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Monthalee Nooseisai, Pramon Viwattanakulvanid, , Napaphan Viriyautsahakul, Gul Muhammad Baloch,
Primary Health Care Research & Development, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1463423621000505

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of diabetes self-management education (DSME) on lowering blood glucose level, stress, and quality of life (QoL) among female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Thailand. Background: The burden of noncommunicable diseases has increased globally, and it has negatively affected the QoL of diabetic patients. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted by including 77 T2DM patients selected from 2 public health centers in Thailand. The respondents were randomly selected 38 in control group and 39 in intervention group. Pretested, piloted, and validated tool were used during this study. Knowledge on blood glucose level, stress, and QoL was measured at baseline and then compared to end line after 3 months of the intervention. The effects of intervention were estimated by regression coefficient of intervention on blood glucose level and QoL. The study was ethically approved by the Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Findings: Baseline characteristics of both the groups were similar before the start of the intervention and there were no significant differences observed in age, education, blood sugar monitoring behavior, medical checkup, knowledge, self-care, stress, and hemoglobin HbA1c (>0.05). However, blood HbA1c, stress level, and QoL among the T2DM patients had significant changes (0.05). Conclusions: The study concluded that the designed intervention of DSME has proved effective in lowering the blood sugar level, HbA1c level, stress level, and improved QoL among T2DM patients during this limited period of time. Hence, policy-makers can replicate this intervention for diabetic patients in a similar context.
Takashi Furuta, , Yuichiro Sugitani, Miwa Yoshino
Cardiology in the Young pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1047951121003929

Abstract:
Despite acceptable survival for Fontan operation, there are concerns about late complications affecting the major organs. We herein present two cases of adults after Fontan operation who developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. These cases suggest that focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is owing to haemodynamic incompetence associated with Fontan operation, including congestion, hypoxia, and hyperviscosity, which may be called Fontan-associated renal disease.
, , Abdulla Tarmahomed, Christopher Ugwu, Heba M. Mohammed, Ramesh Kutty, Attilio Lotto, Rafael Guerrero, Ramana Dhannapuneni
Cardiology in the Young pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1047951121003747

Abstract:
Objectives: There are several studies reporting the outcomes of hypoplastic aortic arch and aortic coarctation repair with combination of techniques. However, only few studies reported of aortic arch and coarctation repair using a homograft patch through sternotomy and circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion. We report our experience and outcomes of this cohort of neonates and infants. Methods: We performed retrospective data collection for all neonates and infants who underwent aortic arch reconstruction between 2015 and 2020 at our institute. Data are presented as median and inter-quartile range (IQR). Results: The cohort included 76 patients: 49 were males (64.5%). Median age at operation was 16 days (IQR 9–43.25 days). Median weight was 3.5 kg (IQR 3.10–4 kg). There was no 30 days mortality. Three patients died in hospital after 30 days (3.95%), neurological adverse events occurred in only one patient (1.32%) and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was noted in four patients (5.26%). Only three patients required the support of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with a median ECMO run of 4 days. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR 18.9–46.4 months); 5 years survival was 93.42% (n = 71). The rate of re-intervention on the aortic arch was 9.21% (n = 7). Conclusion: Our experience shows excellent outcomes in repairing aortic arch hypoplasia with homograft patch under moderate to deep hypothermia with low in-hospital and 5 years mortality rates.
Yasuhiro Ichikawa, Sadamitsu Yanagi, Hideaki Ueda
Cardiology in the Young pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1047951121003863

Abstract:
We report on a 7-month-old male with transient phrenic nerve palsy induced by diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. The phrenic nerve palsy, which is a rare complication, was due to extravascular bleeding from a branch of the internal mammary artery.
Ross Foley, Sophie Duignan, Linda McArdle, David R. Betts, Andrew Green,
Cardiology in the Young pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1047951121003826

Abstract:
Nicolaides–Baraitser syndrome is a rare, neuro-developmental disorder caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the SMARCA2 gene, involved with chromatin regulation. Cardinal features include intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, triangular facies, sparse hair, brachydactyly, prominent interphalangeal joints and seizures. Genetic testing demonstrated a loss within SMARCA2 at 9p24.3 inclusive of basepairs 2094861_2141830 (hg19) in our patient. This case highlights a child with Nicolaides–Baraiter syndrome, a SMARCA2 gene deletion and a novel association of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.
Bohao Wu, , Anna C Rivara, Christina Soti-Ulberg, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham,
Public Health Nutrition pp 1-30; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980021003980

Abstract:
Objective: To characterize prevalence and persistence of anaemia among Samoan children over a two-three-year period. Design: Data were from two consecutive waves (2015 and 2017/2018) of the Ola Tuputupua’e “Growing up” study. Anaemia (haemoglobin <11·0 or 11·5 g/dL for 2-4 and ≥5 years olds, respectively) was considered “transient” when it occurred at only one wave or “persistent” if it was present at two consecutive waves. Child, maternal, and household correlates of anaemia were examined using log-binomial and modified Poisson regressions. Setting: Eleven Samoan villages Participants: Mother-child pairs (n=257) recruited in 2015 and re-assessed in 2017/2018. Results: Anaemia prevalence was 33·9% in 2015 and 28·0% in 2017/2018; 35·6% of cases identified in 2015 were persistent. Risk of anaemia at only one wave was lower among children who were older in 2015 (age 4 vs. 2 years, aRR=0·54, 95% CI:0·35-0·84, P=0·007), had older mothers (≥40 vs. 18-29 years, aRR=0·61, 95% CI:0·39-0·95, P=0·029), and had higher daily sodium intake (for every 100 mg/day, aRR=0·97, 95% CI:0·95-0·99, P=0·003) than children with no anaemia. Children whose anaemia persisted were more likely to have had a mother with anaemia (aRR=2·13, 95% CI:1·17-3·89, P=0·013) and had higher daily dietary iron intake (for every 10 mg/day, aRR=4·69, 95% CI:1·33-16·49, P=0·016) than those with no anaemia. Conclusions: Alongside broadly targeted prevention efforts, which are warranted given the moderate-high anaemia prevalence observed, specific attention should be paid to children with risk factors for persistent anaemia. Routine screening of children whose mothers have anaemia should be encouraged.
, Lena Törnkvist, Johan Fastbom, Lena Lundh
Primary Health Care Research & Development, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1463423621000530

Abstract:
Aim: The present study aimed to describe the experience of district nurses (DNs) in using a clinical decision support system (CDSS) and the safe medication assessment (SMA) tool during patient visits to elderly care units at primary health care centres. Background: In Swedish primary health care, general practitioners (GPs) prescribe and have the responsibility to regularly review older adults’ medications, while DN (nurses specialised in primary health care) play an important role in assessing older adults’ ability to manage their medications, detecting potential drug-related problems and communicating with patients and GPs about such problems. In a previous feasibility study, we found that DNs who use a combination of a CDSS and the SMA tool identified numerous potentially harmful or dangerous factors and took a number of nursing care actions to improve the safety and quality of patients’ medication use. In telephone interviews, patients indicated that they were positive towards the assessment and interventions. Methods: Individual interviews with seven DNs who worked at six different primary health care centres in Region Stockholm were carried out in 2018. In 2019, an additional group interview was conducted with two of the seven DNs so they could discuss and comment on preliminary findings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. Findings: Using the tools, the DNs could have a natural conversation about medication use with older adults. They could get a clear picture of the older adults’ medication use and thus obtain information that could facilitate collaboration with GPs about this important component of health care for older adults. However, for the tools to be used in clinical practice, some barriers would have to be overcome, such as the time-consuming nature of using the tools and the lack of established routines for interprofessional collaboration regarding medication discussions.
, Olubayo Adekanmbi, Charlie Harrison
Published: 15 September 2021
Data & Policy, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.1017/dap.2021.12

Abstract:
With the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Nigeria in 2020, the Nigeria Governors’ Forum (NGF) instigated a collaboration with MTN Nigeria to develop data-driven insights, using mobile big data (MBD) and other data sources, to shape the planning and response to the pandemic. First, a model was developed to predict the worst-case scenario for infections in each state. This was used to support state-level health committees to make local resource planning decisions. Next, as containment interventions resulted in subsistence/daily paid workers losing their income and ability to buy essential food supplies, NGF and MTN agreed a second phase of activity, to develop insights to understand the population clusters at greatest socioeconomic risk from the impact of the pandemic. This insight was used to promote available financial relief to the economically vulnerable population clusters in Lagos state via the HelpNow crowdfunding initiative. This article discusses how anonymized and aggregated mobile network data (MBD), combined with other data sources, were used to create valuable insights and inform the government, and private business, response to the pandemic in Nigeria. Finally, we discuss lessons learnt. Firstly, how a collaboration with, and support from, the regulator enabled MTN to deliver critical insights at a national scale. Secondly, how the Nigeria Data Protection Regulation and the GSMA COVID-19 Privacy Guidelines provided an initial framework to open the discussion and define the approach. Thirdly, why stakeholder management is critical to the understanding, and application, of insights. Fourthly, how existing relationships ease new project collaborations. Finally, how MTN is developing future preparedness by creating a team that is focused on developing data-driven insights for social good.
, Anat Lewin, Tania Begazo Gomez, Dunstan Matekenya, Kyla Reid
Published: 15 September 2021
Data & Policy, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.1017/dap.2021.10

Abstract:
Anonymous and aggregated statistics derived from mobile phone data have proven efficacy as a proxy for human mobility in international development work and as inputs to epidemiological modeling of the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Despite the widely accepted promise of such data for better development outcomes, challenges persist in their systematic use across countries. This is not only the case for steady-state development use cases such as in the transport or urban development sectors, but also for sudden-onset emergencies such as epidemics in the health sector or natural disasters in the environment sector. This article documents an effort to gain systematized access to and use of anonymized, aggregated mobile phone data across 41 countries, leading to fruitful collaborations in nine developing countries over the course of one year. The research identifies recurring roadblocks and replicable successes, offers lessons learned, and calls for a bold vision for future successes. An emerging model for a future that enables steady-state access to insights derived from mobile big data - such that they are available over time for development use cases - will require investments in coalition building across multiple stakeholders, including local researchers and organizations, awareness raising of various key players, demand generation and capacity building, creation and adoption of standards to facilitate access to data and their ethical use, an enabling regulatory environment and long-term financing schemes to fund these activities.
Arif Yasin Çakmak, Ilker Kemal Yucel, Ahmet Sasmazel
Cardiology in the Young pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1047951121003796

Abstract:
Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect is a complex congenital cardiac anomaly. The blood is supplied to the lungs through a patent ductus arteriosus, a major aortopulmonary collateral artery, or in very rare cases from a coronary artery–pulmonary artery fistula. We present two cases with coronary artery–pulmonary artery fistula which underwent surgical intervention. In our first patient, the main pulmonary artery was supplied from the left main coronary artery. In the second patient, the right pulmonary artery originated from the left main coronary artery and continued to the right lung posteriorly to the aorta, while the left pulmonary artery originated from the patent ductus arteriosus. The difference in our cases is that the coronary artery pulmonary artery fistulas behave like major aortopulmonary collateral arteries originating from the coronary arteries. These fistulas were the main source of pulmonary blood flow.
Margrit Pernau
Emotions and Temporalities; https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108918701

Abstract:
This Element brings together the history of emotions and temporalities, offering a new perspective on both. Time was often imagined as a movement from the past to the future: the past is gone and the future not yet here. Only present-day subjects could establish relations to other times, recovering history as well as imagining and anticipating the future. In a movement paralleling the emphasis on the porous self, constituted by emotions situated not inside but between subjects, this Element argues for a porous present, which is open to the intervention of ghosts coming from the past and from the future. What needs investigating is the flow between times as much as the creation of boundaries between them, which first banishes the ghosts and then denies their existence. Emotions are the most important way through which subjects situate and understand themselves in time.
Primary Health Care Research & Development, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1463423621000529

Abstract:
Aim: We conducted an integrative review of the global-free maternity (FM) policies and evaluated the quality of care (QoC) and cost and cost implications to provide lessons for universal health coverage (UHC). Methodology: Using integrative review methods proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005), we searched through EBSCO Host, ArticleFirst, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Emerald Insight, JSTOR, PubMed, Springer Link, Electronic collections online, and Google Scholar databases guided by the preferred reporting item for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol (PRISMA) guideline. Only empirical studies that described FM policies with components of quality and cost were included. There were 43 papers included, and the data were analysed thematically. Results: Forty-three studies that met the criteria were all from developing countries and had implemented different approaches of FM policy. Review findings demonstrated that some of the quality issues hindering the policies were poor management of complications, worsened referral systems, overburdening of staff because of increased utilisation, lack of transport, and low supply of stock. There were some quality improvements on monitoring vital signs by nurses and some procedures met the recommended standards. Equally, mothers still bear the burden of some costs such as the purchase of drugs, transport, informal payments despite policies being ‘free’. Conclusions: FM policies can reduce the financial burden on the households if well implemented and sustainably funded. Besides, they may also contribute to a decline in inequity between the rich and poor though not independently. In order to achieve the SDG goal of UHC by 2030, there is a need to promote awareness of the policy to the poor and disadvantaged women in rural areas to help narrow the inequality gap on utilisation and provide a sustainable form of transport through collaboration with partners to help reduce impoverishment of households. Also, there is a need to address elements such as cultural barriers and the role of traditional birth attendants which hinder women from seeking skilled care even when they are freely available.
Waad Z. Alharazi, Anthony McGowan, Peter Rose,
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-32; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114521003706

Abstract:
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) and its associated extracts have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities and identified as beneficial in the control of glycaemia in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to conduct a systematic search of the literature to investigate whether yam and its extract can improve glycaemia and whether consumption of yam could be beneficial for managing T2DM. Using the PRISMA guidelines and the PICO framework, three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched using a key term strategy. Strict inclusion criteria were employed to identify all relevant and available studies. The quality of these studies was assessed using SYRCLE’s Risk of Bias tool. Ten studies were included; and all studies consisted of findings from rodent models of diabetes, including animals consuming high fat diets or genetic models of diabetes. All ten studies showed that consumption of yam and/or its extract (containing dioscin, dioscorin, diosgenin, DA-9801/02, or Chinese yam polysaccharides) improved glycaemia. These included improvements in fasting blood glucose and reductions in glucose and increase in insulin levels following a glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, significant changes in body weight and adiposity were observed in nine studies, these included improvements in lipid biomarkers in four and reductions in inflammatory markers in one. The current work indicates that the consumption of yam or its extracts can be beneficial for improving blood glucose however the molecular mechanism for these effects remain largely unknown. Future trials on human subjects are warranted.
, Lars Nolke, Adam James, Brian Grant, Orla Franklin, J. Mark Redmond, Jonathan McGuinness, Kevin Walsh,
Cardiology in the Young pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1047951121003851

Abstract:
Background: Diagnosis of sinus venosus defects, not infrequently associated with complex anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, may be delayed requiring multimodality imaging. Methods: Retrospective review of all patients from February 2008 to January 2019. Results: Thirty-seven children were diagnosed at a median age of 4.2 years (range 0.5−15.5 years). In 32 of 37 (86%) patients, diagnosis was achieved on transthoracic echocardiography, but five patients (14%) had complex variants (four had high insertion of anomalous vein into the superior caval vein and three had multiple anomalous veins draining to different sites, two of whom had drainage of one vein into the high superior caval vein). In these five patients, the final diagnosis was achieved by multimodality imaging and intra-operative findings. The median age at surgery was 5.2 years (range 1.6−15.8 years). Thirty-one patients underwent double patch repair, four patients a Warden repair, and two patients a single-patch repair. Of the four Warden repairs, two patients had a high insertion of right-sided anomalous pulmonary vein into the superior caval vein, one patient had bilateral superior caval veins, and one patient had right lower pulmonary vein insertion into the right atrium/superior caval vein junction. There was no post-operative mortality, reoperation, residual shunt or pulmonary venous obstruction. One patient developed superior caval vein obstruction and one patient developed atrial flutter. Conclusion: Complementary cardiac imaging modalities improve diagnosis of complex sinus venosus defects associated with a wide variation in the pattern of anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Nonetheless, surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcomes.
Hamid Emami-Meybodi, Fengyuan Zhang
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 926; https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2021.738

Abstract:
This study presents a buoyancy-driven stability analysis in a three-dimensional inclined porous medium with a capillary transition zone that is formed between a non-wetting and an underlying wetting phase. In this two-phase, two-component, partially miscible system, a solute from a non-wetting phase diffuses into a porous layer saturated with a wetting-phase fluid, creating a dense diffusive boundary layer beneath an established capillary transition zone. Transient concentration and gravity-driven velocity fields are derived for the wetting phase while the saturation field remains fixed. Linear stability analysis with the quasi-steady-state approximation is employed to determine the onset of solutal convective instability for buoyancy-dominant, in-transition and capillary-dominant systems. The analysis of the problem leads to a differential eigenvalue problem composed of a system of three complex-valued equations that are numerically solved to determine the critical times, critical wavenumbers and neutral stability curves as a function of inclination angle for different Bond numbers. The layer inclination is shown to play an essential role in the stability of the problem, where the gravity-driven flow removes solute concentrations in the diffusive boundary layer. The results indicate that the horizontal porous layer exhibits the fastest onset of instability, and longitudinal rolls are always more unstable than oblique and transverse rolls. The inclination angle has a more substantial impact on stabilizing the diffusive boundary layer in the buoyancy-dominant than in the capillary-dominant systems. Furthermore, for both buoyancy-dominant and capillary-dominant systems, the critical times and wavenumbers vary exponentially with inclination angle ≤ 60° and follow the Stirling model.
American Political Science Review pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0003055421000770

Abstract:
Does physical surveillance hinder or foster antiregime resistance? A common view holds that surveillance prevents resistance by providing regimes with high-quality intelligence on dissident networks and by instilling fear in citizens. We contrast this view using formerly classified data from Communist Poland. We find that communities exposed to secret police officers were more likely to organize protests but also engaged in less sabotage. To ensure that the relationship is causal, we use an instrumental variable strategy, which exploits the exogenous assignment of Catholic “spy priests” to local communities. To trace the underlying mechanisms, we draw on qualitative interviews and archival sources. We document that Poland’s comprehensive use of surveillance created widespread anger as well as an incentive for citizens to reveal their true loyalties, thus facilitating antiregime collective action. Once on the streets, protesters refrained from sabotage to signal their political motivation to bystanders and authorities alike.
Karin Egberg Thyme, Björn Tavelin, Inger Öster, Jack Lindh, Britt Wiberg
Palliative and Supportive Care pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1478951521001437

Abstract:
Objective This follow-up study on perceived self-image and psychophysical distress/psychic symptoms was based on a ranomized contolled study of art therapy on women with breast cancer. Method The aim was to examine the long-term effects of time-limited art therapy using the instruments of Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). Results Three attachment clusters of the SASB showed significant changes post therapy: Autonomous self (cluster 1), Accepting self (cluster 2), and Loving self (cluster 3). Clusters 2 and 3 continued to change in favor of the intervention group at the 5-year follow-up. There were no significant differences in the SCL-90 results between the intervention group and the control group in the follow-up study. Significance of results The art therapy intervention was both therapeutic and psycho-educative. The conclusion of this study is that approaching emotions through time-limited art therapy seems to have a long-lasting effect on the attachment behavioral system shown in the SASB model post intervention, and this effect remained 5 years later.
, Marcus Hultmark, Myoungkyu Lee, ,
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 926; https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2021.736

Abstract:
A new scaling is derived that yields a Reynolds-number-independent profile for all components of the Reynolds stress in the near-wall region of wall-bounded flows, including channel, pipe and boundary layer flows. The scaling demonstrates the important role played by the wall shear stress fluctuations and how the large eddies determine the Reynolds number dependence of the near-wall turbulence behaviour.
Journal of Plasma Physics, Volume 87; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022377821000866

Abstract:
We investigate the influence of charged dust on the incoherent scatter from the D-region ionosphere. Incoherent scatter is observed with high-power, large aperture radars and results from electromagnetic waves scattering at electrons that are coupled to other charged components through plasma oscillations. The influence of charged dust can hence be considered an effect of dusty plasma. The D-region contains meteoric smoke particles that are of nanometre size and form from incoming ablating meteors. Detection of such charged dust in the incoherent scatter spectrum from the D-region has previously been proposed and studied to some degree. We here present model calculations to investigate the influence of the charged dust component with a size distribution, instead of the one size dust components assumed in other works. The developed code to calculate the incoherent scatter spectrum from the D-region including dust particles with different sizes and different positive and negative charge states is made available (https://doi.org/10.18710/GHZIIY). We investigate how sizes, number density and charge state of the dust influence the spectrum during different ionospheric conditions. We consider the ionospheric parameters for the location of the EISCAT VHF radar during a year and find that conditions are most suitable for dust detection in winter below 80 km at times with increased electron densities. The prospects to derive dust parameters increase, when the incoherent scatter observations are combined with those of other instruments to provide independent information on electron density, neutral density and temperature.
, Lynn Stephen
Journal of Latin American Studies pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022216x21000511

Abstract:
We explore how formal mandates associated with Guatemala's 2008 ‘Law against Femicide and Other Forms of Violence against Women’ and with specialised violence against women (VAW) courts have encountered significant challenges due to state-imposed constraints. Drawing on courtroom observations, analyses of case files, and interviews, we find that while formal mandates incorporated feminist understandings of violence against women, which were often internalised among court officials, in daily practice specialised courts reproduced tendencies to depict violence as interpersonal, fragment people's experiences and enact narrow forms of justice that do not incorporate the full intent of the 2008 VAW Law and institutions intended to support it. This case study thus illuminates how and why legal solutions alone are not sufficient to reduce gender-based violence and feminicide, particularly in the face of uneven and openly hostile challenges posed by governments.
Mark Stockham, Alice Griffiths, Bo Dong, Peter Slater
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Lithium garnets are promising solid-state electrolytes for next generation lithium-ion batteries. These materials have high ionic conductivity, a wide electrochemical window and stability with Li metal. However, lithium garnets have a maximum limit of 7 lithium atoms per formula unit (e.g. La3Zr2Li7O12), before the system transitions from a cubic to a tetragonal phase with poor ionic mobility. This arises from full occupation of the Li sites. Hence, the most conductive lithium garnets have Li between 6-6.55 Li per formula unit, which maintains the cubic symmetry and the disordered Li sub-lattice. The tetragonal phase, however, forms the highly conducting cubic phase at higher temperatures, thought to arise from increased cell volume and entropic stabilisation permitting Li disorder. However, little work has been undertaken in understanding the controlling factors of this phase transition, which could enable enhanced dopant strategies to maintain room temperature cubic garnet at higher Li contents. Here, a series of nine tetragonal garnets were synthesised and analysed via variable temperature XRD to understand the dependence of site substitution on the phase transition temperature. Interestingly the octahedral site cation radius was identified as the key parameter for the transition temperature with larger or smaller dopants altering the transition temperature noticeably. A site substitution was, however, found to make little difference irrespective of significant changes to cell volume.
John Hyman
Published: 14 September 2021
Philosophy, Volume 96, pp 497-525; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031819121000280

Abstract:
This article explores the place of truth and truthfulness in painting and drawing, and criticises logocentrism in the theory of truth.
Mitsuru Ishikawa, Taihei Takahashi, Yu-Ichiro Hayashi, Maya Akashi, Takayuki Uwada
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Glass transition was primarily considered to be not phase transition; however, it has similarity to the second-order phase transition. Recent single-molecule spectroscopy developments have prompted re-investigating glass transition at the microscopic scale, revealing that glass transition includes phenomena similar to second-order phase transition. They are characterized by microscopic collective polymer motion and discontinuous changes in temperature dependent relaxation times, later of which is similar to critical slowing down, within a temperature window that includes the polymer calorimetric glass transition temperature. Considering that collective motion and critical slowing down are accompaniments to critical phenomena, second-order phase transition behavior was identified in polymer glass transition.
, Austin P. Lines, Susan Taylor, Garrett R. Hoch, Emily Asenath-Smith, Devinder S. Sodhi
Journal of Glaciology pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2021.97

Abstract:
The mechanics underlying ice–skate friction remain uncertain despite over a century of study. In the 1930s, the theory of self-lubrication from frictional heat supplanted an earlier hypothesis that pressure melting governed skate friction. More recently, researchers have suggested that a layer of abraded wear particles or the presence of quasi-liquid molecular layers on the surface of ice could account for its slipperiness. Here, we assess the dominant hypotheses proposed to govern ice–skate friction and describe experiments conducted in an indoor skating rink aimed to provide observations to test these hypotheses. Our results indicate that the brittle failure of ice under rapid compression plays a strong role. Our observations did not confirm the presence of full-contact water films and are more consistent with the presence of lubricating ice-rich slurries at discontinuous high-pressure zones (HPZs). The presence of ice-rich slurries supporting skates through HPZs merges pressure-melting, abrasion and lubricating films as a unified hypothesis for why skates are so slippery across broad ranges of speeds, temperatures and normal loads. We suggest tribometer experiments to overcome the difficulties of investigating these processes during actual skating trials.
Sami Pihlström
Pragmatist Truth in the Post-Truth Age; https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009047142

Abstract:
It is commonly believed that populist politics and social media pose a serious threat to our concept of truth. Philosophical pragmatists, who are typically thought to regard truth as merely that which is 'helpful' for us to believe, are sometimes blamed for providing the theoretical basis for the phenomenon of 'post-truth'. In this book, Sami Pihlström develops a pragmatist account of truth and truth-seeking based on the ideas of William James, and defends a thoroughly pragmatist view of humanism which gives space for a sincere search for truth. By elaborating on James's pragmatism and the 'will to believe' strategy in the philosophy of religion, Pihlström argues for a Kantian-inspired transcendental articulation of pragmatism that recognizes irreducible normativity as a constitutive feature of our practices of pursuing the truth. James himself thereby emerges as a deeply Kantian thinker.
Uygar Abaci
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Kant states in §76 of the third Critique that the divine intuitive intellect would not represent modal distinctions. Kohl (2015) and Stang (2016) claim that this statement entails that noumena lack modal properties, which, in turn, conflicts with Kant’s attribution of contingency to human noumenal wills. They both propose resolutions to this conflict based on conjectures regarding how God might non-modally represent what our discursive intellects represent as modally determined. I argue that (i) these proposals fail; (ii) the viable resolution consists in recognizing that we modalize human noumenal wills as a merely regulative-practical principle in our judgements of imputation.
Correction
, Tawanda Chivese, Devendra Bansal, Jazeel Abdulmajeed, Osman Ameen, Nazmul Islam, Chang Xu, Mohamed A. Sallam, Soha S. Albayat, Hayat S. Khogali, et al.
Epidemiology and Infection, Volume 149; https://doi.org/10.1017/s095026882100203x

Wenqi Wang, Zefeng Zhou, Xuanting Tang, Stephanie Moran, Jing Jin, Fredrik Haeffner,
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Degradable vinyl polymers by radical ring-opening polymerization have become a promising solution to the challenges caused by the widespread use of non-degradable vinyl plastics. However, achieving even distribution of labile functional groups in the backbone of degradable vinyl polymers remains challenging. Herein, we report a photocatalytic approach to truly random degradable vinyl copolymers with tunable main-chain composition via radical ring-opening cascade copolymerization (rROCCP). The rROCCP of the macrocyclic allylic sulfone and acrylates or acrylamides mediated by visible light at ambient temperature achieved near-unity reactivity ratios of both comonomers over the entire range of the comonomer compositions and afforded truly random vinyl copolymers with degradable units evenly distributed in the polymer backbone. Experimental and computational evidence revealed an unusual reversible inhibition of chain propagation by in situ generated sulfur dioxide, which was successfully overcome by reducing the solubility of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture. This study provided a powerful approach to truly random degradable vinyl copolymers with tunable main-chain labile functionalities and comparable thermal and mechanical properties to traditional non-degradable vinyl polymers.
Luiza Delazari Borges, Luma De Oliveira Comini, Laura Camargo de Oliveira, Heloísa Helena Dias, , Clara Regina Santos Batistelli, Glauce Dias da Costa, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Rodrigo Gomes da Silva, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Journal of Nutritional Science, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2021.71

Abstract:
Cardiovascular diseases are among the main causes of death in Brazil and worldwide. The literature indicates the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) as an accessible alternative for the identification of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with HTWP in individuals diagnosed with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). A cross-sectional study was conducted with individuals diagnosed with AH and/or DM2. The study data were collected through semi-structured interviews containing socio-demographic information, lifestyle, health care, in addition to anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical blood tests. The prevalence of HTWP was estimated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with HTWP. Of the 788 individuals analysed, 21⋅5 % had the HTWP. In the adjusted model, the following variables remained associated with a greater chance of presenting HTWP: sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Being female increased the chance of HTWP by 7⋅7 times (OR 7⋅7; 95 % CI 3⋅9, 15⋅2). The one-year increase in age increased the chance of HTWP by 4 % (OR 1⋅04; 95 % CI 1⋅02, 1⋅06). The addition of 1 mg/dl of VLDL-c increased the chance of HTWP by 15 % (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅12, 1⋅18), as well as the increase of 1 kg/m2 in the BMI increased the chance of this condition by 20 % (OR 1⋅20; 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅27). The prevalence of HTWP was associated with females, older age, higher BMI, higher VLDL-c and risk waist/height ratio.
Dorota Lubanska, Sami Alrashed, Gage T. Mason, Fatima Nadeem, Mitchell DiPasquale, Angela Awada, Aleena Malik, Mohamed A. R. Soliman, Ana C. Decarvalho, Abdalla Shamisa, et al.
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive types of cancer with median survival of only 15 months. Successful therapy is hampered by the existence of treatment resistant populations of stem-like tumour initiating cells (TICs) and poor blood-brain barrier drug penetration. Therapies capable of effectively targeting the TIC population are in high demand. Here, we synthesize spherical diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with an average diameter of 109 nm. The CPN were designed to include fluorescein-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand for the CD44 receptor present on one population of TICs. We demonstrate blood-brain barrier permeability of this system and concentration and cell cycle phase-dependent selective uptake of HA-CPNs in CD44 positive GBM-patient derived cultures. Interestingly, we found that uptake alone decreases stemness, invasive properties and proliferation of the CD44-TIC population in zebrafish PDX models in vivo. This study is the first to show surface moiety-driven selectivity of conjugated polymer nanoparticles in targeting TIC populations in brain cancer.
Li Xu, , Jingmai O’Connor, Xingliao Zhang, Songhai Jia, Jiming Zhang, Huali Chang, Haiyan Tong
Geological Magazine pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0016756821000807

Abstract:
A new enantiornithine bird is described on the basis of a well preserved partial skeleton from the Upper Cretaceous Qiupa Formation of Henan Province (central China). It provides new evidence about the osteology of Late Cretaceous enantiornithines, which are mainly known from isolated bones; in contrast, Early Cretaceous forms are often represented by complete skeletons. While the postcranial skeleton shows the usual distinctive characters of enantiornithines, the skull displays several features, including confluence of the antorbital fenestra and the orbit and loss of the postorbital, evolved convergently with modern birds. Although some enantiornithines retained primitive cranial morphologies into the latest Cretaceous Period, at least one lineage evolved cranial modifications that parallel those in modern birds.
Ming Yean Sia,
Journal of Child Language pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0305000921000532

Abstract:
Children learn words in ambiguous situations, where multiple objects can potentially be referents for a new word. Yet, researchers debate whether children maintain a single word-object hypothesis – and revise it if falsified by later information – or whether children establish a network of word-object associations whose relative strengths are modulated with experience. To address this issue, we presented 4- to 12-year-old children with sets of mutual exclusivity (fast-mapping) trials: offering them with obvious initial hypotheses (that the novel object is the referent for the novel word). We observe that children aged six years and above, despite showing a novelty bias and retaining this novel word – novel object association, also formed an association between the novel word and the name-known object, thereby suggesting that older children attend to more than one word-object association, in a manner similar to associative learning. We discuss our findings in the context of competing theoretical accounts related to word learning.
Jason Roy, Shane P. Singh, Patrick Fournier
Abstract:
Public opinion polls have become increasingly prominent during elections, but how they affect voting behaviour remains uncertain. In this work, we estimate the effects of poll exposure using an experimental design in which we randomly assign the availability of polls to participants in simulated election campaigns. We draw upon results from ten independent experiments conducted across six countries on four continents (Argentina, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States) to examine how polls affect the amount of information individuals seek and the votes that they cast. We further assess how poll effects differ according to individual-level factors, such as partisanship and political sophistication, and the content included in polls and how it is presented. Our work provides a comprehensive assessment of the power of polls and the implications for poll reporting in contemporary elections.
Sabrine Saad, Sarra Ben Amor, Amel Ben Slimane
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Magnetic ferrite (Mg-doped bismuth ferrite) and its clay-based composite (Mg-doped bismuth ferrite-bentonite) were prepared by self-combustion method utilizing glycine as fuel and served for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The ferrite-based adsorbents were characterized by the measurement of specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The different experimental parameters that affect the performance of this reaction such as: temperature, contact time, initial dye concentration and mass of adsorbent were investigated. The point of zero charge pH (pHPZC) was determined for the two adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were employed to provide a description of the equilibrium isotherms. Adsorption tests showed that the equilibrium time is a function of the initial concentration of dye. The adsorption kinetic study indicated that the equilibrium adsorption is established after 300 minutes for Mg-doped bismuth ferrite, while it is established after 180 minutes for Mg-doped bismuth ferrite-bentonite composite. Furthermore, this suggests that the adsorption of MO on both adsorbents can be perfectly described by pseudo-second order kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity determined by the mathematical model of Langmuir is equal to 181.8 mg.g-1 for Mg-doped bismuth ferrite and to 188.7 mg.g-1 for its composite, at 298 K. Adsorption isotherms shows that the Freundlich model perfectly represents adsorption of methyl orange to the prepared Mg-doped bismuth ferrite. The ferrite/bentonite composite has 2-50 nm-sized pores and is indeed a mesoporous material. The small pores observed on the surface of the adsorbents are in line with type IV isotherm, with possible capillary condensation of the adsorbate. Moreover, Langmuir model seems to be the most suitable model for the absorption of methyl orange on the Mg-doped bismuth ferrite-bentonite composite. The thermodynamic parameters related to the sorbent/adsorbate system indicate that adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic. The determination of isosteric heat of adsorption suggested that it is indeed a physisorption characterized by weak intermolecular forces between MO and the surface.
Journal of Institutional Economics pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1744137421000710

Abstract:
The need of further research on the interlink between culture and institutions has been strongly advocated by economists and institutionalists alike. However, bringing together culture and institutions within an organic framework, though, is a non-trivial operation. This is due to the complexity of the synergies between cultural aspects and institutional devices. This special issue attempts to start filling this gap and to build an ad-hoc systemic platform for disseminating such a debate. To this purpose, it brings together an organic collection of contributions in well-established conceptualisations of both culture and institutions, supported by robust and consistent methodological applications. The essays presented in this work provide consistent evidence and conceptual perspectives supporting the idea that the synergies between cultural and institutional aspects are of paramount importance to understand human behaviour, individuals' choices and societies' patterns. They also improve the theoretical, empirical and methodological understanding of the role of institutions and culture in different geopolitical and socio-economic realms. By doing so, these contributions place this special issue as prelude to further research on the co-evolution of culture and institutions and on its possible implications on different societal aspects, human development and well-being.
, Adrian Soto-Mota, Helen Lambert, Adam L. Collins
Journal of Nutritional Science, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1017/jns.2021.67

Abstract:
There are two proven dietary approaches to shift type 2 diabetes (T2D) into remission: low-energy diets (LEDs) and low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs). These approaches differ in their rationale and application yet both involve carbohydrate restriction, either as an explicit goal or as a consequence of reducing overall energy intake. The aims of this systematic review were to identify, characterise and compare existing clinical trials that utilised ‘low-carbohydrate’ interventions with differing energy intakes. Electronic databases CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE and Scopus were searched to identify controlled clinical trials in adults with T2D involving low-carbohydrate intake (defined as <130 g carbohydrate/d) and reporting weight and glycaemic outcomes. The initial database search yielded 809 results, of which fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine out of fifteen studies utilised LCDs with moderate or unrestricted energy intake. Six trials utilised LEDs (<1200 kcal/d), with all except one incorporating meal replacements as part of a commercial weight loss programme. Interventions using both restricted and unrestricted (ad libitum) energy intakes produced clinically significant weight loss and reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at study endpoints. Trials that restricted energy intake were not superior to those that allowed ad libitum low-carbohydrate feeding at 12 and 24 months. An association was observed across studies between average weight loss and reduction in HbA1c at 6, 12 and 24 months, indicating that sustained weight loss is key to T2D remission. Further research is needed to specifically ascertain the weight-independent effects of carbohydrate restriction on glycaemic control in T2D.
, Jill O. Robinson, Simon M. Outram, Hadley S. Smith, Stephanie A. Kraft, Katherine E. Donohue, Barbara B. Biesecker, Kyle B. Brothers, Flavia Chen, Benyam Hailu, et al.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science pp 1-43; https://doi.org/10.1017/cts.2021.855

, Ulrike Nowak, Mathias K. Kammerer, Antonia Bott,
Psychological Medicine pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291721003524

Abstract:
Background Difficulties in the ability to adapt beliefs in the face of new information are associated with psychosis and its central symptom – paranoia. As cognitive processes and psychotic symptoms are both known to be sensitive to stress, the present study investigated the exact associations between stress, adapting of beliefs [reversal learning (RL), bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), and jumping to conclusions (JTC)] and paranoia. We hypothesized that paranoia would increase under stress and that difficulties in adapting of beliefs would mediate or moderate the link between stress and paranoia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the investigated effects would be strongest in the group of individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Methods We exposed 155 participants (38 diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, 40 individuals with attenuated psychotic symptoms, 39 clinical controls diagnosed with an obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 38 healthy controls) to a control condition and a stress condition, in which we assessed their levels of paranoia and their ability to adapt beliefs. We applied multilevel models to analyze the data. Results Paranoia was higher in the stress condition than in the control condition, b = 1.142, s.e. = 0.338, t(150) = 3.381, p < 0.001. RL, BADE, and JTC did not differ between conditions and did not mediate or moderate the association between stress and paranoia (all ps > 0.05). Conclusions The results support the assumption that stress triggers paranoia. However, the link between stress and paranoia does not seem to be affected by the ability to adapt beliefs.
, Carlos Marín Suárez, Cristina Bañobre, Laura del Puerto, Facundo Rodríguez Iroldi
Latin American Antiquity pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1017/laq.2021.63

Abstract:
Este trabajo está centrado en el estudio de una de las primeras formas de manejo ganadero de la época colonial en la Banda Oriental. Aborda específicamente el análisis de un conjunto de corrales de palmas ubicados en el sureste del Uruguay, en la frontera con Brasil. Está basado en un enfoque interdisciplinar en el que se combinó el trabajo con la población local, el análisis historiográfico, la prospección remota y sobre el terreno, el análisis morfométrico de la totalidad de los corrales y las palmas que los componen, y el análisis fisicoquímico del sedimento (análisis de fosfatos y partículas biosilíceas). El artículo propone que estas estructuras son uno de los cerramientos ganaderos más antiguos (siglos diecisiete y dieciocho) de la Banda Oriental, vinculados a formas indígenas de manejo vegetal y animal que se fueron reajustando durante la colonización europea de este sector fronterizo del Cono Sur de América.
Matthew Ward
The Journal of Hellenic Studies pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0075426921000112

Abstract:
This paper uses a textual decision at Iliad 9.394 to argue for irregularity as a functional and meaningful principle in the constitution of the Homeric text. In contrast to almost all recent major editions, I argue that the ‘irregular’ MSS γαμέσσεται should be preferred to the Aristarchaean conjecture γε μάσσεται. Aristarchus’ widely adopted emendation, I suggest, is the product of a drive towards standardization that is still operative in Homeric text-critical practice. This paper opposes that standardization with the evidence of ancient, perhaps pre-Alexandrian, responses to Iliad 9.394, in which the ‘irregularity’ of γαμέσσεται is embraced as an interpretive opportunity. The formal disruptions of γαμέσσεται, I propose, can be understood by locating them both within the immediate context of Iliad 9 and within the wider thematics of irregularity that mark the character of Achilles. This paper thus attempts to reframe our approach to the role of irregularity in the Iliad as an integral feature of meaning rather than grounds for suspecting the integrity of the text.
Jia Lin, Feifei Huang, Tianzeng Liang, Qin Qin, Qiao Xu, Xingfa Huang, Jing Zhang, Kan Xiao, Huiling Zhu, Jiangchao Zhao, et al.
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114521003688

Abstract:
This study assessed the molecular mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protection against IPEC-1 cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA+DON group, and the DHA+DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+, and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.
Jennifer L Pomeranz, Xiangying Chu, Oana Groza, Madeline Cohodes,
Public Health Nutrition pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980021003451

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate messages about infant feeding on breastmilk substitute (BMS) manufacturer websites directed at US caregivers and compare information and portrayals of breast-feeding/breastmilk with that of infant formula (IF) feeding. Design: We conducted a content analysis of US BMS companies’ websites. A codebook was created through an iterative process to identify messages and images about breast-feeding/breastmilk and IF feeding, including benefits or issues associated with each, and direct-to-consumer marketing practices that could discourage breast-feeding. Setting: Data were collected in 2019–2020 and analysed in 2020–2021 for US websites of five IF manufacturers. Participants: The websites of Similac, Enfamil and Gerber, which collectively represent approximately 98 % of the US IF market, and two US organic brands, Earth’s Best and Happy Baby. Results: Websites contained more messages about breast-feeding/breastmilk than IF but were significantly more likely to mention benefits to baby of IF (44 %) than breast-feeding/breastmilk (<26 %), including significantly more statements that IF provides brain, neural and gastrointestinal benefits; 40 % of breast-feeding/breastmilk content was dedicated to breast-feeding problems (e.g. sore nipples). Twice as many screenshots compared IF brands favourably to breastmilk than as superior to other brands. Certain companies displayed images indicating ease of IF feeding and difficulty of breast-feeding. Conclusions: Substantial messaging on BMS manufacturer websites encouraged IF feeding and discouraged breast-feeding. Health professionals should discourage their patients from visiting these websites and the US government should regulate misleading claims. Companies should refrain from providing breast-feeding advice and align their US marketing with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 926; https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2021.726

Abstract:
We present direct numerical simulations of developing turbulent channel flows subjected to thermal expansion or contraction downstream of a heated or cooled wall. Using different constitutive relations for viscosity we analyse the response of variable property flows to streamwise acceleration/deceleration by separating the effect of streamwise acceleration/deceleration from the effect of wall-normal property variations. We demonstrate that, beyond a certain streamwise location, the flow can be considered in a state of ‘quasi-equilibrium’ regarding semilocally scaled variables. As such, we claim that the development of turbulent quantities due to streamwise acceleration/deceleration is localized to the region of impulsive heating/cooling, while changes in turbulence occurring farther downstream can be attributed solely to property variations. This finding allows us to study turbulence modulation in accelerating/decelerating flows using the semilocal scaling framework. By investigating the energy redistribution among the turbulent velocity fluctuations, we conclude that a change in bulk streamwise velocity has a non-local effect which originates from the change in mean shear and modifies the energy pathways through velocity-pressure-gradient correlations. On the other hand, the wall-normal property gradients have a local effect and act through the modification of the viscous dissipation. We show that it is possible to superimpose and compare the two different effects when using the semilocal scaling framework.
The Journal of Economic History pp 1-31; https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022050721000425

Abstract:
The 1944 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (the “G.I. Bill”) provided returning WWII veterans with educational benefits sufficient to cover tuition, fees, and living expenses at almost any U.S. university or college. While several studies examine subsequent educational attainment and earnings for male veterans, little is known about how the G.I. Bill affected the 330,000 American females who served in WWII. Using data from the 1980 5 percent Census Public-use Microdata Sample, I find that female WWII veteran status is associated with a 19 percentage point increase in the proportion who report any college attendance, a 7.8 percentage point increase in college completion, and earnings that are 19.8 percent greater relative to comparable females who are not veterans. Because service was entirely voluntary for females, I use service eligibility requirements, enlistment records, 1940 Census data, and the G.I. Bill’s retroactive nature to establish a causal relationship among veteran status, educational attainment via the G.I. Bill, and increased earnings. To help separate the effect of the G.I. Bill from the effect of military service itself, and because benefits increased with longer service, I instrument for female veterans’ educational attainment using age at the time of the G.I. Bill’s announcement. My instrumental variables estimates imply that female veterans’ earnings increase by $1,350 (11.6 percent) per year of G.I. Bill-induced education, explaining 73 percent of the overall difference between veteran and non-veteran females’ earnings in 1980.
Latin American Antiquity pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1017/laq.2021.61

Abstract:
Mutual toasting using pairs of intricately carved wooden cups, called queros, was the fundamental act incorporating local communities into the Inka Empire (AD 1400–1532). These cups then remained in the possession of provincial communities and were used to reaffirm political ties in subsequent state-sponsored events. I argue that the value of these cups derives from their inalienability: they were indelibly imbued with the power of the Inka state and were objects of memory embodying the history of local–imperial relationships. Archaeologically, queros are often found in mortuary contexts, usually as pairs. This suggests that these vessels functioned to authenticate claims to authority vis-à-vis the empire for an individual or kin group. Less frequently, queros are deposited singly and in ritualized non-mortuary contexts. I review archaeological examples and present two new queros from the site of Moqi (Upper Locumba Valley, southern Peru). At Moqi, these queros were used not only to promote a shared affinity with the empire but also to commemorate the sundering of the community's ties to the Inka state on abandonment of the site. Such community expression, at the expense of personal aggrandizement, may have been particularly important at Moqi and other sites constructed and populated de novo by the Inka.
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