regulate corporations. On reviewing the potential of five such approaches (i.e., polycentric governance, extraterritorial regulation, proposed international treaty, reform of corporate laws, and rebalancing of trade-investment agreements), this article makes two arguments. First, although polycentric governance is critical to fill regulatory deficits of state-based regulation, this approach should not ignore or weaken further the role and relevance of states in regulating businesses, given the dynamic relation between state-based and other regulatory approaches. Second, greater attention should be paid to nonhuman rights regulatory regimes to change the corporate culture, which tends to externalize human rights issues. The increasing focus on the role of corporate laws and trade-investment agreements should be seen in this context.
Amelia Courtney Hritz
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 335-351; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-051121-070621

Abstract:
Parole board decision making has changed dramatically over the last century, mirroring broader trends in criminal punishment. Even though parole decisions affect the length of prison sentences and the US Supreme Court has safeguarded defendants’ rights during the sentencing phase of criminal proceedings, the court has largely declined to interfere in parole. After briefly surveying the historical evolution of parole in the United States, this article proceeds in two parts. First, the article analyzes Supreme Court cases involving sentencing and parole and discusses questions raised by those decisions. Second, the article examines modern studies of parole board decisions and highlights ethical and legal questions raised by the research.
Benedict Kingsbury, Nahuel Maisley
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 353-373; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-011521-082856

Abstract:
Infrastructures are technical-social assemblages infused in politics and power relations. They spur public action, prompting increased scholarly reference to the practices of infrastructural publics. This article explores the normative and conceptual meanings of infrastructures, publics, and infrastructural publics. It distills from political theory traditions of Hannah Arendt, Jürgen Habermas, and Nancy Fraser a normative ideal of publics composed of the persons subject to a particular configuration of power relations that may significantly affect their autonomy. Autonomy can be seriously affected not only by existing or planned infrastructures, with their existing or anticipating users and workers and objectors, but also by the lack of an infra-structure or by the terms of infrastructural exclusions, rationings, channelings, and fiscal impositions. Legal-institutional mechanisms provide some of the means for infrastructural publics to act and be heard, and for conflicts between or within different publics to be addressed, operationalizing legal ideas of publicness. These mechanisms are often underprovided or misaligned with infrastructure. One reason is the murkiness and insecurity of relations of infrastructural publics to legal publics constituted or framed as such by institutions and instruments of law and governance. We argue that thoughtful integration of infrastructural and legal scaling and design, accompanied by a normative aspiration to publicness, may have beneficial effects.
Jeffrey J. Rachlinski
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 277-291; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-011921-060754

Abstract:
By all accounts, we currently live in a polarized political state in which virtually every fact is contestable. From climate change to vaccine efficacy, people feel free to choose their own facts to support politically charged arguments. Partisans in every area of American life are unable to agree on the basic assumptions underlying political debate. Research on cultural cognition demonstrates that people's political and cultural commitments shape how they process information from news sources, scientists, and public officials, thereby dictating which policies they support and which ones they oppose. When partisan loyalties determine what evidence people will accept, political compromise becomes difficult or even impossible. All is not lost, however. Cultural cognition has a powerful influence, but facts are stubborn things. In some areas of public debate, facts and evidence have overcome political divides. Furthermore, an understanding of the influence of cultural cognition can facilitate remedies to partisanship. This article examines the research that demonstrates the extent of cultural influences on people's understanding of public debates, identifies the limits of cultural cognition, and describes the extent to which cultural cognition itself provides keys to breaking down partisan divides.
Aruni Bhatnagar
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042220-011549

Abstract:
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to increases in blood pressure, thrombosis, and insulin resistance. It also induces vascular injury and accelerates atherogenesis. Results from animal models corroborate epidemiological evidence and suggest that the cardiovascular effects of PM2.5 may be attributable, in part, to oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activation of the autonomic nervous system. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, there is robust evidence that long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with premature mortality due to heart failure, stoke, and ischemic heart disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Natalie Y.L. Ngoi, Guang Peng, Timothy A. Yap
Published: 13 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042320-025136

Abstract:
Innate immunity and the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway are inextricably linked. Within the DDR, ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) is a key kinase responsible for sensing replication stress and facilitating DNA repair through checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and promotion of fork recovery. Recent studies have shed light on the immunomodulatory role of the ATR-CHK1 pathway in the tumor microenvironment and the specific effects of ATR inhibition in stimulating an innate immune response. With several potent and selective ATR inhibitors in developmental pipelines, the combination of dual ATR and PD-(L)1 blockade has attracted increasing interest in cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the clinical and preclinical data supporting the combined inhibition of ATR and PD-(L)1, discuss the potential challenges surrounding this approach, and highlight biomarkers relevant for selected patients who are most likely to benefit from the blockade of these two checkpoints. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Marie E. Berry, Milli Lake
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 459-481; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-113020-085456

Abstract:
Postwar recovery efforts foreground gender equality as a key component of building more liberal democracies. This review explores the burgeoning scholarship on women's rights after war, first grappling with war as a period of possibility for building new gender-inclusive institutions. We review efforts in three arenas: increasing women's political representation in postwar democratic transitions; improving access to justice for women through the extension of property rights and bodily autonomy within systems of carceral justice; and integrating women into labor markets and security sectors through various components of the Women, Peace, and Security agenda. Yet these inclusionary efforts have too often sought to dismantle one form of oppression (gender inequality) without challenging others. We document how projects to center women in liberal democratic reforms following war inadvertently overlook other manifestations of violence at the core of these institutions.
Tamar Kricheli-Katz
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 109-122; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111620-012514

Abstract:
Various forms of inequality, such as the gender, race, and class systems of inequality, operate and intersect in societies and markets. In this review, I discuss specifically the gender system of inequality. I focus on market interactions, conceptualizing them as the building blocks for gender inequalities in markets. My objective is to give an account of the complex interplay between the unequal distributions of resources, stereotypes and cultural beliefs about gender, and the law. I start by describing the persistence of gender inequality in markets. Building on studies in social psychology, I then identify the ways in which stereotypes and cultural beliefs about gender constantly, and unconsciously, frame our market interactions. Lastly, I discuss the limits of the law in altering the ways in which we interact in markets and the potential of the law to bring about lasting change.
Jens Meierhenrich
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 411-439; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-040721-102430

Abstract:
In this article, I use the concept of constitutional dictatorship as a heuristic, as a way of thinking more explicitly about constitutional violence than is customary in comparative constitutional law. Constitutional dictatorship is an epic concept. It is capable of illuminating—and retelling—epic histories of constitutional law, of alerting us to commonalities in constitutional practices of domination—and thus of violence—that would otherwise remain shrouded in legal orientalism. The analysis aspires to make constitutional law strange again. To this end, I trace nomoi and narratives of constitutional dictatorship from colonialism to the coronavirus pandemic. Arguing against emergency scripts, I relate the idea of “emergency” to the everyday and both to coloniality. Mine is a rudimentary conceptual history—a Begriffsgeschichte—of constitutional dictatorship. I think of the empirical vignettes about crisis government in the colony/postcolony on which my comparative historical analysis is based as prolegomena to a critical theory of constitutional dictatorship.
Roseanna Sommers
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 293-308; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-040721-103558

Abstract:
This review draws on the notion of “contract schemas” to characterize what ordinary people think is happening when they enter into contractual arrangements. It proposes that contracts are schematically represented as written documents filled with impenetrable text containing hidden strings, which are routinely signed without comprehension. This cognitive template, activated whenever people encounter objects with these characteristic features, confers certain default assumptions, associations, and expectancies. A review of the literature suggests that contract schemas supply ( a) the assumption that terms will be enforced as written, ( b) the feeling that one is obligated to perform, and ( c) the sense that one has forfeited rights. Contract schemas should be of interest to legal scholars, because their psychological and behavioral effects often sit at odds with contract doctrine. Laypeople expect the law to find consent in situations where they would prefer it did not, and where it in fact does not. Contract schemas should also be of interest to ordinary consumers, who may find themselves relinquishing legally valid claims, erroneously assuming away rights, and/or blaming themselves. Future research should explore the consequences that flow from the lay perception that the law is rigidly formalistic to the detriment of fairness. Do such attitudes undermine the perceived moral authority of the law?
Sarah Knuckey, Joshua D. Fisher, Amanda M. Klasing, Tess Russo, Margaret L. Satterthwaite
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 375-389; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-121620-081730

Abstract:
The human rights movement is increasingly using interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, mixed-methods, and quantitative factfinding. There has been too little analysis of these shifts. This article examines some of the opportunities and challenges of these methods, focusing on the investigation of socio-economic human rights. By potentially expanding the amount and types of evidence available, factfinding's accuracy and persuasiveness can be strengthened, bolstering rights claims. However, such methods can also present significant challenges and may pose risks in individual cases and to the human rights movement generally. Interdisciplinary methods can be costly in human, financial, and technical resources; are sometimes challengingto implement; may divert limited resources from other work; can reify inequalities; may produce “expertise” that disempowers rightsholders; and could raise investigation standards to an infeasible or counterproductive level. This article includes lessons learned and questions to guide researchers and human rights advocates considering mixed-methods human rights factfinding.
Karen Levy, Kyla E. Chasalow, Sarah Riley
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 309-334; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-041221-023808

Abstract:
This article surveys the use of algorithmic systems to support decision-making in the public sector. Governments adopt, procure, and use algorithmic systems to support their functions within several contexts—including criminal justice, education, and benefits provision—with important consequences for accountability, privacy, social inequity, and public participation in decision-making. We explore the social implications of municipal algorithmic systems across a variety of stages, including problem formulation, technology acquisition, deployment, and evaluation. We highlight several open questions that require further empirical research.
Mark D. Alicke, Stephanie H. Weigel
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 123-138; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-111620-020400

Abstract:
In criminal cases of self-defense and provocation, and civil cases of negligence, culpability is often decided with reference to how a reasonably prudent person (RPP) would have behaved in similar circumstances. The RPP is said to be an objective standard in that it eschews consideration of a defendant's unique background or characteristics. We discuss theory and evidence suggesting that in morally relevant judgments, including those involving negligence, self-defense, and provocation, the tendency to rely on the self—on one's own values and predilections—dominates considerations of the RPP. We consider subjective standards that have been proposed as alternatives to the RPP and review research on this topic. We conclude by considering avenues for future research, particularly addressing conditions in which self-standards of reasonableness are most likely to prevail.
Philippe Cullet, Lovleen Bhullar, Sujith Koonan
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 261-276; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-010421-014915

Abstract:
International law seeks to ensure water security and to prevent or resolve conflicts leading to water insecurity. This relationship is based on a hybrid framework comprising binding and nonbinding instruments. The multi-scalar dimensions of water (in)security are recognized, but further engagement is required. The link between international law and water (in)security is considered primarily through the lens of international water law, which focuses on transboundary (surface) watercourses. Groundwater—the other main source of water and determinant of water (in)security—receives little attention. Further, the traditional state-centric approach, with its emphasis on sovereignty and cooperation, remains the dominant paradigm despite some attempts to redefine it. Several other branches of international law present opportunities for expanding international law's engagement with the water security discourse. Finally, the climate change challenge requires a reconsideration of international law's approach to water (in)security while considering the global dimensions of water.
Jessica M. Salerno
Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Volume 17, pp 181-203; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-021721-072326

Abstract:
Judges and jurors are asked to comb through horrific evidence of accidents and crimes when choosing verdicts and punishment. These factfinders are likely to experience and express intense emotions as a result. A review of social, cognitive, moral, and legal psychological science illuminates how experienced and expressed emotions in legal settings can unconsciously bias even the most well-intentioned, diligent factfinder's decision-making processes in prejudicial ways. Experiencing negative emotions creates motivation to blame and punish—instigating blame validation processes to justify guilty/liability verdicts and harsher punishments. The review also examines how emotion expression can impugn legal actors’ credibility when it violates factfinders’ (often unrealistic) expectations for appropriate emotion in legal contexts. It considers misguided and promising interventions to help factfinders regulate emotional responses, advocating limiting emotional evidence as much as possible and, when not possible, helping factfinders reframe how they think about it and remain aware of their potential biases.
Antonio Cuadrado
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052220-103416

Abstract:
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the loss of homeostatic functions that control redox and energy metabolism, neuroinflammation, and proteostasis. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) is a master controller of these functions, and its overall activity is compromised during aging and in these diseases. However, NRF2 can be activated pharmacologically and is now being considered a common therapeutic target. Many gaps still exist in our knowledge of the specific role that NRF2 plays in specialized brain cell functions or how these cells respond to the hallmarks of these diseases. This review discusses the relevance of NRF2 to several hallmark features of neurodegenerative diseases and the current status of pharmacological activators that might pass through the blood-brain barrier and provide a disease-modifying effect. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Scott I. Tannenbaum, Mikhail A. Wolfson
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-012420-083050

Abstract:
Most learning in the workplace occurs outside of formal learning environments—it happens informally, “in the field.” In this review, we share what is known about how such informal field-based learning (IFBL) works, offer guidance on how to promote healthy IFBL, and identify future research needs. We first situate IFBL within the broader stream of the learning literature. On the basis of the literature and organizational needs, we propose a CAM-OS framework that emphasizes five personal and situational readiness factors for enabling constructive IFBL: Capability, Awareness, Motivation, Opportunity, and Support. We use the framework to offer practical, evidence-based advice for each of three stakeholder groups—senior leaders, managers, and employees—and conclude with suggested avenues for future research. The review is grounded in the research literature with an emphasis on implications for practice. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Kate Poole
Published: 12 October 2021
Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-060721-100935

Abstract:
Many aspects of mammalian physiology are mechanically regulated. One set of molecules that can mediate mechanotransduction are the mechanically activated ion channels. These ionotropic force sensors are directly activated by mechanical inputs, resulting in ionic flux across the plasma membrane. While there has been much research focus on the role of mechanically activated ion channels in touch sensation and hearing, recent data have highlighted the broad expression pattern of these molecules in mammalian cells. Disruption of mechanically activated channels has been shown to impact ( a) the development of mechanoresponsive structures, ( b) acute mechanical sensing, and ( c) mechanically driven homeostatic maintenance in multiple tissue types. The diversity of processes impacted by these molecules highlights the importance of mechanically activated ion channels in mammalian physiology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Hayato Ogawa, Keita Horitani, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Soichi Sano
Published: 12 October 2021
Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-061121-040048

Abstract:
Contrary to earlier beliefs, every cell in the individual is genetically different due to somatic mutations. Consequently, tissues become a mixture of cells with distinct genomes, a phenomenon termed somatic mosaicism. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have unveiled possible causes of mutations and how they shape the unique mutational landscape of the tissues. Moreover, the analysis of sequencing data in combination with clinical information has revealed the impacts of somatic mosaicism on disease processes. In this review, we discuss somatic mosaicism in various tissues and its clinical implications for human disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Takaaki Dohi, Robert. M. Reeve, Mathias Kläui
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-conmatphys-031620-110344

Abstract:
In condensed matter physics, magnetic skyrmions, topologically stabilized magnetic solitons, have been discovered in various materials systems, which has intrigued the community in terms of not only fundamental physics but also with respect to engineering applications. In particular, skyrmions in thin films are easily manipulable by electrical means even at room temperature. Concomitantly, a variety of possible applications have been proposed and proof-of-concept devices have been demonstrated. Recently, the field of skyrmion-based electronics has been referred to as skyrmionics and this field has been rapidly growing and extended in multiple directions. This review provides recent progress for skyrmion research in thin film systems and we discuss promising new directions, which will further invigorate the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 13 is March 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Cody A. Freas, Ken Cheng
Published: 12 October 2021
Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-020821-111311

Abstract:
Animals navigate a wide range of distances, from a few millimeters to globe-spanning journeys of thousands of kilometers. Despite this array of navigational challenges, similar principles underlie these behaviors across species. Here, we focus on the navigational strategies and supporting mechanisms in four well-known systems: the large-scale migratory behaviors of sea turtles and lepidopterans as well as navigation on a smaller scale by rats and solitarily foraging ants. In lepidopterans, rats, and ants we also discuss the current understanding of the neural architecture which supports navigation. The orientation and navigational behaviors of these animals are defined in terms of behavioral error-reduction strategies reliant on multiple goal-directed servomechanisms. We conclude by proposing to incorporate an additional component into this system: the observation that servomechanisms operate on oscillatory systems of cycling behavior. These oscillators and servomechanisms comprise the basis for directed orientation and navigational behaviors. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Jonathan V. Selinger
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-conmatphys-031620-105712

Abstract:
This article analyzes modulated phases in liquid crystals, from the long-established cholesteric and blue phases to the recently discovered twist-bend, splay-bend, and splay nematic phases, as well as the twist-grain-boundary (TGB) and helical nanofilament variations on smectic phases. The analysis uses the concept of four fundamental modes of director deformation: twist, bend, splay, and a fourth mode related to saddle-splay. Each mode is coupled to a specific type of molecular order: chirality, polarization perpendicular and parallel to the director, and octupolar order. When the liquid crystal develops one type of spontaneous order, the ideal local structure becomes nonuniform, with the corresponding director deformation. In general, the ideal local structure is frustrated; it cannot fill space. As a result, the liquid crystal must form a complex global phase, which may have a combination of deformation modes, and may have a periodic array of defects. Thus, the concept of an ideal local structure under geometric frustration provides a unified framework to understand the wide variety of modulated phases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, Volume 13 is March 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
E. Ann Yeh, Carmen Yea, Ari Bitnun
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pathmechdis-040121-022818

Abstract:
Recent years have seen growing attention to inflammatory and infectious disorders of the spinal cord, not only due to the discovery of autoantibody-mediated disorders of the spinal cord [e.g., aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG antibodies], but also due to the emergence of clusters of infection-related myelopathy, now known as acute flaccid myelitis. We review the spectrum of infection-related myelopathies and outline a nosological classification system based on association with infection. We describe the epidemiology and definitions of myelopathies, with a discussion of clinical presentation and neuroimaging features, and then turn to specific discussion of myelopathies due to direct pathogen invasion and those considered to be post- or parainfectious. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, Volume 17 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Scott M. Emrich, Ryan E. Yoast, Mohamed Trebak
Published: 12 October 2021
Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-052521-013426

Abstract:
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a ubiquitous Ca2+ signaling pathway that is evolutionarily conserved across eukaryotes. SOCE is triggered physiologically when the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores are emptied through activation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. SOCE is mediated by the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels, which are highly Ca2+ selective. Upon store depletion, the ER Ca2+-sensing STIM proteins aggregate and gain extended conformations spanning the ER-plasma membrane junctional space to bind and activate Orai, the pore-forming proteins of hexameric CRAC channels. In recent years, studies on STIM and Orai tissue-specific knockout mice and gain- and loss-of-function mutations in humans have shed light on the physiological functions of SOCE in various tissues. Here, we describe recent findings on the composition of native CRAC channels and their physiological functions in immune, muscle, secretory, and neuronal systems to draw lessons from transgenic mice and human diseases caused by altered CRAC channel activity. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology, Volume 84 is February 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Peter J. Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi
Published: 12 October 2021
Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-042420-113212

Abstract:
The rapid development and deployment of mRNA and adenovirus-vectored vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to astound the global scientific community, but these vaccine platforms and production approaches have still not achieved global COVID-19 vaccine equity. Immunizing the billions of people at risk for COVID-19 in the world's low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) still relies on the availability of vaccines produced and scaled through traditional technology approaches. Vaccines based on whole inactivated virus (WIV) and protein-based platforms, as well as protein particle-based vaccines, are the most produced by LMIC vaccine manufacturing strategies. Three major WIV vaccines are beginning to be distributed widely. Several protein-based and protein particle-based vaccines are advancing with promising results. Overall, these vaccines are exhibiting excellent safety profiles and in some instances have shown their potential to induce high levels of virus neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses (and protection) both in nonhuman primates and in early studies in humans. There is an urgent need to continue accelerating these vaccines for LMICs in time to fully vaccinate these populations by the end of 2022 at the latest. Achieving these goals would also serve as an important reminder that we must continue to maintain expertise in producing multiple vaccine technologies, rather than relying on any individual platform. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Kimberly A. Lackey, Bethaney D. Fehrenkamp, Ryan M. Pace, Janet E. Williams, Courtney L. Meehan, Mark A. McGuire, Michelle K. McGuire
Published: 11 October 2021
Annual Review of Nutrition, Volume 41, pp 283-308; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-043020-011242

Abstract:
Because breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition and other benefits for infants (e.g., lower risk of infectious disease) and benefits for mothers (e.g., less postpartum bleeding), many organizations recommend that healthy infants be exclusively breastfed for 4 to 6 months in the United States and 6 months internationally. Recommendations related to how long breastfeeding should continue, however, are inconsistent. The objective of this article is to review the literature related to evidence for benefits of breastfeeding beyond 1 year for mothers and infants. In summary, human milk represents a good source of nutrients and immune components beyond 1 year. Some studies point toward lower infant mortality in undernourished children breastfed for >1 year, and prolonged breastfeeding increases interbirth intervals. Data on other outcomes (e.g., growth, diarrhea, obesity, and maternal weight loss) are inconsistent, often lacking sufficient control for confounding variables. There is a substantial need for rigorous, prospective, mixed-methods, cross-cultural research on this topic.
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