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Vangeline O. Erum, Nino M. Decenorio, Edilbert A. Reyes
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v18i1.1143

Abstract:
This paper determines and describes the departmental priorities of one of the Non- Sectarian Higher Education Institutions in General Santos City, Philippines towards strategies for future directions. This study is qualitative in paradigm, descriptive, and exploratory in purpose, multiple case analysis in discipline and quantitative and interpretivist in interpretation. Findings revealed that instruction is the top most priority as shown by the provisions/ data scrutinized in the five studied departments namely: Criminology, Education, Social Work, Accountancy, and Engineering. However, there seemed neglect in other provisions under research and extension because of their limited quantity, non-implementation, and limited budget if not totally absence of the provisions as planned. Instruction is claimed to be a priority since accordingly, the programs are board- courses. Participants had comparative and contrastive views on the priority of their department, implementation barriers, and feelings for the nonimplementation of other provisions particularly in research and extension that are seemed to be neglected by the academic departments.
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v18i1.1144

Abstract:
Information communication technology (ICT) enhances education and learning processes in higher education. Learning Management Systems (LMS) is a software application that manages the learning processes. LMS also supports peer collaboration and the communication between students and professors. This paper is going to investigate the students’ responsiveness to LMS in Ajman University. Moodle is a tool used to manage and assimilate their learning processes and facilitate communication. The goal of this study is to examine the acceptance of LMS, to assess the area where Moodle is supporting student learning and to determine the preferred aspects of learning provided by Moodle that students find enticing. This study showed a positive response regarding Moodle support learning processes in Ajman University. The participants found Moodle was able to manage, facilitate and enable access to different Moodle features.
Ann Gloghienette Orais Perez, Marilou D. Junsay
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v18i1.1142

Abstract:
The purpose of this sequential explanatory research study is to predict the psychographics and demographics that are associated with performance among faculty in Dubai Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and thereafter to develop a regression model. Using the purposive sampling, twenty faculty members among Dubai HEIs were used to answer the validated and tried-out interview guide which results were coded, interpreted, and clustered into themes. The research findings reveal that professional qualification, commitment, job satisfaction, motivation, personal differences, and perceived fairness in management emerged as psychographics that influence faculty performance. The psychographics and the demographics were tested whether these predict faculty performance. Using stratified sampling, not lesser than one hundred forty-nine (149) faculty members were selected to answer the validated and tried questionnaire. Using MANCOVA, the figures disclose that the educational level, professional qualification, commitment, job satisfaction, motivation, and perceived fairness in management are predictors of faculty performance. The regression model of the study is Faculty Performance = 32.076 + 12.977 Educational Level + 2.070 Professional Qualification + .967 Commitment – 10.388 Job Satisfaction + 6.926 Motivation – 1.302 Perceived Fairness in Management. The findings of this study would contribute to the identification of criteria in the hiring of faculty in Dubai HEIs.
Suad Al Areef Al Haj, Liza M. Gernal, , AymanAl Armoti
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v18i1.1146

Abstract:
The effectiveness of social media and online sources as a collaborative and effective learning tool are explored to complement the training and development programs within the company. Social media and online learning tools help in peer to peer interaction which may provide better results in the long run. Employers are concerned that valuable work time is being consumed during the process. A large chunk of talent is not productively engaged at a given point of time which may result in a loss for the organization. Many companies like Google, IBM, and Microsoft are following this pattern to enable the employees to become the captain of their ship. Online tools and social media help to provide training across geographical limits and reach up to large audiences. It can enhance the training experience with pictures, three-dimensional looks, pictures, videos, etc. which can catch the attention of the learner. The social media tools that can be used to create interactive, online, company-limited, virtual spaces, which is extremely collaborative and group operated thus increasing a sense of camaraderie among the peers. This creates a sense of interest among the users and helps to anchor them to the reality of the workplace and thus, increasing productivity and innovation.
Nino M. Decenorio, Vangeline O. Erum, Edilbert A. Reyes
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v18i1.1141

Abstract:
The research endeavors to shed light on the relationship between the psychological and socio-cultural adaptation of international students as perceived by students of UAE. Also, it aims to identify the segmentation of UAE bound international students. The research design is quantitative and utilized a descriptive survey methodology to examine the relationships and difference between the variables. It employs input, process, output model to respond to the research objectives and hypothesis poses at the onset of the study. The input involves the demographic profile of international students which highlighted the continental grouping, market segmentation, and other variables. The process involves the utilization of survey questionnaires, the collection of data, statistical tools, statistical treatment, Likert scale, interpretation, and analysis. The output is the proposed student development program. The study revealed significant findings on Psychological and Socio-Cultural Adaption, Demographic Profile and Market Segmentation which provided a new breadth of contribution to the body of knowledge. Based on the results, recommendations in conjunction with conclusions are introduced to pave the way for a proposed student development program. A sound and a workable developmental program for the international students will ensure a smooth and a successful integration of students in the United Arab Emirates.
Edilbert A. Reyes, Nino M. Decenorio, Vangeline O. Erum
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v18i1.1145

Abstract:
The study determined and described the intended and the implemented curriculum of Special Science High Schools in South Central Mindanao, Philippines towards policy recommendations to address the gaps. Specifically, it determined the levels of implementation of curriculum, instructional programs, and instructional support. Both quantitative and qualitative data were employed in the study for collecting and analyzing the data. Specifically, it utilized multiple case analysis. Triangulation procedure was used in collecting data through questionnaire, interview, documents and on-site visitation. The quantitative data established which areas have gaps while the qualitative works on description and judgment to identify what created them. The result of the study showed that there are significant gaps between the intended and the implemented curriculum in some areas of curriculum implementation, instructional programs, and instructional support. Policies cited in the Department of Education Orders are not generally implemented in all science high schools investigated.
Cheryll Didi Nellie N. Obra
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v16i1.1120

Abstract:
The study determined the presence of theory-practice gap in physical therapy education in the Philippines from the perspectives of three different groups: interns, clinical instructors, and internship coordinators. It utilized both quantitative and qualitative research designs using survey, interviews and focus group discussions in collecting data. The Clinical Internship Evaluation Tool was used as the primary data gathering instrument to measure the actual competencies of the interns. A survey questionnaire and interview guide was used to ascertain perceptions of the stakeholders on the clinical education process. Focus group discussions and interviews were audiotaped, and verbatim transcripts were produced. Descriptive statistics and t-test was used for data analysis. The result of t test revealed that the interns’ actual competencies are significantly different from the standards of competence expected of a competent clinician. Moreover, identified as the most problematic professional behavior and patient management skills were initiative and patient evaluation, respectively. Further, there were a pronounced gap between what they learned in school and what they are expected to do at the clinical sites. The highlighted gaps can contribute to quality appraisal, conformance to standards and enrichment of physical therapy education. Schools must facilitate better teaching-learning by more didactic instruction, laboratory skill mastery, and modification of academic contents. Clinical instructors in affiliation centers should have adequate education and preparation for their supervisory and teaching roles to enhance the clinical education process effectively.
Rogelio P. Bayod
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v16i1.1125

Abstract:
Sexual adventurism among young people of today seemed to penetrate even the religiously and culturally conservative countries. Thus, it is not surprising that early pregnancy among college and university students becomes a growing issue worldwide. Things become complicated for students who got pregnant while studying because they will be forced to either temporarily or permanently quit from school. The study examined the transition experiences of eight Filipino single and unmarried college students who stopped from their schooling because of early pregnancy but chose to come back to finish their studies. Results revealed that early pregnancy was considered by the participants as a tragedy resulting in negative feelings and thoughts. Some participants thought of and even attempted abortion. However, they did not succumb to their heartbreaking situations but decided to rise and continue their drive towards the realization of their dreams. Their children and their loved ones as well their earnest desires to afford better future for their family with or without their partner’s support have motivated them to endure the difficulties during their comeback to school. As a result of this study, Cor Jesu College has formulated policy on student pregnancy and crafted student support program for pregnant students and students who are already mothers taking into account their concrete needs.
Rennie Cajetas-Saranza
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v16i1.1122

Abstract:
Issues of diversity continue to challenge higher education institutions. This study aimed to explore the different approaches to integrating multicultural perspectives in Philippine Normal University-Mindanao, Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. This study was a descriptive research using qualitative methods. Through document analysis, interview, observation, and focus group discussions, results revealed that one thing the school failed to do was to keep an updated ethnicity profile of its 1,224 students, and 66 faculty and staff. The dominant ethnic group is not well represented in the student government and student organizations. Multicultural issues are not introduced early in the teacher education program. Infusion of multicultural concepts in the syllabus is evident, but the extent of this inclusion is limited only to meet the felt needs of the mainstream and the marginalized students of the institution without identifying who the mainstream and the marginalized students are.. Based on these findings, the researcher proposed an Integrated Multicultural Education Program for PNU-Mindanao. It has six components: Formation Program, Curriculum Development, Hiring of Indigenous Faculty, Organizing Indigenous Student Communities, Co-Curricular Activities and Student Teaching Placement Program.
Severo Ii Ceniza Sumortin
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v16i1.1121

Abstract:
Filariasis is an infection caused by a filarial parasite known as Wuchereria bancrofti transmitted by mosquitoes. During the year 1998, there were 44 provinces in the Philippines infected with filariasis. On the year 2005, there were 645, 232 Filipinos infected and 30 Million were at risk of the disease. Despite the initiatives by the National government and NGO’s, filariasis remains the 2nd leading cause of permanent disability in the Philippines (Galvez Tan, 2015). In the community of Mainit Iligan, City, the case was first noted on 2012 with only 30 cases. By 2015, the number grew to 435. Initiatives were undertaken by the LGU, Community Council and Schools to address the problem. Given the vector of the disease, the community engaged in clean-up drive in their houses and schools. The LGU provided medications and treated mosquito nets. During the recent administration of the test, results have shown that the cases decreased to 48 as of December 15, 2015. Based on the conducted case study, the researcher concludes that the entire community has to accept the free medications provided by the LGU and should cooperate in maintaining a clean surrounding and proper hygiene to eradicate filariasis.
Mary Josephine M. Duritan
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v16i1.1124

Abstract:
The youth of today are caught between tradition and progress, and they are in the throes of a modernizing society and abrupt cultural and political changes. Indeed, the extent of values integration in social sciences subjects have contributed in enhancing values integration in social science subjects. The study critically appraised in more detail the extent of the integration of values in the Social Science subjects among college students of the University of Perpetual Help System DALTA in the three major campuses of the school. The study used the descriptive research design. The mix method of qualitative and quantitative was used in the appraisal of the salient aspects of the five social science subjects. The study used three sets of questionnaires. The analysis utilized descriptive and inferential statistical measures. Findings of the study revealed that social science subjects such as Philippine History and Life and Works of Jose Rizal, integrate values to a very great extent across campuses vis-à-vis character development. The study concludes that extent of values integration has significant differences in the responses across the respondents’ strata. The values integration and educational practices about character development, educational management, and instructional leadership are implications from the findings in the study.
Steven J. Sumaylo
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v16i1.1119

Abstract:
Water is one of the basic needs of human beings and is imperative for sustaining the quality of life on earth (Brooks, 2006). However, its unbalanced and unmanaged use makes its scarce. Hence, this study assessed the water resource management practices of the 53 food establishments in Siquijor Province. The study utilized the descriptive survey using a self- made questionnaire which yielded that majority of the respondents are females and are in the age brackets of 18-40 and 41-62. A greater majority of the establishments were in the operation for more than ten years. As to respondents’ water resource management practices, they Often do not let water flow while cleaning or rinsing, check the water supply system for leaks and turn off unnecessary flows, and adjust water flow by the type of cleaning to be undertaken, but they Never install self-closing faucets. However, reading water meter regularly, washing only full loads in the dishwasher, and installing low flush toilets were sometimes done while installing automatic water volume controls, reusing the rinse water from the dishwasher and installing flow regulators on the faucet heads were seldom practiced. The respondents’ sex, age and number of years in operating the business had no significant relationships to their extent of water resource management practices. Thus, it is concluded that better management coupled with effective policy, awareness and efficient system is vital to enhance water resource management.
Dhenalyn D. Aquino
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v17i1.1136

Abstract:
Cerebrovascular accident, commonly known as “stroke,” is the third leading cause of death worldwide. A stroke is a tragic event for survivors and their families. Because most of them experience limitations after discharge, continuing education is crucial to minimize the impact of stroke. Believing in the importance of health education in every nursing aspect, this study assessed the competence of care providers of stroke survivors which served as basis for the development of educational material aimed to help stroke survivors and their care providers to have better understanding of the disease and to help them progress toward recovery and improve their health and quality of life. The descriptive method of research was used and utilized questionnaire and interview with the respondents to gather data. Analysis of Variance and Pearson product moment correlation were used for the statistical treatment of data. The findings revealed that the care providers were “moderately knowledgeable” about stroke and “often” do activities essential for rehabilitation. There is a direct relationship between the knowledge and the skills of the care providers. Also, the level of knowledge, skills, and attitude regarding stroke rehabilitation process of the care providers was the same regardless of age and educational attainment. Development of an educational intervention material was needed to enhance the competencies of the care providers.
Orlando L. Fajardo, Hji. Nasser A. Salain
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v17i1.1138

Abstract:
The Philippine government (GPH) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) signed the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, which culminates the Aquino Administration’s effort to end the deadlock in the peace process in Mindanao. It would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous political entity (NPE) called “Bangsamoro” under law to be approved by the Philippine Congress, which was the proposed ‘Bangsamoro Basic Law’ or BBL (Bangkok Post, 2014). This study is a descriptive - correlation – regression analysis of the awareness and support of the Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Youths in Basilan, Philippines on the Bangsamoro Basic Law. The findings and conclusions were: (1) The Basilan ethnic youths (Yakan and Tausug) were moderately aware of the provisions of the BBL, while the Basilan non-ethnic youths (Chavacano and Visayan) are barely aware of the provisions of the BBL; (2) The ethnic youths moderately support the passage of the BBL while the non-ethnic youths least support its passage; (3) There is a significant relationship between the youths’ level of awareness and extent of support for the BBL; and (4) The levels of support for the BBL of the Basilan youths are dependent on their ethnic and non-ethnic affiliation.
A. M. Sultana, Osman Jamil Zuraini
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v17i1.1139

Abstract:
Recently, dual career academic couples are increasing in the higher educational institutions in Malaysia and across the globe. Migrant dual-career academic tend to have a positive impact on the academic world with regards to diversity and competitive workforce. However, dual career academic couples particularly the women academic face a unique set of challenges within the academic world and family. These couples may work separately with different organizations to thrive toward their career goals. Studies showed that one of the problems of pursuing two careers in the different geographic area is often encountered by dual-career couples, especially for women in academic dual-career marriages in balancing familial roles and professional responsibilities. Some studies suggested that couple hiring policy is necessary for the universities that would impact on quality of work and diversity. In line with, the goals of the discussion are: (a) to discuss the importance of dual career couples (b) to know the common barriers are encountered by dual career academic couples in their work and families (c) to review the Dual Hire Policy for effectively managing their two careers and work-life balance.
Rogelio P. Bayod, Daisy Mae Abawag, Jessa May Luardo, Jean Padlan, Jonathan Macias
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v17i1.1140

Abstract:
When disasters happen, people are defenseless for disasters cannot be avoided nor predicted even in highly developed countries throughout the world. This study aimed to explore and determine the disaster preparedness of Aplaya, a coastal community in Digos City, Philippines. It focused only on their ways of preparing for disasters and the needs of enhancing their disaster preparedness. Using qualitative phenomenological research design, focus group discussion, and in-depth interviews were conducted with selected residents of the communities in Apalya, Digos City. Results revealed that their ways of preparing for disasters had been through alertness to the community alarm system, participation in drills, adherence to a warning of friends from upland areas and listening to a warning from Community officials. Moreover, the community needs the infrastructure support through the renovation of the dike, active participation of the community members and evacuation center within the community. The implication of this study is for government officials especially those that are incharge of disaster preparedness and relief operation to look into the possibility of organizing communities for active participation during disaster preparedness and relief operation, for the academe to provide the expertise needed for disaster preparedness and for the community to utilize whatever traditional skills and practices that have employed which had been proven effective in preparing for disaster in the past.
Rogelio P. Bayod, Ruschelle L. Cossid, Feralyn Venus Estrebello, Franzria Eda T. Ferriols, Queeny Jane H. Labani
IAMURE International Journal of Education, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/iamure.ije.v17i1.1137

Abstract:
Motherhood represents an integral part of human life. Mothers all over the world are primarily responsible for caring for their families despite little or the absence of help from their husbands. Using qualitative phenomenological approach, this study explored and examined incarcerated mothers’ experiences, struggles and coping mechanism as well as their dreams and aspirations. A validated interview guide questions were used in interviewing the participants. Results have shown that the incarcerated mothers considered their incarceration as a suffering with an accompanying feeling of regret. They are often unnoticed by the public at large, and their dreams seemed to be oblivious to many. Indeed, most of the incarcerated mothers had suffered a lot and shared a common reason of their loneliness which is the distance they have with their family especially with their children. However, like any human beings, they have dreams for a happy and fulfilling life. The implication of this study is for the local jail management to impose regulations and policies as well as programs to address the emotional needs of the incarcerated mothers. In addition, a deeper understanding of their experiences behind bars and respect in spite of their incarceration should be encouraged.
, Aurelia Gajutos, Mila Gracia Villanueva, Dionesio Estopa, Nieta Amit, Myrna Ogoc, Joseph Masangkay
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1126

Abstract:
The leatherback sea turtle (Dermocheleys coriacea) is considered an endangered species here in the Philippines and around the world. In Northern Samar, a leatherback sea turtle reportedly found by local fisher folks along the rocky mangrove and coral reef areas was placed in a rescue confinement for treatment and observation. Upon retrieval, the left fore flipper was already missing and the lacerated, amputated area was then bleeding. Treatment to arrest hemorrhage was performed and antimicrobials were administered. Two days thereafter, the animal succumbed to death. Because the animal was recovered a day following a typhoon that hit the province, it was inferred that the injury might be attributed to calamity-induced trauma as the animal was recovered as it was trapped along the rock-strewn mangrove areas. Following death, necropsy examination presented findings of severe congestive pneumonia, hemorrhages along the intestinal serosa, severe hepatic congestion, pericarditis and pronounced disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The prominent histopathological finding of sub-acute severe hemorrhagic pneumonia with infiltrates of mononuclear cells, red blood cells, hemosiderins and proteinaceous debris were discerned along the lung parenchyma. The hepatocytes are swollen, distended and some presented congestion and necrosis. The intestinal sub-mucosae are infiltrated with mononuclear cells. Smears from blood and liver showed variable Gram-negative organisms. It was impressed that the animal may have been suffering from an underlying subclinical septicemic infection even prior to traumatic injury. These findings underscore the need to further study the microbial profile of this endangered species and provide means to mitigate occurrence of septicemia cases that could further exacerbate its dwindling populace. This index case of septicemia affecting a leatherback sea turtle has been reported for the first time in the country.
Banjie Godilano-Sarmiento, Nestor T. Baguinon, Cristino L. Tiburan Jr., Nathaniel C. Bantayan
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1109

Abstract:
Invasive species represent the second most remarkable cause of extinction worldwide after habitat destruction (IUCN, 2011). Skyflower (Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.) that is slowly invading Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve (MMFR) was subjected to varying light intensities. Morpho-ecological characters were evaluated using Analysis of Variance for Randomized Complete Block Design. Bonferonni’s method at 5% level of significance was used for mean comparison. Plant height, number of leaves and nodes were higher in 0% (open condition) and 50% (partial shade) compared to those grown in 70% (complete shade). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in stem thickness, biomass, and chlorophyll content in all treatments. Leaf area was smallest in plants grown in the open condition. There was significant difference between the two locations (greenhouse and field) for the number of nodes, number of leaves, and stem thickness (P
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1113

Abstract:
Q fever is an emerging worldwide zoonotic disease caused by a bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Detection of Q fever antibodies among humans and animals was conducted using sera from human donors and sera from three different species of animals obtained from Catarman, Northern Samar, Los Baños, Laguna, and General Santos City, South Cotabato, Philippines. The Complement Fixation Test (CFT) was used to detect antibodies in sera samples. The result of the study showed that Q fever antibodies in humans were found to be 37% (22/60) while the sampled animals have 43 % (77/180). Among the animals, the highest occurrence of antibodies was observed in goats with 70% (42/60), followed by 40% among cattle (24/60) and the least 18% were from carabaos (11/60). According to sampling sites, 20% (12/60) of antibody-positive humans were from Los Baños, Laguna, some 17% (10/60) came from General Santos City and none from Catarman, Northern Samar. Among the goats examined, a higher percentage of Q fever antibodies were obtained from those in Los Baños with 30% (18/60) occurrence, and from General Santos City with 25% (15/60) occurrence. Likewise, an equal occurrence rates of Q fever antibodies among cattle came from Los Baños, Laguna and General Santos City each with 20% (12/60) seropositivity, respectively. Among the carabaos, 18% (11/60) was in General Santos City and 8% (5/60) in Catarman. Based on these findings, it could be inferred that Q fever infection exists among humans, goats, cattle, and carabaos in the Philippines.
Carmelita O. Garcia-Hansel,
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1116

Abstract:
Lake Lanao and its watershed are paramount resources not only to the island of Mindanao where they are located, but to the country in broader terms. The sustainability of their biodiversity and hydrological services requires a rational and appropriate management program. This paper reviews the historical various management efforts directed towards the Lake and its watershed up to the present. Since 1953 various Presidential Decrees have provided the management framework on the use of the resource under the leadership of the National Power Corporation. In 1992 following Presidential Proclamation 871 establishing the Lake Lanao Watershed Reserve, Memorandum Order No. 421 created a Lake Lanao Watershed Protection and Development Council (LLWPDC) to be headed by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Various management plans had been formulated and some projects initiated such as the LLWPDC’s Integrated Development Plan, the Food and Agriculture Organization Environmental Management Plan, a USAID-EcoGov pilot project on Forest Land Use Planning, and an Asian Development Bank Integrated Natural Resources and Environment Project. However, these have either not been implemented nor completed due to budgetary constraints and/or political circumstances. In January 2011, an interim Protected Area Management Board was organized inasmuch as under the NIPAS Act of 1992, proclaimed watershed reserves are an initial component of NIPAS. However, it requires a Protected Area Suitability Assessment before it can be legislated as a Protected Area; such assessment was completed in February 2012. Most recently, Senator Loren Legarda authored a bill entitled The Lake Lanao Development Authority akin to the Laguna Lake Development Authority, still waiting for congressional action. At present, there are various management issues and concerns, a major one being hydropower generation vis-à-vis the traditional domestic use of the Maranaos, the “people of the lake,” whose unique socio-cultural traits demand attention. Moreover, a number of environmental degradation issues (e.g. lake water greening, E. coli contamination, deforestation, siltation, invasive species, flooding) have been raised. These critical issues and concerns signal the immediate implementation of a participatory management approach involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels.
, Carmelita O. Garcia-Hansel
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1110

Abstract:
The sparse body of information on the ecology and biodiversity of one of the world’sancient lakes, Lake Lanao, was reviewed to arrive at objective insights that may be useful for an ecosystem-based management of the Lake Lanao Watershed. The terrestrial portion of the watershed is relatively rich in flora and fauna that mostly inhabit the remaining intact forests which provides 60% cover, but a thorough species inventory is wanting. Nearly 90% of the alienable and disposable lands including most of the lake shoreline and the adjacent lowland forest areas have now yielded to agriculture (87%), but only 0.4% to urban and rural settlements. Major rivers and numerous intermittent tributaries that sustain lake water are unstudied. Within a span of 30 years since a rich indigenous community of fish species was first described, the lake’s fisheries ecosystem has undergone a regime shift featuring the dominance of invasive fish species and the catastrophic disappearance of 16 endemic cyprinid species. Analysis of nutrient levels when the lake was at its relatively pristine state indicated a high sensitivity to levels of dissolved nitrogen with a pelagic ecosystem that is bottom-up or resource controlled. Most recent water quality analyses indicate a eutrophic, coliform-contaminated, and invasive species-colonized state with anthropogenic input as the possible main driver. Hence, apart from biodiversity conservation in the lake watershed, the flux of nutrients and pollutants should be a top priority of an ecosystem-based management that needs to employ innovative socio-environmental approaches involving participatory, multisectoral, multidisciplinary, integrated and co-management efforts. The looming climate change, which may undoubtedly lead to further loss of biodiversity services, needs to be incorporated in the watershed modelling and management framework.
Nicola Louise T. Timbas, Rodrigo B. Badayos, Pearl B. Sanchez, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1111

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the variability of soil properties along selected transects in Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Laguna, Philippines. Samples were taken from seven pedons at the northeastern slope, and six pedons at the southern slope. Morphological properties of soils were investigated in situ. Samples were analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Four landscape positions were identified at the northeastern slope: interfluve, seepage slope, transportational midsope, and colluvial footslope. At the southern slope, three landscape positions were established: interfluve, transportational midslope and colluvial footslope. Soils at the interfluve in both transects had deep soil profiles with low bulk densities and high organic matter. Soils at the seepage slope have argillic horizons, higher soil pH, exchangeable bases, and base saturation. Lithologic discontinuities were observed at the transportational midslope. Soils at the colluvial footslope of the southern slope have higher soil pH, OM content, exchangeable bases, CEC, and base saturation compared to soils at the northeastern slope. Soils at the northeastern slope were classified as Andisols, Inceptisols, Entisols, Ultisols, and Alfisols. On the other hand, soils at the southern slope were classified as Andisols, Alfisols, and Inceptisols.
Hector B. Cadena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1112

Abstract:
This study describes the agricultural production practices of the farmers in the Malagos Watershed, Davao City, Philippines. This was done given the new trends in Ecoagriculture and Permaculture principles. The different Agricultural practices were described and assessed in terms of sustainability. Sustainable Agriculture is the production of food and other farm products in ways that protect the environment, public health and animal welfare. Practices need to be modified if they are causing damage to these factors instead. As to crops planted, which included cereals, vegetables and fruits, sustainability was rated fair. Tools and equipment used together with the method of cultivation were rated highly sustainable. Fertilizers used and method of fertilizer application which was mostly (40%) commercial fertilizers applied through basal and broadcast method, were rated sustainable. The method of irrigation, which was mostly rainfed, was assessed as highly sustainable. The method of pests and disease control was the only practice rated poor since commercial chemical spray were commonly used and one potentially harmful to people and the environment. Harvesting method, which was mostly by handpicking, was rated highly sustainable. Their methods of storage, product disposal and waste disposal were all classified as fairly sustainable. Concerning livestock production, almost all of their practices, including, type of animal raised, method of animal housing, feeds used, method of watering, method of product disposal and method of waste disposal, all rated fairly sustainable. Only the method of feeding, which mostly used dry feeds instead of free grazing, was graded sustainable. Crop production and livestock production in the Malagos Watershed averaged quite acceptable. It is, therefore, recommended that these practices be improved, maintained and monitored so that the agricultural practices in the Malagos Watershed would remain viable in the future. This study is the first attempt at assessing the sustainability of Agricultural practices of Indigenous peoples habituating the Malagos Watershed.
Sheilane S. Mendez, , Dunedene J. Dalagan, Hearty Sol R. Mañego, Grayfield T. Bajao, Venus C. Llaguno
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1114

Abstract:
Disasters are inevitable. The island resorts in Malapascua Island, Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines are vulnerable to natural risks such as typhoons and earthquake. In increasing disaster resilience, a model should be based on risk assessment results and be integrated with the strategic planning of the government and communities. It should consider risks and risk treatments across the social, built, economic and natural environments (Councils for Australian Governments, 2009). The study aimed to propose a disaster resiliency model for Malapascua Island, Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines. The output of this study is a guide for the local community in case of natural disasters. The descriptive survey method was utilized using a two survey questionnaires. The data regarding disaster preparedness in hotel resorts are gathered from the 80 respondents consists of the staff and managers of resorts in Malapascua Island, emergency rescue personnel, as well as the village officials of village Logon and municipal officials of Daan Bantayan, Cebu, Philippines. Simple percentage and rank were used in the treatment of the data. Results showed that island is vulnerable to risk and that devised plans for emergency disasters, hazard mitigation, and contingency are needed. The researchers recommended the use of the model. However, further research on its effectiveness should be conducted to confirm the preliminary findings.
Ma. Leah E. Cadena
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1117

Abstract:
The study aimed at assessing the livelihood needs of the residents in the Malagos Watershed. The residents in the area are mostly Indigenous Peoples (IPs).The study used descriptive-correlation design to describe the socio-demographic characteristics, livelihood needs and assistance, monthly household income, problems encountered by the respondents and the suggested solutions to the problems identified. The study collected primary data from the residents in the watershed with the use of an interview schedule. Random sampling was used to determine the samples from the different associations along the watershed. The study found out that most of the residents in the Malagos Watershed area are aged 36-60 years old, female, married, High School level in education, Diangan in tribe, Catholic, with 4-6 household size, housewives, and with monthly household income of P5,001-P10,000.Assessment of their livelihood needs had livestock and poultry raising as their priority. Work, financial and educational assistance are most needed. There is a significant difference in monthly household income of respondents when they are grouped according to socio-demographic characteristics regarding age, civil status, tribe and religion. Most of the problems the residents identified were the lack of livelihood, finances, education, poor health, potable water, electricity, assistance in agricultural production. To these, they suggested government support especially in infrastructure, health, education and financial help from government and/or nongovernment organizations.
Beltran C. Borres, Emmalinda A. Garillos
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1118

Abstract:
This descriptive-correlational study is used to determine the relationship between the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms and the current status of the factors which are rice farming, catfish farming, government programs in rice production, and environmental conditions. There were 33 respondents considered in this study who were the catfish growers. Data gathered were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages, mean, and Pearson product correlation or Pearson r. The study found out that the level of perception of respondents was high on the current status of catfish farming and environmental conditions. For government programs on rice production, respondents had a moderately high level of perception. There is also a high level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms. The test of difference showed that there is a highly significant difference in the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms when grouped according to rice farm area. There is no significant difference in the level of conversion of rice fields into catfish farms when grouped according to demographic profile such as age, sex, educational attainment, seminars or training attended and high length of experience. The test of relationship showed that there is a significant relationship between the level of conversion of rice farming and the current status of catfish farming. Instead of fishing in the rivers, farmers may convert the lower portion of their rice fields into fish ponds. However, the test of relationship showed that there is no significant relationship between the level of conversion and the current status of rice farming, government programs on rice production, and environmental conditions.
Rose D. Arquion
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v18i1.1115

Abstract:
Ethnobotany is the study of plants used by specific cultures for various purposes. This study aimed to document indigenous medicinal plants which can treat diarrhea. This qualitative study used semi –structured interview and employed purposive sampling of 50 local inhabitants aging 40 to 85 years old presently using medicinal plants in eight communities of Talacogon, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. Results revealed that 25 medicinal plants can treat diarrhea. The leaves and stem of these plants were utilized and prepared by decoction, infusion, concoction and extraction. Out of the 25 identified medicinal plants, Psidium guajava (guava), Persea americana (avocado), and Blumea balsamifera (Blumea camphor) were commonly used which easily grow and can be domesticated in home gardens. The medicinal plants had helped much the local people as a cheap source of alternative medicine. This suggests that this traditional knowledge from these people be transmitted through symposia, seminars and trainings for its management and conservation for sustainability.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1065

Abstract:
Dengue virus associated with hemorrhagic fever claimed so many Filipino lives. Climate change factors and garbage volume affect dengue incidence. This study aimed to determine the relationship of climate change factors with dengue cases in Old Balara, Quezon City, Philippines. The study evaluated the secondary data from DOST PAGASA and Quezon City Municipal Health Office. Temperature and garbage volume are negatively correlated with dengue cases. Relative humidity and rainfall are positively correlated with the incidence of dengue in the study area. Various factors play different roles with the number of dengue cases occurring in particular locations.
Rosalina Palanca-Tan
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1060

Abstract:
This paper surveys the current water supply, sanitation and sewerage facilities available to households in Cagayan de Oro, and their awareness of and attitudes towards water and wastewater issues. Survey results reveal inadequate and sub-standard domestic wastewater treatment facilities both on the household and community levels as well as some degree of household indifference. Using contingent valuation method, this study estimates the value that households in Cagayan de Oro attach to the benefits that they can derive from a domestic wastewater treatment program. Mean willingness to pay for the planned program range from PhP3.29 (parametric estimate) to PhP6.01 (non-parametric) per m3 of water consumption, which falls short of the projected program cost of PhP7.11 per m3 of water. It may, therefore, be necessary to raise people's understanding of the externalities of their water consumption to make the planned domestic wastewater program viable. It may also be necessary to incorporate the sewerage and sanitation charge within the water rate schedule so as to ensure households' payment for the proposed wastewater treatment program for the city.
Jr. Antonino B. Mendoza, Victor S. Soliman, Plutomeo M. Nieves, Florizel M. Lim, Antonino B. Mendoza, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1064

Abstract:
With the declining state of Philippine coral reefs, the need for conservation and rehabilitation efforts are deemed crucial to sustaining ecological, biological and economic recovery in the reef system. However, there is yet a concrete and workable policy to be implemented in restoring and rehabilitating our reef areas aside from establishment of marine protected area (MPA). Here, we explored the prospects of coral restoration by demonstrating experiences in San Fernando, Masbate (Ticao Island) combined with the practices of the National Coral Restoration Program. In this project, some 20,000 coral nubbins utilizing ‘corals of opportunities’ were reared in 40 coral nursery units (CNUs) for six months and achieved 80% survival. They were then out-planted (c. 20,000 sq m) inside an MPA to ensure their protection and increase in live cover. The fragments were attached to dead corals using epoxy or tied in concrete nails using cable ties. Four coral genera were used namely Acropora, Seriatopora, Pocillopora, and Stylophora. About 70% coral survival was achieved after two months of transplantation. Involvement of the LGU, community and the private sector is crucial to project success. Results of the transplantation indicated effectiveness and viability of the CNU system to complement coral transplantation.
Arlene B. Tolentino, Victor B. Ella
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1067

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The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, owing to its robustness and wide applicability, was tested in Mabacan watershed in Laguna, Philippines, with the objective of developing a model for predicting surface runoff or streamflow in ungauged watersheds under conditions of limited hydrologic data. Model parameterization was performed based on the physical characteristics of the watershed and guided by sensitivity analysis. SWAT-predicted monthly surface runoff values for a 7-year period were then compared with manually computed values obtained using water balance and SCS-Curve Number methods. Agreement between runoff values was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE). Correlation analysis between SWAT-simulated monthly runoff and observed monthly rainfall was also performed to further assess the plausibility of simulation results. Sensitivity analysis showed that that the curve number (CN2), soil evaporation compensation factor (ESCO), and soil depth (SOL_Z) are the most sensitive parameters with sensitivity index (I) of 2.92, 0.08, and 0.04, respectively. Comparison between SWAT-predicted surface runoff with those obtained using water balance and SCS-CN methods yielded R2 values of 0.95 and 0.94, and NSE values of 0.70 and 0.63, respectively. The SWAT-simulated runoff series also proved to be well-correlated with observed rainfall series (R2=0.82). Results of this study suggest that the SWAT model is highly applicable for predicting surface runoff or streamflow in ungauged watersheds in the Philippines even with limited hydrologic data and that familiarity with the physical characteristics of the watershed area is essential in enhancing model parameterization and performance.
Helen F. Gavino
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1063

Abstract:
Water used for domestic and drinking purposes in agricultural communities is still extracted from the groundwater using shallow tube wells. However, its quality is threatened by contamination due to chemical residues that were not fully utilized in a rice production system. These residues eventually go with the water as it is distributed in the whole area, with some amount reaching the groundwater. In this study, the rate of chemical fertilizers and pesticides applied by farmers and the possible level of groundwater contamination was determined. The information obtained maybe used in the formulation of strategies for future monitoring of the presence and level of concentration of chemical residues and regulation of the usage of agricultural chemicals in the Upper Pampanga River Integrated Irrigation Systems (UPRIIS). Results revealed that farmers in the UPRIIS service area used chemical fertilizers at the rate of 69-173 kg N per ha, 26-32 kg P per ha and about 30 kg K per ha. These application rates were high as compared to recommended rates, particularly in Districts IV and V of the UPRIIS service area. Similarly, majority of the farmers (60-80%) were using molluscicides, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in preventing and controlling pests in their crops. Analysis of the quality of groundwater samples indicated that values obtained were within tolerable limits when compared to the standards for drinking water. The mean values of K concentration, which was found to be statistically different between the districts also exhibited strong relationships with PO43-, Na+ and NO3-. The other parameters of water quality showed no significant differences between and among the districts. While the observed values were within the tolerable limits, monitoring of their levels must regularly be done to safeguard the quality of groundwater.
Sandro D. Cañete, Wilfredo B. Collado, Rodrigo B. Badayos, Pearl B. Sanchez, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1062

Abstract:
Land Evaluation System using the modified Food and Agriculture Organization framework was carried out to assess the suitability of various important crops to Quingua soil series. Corresponding sound management interventions were then formulated over the identified production constraints. This was done to achieve a more productive and sustainable rice-based farming. The system generates a more specific land utilization type in which spatial and climatic variabilities are recognized. The data used for land suitability evaluation was extracted from 2011-2012 cropping seasons. Analysis disclosed that Quingua series in Talavera and Sto. Domingo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, representing irrigated and irrigation-supplemented lowlands, respectively, has high flexibility to growing various types of crops due to its favorable land attributes. Hence, crop intensification is highly recommended provided that minor limitations on soil organic matter, drainage, temperature, and seasonal flooding are offset. Multiple cropping system that involves off-season vegetable production and growing of cash or high-value crops in combination or rotation with rice dominates the farms’ landscape. This practice had generated varying levels of return on investment (ROI) from negative to more than 1000% as affected primarily by climate and farm management. Designing market-driven cropping systems under good management strategies can generate stable ROIs’ ten times higher than the production cost, hence, a more productive and profitable enterprise. Furthermore, soils of the same soil series exhibit similar characteristics or properties that require the same level of management in achieving the desired production output. Thus, information obtained from land suitability evaluation can serve as an effective tool for the government’s specific crop production program and agro-technology promotion.
Lorelei C. Tabago
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1066

Abstract:
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges ever to confront humanity. Its adverse effect is already being seen and may consequently intensify if nothing is done. As an advocate of climate change mitigation, the researcher conducted a study that determines the knowledge, attitude and perception of 210 tertiary students from Isabela State University in Northern Luzon, Philippines. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage, one-way ANOVA, t-test and Pearson r. The results revealed that the respondents have a high knowledge, attitude and perception on climate change, there is a significant relationship that exists between the students’ perception and attitude on climate change. However, the perception of male and female respondents on climate change differ significantly.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v17i1.1061

Abstract:
A taxonomic study of epilithic algal flora on the basis of their morphological and cytological characteristics was conducted for documentation and identification up to species level. Microscopic observations of each algal taxa from Los Baños, Laguna shows the occurrence of nine taxa belonging to the class Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. This paper discuss the morphotaxonomic description of the nine taxa and presents for the first time in the Philippines the current combination of the names Kamptonema cortianum (Meneghini ex Gomont) Strunecký, Komárek & J.Smarda, Kamptonema laetevirens (H.M.Crouan & P.L.Crouan ex Gomont) Strunecký, Komárek & J. Smarda and Phormidium foreaui (Frémy) Umezaki & Watanabe which were based on the old names of Oscillatoria cortiana Meneghini ex Gomont, Oscillatoria laetevirens H.M.Crouan & P.L.Crouan ex Gomont and Oscillatoria foreaui Frémy, respectively. These taxonomic records show important baseline knowledge and adequate information for future studies on epilithic microalgal and cyanobacterial taxonomy on subaerial habitat.
Hermenegilda C. Fernandez
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijss.v16i1.1088

Abstract:
Sexual harassment is a worldwide phenomenon. It can occur in the workplace or at school. Thus, this descriptive study was conducted to determine the extent of implementation of the Anti-Sexual Harassment Act (RA 7877) as assessed by the students and faculty/personnel. The respondents were the randomly sampled college students of the College. Researcher-made survey questionnaire and interview schedule were used for data gathering. Data were analyzed and interpreted using percentage, mean and t-test. Results reveal that the College implemented to a moderate extent the Anti-sexual Harassment Act (RA 7877). The school has in place implementing measures and carries out dissemination of RA’s provisions as evidenced by the moderate satisfaction and awareness of the school’s stakeholders – the students and the faculty/personnel.However, the stakeholders’ moderate satisfaction and awareness suggest a need for the school to intensify its efforts in implementing the Act to make the stakeholders fully aware of the Act, toinvolve the stakeholders in the fight against sexual harassment through comprehensive information campaign during meetings and symposia and classroom instruction, and to stipulate the RA’s provisions in manuals/handbooks and information technology-based communication platform.
Luzviminda Padios-Relon
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijss.v16i1.1091

Abstract:
The traditions of certain groups or communities may change as new values may emerge and later be integrated into the society. This scenario has been evident among the indigenous peoples. Contrary to this, however, there are some minorities that can preserve their customs, beliefs, and practices. Other IPs’ existence, however, is unknown to many, especially among the younger ones nowadays. This study described the sociocultural experiences of the Bago students of University of Northern Philippines together with the problems they have encountered as a result of their exposure and dealings with the lowlanders. The descriptive research design was employed and utilized interview and observation methods. The respondents were purposively chosen. Based on the findings, the Bago students are incognizant of some elements of their customs, beliefs, and practices for they have been influenced by other groups or communities. They tend to be peace-loving, open-minded, and willing to accept changes, as manifested in mingling harmoniously with fellow students. Based on the findings, it is recommended that an organization be created, and programs are designed in the University that will serve as an avenue for the Bago students to showcase their unique culture. This will contribute in raising the level of awareness of the UNP community regarding their rich cultural heritage.
Jr. Pablo B. Bose, Maria Rebecca B. Talledo, Maria Digna T. Bose, Pablo B. Bose, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijss.v16i1.1092

Abstract:
The loom woven cloth reveals the distinct and rich culture of Abra. It displays intricate designs, arts, and patterns which reveal the ingenuity of the Abrenio. This study aimed to determine the different geometric concepts, shapes, designs, arts and patterns present in the loom woven product. It also attempted to identify meanings and cultural implications exhibited in the colors and embroidery stitches present in the loom woven cloth of Abra. The study made use of ethno-math research design. Interview of the loom weavers and actual examination of the loom woven cloth were done in this study. Key informants helped the researchers validate their prior knowledge about the geometric transformations present in the loom woven cloth of Abra. It was found out that there are geometric concepts and transformations produced from the color combinations of the warp and weft threads. Furthermore, there are ethnic meanings of the different embroidery stitch designs present in the loom woven cloth of Abra. The result of the study will be utilized as instructional material in math and allied subjects; and likewise a way of promoting the loom weaving industry of Abra.
Jerald U. Saculles
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijss.v16i1.1090

Abstract:
John Gray, in his book Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus, explored the differences in the behaviors and languages of men and women by means of his eponymous metaphor that men and women are from distinct planets and that each gender is acclimated to its own planet’s society and customs, but not to those of the other. This metaphor is anchored on the Difference Theory, popularized by Deborah Tannen, which examines the effect that gender has on language use. This study, therefore, is an attempt to explore differences in male and female language in English, Filipino, and Iloco. It seeks to determine the linguistic features that characterize the language of the two groups represented by 100 students from LORMA Colleges. These include language preference; linguistic borrowing; dynamics of code-switching; use of adjectives in English Filipino, and Iloco; and syntactic complexity. Language differences also cover topic preferences of men and women; topics considered not in good taste for conversation, taboo words and the euphemisms used to skirt them, the use of cathartic expressions, the use of cuss words, reasons for uttering cuss words, and the source of learning cuss words. Furthermore, this study also explores how men and women perceive each other’s language, and they’re own.
Ramil S. Bulilan
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijss.v16i1.1086

Abstract:
Reading is for communication and inseparable with comprehension. Without comprehension, reading becomes meaningless. However, comprehension can be affected by lots of factors. In this study, speed was primarily presumed as such. Thus, it sampled 234 freshmen of Bohol Island State University, Clarin, Bohol, Philippines. The study utilized descriptive-correlational survey method which specifically gathered respondent’s preferred communication skills, attitudes towards reading, levels of comprehension, difference among attitudes towards reading, and the correlation between speed and comprehension. In determining reading proficiency, speed and comprehension tests were made. Results showed that in comprehension, respondents from the College of Teacher Education were very good readers, and only good readers were from the College of Technology and Allied Sciences. Respondents’ uncertain attitude towards reading was manifested in their strong preference of listening than reading. Most of them found difficulty in dealing with higher order comprehension skills. Respondents were below average in speed and only good in comprehension. It showed a highly significant difference on their attitudes towards reading. Furthermore, their speed and comprehension were correlated, which means that comprehension was dependent upon their speed; hence, that the slower they read, the poorer they comprehend.
Analyn Q. Villaroman
IAMURE International Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijss.v16i1.1089

Abstract:
The media often portray men as violent. This study of two men’s groups, MOVE-Davao, and MR GAD seeks to find an alternative discourse of men joining groups that are geared towards the attainment of gender equality. The study looked into the lives of men who are members of two gender advocacy groups and their reasons for engagement. It employed qualitative approach- social phenomenology where 12 participants were interviewed. Participants of MOVE-Davao mostly hold key positions in both public and private sectors. For MR GAD, most men members are direct service providers in their respective communities especially on the aspect of dispute resolution. As men of MOVE-Davao and MR GAD have become involved in the gender advocacy groups, their life experiences suggest a myriad of opportunities for displaying their creativeness, communicating with fellow men, counseling couples, transforming one’s self and other people and enjoying the group’s activities despite some challenges encountered. Men’s engagement in these gender advocacy groups is anchored on caring and helping others. Other reasons include their love for children, being free from gender stereotypes and the material and non-material rewards. The study recommends that men must be given space to participate in development work as they bring a new strategy so that they can affect new consciousness not just in the formal structures of power but also at the informal level.
Nero M. Paderes
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1023

Abstract:
The phytochemical, nutritive, cytotoxic and antibacterial analysis of Tabtaba (Nostoc linckia) species found in Lingas Baay Abra which is commonly eaten as an exotic dish was investigated using different laboratory assays. Phytochemical and nutritive analysis show the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterol, phenolics, flavonoids, crude fats and proteins. Cytotoxic and genotoxic analysis of crude extract concentrations of 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/mL and 10 mg/ml that were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. showed that root length and mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of Tabtaba extract increased. A concentration-dependent increase in chromosome aberrations was also observed. Ethanol extract concentrations of 75%, 50% and 25% that were tested against S.aureus and E.coli showed that Tabtaba ethanolic extracts have strong antibacterial activity towards S.aureus but weak against E.coli. This study proved that the Tabtaba (Nostoc linckia) species found in Lingas Baay Abra showed potential nutritive value but contains a significant cytotoxic and genotoxic component that is considered detrimental. Further assay also revealed that it has an anti-bacterial activity towards S. aureus and E.coli at different concentrations. Basing on the results, wider exploration and analysis of Tabtaba (Nostoc linckia) species coming from other river sources in Abra, Philippines should be tested and documented. Keywords-Phycochemical, Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity, Allium cepa, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations, zone of inhibition, S. aureus, E.coli, Philippines
Jhoanna O. Santiago, Jr. Inocencio E. Buot, Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1017

Abstract:
This paper assessed the conservation status of forest tree species found in Mount Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL) specifically on Mount Banahaw de Dolores in Kinabuhayan, Quezon. The study made use of secondary data pertaining to the flora of MBSCPL Western Slope-Mt. Banahaw de Dolores and these were extensively reviewed. A list of indicators, generally qualitative, was formulated and served as basis to label 44 species into different threatened categories. This study revealed that there are six (6) critically endangered, 14 endangered and 24 vulnerable forest trees species in Mount Banahaw de Dolores. Species endemicity and various anthropogenic activities are some of the potential factors that made these species threatened. Proposing that the tourists be not allowed in the area would not prevent further degradation. Strict implementation of rules, regulating and educating tourists on the importance of the flora and fauna are the ways that could be done to minimize the negative impacts on national parks. Keywords - Ecology and Conservation, Mount Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL), conservation status, biodiversity, threatened species, Philippines
Willie P. Abasolo, Divina P. Chica
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1016

Abstract:
Basic properties of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (sky flower) were investigated to determine the mechanisms on how the plant effectively kills its host and to find an alternative way to control its population. Overall green weight of a 21 m long vine was 3,045 g. The parameters influencing this overall green weight of the plant were identified. When ranked based on its contribution to stem weight it follows the trend: stem biomass > moisture content > diameter > phloem > fiber. T. grandiflora provided an added load to the host plant leading to the suppression of the growth and development of its host. Its leaves would then fully cover the host plant preventing the host from receiving sunlight. This combined action suffocated the host plant to death. Possible control measure was to utilize the plant. Fiber characteristics were measured to determine its suitability for pulp and paper production. When compared to selected fast growing trees species that are commonly used in pulp and paper production, the vine was very much similar to them. However, fiber morphological indexes e.g., felting power, elasticity coefficient, rigidity coefficient, Runkel’s ratio and Mulsteph’s ratio; revealed that the vine was less suitable for pulp and paper production due to its very thick fiber cellwall. Keywords - Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb, bioinvasive, green weight, Fiber morphological indexes, stem biomass, embolism, Philippines
Alvin D. Palanog, Abie D. Rojo, Thea Mae Coleen B. Lanutan, Zayber B. Araya, Le-Ann G. Dogeno, Abbie Rojo
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1021

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify and characterize rice genotypes possibly possessing glyphosate-resistant genes, promoting the ability to withstand non-selective, systemic herbicides. The field establishment was based on alpha lattice design replicated into two with a plot size of 2 x 10 rows. All crop management practices followed the PalayCheck System®. At 14 DAT, the glyphosate-based herbicide (Round-up) was directly applied in rice plants. Survival and severity percentage were recorded from 4days to 20 days after herbicide application when the rice plants were observed reacting to the application while agronomic parameters were gathered at maturity stage. Out of one hundred rice genotypes, only 12 exhibited moderate to strong resistance to glyphosate-based herbicide while other genotypes stunted and wilted to death. The 12 genotypes are as follows: Kinastila, Binundor, Dinorado, Kalipao, Inanod, Camoros, Minondoc, Innano, Zambales, Maliket (Red), Kilay, and Simmaba. Among these twelve genotypes, Zambales is the most tolerant to glyphosate herbicide with highest survival rate and low severity index followed by Kalipao, Innaano and Kilay which have moderate survival rate and low severity rate. Identified resistant genotypes were agro-morphological characterized. Zambales genotype has the tallest plant height and highest spikelet number while the superior genotypes for the number of productive tillers, panicle length and spikelet fertility were Minondoc, Simmaba and Kinastila, respectively. These results show that the genotypes being tested have a wide variation in agro-morphological traits. Ultimately, 12 genotypes were identified as tolerant to glyphosate-based herbicide. Further evaluation and characterization are still required to verify the resistance of identified genotypes. These germplasms are promising materials for future breeding and research purposes in developing non-transgenic glyphosate-resistant rice varieties. Keywords-Genotypes, glyphosate resistance, morphological diversity, severity index, Philippines
Crestilyn N. Damasco, Merlita A. Dacayanan, Roel D. Supsup
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1022

Abstract:
Seven mulberry genotypes, namely: Alf-004, Alf-018, Alf-025, S61-011, S61-019, S54-019 and the Batac were evaluated in terms of biochemical parameters along with leaf yield. Parameters viz; moisture content (MC), total carbohydrate (TC), crude fat (CF), ash, crude protein (CP), Total N,P and K along with leaf yield were analyzed using the ANOVA in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Further, Evaluation Method Index was used to determine the superior mulberry genotypes. The data revealed that the different genotypes under study vary in their biochemical components where significant variations in all the parameters evaluated except in percent total phosphorus. For the phytochemical analysis, alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proteins were detected. Based on the evaluation index value, the identified and selected superior genotypes having higher leaf biochemical composition were Alf-004, Alf-018 and Alf-025. Keywords - Biochemistry, open-pollinated mulberry varieties, phytochemical, Randomized Complete Block Design, Philippines, Asia
Veneracion G. Cabana, Noel E. Lagunday, Novo M. Sabas
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1014

Abstract:
Methyl mercury, a toxic by-product of the industry including gold processing bioaccumulates in fish and shellfish that when ingested bio-concentrates in the body eventually causing appalling neurologic disorders. This study prompted by the consecutive deaths of two Surigaonon-Manobo siblings from conditions suggestive of neurologic pathology aimed to: (1) document existence of neurologic morbidities indicative of mercury toxicity with assessment of the observable symptoms at selected indigenous communities in Mindanao, Philippines where small-scale gold mining takes place and (2) measure mercury levels in the hair of living subjects and river sediments at the research locale. Following proper entry protocol and securing of informed consent, affected adults, responsible adults in case of children and relatives of those who died from similar conditions were interviewed, government records reviewed. Identified were 31 cases in 22 families, 71% males mostly 0-5 years old. Photo and video images of subjects who displayed the alarming symptoms were taken in situ. Symptoms develop at 6-9 months after birth suggesting mother-offspring transmission through the breast milk. Starting to appear around 1986, majority (54.8%) manifested the symptoms in 2000-2010; 48.4% died in 2005-2015. Sometimes affecting all siblings, in some families no children were left alive. Hair samples from three living subjects and sediments from nearby bodies of water tested positive for mercury. It is concluded that the likely cause of the dreadful morbidities and children’s deaths is mercury toxicity of anthropogenic origin. A more intensive investigation is recommended to identify the cause and bring to an end the children’s deaths and devastating neurologic abnormalities documented herein.Keywords - Environmental Toxicology, mercury toxicity, methyl mercury toxicity, neurologic morbidities, small-scale gold mining, indigenous community, Surigaonon-Manobo, Mindanao, Philippines
, Jr. Inocencio E. Buot, Inocencio E. Buot, Jr.
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1015

Abstract:
Studies regarding pteridophyte distribution on Mt. Makiling is scarce. A continuous documentation regarding this floral group, with emphasis on distribution, will contribute to the current listings and may contribute to the development of a conservation strategy to preserve the fern flora of Mt. Makiling. The plot technique method was employed along the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Makiling resulting to 10 sampling sites. In general, this study aims to determine the species richness of ferns along the altitudinal gradient on the northeastern slope of Mt. Makiling. Furthermore, specific objectives are as follows: a) to identify the different fern species along the altitudinal gradients of Mt. Makiling b) to determine the richness and diversity along the altitudinal gradients of these fern species and c) to determine the zonation pattern of fern vegetation along the altitudinal gradient. The study was conducted during the months of April and June which pertains to the dry season. The diversity and distribution of pteridophytes along the altitudinal gradient of the Northeastern slope of a secondary forest in Mt. Makiling were determined. A total of 27 species belonging to 18 genera and 14 families were identified. There is an increasing trend in diversity along the altitudinal gradient. However at the 550 and 650 m.a.s.l. altitudes, there was a higher diversity in both seasons due to the presence of a running body of water as well as a rocky substrate providing favorable habitat for the ferns. There were three zones identified during the dry season using dendogram by average linkage clustering (i) Zone 1: 150-450masl; (ii) Zone 2: 550-750masl; (iii) Zone 3: 850-1050masl. Keywords - Altitudinal zonation, ferns, pteridophytes, Mt. Makiling, tropical rainforests, Philippines
Mary Gretchen F. Chaves
IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.7718/ijec.v16i1.1024

Abstract:
This study investigates the extent by which Cebu universities and colleges have incorporated the issues of sustainability and environment management in their business and management programs’ curricula. The RA 9512 (2008 Act to Promote Environmental Awareness and Education) mandates the integration of ‘environmental education in its school curricula at all levels . . .’ In the global front, the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Management Education (2008) challenges management educators to ‘develop the capabilities of students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society...’ The curriculum prospectus of 41 undergraduate programs of 8 schools were gathered through the collection of brochures and web-based research. These were analyzed to evaluate whether the curricula have full programs, with sustainability or environment management as the majors, or at least offer subjects on sustainability or its equivalent. The document analyses reveal the nonexistence of sustainability-related programs as well as the absence of stand-alone environment management courses. The study concludes the urgency of underscoring education for sustainability courses in the business curricula. Recommendations include the redesign of the business curricula, integrating sustainability principles and practices. By urging policy makers and school administrators, business and management graduates become better equipped to decide and manage resources, cognizant of the earth’s limited resources. Keywords-Education for sustainable development, environment education, UN PRME, RA 9512, qualitative design, Philippines
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