Refine Search

New Search

Results: 310

(searched for: publisher_group_id:6694)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 7
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Carson Lam Kai Shun
Asian Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Volume 05; https://doi.org/10.22377/ajmsmds

Abstract:
Time series data often entail counts. Time series count data, which refer to the number of times an item or an event occurs within a fixed period of time, are essential in many fields most of the works on time series count data do not exhaustively consider the effect excess zeros in modeling. This study, therefore, seeks to examine the performance integer-valued autoregressive (INAR) and Poisson autoregressive models on count data under the influence of excess zeros. The effect of sample sizes, n =30, 60,…, 300, on the performance of the models were also studied. At every sample size, the best status of the orders p and q where p, q = 1, 2 are, respectively, determined for the levels of the excess zeros through simulations. The predictive ability of the models was observed at h-steps ahead, h = 5, 10, 15,…, 50 for the models with excess zeros data structures. It was concluded that the best model to fit and forecast data with excess zeros is INAR at different sample sizes. The predictive abilities of the four fitted models increased as sample size and number of steps ahead were increased
Carson Lam Kai Shun
Asian Journal of Mathematical Sciences, Volume 05; https://doi.org/10.22377/aextjmds

Abstract:
Chemical fertilizer is one of the priority inputs as identified by agriculture perspective plan and agriculture development strategy of Nepal in achieving increased agricultural productivity. High price and unavailability of required quantity of fertilizer in time are major problems associated to this sector. Subsidy in chemical fertilizer was introduced aiming at reduced cost and increased production. However, as found by many past studies, subsidy could not bring seemingly positive changes in Nepal in terms of fertilizer availability and crop productivity. It further increased government financial burden in importation of chemical fertilizers which being politically sensitive issue could not be removed. Further, it discouraged private sector’s import due to which total supply could not be increased as expected. Private sector should, thus, be encouraged through soft loan, bank guarantee, and transport as well as transit liberalization. Government-to-government agreement with fertilizer manufacturing countries including India will help in cost reduction and supply assurance. With the ineffectiveness of chemical fertilizer policies and everlasting short supply, Nepalese government introduced subsidy in organic fertilizers also. However, organic products were found poor in quality. Due to their slow response and difficulty in transportation, farmers expressed their reluctance in using organic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers in the present context of Nepal could not completely substitute the chemical fertilizers. Rather combination of organic and chemical fertilizers may ensure higher productivity as well as reduced cost which in long-term induce sustainability. Subsidy in organic fertilizer should be removed and program to improve farmyard manure, compost, and green manuring should be launched.
Anagha S Upasani
Innovative Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 05; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijmsmds

Abstract:
Heterocyclic chemistry being an important branch of chemistry includes many ring structures with heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Quinazoline is an important nitrogen containing benzofused heterocycle and has several therapeutic actions such as antimalarial, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anticonvulsant. Quinazoline was first isolated from alkaloid vasicine. Vasicine, deoxyvasicine, tryptanthrin, and rutecarpine are some of the potent naturally occurring quinazolines. Substitutions on different positions of quinazoline ring lead to different activities. Detailed survey of activities of quinazoline such as anticancer, anticonvulsant, antifungal, antibacterial, and antidiabetic according to structure–activity relationship and marketed preparations containing quinazoline as an active moiety is described in this review.
G. Andhuvan Andhuvan
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgpmds

Abstract:
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare, genetically inherited autosomal recessive disorder that manifests as bone marrow failure syndrome. Defects in genes with 16 complementation groups alter the stability of the DNA which is characterized by congenital malformations and progressive pancytopenia. This, in turn, can predispose to acute myeloid leukemia and other solid tumors. The most common diagnostic methods used in the detection of FA includes bone marrow biopsy and chromosome breakage test. We report a case of a 6-year-old Asian female child who presented with major complaints of lower abdominal pain, difficulty in swallowing, generalized tiredness, and gum bleeding. Her physical features were manifested as short stature, partial ptosis, hypopigmented spots on both hands, and thumb hypoplasia. Her bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed markedly hypocellular bone marrow with reduced trilineage hematopoiesis which was suggestive of FA.
Musa Galadima
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archive, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijpbamds

Abstract:
Environmental pollution with petroleum and petroleum products has been recognized as one of the significant causes of environmental pollution, and in concert to reduce these effects, bacterial organisms are known to adapt to these condition which could serve as potential bioremediators. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with lubricant oil contaminated soil were carried out using two mechanic workshops and gasoline stations in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Ten grams of the sample soil were taken from each workshop and cultured using the conventional bacteriological isolation and identification technique. The bacterial organisms identified WERE Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp. Lactobacillus fermentum, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella spp. S. aureus was the dominant species having highest percentage prevalence 23.80%. Pseudomonas spp. had a prevalence of 19.04% while the organisms with the least percentage occurrence were L. fermentum, Salmonella spp., and P. vulgaris with 4.76% prevalence. This study examined the ubiquity of S. aureus showing ITS ability to adapt to conditions present in soil contaminated with lubricant oil.
Arun Patel
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Clinical Research, Volume 01; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijpscrmds

Abstract:
Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is considered as a promising target to reduce blood pressure, improve insulin sensitivity, and decrease inflammation. Material and Method: In this study, a series of some novel quinazoline-4(3H)- one derivatives (3a-t) with varying steric and electronic properties was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as sEH Inhibitors (sEHI). Most of the synthesized compounds had similar inhibitory activity to the commercial reference inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido) dodecanoic acid, and among them, 4-chloro-N-(4-(4-oxo-3,4-dihy- droquinazoline-2-yl)phenyl)benzamide (3g) was identified as the most active sEHI (IC50 = 0.5 nM), about two-fold more potent compared to the reference inhibitor. Conclusion: The results of molecular modeling followed by biological studies indicate that a quinazolinone ring serves as a suitable scaffold to develop novel small molecule candidates to inhibits EH and the nature of substituent on the amide moiety has a moderate effect on the activity.
J. Prarthana
ASIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.22377/ajpmds

Abstract:
Objectives: Ayurveda is one of the oldest codified medical knowledge systems with equal emphasis on curative, preventive, and promotive aspects of health. Ayurveda pharmaceutics was developed from the quest to administer plants, animals, or metals and minerals products in a palatable and longer shelf life modification. The study aims to evaluate and characterize the microbial sp. and their biochemical properties in extrapolating its use as a potent probiotic formulation with multifaceted use. Materials and Methods: The microbial diversity of the formulation was evaluated by isolation followed by its microbial characterization using Gram’s staining, biochemical characterization using catalase assay, and molecular characterization by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Results: The study revealed that the bacteria isolated in the present study were Gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that exhibited catalase-positive test. Further, molecular characterization studies using the ITS sequence analysis revealed that the isolated organism showed similarity with that of Bacillus species. Conclusion: Therapeutic efficacy of any formulation depends on the process of its preparation, the kind of microflora that is established during aging or fermentation, and the kind of bioactive compounds released during fermentation. The present study identifies the microorganism that plays a pivotal role in this fermentation process and renders therapeutic properties to Dhanyamala formulation. This study can form the basis for further investigations on formulating this as a promising probiotic supplement.
Parisa Yousefee Baghbadoranee, H N K Al-Salman, Manish Vyas, K. Venkateshwarlu, A. Mohammadi, Oksana Strus, Mansour Amraei, A.E. Dorofeev, Galina Eduardovna Brkich, Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi, et al.
ASIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.22377/ajppmds

Abstract:
Aim: A semisolid (avaleha) herbal formulation Drakshavaleha (DKV) was prepared based on the method described in Ayurvedic Formulary of India. It contains Vitis vinifera (Draksha), Piper longum (Pippali), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Yeshtimadhu), Zingiber officinale (Sunthi), Bambusa arundinacea (Vamshalochana), Emblica officinalis (Dhatri Phala or Amalaki), and honey and sugar (Sarkara). Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of the DKV formulations was used for this study. Methanolic extract of three marketed preparation of DKV also use for the comparative study of DKV. This formulation was known as DKV-1, DKV-2, and DKV-3. A sample of this marketed formulation also used for 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Result and Discussion: The methanolic extract of DKV exhibited a maximum DPPH scavenging activity of 68.24% at 100 μg/ml, and marketed formulations of DKV (DKV-1, DKV-2, and DKV-3) exhibited maximum DPPH scavenging activity 67.90%, 68.35%, and 68.40%, respectively, at 100 μg/ml. With the standard ascorbic acid, it was found to be 84.75% at 100 μg/ml. The IC50 values of the methanolic extract of DKV were 63.27 μg/ml, and marketed formulations (DKV-1, DKV-2, and DKV-3) were 63.13 μg/ml, 62.82 μg/ml, and 62.91 μg/ml, respectively, and ascorbic acid was 40.05 μg/ml. Conclusion: Results obtained suggest the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity potential of DKV, and further it may be used as an antioxidant in associated diseases.
Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2261

Abstract:
Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study were to develop a spectrophotometric method for the assay of selexipag (selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations so that it will be an alternative quantitative method to chromatographic methods which require large quantities of organic solvents, where some are with hazardous and toxic properties. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the diazo coupling of selexipag with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable green-colored and water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. Results and Discussion: Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity of 3.33 × 104 L/mol/cm. The limit of detection was 0.35 μg/mL and limit of quantification was 1.0 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusions: This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to the current ICH guidelines.
H. N. K. Al-Salman
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2209

Abstract:
Context: The biological efficiency of O-veratramide (2,3-dimethoxybenzamide) isolated from pomegranate extract was studied. Extraction of 400 g of dried pomegranate husks was carried out by Soxhlet, and seven organic compounds were extracted using a mixture of organic solvents. O-veratramide has been deposited and isolated. Several solvents such as methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and hexane have been used. The extraction ratio was higher when using methanol and less in chloroform. Objective: The biological efficacy of O-veratramide was investigated against different types of bacteria by taking the highest concentration of this compound and less concentration of the compound. Materials and Methods: The purpose of the manuscript was to study the inhibitory activity of the bacteria using MacConkey Agar as an agro-medium. O-veratramide showed excellent bioavailability against different types of Gram-negative and positive bacteria. Results: All extracts were analyzed by the GC-Mas technique to identify and distinguish the chemical compounds present in the raw extract in both organic and biological layers. A number of internationally recognized detection methods have been used to detect each type of compound extracted. The spectral analysis of the O-veratramide was studied, and its biological efficacy was studied against Gram-negative and positive bacteria. Conclusions: GC-Mas technique revealed the presence of seven compounds in the pomegranate extract. The same technique has demonstrated the possibility of isolating the O-veratramide using different solvents, its potential for estimation, and the study of its biological effect.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2205

Abstract:
Objective: Hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extracts of the various parts of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae) have been used as a natural therapeutic agent in traditional medicine to treat oxidative damage/oxidative stress, and inflammation from ancient times. Materials and Methods: Research is principally focused on evaluating the effect of various parts of this plant on its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In vitro studies were conducted for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Results: Hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extracts of the various parts of the plants showed scavenging activity against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical relative to Vitamin C (standard) at P < 0.05, but an excellent activity was observed with flowers as compared with other parts of the plants in hydroalcoholic extract. A remarkable anti-inflammatory activity observed by hydroalcoholic extract (10% w/w) of flowers as compared to leaves, stem, and roots against diclofenac sodium (standard). The present investigation revealed that the hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers of B. spectabilis Willd. exhibited significant antioxidant activity which is comparable to known standards.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2199

Abstract:
The herbal medicines are used in the ailment of several diseases from the ancient time. India is known worldwide for its Ayurvedic treatment. Scindapsus officinalis is often used traditionally for erectile disorders, respiratory diseases such as cough, bronchitis, pharyngitis, asthma and other worm infestation, dysentery, troubles of the throat, ozoena, rheumatism arthritis, and diarrhea. It is also used as carminative, anthelmintic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, antiprotozoal (fruit), hypoglycemic (stem and fruit), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiasthmatic, cytostatic and antimicrobial steroids, flavonoids, and terpenoid which are characterized in the ethanolic extract of S. officinalis. This review describes the general information (distribution and plant description), description (macroscopic and microscopic), chemistry, ethnopharmacology, traditional uses, medicinal uses, and other important information about the plant S. officinalis.
I. Ketut Puja
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2257

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera gel on sperm DNA integrity in rats. Materials and Methods: This research used completely random design using 24 male rats (Rattus novergicus) weighing 210–220 g. The rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group. Group 0 (T0) was treated with distilled water as placebo. Group 1 (T1) was given with 200 mg/kg body weight A. vera gel, Group 2 (T2) was given with 300 mg/kg body weight A. vera gel, while Group 3 (T3) was treated with 400 mg/kg body weight A. vera gel. A. vera gel was given every day for 21 days orally to evaluate the effect on sperm DNA integrity. Results: The rat administration of A. vera gel with a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight significantly increases on the sperm DNA damage. Conclusions: The finding of this research indicates that A. vera gel affected the DNA integrity of spermatozoa, and its use is to be restricted in male animals, especially those used for breeding.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2274

Abstract:
Background and Objective: The increase in extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing microbes in recent years has led to the great challenge for the clinician in the treatment. The study aims to investigate the molecular basis of ESBL encoding-resistant gene, SHV to modern β-lactams. Also, to detect gene sequencing and to compare their genetic relatedness utilizing phylogenetic analysis. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 clinical isolates are submitting after identification to phenotypic confirmatory double disk synergy technique. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for the determination of SHV gene, and sequencing analysis for the amplified gene is also achieved. Results: A total of 27 isolates, 3 (11.1%), 15 (55.55%), and 9 (33.0%) of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were positive for a phenotypic and confirmatory test for ESBLs, respectively. SHV gene was detected only in 5 (31.25%) isolates of P. aeruginosa, 2 (12.5 %) E. coli, and 9 (56.25%) in K. pneumoniae. Conclusions: SHV gene plays an essential role in the resistance of ESBL producer isolates to new β-lactams. The sequencing of this gene revealed 98–99% compatibility range with the global standard gene in National Center of Biotechnology Information.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2203

Abstract:
Introduction: In recent days, usage of medicinal plants as an herbal drug to treat various kinds of ailments has got drastically increased. Conventionally, Curcuma longa (rhizome) is used in the treatment of inflammation, cancer, wound healing, diabetes, asthma, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimicrobial, etc. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the pharmacognostic and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of different accessions of C. longa (rhizome). The pharmacognostical profiles include organoleptic study, microscopy evaluation of the rhizome, powder microscopy, physiochemical paramters and determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content were carried out. Results and Discussion: Results showed that there are significant pharmacognostical variations in different accessions of turmeric. Conclusions: The result of the present study is useful in establishing the standards for identification, authentication, and evaluation of the plant material and the variations as well.
Pratibha Ramchandani
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2277

Abstract:
Introduction: Heavy and prolonged bleeding during menses is one of the most common complaints encountered by gynecologists across the globe. The word “Atyartava” literally means excessive bleeding during menstruation which is a cardinal feature in a number of menstrual disorders described in the Ayurvedic classics. Atyartava can be correlated to “Menorrhagia” in modern literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate “the effect of Shatavari Churna and Shatavari Taila Uttarbasti in Atyartava.” Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected for the present research work and randomly divided into two groups of 20 patients each. In Group A, patients were treated with 3 g of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) Churna orally twice daily for 3 months, while in Group B, patients were given 3 g of Shatavari Churna orally twice daily for 3 months along with Shatavari Taila Uttarbasti on 9th, 10th, and 11th days of menses for 3 consecutive months. After conducting the clinical trial on 40 patients, the data were obtained and analyzed statistically. Results: It was observed that both the groups were significantly effective in ameliorating the symptoms of Atyartava. However, on comparison of both Groups A and B, Group B showed better results. Conclusion: It showed that the specific therapy (Uttarbasti Chikitsa with shatavari oil) along with oral administration of Shatavari Churna was more effective in the treatment of Atyartava, in comparison to Shatavari Churna alone. The effects of Shatavari on menorrhagia were attributed mainly to its phytoestrogenic action.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2276

Abstract:
Objective and Background: SEN virus has identified as a putative new hepatitis virus coinfected with hepatitis C in thalassemic patients. The study aimed to measure viremia with SEN virus among thalassemic patients infected and non-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Further, to detect the genotype D and the genetic alterations in the internal transcribed spacer domains/regions of SENV-D genotypes. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 β-thalassemic patients were included. HCV-RNA and SEN-DNA are extracting automatically. Then, amplification for SEN-DNA by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was achieved. Furthermore, HCV-RNA was amplified using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Sequencing analysis was also done for 14 samples of amplified SENV-D DNA. Results: Out of 100 positive ELISA-anti-HCV antibodies which were definite for RT-PCR, the mean viral load in these patients was 545806 ± 1,009,799 IU/ml (1,997,176 ±3,802,206) copies/ml. There was a significant increase in SENV-D in thalassemia patients without HCV infection (59%) than those in thalassemia patients with HCV infection (44%) and healthy subjects (7%). In a sequencing study, 11 samples were infected with D genotype only while three from thalassemia patients group were coinfected with D and H genotypes. Conclusions: The occurrence rate of SEN-V DNA in thalassemia patients is very high in Iraq. Further, SEN-V-D genotype is more prevalent, and the sequences of SEN-V-D nucleotides in persons with coinfection are the same sequences of persons that have an infection with SEN-V-D alone. The most countries which have similar sequences to Iraqi SENV-D genotype sequence are Iran followed by China, Japan, Brazil, and the United States of America.
Puneshwar Keshari
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2200

Abstract:
Background: Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem. is considered as a genuine source of Rohitaka which is mentioned in Ayurvedaclassics for Yakrit Pliha Roga (liver and spleen diseases). In different parts of India, various other species are used as substituteof Rohitaka due to non-availability of the genuine source. In Nepal, folklore traditional practitioners use Rhododendronarboreum Sm. for the treatment of jaundice and it is marketed by the name of Rohitaka. Objective: The present studyoutlines the concept of substitution. The stem bark of T. undulata (Sm.) Seem. and R. arboreum Sm. is compared on the basisof macroscopic/organoleptic evaluation, microscopic evaluation, physicochemical analysis, phytochemical analysis, andhigh-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Materials and Methods: Macroscopic/organoleptic evaluation,microscopic evaluation, and physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical screening were carried out using standardmethods. Semi-automatic applicator was used for HPTLC profiling. Results: Macroscopic/organoleptic evaluation showedlongitudinally fissured and fibrous fracture in T. undulata with bitter taste, while longitudinally furrowed, laminated barkwith bitter taste in R. arboreum. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of parenchyma with starch, parenchyma withcell content, and cork cells in both drugs. On physiochemical analysis, T. undulata showed greater water and alcoholicextractive value than R. arboreum. Carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, and phenols were the chemical constituents found inboth the drugs. HPTLC study revealed that there are 18 active phytoconstituents in R. arboreum barks and 24 in T. undulataon the basis of peaks observed. Conclusion: The present study revealed few common phytoconstituents found in bothT. undulata and R. arboreum.
Venkata Gopaiah
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2210

Abstract:
Aim: The leaves of the plant Tecomaria capensis were extracted with different solvents and screened for their analgesic activity. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of the plant T. capensis has showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids. The analgesic activity of ethyl acetate extract of T. capensis leaves is evaluated by Eddy’s hot plate and tail flick method. Results and Discussion: This study demonstrates that ethyl acetate extracts of T. capensis have significant analgesic activities. Further, with column chromatography technique, different compounds are isolated from the extract. Among the different compounds, 3, 7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol showed a comparable activity to standard. Conclusion: The present investigation indicates the probable use of T. capensis extracts in the evaluation of analgesic activity.
Anuj Kumar Srivastava
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2258

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate hepato- and nephroprotective potential of extracts of polyherbal formulations against acetaminophen (paracetamol [PCM])-induced dysfunction in experimental rodents. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of hydroalcoholic polyherbal formulation (HAF) was performed according to the OECD guidelines. Sprague Dawley female rats were grouped into three containing six animals each for acute toxicity study. For subacute toxicity study, animals were observed periodically for the symptoms of toxicity and death within 24 h and then daily for 14 days. Acetaminophen-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity models were used for this study. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were performed it to control group rats received normal saline (p.o.) per day for 7 days. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (PCM) were administered at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day/oral for 7 day and Groups III & IV were treated with PCM (750 mg/kg/day/oral) and HAF of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg/day/oral for 7 days respectively. The liver weight, kidney weight, liver function test, and kidney function test were evaluated along with histopathological investigation in various experimental groups of rats. Results: It was observed that the PCM treatment induced significant elevation (P < 0.001) in creatinine, kidney weight, liver weight, and liver functions such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides. Treatment of HAF of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg/d (p.o) for 7 day) on experimental rats recorded significant decrement (up to P < 0.001) in creatinine, kidney weight, liver weight, and liver functions such as ALT and AST. The doses of 400 mg/ kg/body weight/oral of HAF were found significant when compare with at doses of 200 mg/kg/body weight/oral. A histological observation of liver and kidney tissues provides positive response on experimental groups having PCM + HAF 400 mg/kg-induced model and significant data also correlate the biochemical parameters. Conclusions: This finding powerfully supports that polyherbal formulation acts in the liver and kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent the toxic effects of PCM. The biochemical and histopathological parameters of polyherbal formulation validate its ethnomedicinal uses and polyphenolic presence.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2271

Abstract:
Objective: A number of water objects of Abkhazia (the Western Caucasus) have been studied. Physicochemical indicators of water and characteristics of zooplankton community were investigated. Water bodies of Abkhazia are specified by high water quality, due to glacier-derived nourishment of rivers. In the mouth areas, the quality of water deteriorates, sometimes significantly, due to the pollution by sewage. However, most of the studied water bodies have high quality of water. The exceedance of maximum permissible concentration of biogenic elements was not revealed in rivers. In waterfalls water is ultra-fresh. In rivers, water is fresh with low hardness. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 zooplankton taxa were identified in the studied water bodies. The dominant species in various water objects were the following: Thermocyclops crassus, Pleuroxus aduncus, Pleuroxus trigonellus, Alona rectangula, Penilia avirostris, Macrothrix laticornis, and Eucyclops serrulatus. Zooplankton communities are characterized by low species richness. It is due to the high flow rate of mountain rivers, and their low temperature that creates unfavorable conditions for the development of zooplankton. Results and Discussion: The abundance of zooplankton varied from 5 specimens/m3 (the Mokva River) to 570 specimens/m3 (the Edyrtaa River). The biomass of zooplankton varied from 0.127 mg/m3 (the Mokva River) to 5.1 mg/m3 (the Akuna Channel). Quantitative indicators of zooplankton are low. Conclusions: According to the value of saprobity index, water in the Dzyguta, Edyrtaarivers, the channel from the Gali reservoir refers to β-mesosaprobic zone, and water in the Kudry Khuchi and Smyrakha rivers - to oligosaprobic zone.
Tatiana R. Denisova
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2294

Abstract:
Aim: The isotherms of the adsorption of nickel (Ni) (II) ions from model aqueous solutions with the initial concentration of metal ions from 0 to 1500 mg/dm3 by crushed bark, wood sawdust, and leaves of trees of Acacia auriculiformis in static mode are obtained. It has been established that crushed acacia bark has the largest adsorption capacity with respect to Ni II ions (7 mg/g), and the lowest adsorption capacity has acacia leaves (4 mg/g). Adsorption isotherms were calculated using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich, Temkin, Flory-Huggins, Harkins-Jura, and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models. Materials and Methods: The sorption properties of leaves, sawdust of wood, and crushed bark of A. auriculiformis were studied in the static adsorption regime using model aqueous solutions of Ni sulfate (II) with initial concentrations of Ni2+ ions from 0 to 1500 mg/dm3. Results: It is found that the isotherms of the adsorption of Ni ions by leaves, wood sawdust, and crushed bark are most adequately described by the Dubinin–Radushkevich model with the approximation coefficients R2 = 0.988, R2 = 0.988, and R2 = 0.982, respectively, indicating that the process takes place both in the pores and on the surface of sorption material. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process are calculated. Conclusions: The obtained values of Gibbs energy ΔG and the adsorption energy E indicate that the limiting adsorption stage of Ni (II) ions by A. auriculiformis components is physical adsorption.
Oksana O. Zavada
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2265

Abstract:
Aims: Detection of general patterns of the synthesis of quinazoline derivatives contains a fragment of 2-aminoalkylimidazole and studying their antimicrobial activity. Materials and Methods: Methods of organic synthesis; physical and physicochemical methods of analysis of organic compounds 1Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis were used. Results: To construct a focused library of compounds with potential antimicrobial and antifungal properties, we have chosen a strategy of combining quinazoline fragments with an imidazole residue in one molecule. The possibility of using 2-aminoalkylimidazoles as an amine component in the heterocyclization reaction with o-isothiocyanato esters was considered. 3-Substituted 2-thioxoquinazoline-4-ones were synthesized by the interaction of methyl esters of 4,5-substituted 2-isothiocyanatobenzoic acids with 2-(α,β,ω-aminoalkyl)imidazoles. Experimental study of antimicrobial activity was performed for the obtained substances, which according to the results of virtual screening showed the best results. Conclusions: A virtual library design with structural fragments of quinazoline and imidazole was made. The systematic series of 6,7-substituted 3-[2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)-alkyl]-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one were synthesized. According to the results of the study of the biological effects of the new derivatives of 3-N-(alkylimidazolyl-2) pyrimidine, a number of patterns of connection “chemical structure - antibacterial action” were established and the main directions of the purposeful modification of the structure for the search of new antimicrobial and antifungal agents were determined.
Fadilah Fadilah
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2273

Abstract:
This research was determined the cytotoxic activity of extract the rhizomes of Kaempferia pandurata as anti-breast cancer in 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)-MB-231 cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and study of estrogen receptor (ER) negative with target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by molecular docking approach. Materials and Methods: The docking study was conducted using AutoDock Vina. The macromolecule was retrieved from protein data bank (PDB), with ID code 2OH4 and saved in PDB format. The ligands were prepared using Marvin Sketch and saved in.PDB format. The next step was in vitro assay of the extract against MDA-MB-231 cell line using MTT test. From this assay, we will get the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of extract. Results: Compounds pinostrobin and pinocembrin have the lowest Gibbs energy and Ki values, even lower compared to gossypol, which means that this molecule is most active when bound to VEGF. The hydrogen bonds that occur between the pinostrobin and the receptor are similar to the hydrogen bonds that are present between gossypol and its receptor, called Phe1045, Val846, Leu1033, and Cys917. This amino acid as active site of VEGF. The IC50 value of standard cisplatin, doxorubicin, and hexane extract was 18.4, 1.24, and 20.54 μg/ml, respectively. Hexane extracts of K. pandurata demonstrated antiproliferative activities. Conclusion: The extract rhizomes of K. pandurata with pinostrobin and pinocembrin chalcone as major compounds showed potent activity as anticancer against breast cancer cell line.
Kalpana Patidar
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2263

Abstract:
Context: Antioxidants are helpful in increasing the blood circulation and thus help in hair growth as well as in the treatment of diseases. Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. The antioxidant property of plant and different herbs can be utilized in hair fall conditions or many diseases. Aim: The aim of this study is to develop an herbal hair growth promoting shampoo using Piper betle and Psidium guajava leaves extract due to their antioxidant property. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of herbal shampoo formulation containing P. betle and P. guajava leaves extract was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, 0.5 ml of each sample at various concentrations was added to 1.5 ml of DPPH (0.004%) solution and allowed to stand in the dark at room temperature for 20 min. The absorbance at 520 nm was recorded using UV spectroscopy which was compared with ascorbic acid taken as standard. Results: The results of the study demonstrated that formulation FC3 exhibited best antioxidant activity and formulation was stable for 2 months. The formulation FC3 shows better pH, foamability, dirt dispersion, and wettability. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that herbal shampoo formulation containing P. betle and P. guajava leaves extract is best for hair growth promoter and many problems related to hairs.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2262

Abstract:
Aim: Vanda tessellata is an endangered orchid of high medicinal value plant containing flavonoid and polyphenol components. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antidepressant activity of leaves extract of V. tessellata. Materials and Methods: The chloroform and ethanol extracts were prepared from V. tessellata leaves. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were determined for antioxidant activity of extracts. Antidepressant activity was identified using a modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Results and Discussion: The total phenolic content of chloroform and ethanol extracts of V. tessellate were 98.25 ± 0.11 and 202.00 ± 0.21 gallic acid equivalent mg/gm, respectively. The concentrations of flavonoids in chloroform and ethanol extracts of V. tessellate were 23.57 ± 0.47 and 114.48 ± 0.12 quercetin equivalent mg/gm, respectively. The ethanol extract demonstrated significant antidepressant activity by a reduction in immobility times of rats in TST and FST. Conclusion: The findings concluded that the antidepressant activity of V. tessellate extracts may be due to the presence of polyphenol and flavonoids.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2268

Abstract:
Zingiberaceae family is widely distributed in the tropical realm of Asia. Considering its diverse applications as spices and therapeutics, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of the ethanolic rhizome extracts of five plants, namely Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt and R. M. Smith, Curcuma caesia Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc., and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith on Allium cepa Linn. system. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDAH2) assays. Further, in vitro DNA protection assay was performed to confirm the antioxidant potentials of the extracts. Characterization of phytochemicals was done by performing qualitative tests. Results and Discussion: TTC reduction assay revealed that the extracts (2.5, 5, and 10 μg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on A. cepa root cells. Roots treated with extracts (2.5 μg/ml) were stained with reactive oxygen species-sensitive dye DCFDAH2 and visualized under the fluorescence microscope. The result confirmed that the extracts did not exert any prooxidant effect. Further, the extracts established their substantial antioxidant potential by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage in an in vitro system. In addition, qualitative analysis showed that the rhizomes are rich in phytochemicals. Conclusion: From the current observations, it can be concluded that the selected herbs can be utilized safely for human consumption.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2267

Abstract:
Aim: This study aims to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of an indigenous medicinal plant, Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered fruit of Z. xylopyrus Willd. was successfully extracted first with petroleum ether and chloroform, followed by ethyl acetate and at last ethanol. The total flavonoids content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total tannin content (TTC) were estimated using quercetin and tannic acid equivalents as standard. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was determined by different standard in vitro methods including. Results: Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract (ZXEAE) possessed potent antioxidant activity, namely hydroxyl radical (OH°) scavenging assay (IC50 128.1 ± 0.63 μg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (DPPH°) scavenging assay (IC50 101.2 ± 1.75 μg/mL), nitric oxide radical (NOº) scavenging assay (IC50 122.5 ± 2.04 μg/mL), superoxide radical (O2¯) scavenging activity assay (IC50 64.1 ± 1.24 μg/mL), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (98.6 ± 2.05 μg/mL). Study results suggested that antioxidant activity of ZXEAE might be due to presence of polyphenols, namely TFC (31.23 ± 0.39 quercetin equivalent [QE] mg/g extract), TPC (198.14 ± 0.69 gallic acid equivalent [GAE] mg/g extract), and TTC (18.38 ± 1.79 GAE mg/g extract). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the presence of flavonoids in Z. xylopyrus fruits showing marked antioxidant activity, which can be used for establishing the hepatoprotective potential of Z. xylopyrus
Vijay Mishra
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2266

Abstract:
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of an extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn leaves against the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity using in vitro and in vivo models of liver injury. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered leaves of S. indicus Linn were successfully extracted with petroleum ether extract (SIPEE), chloroform extract (SICHE), ethyl acetate extract (SIEAE), ethanolic extract (SIEE), and aqueous extract (SIAQE). The total tannin content, total phenolic content, and total flavonoids content were evaluated. Extracts were administered to evaluate in vitro human live hepatoma cell line study and in vivo hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 intoxicated mice. Results: Different extracts of SI presented reducing power in the order of Vitamin C >SIEE >SIEAE >SICHE >SIAQE >SIPEE. At the concentration 200 μg/mL, SIEE showed 50.4% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging property, 57.1% hydroxyl radical° scavenging activity, 46.1% nitric oxide° (NO°) radical scavenging property, and 73.2% superoxide radical scavenging action. The treatment with SIEE prevented the hepatic malondialdehyde level by 22.22, 26.67, and 58.89% with the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggested that the presence of flavonoids in S. indicus Linn leaves exhibiting marked antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities.
H. N. K. Al-Salman
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2208

Abstract:
Context: A new and highly sensitive method for the determination of gabapentin (GBP), this method is of high importance in the assessment of GBP and other pharmaceutical preparations. GBP is a widely used antibiotic. There is a big challenge of analysis of anti-epilepsy drugs due to their instability and sensitivity to various conditions. The simple, sensitive, precise, and kinetic spectroscopy method was used to measure GBP in some pharmaceuticals developed and validated. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a simple, sensitive, accurate, and kinetic spectroscopy method for the measurement of GBP in a pharmaceutical product. Materials and Methods: The current method was based on the spectral kinetic examination of epileptics (GBP) with potassium permanganate in alkaline medium at room temperature. Absorption of the stained manganese ions of the product was absorbed at 605 nm. Results: The concentration of GBP was calculated using the calibration equation for the time method and the initial rate method. The above method is used to determine GBP from 2.0 to 20 μg/mL. The BER Act was applied to roads within the range of concentrations used for analysis. The limit of quantification and limit of detection, equal to 0.640 and 1.940, were calculated, respectively. The relative standard deviation values was found to be 0.345% and Recovery values were 99.38 and 0.50%, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed and developed method is sensitive, accurate, and tolerable and can be used for the routine analysis of GBP in various pharmaceuticals. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the drug jabapentin in the pharmaceuticals and the validation of the statistical data. The results were compared to the reference method showed good compatibility.
D. Victor Arokia Doss
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2204

Abstract:
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Ixora macrothyrsa (Tejism. and Binn.). Materials and Methods: The hydroethanolic leaf extract of I. macrothyrsa was analyzed for free radical scavenging assay, namely 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. Results: The hydroethanolic leaf extract of I. macrothyrsa was shown to scavenge DPPH, hydroxyl, H2O2, and NO radicals dose dependently with an IC50 value of 405.36, 306.57, 351.46, and 612.76 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that I. macrothyrsa has a promising antioxidant activity and could serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant.
Hari O. Saxena
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2206

Abstract:
Objectives: The aim of present investigation is to evaluate secondary metabolites in leaves, roots, and stem of Cleome viscosa L. qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods: The leaf, root, and stem powder samples were subjected to methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaluated for major phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively using standard methods. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, and tannins. Anthocyanides and terpenoids were not detected in any of the extracts. Quantitative evaluation of leaves, roots, and stem extracts showed the alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, and saponins in significant amounts. Conclusion: The extracts of leaves, roots, and stem showed the presence of important secondary metabolites which have tremendous medicinal values. Thus, the use of this plant in ayurvedic system of medicines can be correlated with the modern-day science which is based on phytoconstituents.
Radha Kushwaha
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2255

Abstract:
Rice bran is fabricated from the rice milling enterprise and contains about 10% of the entire weight of rough rice. Itis especially composed of aleurone, pericarp, subaleurone layer, and germ. Rice bran is a fertile supply of nutrients,minerals, vital fatty acids, dietary fiber, and different sterols. The quantification of γ-oryzanol in rice bran can beconducted by many methods that require drawing out of rice bran oil (RBO) from the bran, accompanied by wayof evaluation of the quantity of γ-oryzanol in the RBO with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography.RBO is the oil drain out of the outer rigid surface of rice called chaff (rice husk). It is identified for its excessivesmoke factor of 232°C (450°F) and soft taste, making it pleasant for excessive-temperature cooking strategies suchas blend and deep frying. It is healthy for human expenditure, which is employed in the system of vegetable ghee.Wax was drawn out of RBO and palpanese extract, which is employed for carnauba wax in makeup, confectionery,shoe lotions, and sharpening compounds. It is accepted as a food preparation oil in numerous Asian countries, alongwith Bangladesh, Japan, India, and China. Regarding the importance of RBO, this overview intends to pay attentionat the phytochemistry and therapeutic functions of RBO.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2256

Abstract:
Background: Plants are rich in bioactive compounds with various pharmacological properties, and they can be used effectively to treat various diseases. The ability of Annona muricata, preventing progression of cancer cells by initiating programmed cell death, was focused in the present study. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the antioxidant and anticancer potential of A. muricata ethanolic extract (AME) of leaves. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant potential of AME was determined by 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiozoline)-6-sulfonic acid ammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, and the cytotoxic potential of AME over N2a cell lines (neuroblastoma cells) was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. Results: The 50% scavenging ability of the extract in DPPH assay was found to be 14 μg/mL. The ABTS radical scavenging potential was measured to be 10507.3 mg/g of extract. The FRAP was found to be 10.38 mM Fe(II)E/mg extract. The effective phosphomolybdenum reduction was measured at a concentration of 53.33 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g extract. The in vitro cytotoxicity of AME with escalating concentrations (5–85 μg/ml) was first screened, and it was shown to inhibit N2a cells with IC50 value of 55 μg/ml. A significant increase in cytosolic enzyme LDH confirms the cell membrane damage. The extent of cell damage was confirmed by a significant increase in the level of intracellular ROS and a decrease in MMP. Furthermore, to characterize and identify the major active constituents present in AME, Fourier-transform infrared and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were carried out. Conclusion: The present results demonstrated that AME could be a promising candidate for developing anticancer agents which helps further to combat neuroblastoma with an effective treatment strategy
Hamiduddin Dr. Hamiduddin
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2254

Abstract:
Diabetes is a leading cause of death. In India, total number of diabetic patients is expected to be 79.4 million in 2030. It is a multifactorial disease leading to several complications. Traditional medicines are being looked up once again for its treatment; the WHO also recommended its further investigation. In this review, these drug its pharmacological activity and its formulation in Greco-Arab or Unani Medicine in India is explored. Single-drug used in formulation with reported anti-diabetic and related beneficial property are Gymnema sylvestre, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, Momordica charantia, Acacia arabica, Eugenia jambolana, Trigonella foenum graecum, Punica granatum, etc. Phytomedicine used in Unani medicine presents an exciting opportunity for the development of new types of therapeutics for diabetes mellitus with a holistic approach, which includes various photochemical groups such as alkaloids, terpenes, and phenolics. Beside hypoglycemic activity, these drugs also have antioxidants, bitter and other activity related to disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism. They are used in the form of decoctions, infusions, tablets, pills, and powder such as Qurse Dhayabitus, Qurse Tabasheer, Safoof Gilo, Qurse Marwareed, Qurse Gulnar, Dawaul Misk Talkh, Sharbate Afsanteen, Roghane Qusht, and Ma-Us-shaeer and common marketed formulation is Dolabi tablets, Qurs Kushta baiza murgh, Qurs Kushta Zamarrud, Qurs Ziabetus, Safoof Ziabtes, Diab-eaze, etc. There is the tremendous scope of Unani single and compound formulations in the comprehensive management of diabetes particularly Type-2 diabetes; it can also be utilized as an adjuvant with the conventional drug due to its diverse and related beneficial pharmacological activity in diabetes.
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2259

Abstract:
Aim: For the problem of the struggle of the human body with extreme strains, it is advisable to use activepharmaceutical ingredients that would directly participate in the metabolism having an actoprotective effectwithout exhausting the body. Levocarnitine and glucosamine have such properties. In this work was studiedthe development of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine and the definition of market needs for combined andmonopreparations of levocarnitine and glucosamine. Materials and Methods: The analysis of the market fromJanuary 2015 to September 2017 showed a significant increase in the sales of glucosamine hydrochloride andlevocarnitine products, both in natural and monetary equivalents. Thus, the analysis of the data proves that theanabolic and frigoprotective properties of glucosamine have not received enough attention. The statistical datasuggest that there is a growing market demand for levocarnitine for oral administration. Results: The ratio of thesales of glucosamine hydrochloride for injections and for oral use began to change when one of the Ukrainiandrug manufacturers came out on the market with generic glucosamine hydrochloride for oral use. The changesin the price of one dose of glucosamine hydrochloride for oral use are due to the growth of the market shareoccupied by Ukrainian producers in this segment too. Such a shift in sales toward Ukrainian drugs contributes tothe overall increase in the availability of drugs. Conclusions: Analysis of Ukrainian market of the glucosamineand levocarnitine preparations showed uneven distribution of foreign and domestic manufacturers.
Saket Chandel
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2264

Abstract:
Introduction: The objective is to investigate the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz roots. W. fruticosa, commonly called as Dhavi, is a large beautiful tree, about 10 ft long, belongs to the family Lythraceae. These studies were performed because, before any experimental and clinical trial, phytoconstituents present in the plant should be known. Material and Methods: The root of W. Fruticosa contains protein, fixed oil, glycoside, carbohydrate, terpenoid, steroid, tannin, and saponin. The physiochemical analysis of W. fruticosaroot was also performed which includes ash value, loss on drying and extractive value determination. Result and Discussion: Total ash value, acid-insoluble ash, and water-soluble ash value were 6.5 % w/w, 2 % w/w, and 0.5 % w/w. Loss on drying was 4.4 % w/w, and extractive value was 3.4 % w/v in water and 6.4 % w/v in ethanol. Conclusion: This study revealed that these parameters will be useful in the identification and quality control of the genuine plant material or crude drug.
Golamari Siva Reddy
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2260

Abstract:
Introduction: Biosurfactants have picked up an impressive consideration as of late due to their potential uses in an expansive scope of use territories, including environmental remediation, agriculture, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, textile, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and the food, oil, and petrochemical industries. Aim: In the present study, optimization of the critical medium components for biosurfactant production by Achromobacter xylos strain GSR21 using statistical experimental design was studied. Materials and Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimal level of the four medium variables (agar powder, yeast extract, FeSO47H2O, and KH2PO4). Central composite design of RSM was applied to study the four variables at five levels, and biosurfactant concentration was measured as a response. Results: Regression coefficients were calculated by regression analysis and the model equation was determined. R2 value for biosurfactant (g/L) was calculated as 72%, and it indicates that the model was well fitted with the experimental results. Surface plots were made, and the maximum biosurfactant production (A. xylos strain GSR21) (10.20 g/L) was predicted at the optimized values of agar powder 90 g/L, yeast extract 5 g/L, FeSO47H2O 0.05 g/L, and KH2PO4 0.15 g/L. The obtained mathematical model was verified by performing the experiment with the predicted optimized values, and the yield of bio-surfactant was found to be 9.69 g/L. Validation of the predicted model was fitted 96.9% with the experimental results conducted at the optimum conditions. Conclusion: Results of this statistical analysis showed that agar powder and yeast extract had found significant medium components for biosurfactant (A. xylos GSR21) production.
Jayaraman Selvaraj
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2269

Abstract:
Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome that constitutes a major health problem. It is estimated that 246 million people worldwide have diabetes and that 380 million people will be afflicted with diabetes by 2025. In addition, 3.8 million people die each year from diabetes. Natural products offer an advanced starting point in the search for highly specific and potent modulators of bimolecular function as well as novel drugs. In the present study, GLUT4 protein which plays a significant role in protecting β-cells from damage was selected as potential target. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional structure of GLUT4 protein was build using modeller9v9.19. Modeled structure was validated through structure analysis verification server. With the purpose of identifying, the new potential drugs against GLUT4 protein molecular docking studies of 20 natural compounds were carried out using AutoDock. Results: The modeled structure has 87.9% residues in the core region. Results of docking studies clearly showed that good binding interactions of the ligand with both the targets at very low energy level. Conclusion: Based on the docking energy value, H-bond interaction the compounds hesperidin, fisetin, eriodictyol, wogonin, and chrysin was selected as the most potent compounds for GLUT4 protein. Hence, this present study suggests the consideration of these compounds for further in vitro and in vivo studies for its development as antidiabetic drugs.
Surapaneni Krishna Mohan
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2272

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of the study was to screen Malabari does for subclinical pregnancy toxemia and to evaluate their glycaemic status. Materials and Methods: This study consist of 4 groups; Group I early pregnant does (n = 7), Group II late pregnant does with one fetus (n = 6), Group III late pregnant does with two fetuses (n = 8), and Group IV nonpregnant does (n = 8). The pregnancy was confirmed by 3.5 Megahertz B-mode ultrasonography. The concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose was analyzed in the blood samples. Results and Discussion: Significant increase in serum BHB concentration was found in Groups I and II when compared to control group. Group III showed highly significant increase when compared to control group. Among the four groups selected, late pregnant animals with two fetuses had a BHB level of 0.81 ± 0.10 mmol/l, which shows that those animals were in subclinical pregnancy toxemic stage. A highly significant decrease in plasma glucose concentration was found in Group I, Group II, and Group III; compared to controls. Hypoglycemia was seen in all the three groups studied. Conclusion: Hyperketonemia not only represents a disease sign but rather acts in a multifunctional way in promoting development of pregnancy toxemia.
Оlga Yu. Derevenskaya
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2270

Abstract:
The work is devoted to the study of zooplankton community structure of Lake Maloe Lebyazhye (Kazan, Russia). Previously, Lake Lebyazhye consisted of 4 lakes, connected by ducts. Over the past decades, there has been a significant reduction in the area of lake, and only the Maloe Lebyazhye has remained. Other lakes of this system dried up. Methods: In 2017, measures were taken to restore the lakes of Bolshoe and Svetloe Lebyazhye: They were deepened to 3 m; the bottom was insulated with bentonitic mats. In October 2017, the lakes were filled with water. For the implementation of water supply, the pressure water conduit was restored to supply water from the nearby Lake Izumrudnoe. The study of the zooplankton community of Lake Maloe Lebyazhye is relevant and necessary to identify changes, occurring after the completion of measures for eco-rehabilitation. Results and Discussion: The article presents the results of studies of the zooplankton community of Lake Maloe Lebyazhye, performed during the growing periods of 2015–2017. In the course of the research, current species composition of zooplankton was revealed, the abundance and biomass were estimated, and the biotic indices were calculated. Conclusions: It is revealed that the zooplankton of the lake is represented by 64 species. The mean values of the abundance and biomass of zooplankton are relatively low and are in the range of values, corresponding to the oligotrophic type of water body.
Hussein H. Hussein
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2207

Abstract:
Introduction: The study included the development of a new high sensitivity method in the measurement of different pharmaceutical drug samples. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detector was tested, and three narcotic components were tested in pharmaceutical tablets. The analysis used in the detection and qualitative evaluation of narcotic substances includes three phases of internationally approved measurements to confirm the validity of the results obtained. Materials and Methods: The first step is to use local color detectors under the light microscope and use a detector (20% HC2H3O2 and platinum chloride). This reagent reacts with the drug molecule and gives a specific color to this molecule that can be detected clearly under the optical microscope with a magnification of 200 megapixels and compared with standard images of these materials. HPLC-UV system with Ion Pac column; Arcus EP-C18; 5μm, 4.6×250 mm, with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 25°C and maximum wavelength 275 nm where the number of samples is isolated and determination of type the narcotics in mixture. The third step in the diagnosis involved the use of the mass spectrometry (MS) of each material in the mixture using the gas chromatography (GC)-MS (MSDCHEM\1\METHODS\MUAFAQ.M) to identify negative M/Z ions at the range temperature (70–375°C). Results: The spots color tests revealed the nature of the drug compounds in the pharmaceutical product. The images and the morphology were compared with pictures of similar standard models for the purpose of inference. The HPLC revealed that the number of peaks in this method is three peaks that clearly indicate the number of substances in the mixture. The third detection was carried out using GC. The separation of the GC was done to identify the molecular masses of each component in the sample. Conclusion: The results of the microscopic analysis showed the appearance of three forms of narcotic compounds under study that closely resembles the standard images of the compounds themselves. Analysis of HPLC showed three clear peaks of compounds in this combination. Analysis of GC-Ms showed the molecular clusters of three compounds in pharmaceutical drug tablets. All the results of the analysis obtained indicate the accuracy and sensitivity of the method used in the analysis and measurement.
Sutiman B. Sumitro
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2202

Abstract:
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious diseases in the world. It is commonly infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and can rapidly spread through droplet transmission. Poverty and malnutrition cause immunodeficiency, and thus, it increases the risk factor for TB. Indonesia traditional herbal medicine, jamu, has been using for long time to treat diseases involving TB. This research makes new jamu formulation from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., Tamarindus indica L., Citrus aurantifolia, and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum and analyzes the formulation with docking method. Materials and Methods: Protein targets used were from human matrix metallopeptidase 1 and Src and form MTB PknB and catalase-peroxidase. Compound-target proteins and protein-protein docking were conducted by PatchDock and FireDock. Results and Discussion: The docking results were analyzed and visualized using LigPlot+ and PyMoL. Lipinski’s rule and toxicity were checked by SwissADME and AdmetSAR. The result showed that 6 compounds from 223 compounds (not 222 compounds, but 223 compounds) analysed could play as multitarget compounds inhibiting four target proteins. In addition, two compounds were found which could change the binding location of Src and PknB coproteins. Conclusion: According to the results, the new jamu formulation has the potential to utilize as TB therapy.
Venkata Gopaiah
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2275

Abstract:
Aim: The leaves of the plant Tecomaria capensis were extracted with different solvents and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of the plant T. capensis has showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by carrageenan-induced method (in vivo) for isolated compounds from ethyl acetate extract of T. capensis leaves. Results and Discussion: The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the 3, 4 dihydro-2,2 dimethyl-2H-benzochromene-5,6 dione and (3R)-3,7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol was concentration dependent. While in in vivo, the percentage reduction in the paw volume calculated at 3rd h for 3,4 dihydro-2,2 dimethyl-2H-benzochromene-5,6 dione was 54.5%, (3R)-3, 7-dimethyloct-6-en-1-ol was 77.3%, and standard diclofenac was 79.6%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that isolated compounds of ethyl acetate extract of T. capensis have significant anti-inflammatory activities.
Mohan R. Agrawal
International Journal of Green Pharmacy, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.22377/ijgp.v12i04.2201

Abstract:
Introduction: In the present study, fruit extracts of Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) and Momordica balsamina (Cucurbitaceae) were investigated for analgesic activity by Eddy’s hot plate and Tail immersion method. Materials and Methods: The extracts were prepared successively using powdered material with petroleum ether, ethanol, and water, and concentrated under vacuum and were evaluated for analgesic activity at three dose level (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). Results and Discussion: In Eddy’s hot plate method, oral administration of petroleum ether extracts of both the plants at the dose of 200 mg/kg (P < 0.01) and 400 mg/kg (P < 0.001) significantly reduced the thermal stimulation. Analgesic activity of petroleum ether extracts of both plants at the dose of 400 mg/kg after 90 min was comparable to standard drug pentazocine (10 mg/kg). In tail immersion method, petroleum ether extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg (P < 0.05), 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg (P < 0.01) and alcoholic extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (P < 0.05) of both plant material has shown significant analgesic activity and was comparable to standard drug pentazocine (10 mg/kg) after 90 min. Conclusion: It is concluded that petroleum ether extracts of both plant material have central analgesic effects.
Page of 7
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top