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Zahra Sadat Shahmoradi, Masoud Tohidfar, , Saeid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Ebrahim Karimi
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1982

Abstract:
In consideration for the increasing widespread use of genetically modified (GM) crops, one of the important issues for assessment is the effect of GM crops on soil microbial communities. In this study, T2 chitinase-transgenic cotton (line #57) and its non-transgenic line were investigated for bacterial and fungal dynamics during its development stages. The assessments were performed by viable plate count and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) assays. Viable plate count analysis showed an increase in community structures and the number of culturable bacteria in rhizosphere of both transgenic and non-transgenic cultivars as compared to bulk soil. PCR-DGGE confirmed results of viable plate count assays of the changes in bacterial and fungal communities for all cotton development stages in rhizosphere and bulk zones. No significant differences in number of functional bacteria were observed between rhizosphere soil of chitinase transgenic and non-chitinase transgenic cotton at one particular stage. The results indicated that T2 chitinase-transgenic cotton (line #57) might have no adverse effects on community structures and total number of culturable bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere.
, , , Taher Nejad Sattari, Juoni Jokela
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1853

Abstract:
Cyanobacteria have a worldwide distribution in the terrestrial habitats, occurring predominantly on the surface of the soils, stones, rocks, and trees, practically in moist, neutral or alkaline aeries. The unique natural and bioactive compounds from cyanobacteria with various biological activities and an extensive range of chemical classes have a significant capability for expansion of the pharmaceuticals and other biomedical purposes. Regardless of the progresses in our knowledge on cyanobacteria, however, cyanobacteria are still viewed as an unexplored source of potential drugs. In this study presence of bioactive compounds among the cyanobacteria culture collection of Iran, where a wide variety of strains can be found, was investigated. We explored one Nostoc strain isolated from rice fields in Golestan province of northern Iran for searching for novel products. The chemical construction of the new bioactive compound was clarified by application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) and Marfey's analysis of the degradation products. We found a novel peptide aldehyde compound from a hydrophilic extract of the Nostoc sp. Bahar_M, which is composed of the three subunits, 2-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butanoic acid (Hhpba), L-Ile, and L-argininal. According to the structural information, we predicted that the novel peptide-aldehyde compound probably to be trypsin inhibitors. Results demonstrated that terrestrial cyanobacteria are a promissing resource of bioactive natural products.
Mina Beigmohamadi, , , Samineh Jafari, Hossein Danafar, Mina Beigmohammadi
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2169

Abstract:
Background: Plumbagin is as an important bioactive secondary metabolite found in the roots of Plumbago spp. The only one species, Plumbago europaea L., grows wild in Iran. The therapeutic use of plumbagin is limited due to its insufficient supply from the natural sources as the plants grow slowly and take several years to produce quality roots. Objectives: To develop an efficient protocol for the establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures of P. europaea and to evaluate production of plumbagin in callus and cell suspension cultures of P. europaea for the first time. Material and Methods: Stems and leaves explants were cultured on agar solidified (7% w/v) MS media, supplemented with different combination of 2, 4-D and Kin or 6-Benzylaminopurin (BA) for callus induction. The rapid growing calli were cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) media in agitated condition for establishing cell suspension cultures of P. europaea. Moreover, the effects of light and dark conditions on the cell growth, cell viability and plumbagin production in cell suspension cultures of P. europaea were assessed. Results: Friable calli were successfully induced using stem segments of P. europaea in semisolid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg.L-1 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg.L-1of kinetin (Kin). Optimal cell growth was obtained when the cells were grown in MS liquid media supplemented with 1 mg.L-1 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg.L-1 kinetin with an initial cell density of ~3×105 cellsper ml incubated in the dark at 25 ± 1 °C. Growth curve revealed that the maximum cell growth rate (14.83×105 cellsper ml) achieved on the day 18 and the highest plumbagin content (0.9 mg.g-1 Dry Cell Weight (DCW)) in the cells was obtained at the late exponential phase under dark condition which determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique. Based on the obtained results, cell viability remained around 82.73% during the 18 days of cell culture in darkness. These suspension cultures showed continuous and stable production of plumbagin. Conclusions: Our study suggests that cell suspension cultures of P. europaea represent an effective system for biosynthesis and production of plumbagin as a valuable bioactive compound.
Mohamad Hassan Fouani, , Javad Mowla
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2125

Abstract:
RADA16I represents one of promising hydrogel forming peptides. Several implementations of RADA16I hydrogels have proven successful in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, RADA16I peptides used in various studies utilize synthetic peptides and so far, only two research articles have been published on RADA16I peptide recombinant production. Moreover, previous studies utilized non- or less routine expression and purification methods to produce RADA16I peptide recombinantly. The main goal was to produce the self-assembling peptide, RADA16I, in Escherichia coli by exploiting routine and widely used vectors and purification methods, in shake flask. RADA16I coding sequence was inserted in pET31b+, and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Purified fusion constructs were purified using Nickel Sepharose. RADA16I unimers were released using CNBr cleavage. CD and FTIR spectroscopy were used to study recombinant RADA16I's confirmation. TEM was used to confirm fibril formation of recombinant RADA16I. Furthermore, MTT assay was implemented to assess cytocompatibility of recombinant RADA16I. The biochemical, biophysical and structural analysis proved the ability of the recombinant RADA16I to form self-assembling peptide nanofibers. Furthermore, the nanofibers exhibited no cytotoxicity and retained their cell adhesive activity. We successfully produced RADA16I in acceptable levels and established a basis for future investigation for the production of RADA16I under fermentation conditions.
Abubakar Muhammad, Syed Ali Imran Bokhari, Jean-Paul Vernoux, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali, Rani Faryal, Nathalie Desmasures, Muhammad Imran, Bokhari Syed Ali Imran, Vernoux Jean-Paul, Ishtiaq Ali Muhammad, et al.
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2042

Abstract:
Alkaline proteases is the important group of enzymes having numerous industrial applications including dairy food formulations. The current study deals with the purification and characterization of an alkaline serine protease produced by Geotrichum candidum QAUGC01, isolated from indigenous fermented milk product, Dahi. In total twelve G. candidum strains were screened for their proteolytic activity by using standard protease assay. The protease production from G. candidum QAUGC01 was optimized by varying physio-chemical conditions. The protease was purified by using two-step method: ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. Protease was further characterized by studying various parameter like temperature, pH, modulators, metal ions and organic solvent. A thermodynamic study was also carried out to explore the half-life of protease. The G. candidum grew profusely at 25 °C and at an initial pH of 4.0 for 72 h of incubation producing 26.21 U/ml maximum extracellular protease. Protease revealed that Vmax and Km was 26.25 U.ml-1.min-1 and 0.05 mg.mL-1, respectively using casein as substrate. The enzyme was stable at a temperature range (25-45 °C) and pH (8-9). Residual enzyme activity was strongly inhibited in the presence of PMSF (7.5%). The protease could hydrolyze proteinaceous substrates, casein (98%) and BSA (95%). The thermodynamic studies explored that the half-life of the enzyme that was 106.62 min, 38.72 min and 15.71 min at 50, 60 and 70 °C, respectively. Purified protease from G. candidum GCQAU01 is an ideal candidate for industrial application.
, Sumera Yasmin, Fouzia Yousaf Hafeez, Fauzia Hafeez
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1974

Abstract:
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress the plant pathogens. Objective: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the antagonistic bacteria indigenous to cotton and sugarcane rhizosphere in Pakistan, and to evaluate their ability to suppress phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. Out of 63 isolates 37 different morphotypes were studied for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium monoliformae, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani. Among these 31 strains showed the percentage suppression ranging from 40 to 66% against Fusarium spp. The antagonistic bacteria having antifungal activity were studied for different morphological and physiological characteristics using Gram staining and light microscopy. Most of them were Gram negative and tentatively identified as Pseudomonas spp. The selected strains were screened in vitro for plant growth regulation and antifungal traits. Our study included 1000 premature CAD patients that classified into two groups with history of MI (n = 461) and without of MI (n = 539). The polymorphism variants in 10% of samples were determined by PCR-RFLP technique and genotyping of the polymorphism in all subjects was conducted by High Resolution Melting method. Given the two conditions of patients residing in Tehran and also faced with their first episode of MI, 640 out of 1000 study samples that had been previously followed-up were assessed in a retrospective cohort phase regarding long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Four bacterial strains were able to produce the chitinase enzyme while four other bacterial strains showed protease production. Ten strains were positive for HCN production. Out of 37, eight strains showed phosphate solubilization ranging from 13 to 24 µg/ml. eighteen strains produced indole acetic acid ranging from 5 to 19 µg/ml. This study identified specific traits in the isolated rhizobacteria which make them good candidates as PGPR and might contribute to enhance growth of crop plants. This information is of general interest and also helpful for devising strategies to manage diseases caused by Fusarium in cotton and sugarcane.
Mehrdad Sheikhvatan, , Mehrdad Behmanesh, Shayan Ziaee, Sara Cheraghee
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 79-88; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1921

Abstract:
Background: Contradictory results have been obtained regarding the role of integrin, beta 3 (ITGB3) gene polymorphisms in occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives: We aimed to assess the association between 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene and increased risk for acute MI in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and Methods: Our study included 1000 premature CAD patients that classified into two groups with history of MI (n = 461) and without of MI (n = 539). The polymorphism variants in 10% of samples were determined by PCR-RFLP technique and genotyping of the polymorphism in all subjects was conducted by High Resolution Melting method. Given the two conditions of patients residing in Tehran and also faced with their first episode of MI, 640 out of 1000 study samples that had been previously followed-up were assessed in a retrospective cohort phase regarding long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results: There was no significant difference in the frequency of 1565C/T polymorphism between the MI and non-MI groups. The frequency of wild genotype was 69.2% and 72.2%, the frequency of homozygous genotype was 21.3% and 18.4%, and the frequency of mutant genotype was 9.5% and 9.5%, respectively (P = 0.505). No significant difference was also found in total-MACE free survival rate between the patients with different genotypes of 1565C/T polymorphism in both MI and non-MI group. Conclusions: The carriage of the 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene seems unlikely to be a significant risk factor for the development of MI in Iranian patients with premature CAD.
, Kun-Qiang Hong, Cui-Ying Zhang, Sheng-Sheng Dong, Xiao Li, Ye-Fu Chen, Dong-Guang Xiao, Dong Shengsheng
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1990

Abstract:
Background: Enhancing the industrial yeast strains ethyl acetate yield through a precise and seamless genetic manipulation strategy without any extraneous DNA sequences is an essential requisite and significant demand. Objectives: For increasing the ethyl acetate yield of industrial brewer’s yeast strain, all the ATF1 alleles were overexpressed through “self-cloning” integration strategy. Material and Methods: Escherichia coli strain DH5α was utilized for plasmid construction. ATF1 alleles were overexpressed through a precise and seamless insertion of the PGK1 promoter in industrial brewer’s yeast strain S6. In addition, growth rates, ATF1 mRNA levels, AATase activity, the fermentation performance of the engineered strains, and gas chromatography (GC) analysis was conducted. Results: The two engineered strains (S6-P-12 and S6-P-30) overexpressed all ATF1 alleles but unaffected normal growth. The ATF1 mRNA levels of the S6-P-12 and S6-P-30 were all 4-fold higher than that of S6. The AATase (Alcohol acetyl transferases, encoded by ATF1 gene) activity of the two engineered strains was all 3-fold higher than that of the parent strain. In the beer fermentation at 10 ℃, the concentrations of ethyl acetate produced by the engineered strains S6-P-12 and S6-P-30 was increased to 23.98 and 24.00 mg L-1, respectively, about 20.44% and 20.54% higher than that of S6. Conclusions: These results verify that the ethyl acetate yield could be enhanced by the overexpressed of ATF1 in the polyploid industrial brewer’s yeast strains via “self-cloning” integration strategy. The present study provides a reference for target gene modification in the diploid or polyploid industrial yeast strains.
Hassan Bardania, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati, Farzad Kobarfard, Dina Morshedi, Farhang Aliakbari, Mohammad Taher Tahoori, Elahe Roshani
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2008

Abstract:
Background: Eptifibatide (Integrilin®) is a hepta-peptide drug which specifically prevents the aggregation of activated platelets. The peptide drugs are encapsulated into nanolipisomes in order to decreasing their side effects and improving their half-life and bioavailability. Objectives: In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of RGD-modified nano-liposomes (RGD-MNL) encapsulated a highly potent antiplatelet drug (eptifibatide) was investigated. Material and Methods: RGD-MNL encapsulated eptifibatide was prepared using lipid film hydration and freeze/thawing method. The morphology and size distribution (about 90 nm) of RGD-MNL were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-vitro cytotoxicity of nano-liposomes was examined using the MTT, LDH release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assays. The effect of RGD-MNL on red blood cells (RBC) was investigated using hemolysis and LDH release assays. Results: The results revealed that RGD-MNL had no significant cytotoxic effect on HeLa and HUVEC cell lines, and also no ROS generation increase in the cells. In addition, the adverse effect of RGD-MNL on LDH release and membrane integrity of RBC was not observed. Conclusions: In conclusion, the recommended RGD-MNL formulations have not any significant cytotoxicity on normal cells or RBC and have potential for protecting and enhancing the activity of antiplatelet drugs.
, Chunpeng Fu, Qunfeng Li
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2183

Abstract:
Genome walking is a DNA-cloning methodology that is used to isolate unknown genomic regions adjacent to known sequences. However, the existing genome-walking methods have their own limitations. Our aim was to provide a simple and efficient genome-walking technology. In this paper, we developed a novel PCR strategy (termed SLRA PCR) that uses a single long primer (SLP), a set of gene specific primers (GSP), and a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primer for genome walking. SLRA PCR consists of two processes: the first amplification using SLP, and three successive rounds of nested PCR amplified by GSP and RAPD primer. The novelty of the approach lies in the use of long primers (SLP and GSP) and same annealing and extension temperature 68℃ in combination. This method offers higher amplification efficiency, superior versatility, and greater simplicity compared with conventional randomly primed PCR methods for genome walking. The promoter regions and the first introns of the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) gene and the hemocyanin gene of Macrobrachium nipponense were cloned using SLRA PCR, respectively. This genome walking strategy can be applied to a wide range of genomes.
Li-Ying Wu, Jun-Jie Xu, Pan Xu, ,
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2189

Abstract:
Enantiopure epoxides are important intermediates in the synthesis of high-value chiral chemicals. Epoxide hydrolases have been exploited in biocatalysis for kinetic resolution of racemic epoxides to produce enantiopure epoxides and vicinal diols. It is necessary to obtain sufficient stable epoxide hydrolases with high enantioselectivity to meet the requirements of industry. Enhancement of soluble expression and biochemical characterization of epoxide hydrolases from Bacillus pumilus and B. subtilis. Homologous genes encoding epoxide hydrolases from B. pumilus and B. subtilis were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant epoxide hydrolases were characterized biochemically. Low temperature induction of expression and a C-terminal-fused His-tag enhanced soluble expression of the epoxide hydrolases from the two Bacillus species in E. coli. These epoxide hydrolases could hydrolyze various epoxide substrates, with stereoselectivity toward some epoxides such as styrene oxide and glycidyl tosylate. The position of the His-tag and the induction temperature were found to play a vital role in soluble expression of these two epoxide hydrolases in E. coli. In view of their catalytic properties, the epoxide hydrolases from Bacillus have potential for application in kinetic resolution of some epoxides to prepare enantiopure epoxides and vicinal diols.
Hassan Bardania, Jamshid Raheb, Ayyoob Arpanaei
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2108

Abstract:
Magnetic separation using magnetic nanoparticles can be used as a simple method to isolate desulfurizing bacteria from a biphasic oil/water system. Magnetite nanoparticles were applied to coat the surface of Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 and Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF desulfurizing bacterial cells, and the viability and reusability of magnetite-coated bacteria evaluated by using various methods. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized through a reverse co-precipitation method. Glycine was added during and after the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles to modify their surface and to stabilize the dispersion of the nanoparticles. The glycine-modified magnetite nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of both oil-desulfurizing bacterial strains. Reusability of magnetite-coated bacterial cells was evaluated via assessing the desulfurization activity of bacteria via spectrophotometry using Gibb's assay, after the separation of bacterial cells from 96h-cultures with the application of external magnetic field. In addition, CFU and fluorescence imaging were used to investigate the viability of magnetite-coated and free bacterial cells. TEM micrographs showed that magnetite nanoparticles have the size approximately 5.35±1.13 nm. Reusability results showed that both magnetite-coated bacterial strains maintain their activity even after 5 × 96h-cycles. The viability results revealed glycine-modified magnetite nanoparticles did not negatively affect the viability of two bacterial strains R. erythropolis IGTS8 and R. erythropolis FMF. In conclusion, the glycine-modified magnetite nanoparticles have great capacity for immobilization and separation of desulfurizing bacteria from suspension.
Farzad Emami, گروه قلب و عروق، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان, , Jalal Poorolajal, Behshad Naghshtabrizi, Hamid Reza Gholalikhani, Azam Alizamir
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 185-192; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.185

Pedram Alirezaei, Mohammad Reza Sobhan, , مرکز تحقیقات پسوریازیس، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان، همدان
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 193-199; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.193

Rana Sorkhabi, , دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، تبریز
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 200-206; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.200

Aida Mirza Aghasi, , گروه ژنتیک مولکولی، واحد اهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهر
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 207-214; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.207

Fatemeh Eslami, Mehdi Alizadeh, Mohammad Ali Seifrabiei, Nasrin Mohebi Emam, گروه چشم‌پزشکی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان، همدان
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 215-221; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.215

Zahra Bahiraei, Zahra Sanaei, Pedram Alirezaei, دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان، همدان
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 230-235; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.230

Fatemeh Salemi, , Hamed Karkeabadi, Leili Tapak, Mona Bashari, ، گروه رادیولوژی دهان، فک و صورت، دانشکده دندان‌پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 222-229; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.222

Mohammad Abbasi, Fahimeh Moradi, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari, Mohammad Ali Seifrabiei, گروه بیماری‌های داخلی (هماتولوژی و انکولوژی)، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی همدان
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 25, pp 236-243; https://doi.org/10.21859/ajcm.25.4.236

Habibollah Saadat, , Maryam Jannatipour, Alireza Abadi, Zahra Saadat, Saeed Alipour Parsa
International Journal of Cardiovascular Practice, Volume 4, pp 7-9; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijcp-401

Abstract:
72 Introduction: Determining the rate and regularity of peripheral arterial pulses has a major role in assessing the clinical status of patients with cardiovascular disorders. We compared two training methods on the ability of patients to take their radial pulse rate accurately.Methods: Three-hundred patients were randomly divided into two arms. One arm received individual face-to-face training and the other arm received group training via displaying an animation movie. Immediately after the training and then after 48 hours, the patients were tested by a nurse to find out whether they have learned the correct technique of taking radial pulse rate or not.Results: Immediately after the intervention, 84.9% in face-to-face arm and 81.8% in group training arm were able to correctly count their radial pulse rate (P = 0.536). After 48 hours, 71.7% in face-to-face and 60.8% in group training arm were able to correctly count their radial pulse rate (P = 0.051).Conclusions: Both methods were effective to improve the ability of the patients to count their radial pulse rate correctly though face-to-face method was marginally superior to group training.
International Journal of Cardiovascular Practice, Volume 4, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijcp-404

Abstract:
85 Pregnancy represents a physiologic hypercoagulable state. The presence of inherited thrombophilias (factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, deficiencies of protein C, protein S and antithrombin) or acquired thrombophilias (antiphospholipid syndrome) increases the risk for venous thromboembolism, which represents one of the most common causes of direct maternal death. The clinical diagnosis of thrombosis can be difficult because of the overlap of symptoms with pregnancy-related manifestations. Antiphospholipid syndrome is correlated with early and late pregnancy complications whereas the association between the inherited thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcomes is still controversial. The psychological impact of thrombophilia in pregnancy should be also taken into consideration to prevent the negative effects of anxiety and stress on mother’s health and on birth outcomes. Thrombophilia testing in pregnancy is recommended only in cases in which the result is likely to influence the therapeutic decision. Low-molecular-weight heparins are the preferred anticoagulant for prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic events in pregnancy, presenting a low incidence of side effects. Future research is required to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy in pregnant women with thrombophilia, based upon a better stratification, in order to prevent thromboembolism and to improve pregnancy outcomes.
Neda Toofaninejad
International Journal of Cardiovascular Practice, Volume 4, pp 16-18; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijcp-405

Abstract:
64 The current study described the electrocardiography case of a 22-year-old male, a few months after heart transplantation that demonstrated two sets of QRS leading to understand the technique of the transplantation.
Mohammad Kazem Kazemi, , Ali Maher
International Journal of Cardiovascular Practice, Volume 4, pp 10-15; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijcp-403

Abstract:
78 Introduction: The ischemic time serves as the most important parameter for treatment choice in patients with ST–elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The current study aimed at comparing the short– and long–term follow–up of elderly patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty (PCI) or thrombolytic therapy.Methods: The current cross sectional study was conducted on all patients aged >65 years, admitted to the emergency department of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran from January 2014 to July 2016, diagnosed with STEMI . The demographics, medical history, family history, and mediation history were recorded for all patients. Patients received PCI or thrombolytic therapy based on the ischemic time and the treatment outcome and the following events were recorded. Patients were contacted after six months and data of their death or used treatments were recorded. All data were compared between the groups.Results: Of all patients, 38 subjects received thrombolytic therapy and 62 PCI. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age and gender (P=0.5 and 0.1, respectively). The frequency of positive medical history and smoking did not differ between the groups. There was no difference in the mean values of vital signs or serum parameters, mean ischemic time, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), frequency of pulmonary emboli, cardiogenic shock, the involved vessel, and post-treatment complications between the groups (P>0.05). Of the 14 cases that died after six months, five were in the thrombolytic therapy group and nine in the PCI group (P=0.8). Mean hospital stay was not different between the groups (P=0.5).Conclusions: The results of the present study on two groups with similar demographics showed no significant difference between the groups in terms of the short– and long–term follow–up of PCI and thrombolytic therapy. The results indicated the appropriateness of treatment choice based on ischemic time and the available methods.
Mohammad Sadegh Keshmiri, Babak Sharifkashani, Alireza Serati, Seyed Reza Seyedi, Farah Naghashzadeh, Siroos Salehi, Omid Dehghan
International Journal of Cardiovascular Practice, Volume 4, pp 19-21; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijcp-402

Abstract:
67 Superselective bronchial embolization is recently performed with a high success rate. The current study aimed at discussing the procedure and reporting two cases underwent embolization in the Masih-Daneshvari Hospital, a large center for this procedure, in Iran.
Tingting Zhang, Jiti Zhou, , Yu Zhang
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1866

Abstract:
Background: The utilization of methane for production of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) not only cuts the emissions of greenhouse gases but also greatly reduces PHB production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gas-phase conditions on PHB production by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Materials and Methods: Bacterial cultivation and PHB production were conducted in a series of sealed serum bottles. Nitrogen-free mineral salts medium was used to induce PHB production in the presence or absence of N2 in the headspace. Results: In the absence of N2, the highest PHB content (i.e., 52.9% of the dry cell weight with a PHB concentration of 814.3 mg.L-1) was obtained at a ratio of CH4:O2=2:1. Further study at different O2 concentrations with a fixed CH4 partial pressure in absence of N2 showed that PHB accumulation by methanotroph could be tolerated high oxygen partial pressure and its respond to the variation of the oxygen concentration depends on the methane partial pressure. In presence of N2, with headspace gas replenished only when oxygen was almost depleted, the degradation of intracellular PHB has appeared. In the regimen of updating headspace gas at the point when the PHB content began to decrease, the highest PHB content (i.e., 55.5% of the dry cell weight with 901.8 mg.L-1 PHB concentration and 12.5 mg.L-1.h-1PHB productivity) was obtained at 0.2 atm O2 and PHB accumulation was depressed with an oxygen concentration greater than 0.3 atm. Conclusions: The methanotroph responses differentially to the increase in the oxygen partial pressure with regard to PHB accumulation either in the presence or in the absence of N2.
Shahla Korani, Bahram Kazemi, Adel Haghighi, Amin Reza Nikpoor,
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 30-36; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2153

Abstract:
Background: The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine that produced principally by monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. TNFα is recognized as the primary mediator of immunity in inflammation reaction. One important application of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 (TNFR2) is for the treatment of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic trace of the recombinant humanTNFR2 on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Materials and Methods: CIA was created in 20 mice by immunization with bovine type II collagen (CII). After the mice were boosted on day 21, they were injected with the recombinant protein in test group (1 mg.kg-1) and assessed edema in paws and knee joints after two weeks. The quantities of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10(IL-10) in serum were evaluated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. In addition, the histopathology of joints sections was analyzed. Results: The cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 values in serum markedly decreased in groups treated with TNFR2 (P < 0.01-0.001). The results showed that treatment with TNFR2 significantly reduced edema in paws and joints (P < 0.01-0.001). Conclusions: Pathological investigations proved that administration of recombinant TNF receptor has blocked or protected joints from progressive damage. This study suggests that the anti-arthritic effectiveness of TNFR2 will repress the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, it seems that TNFR2 is a strong candidate for the treatment of the RA disease.
Mehri Rostaminedjad, Hossein Askari, Maryam Zakavi, Masood Soltani Nadjafabadi, Naser Farrokhi
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 98-102; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1734

Abstract:
Background: Root to shoot connection and transfer of information seems to be taken place mostly via the transmissions of signal molecules, secondary metabolites, amino acids, hormones and proteins, through xylem sap. Examination of earlier reports is indicative of relatively high levels of conservation in xylem sap protein compositions. Apparently these protein molecules are being synthesized in roots in response to environmental changes and get transported to aerial plant parts after secretion into xylem sap. Objectives: In order to comprehend this so-called passive signaling, some questions need to be answered: 1) Do these proteins have the capability to act as signals? 2) How much energy does root spend for the biosynthesis of the secreted proteins? How similar is the amount of energy that root cells spent for the biosynthesis of intra- and extra-cellular proteins? Materials and Methods: Reported xylem sap proteins curated from Arabidopsis, maize and soybean. Their sequences were put under scrutiny in terms of considering their mobility, and physical and chemical properties. Metabolic energy required for their biosynthesis along with the energy hidden in their peptide bonds were calculated and compared with random non-xylem sap proteins as control. Results: Xylem sap proteins were significantly smaller than the root proteins, while they were bigger in size when compared to the leaf group. Xylem protein pIs were significantly higher than the control proteins in different plants. Similarly, the protein stability was higher for xylem sap proteins in comparison with roots and leaves in all analyzed plants, except for soybean that the stability was indifferent between xylem and root. The data were suggestive a significantly lower energy consumption for the synthesis of xylem sap proteins. Conclusions: Lower energy consumption may suggest an economical route of communication between roots and shoots in plants that mainly rely on symplastic signaling.
Alireza Amiri-Nowdijeh, , Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Farzaneh Sabouni, , Farzaneh Sabooni
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1967

Abstract:
Background: According to the epidemiological studies, consuming olive products can decrease the incidence of the different types of cancers mostly due to the high anti-oxidant properties of their polyphenolic compounds. Objectives: To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative potentials of the olive fruits total polyphenols on the gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells in comparison to the normal Hu02 cells. Materials and Methods: The total phenolic content of the olive fruits and radical scavenging activity were determined by Folin and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) tests respectively. MTT assay was performed for the evaluation of the cell viability. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using DCFH-DA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16 statistical software. Results: Treatment of the MKN45 cells with the phenolic compounds extracted from olive fruits decreased growth and viability of the cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of the MKN45 cells with a combination of the phenolic compounds extracts and cytarabine further decreased cell compared to monotherapy of the cells with each compound alone. Mechanistically, we showed that the anti-cancer effects of the olive polyphenols in the MKN45 cells are mediated through depletion of ROS. Similarly, polyphenolic extracts were found to decrease ROS level in the normal cells at the concentrations of 500 and 1000 μg.mL-1 and short treatment times (6 h), but the viability of these cells did not significantly change. At high concentrations (2000 μg.mL-1) of the phenolic extracts or at longer times of incubation (12 h), however, both ROS levels and the viability of the cells were significantly decreased in the normal cells. Conclusions: The olive fruits polyphenolic extract modulates ROS levels and selectively targets cancerous cells at low concentrations. Also, the effects of cytarabine could be potentiated by the olive fruits polyphenols. Thus, for a combined protocol of cancer cell therapy, olive fruit polyphenolic compound could be proposed as a proper candidate.
Bo Chen, Ying Jia, Jiangyan Xiong, Lei Chen, Minghong Luo, Weiyin Cheng, Yalin Wang, Feng Liu, Sibu Ma
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1863

Abstract:
Many physical and mechanical phenomena occur during the acupuncture and tuina regime, and pressure is one of the most basic mechanical phenomena. To understand the cellular bio-physical mechanism of basic mechanical stimulation via acupuncture and tuina by investigating the effect of different in vitro pressures on the cell viability and protein expression differences that originate from the facial fibroblasts around the meridians. In vitro culture of the facial fibroblasts around the meridians was conducted using different pressures to perform single and multiple stimulation(s) on the cells. Thus, the changes in the fibroblast cell viability (cell viability rate and diameter) were tested, and changes in the fibroblast protein expression were observed. We found that the pressure stimulation may excite the fascial fibroblast viability at the acupoint and increase cell viability. Two interactive factors are involved: the pressure intensity and the number of pressure stimulations. In addition, we found that all three pressures lead to significant regulation effects on the protein expression of the meridian-related fascial tissue fibroblasts, and clustering analysis revealed that 100 kPa pressure stimulation exhibits the most evident effect on the protein expression which is the pressure inducing the most differentiated protein expression. During the in vitro pressure process, the difference in the cell viability rate and protein expression of the facial fibroblasts around the meridians may (from a cell mechanics' point-of-view) reveal the cytobiological and therapeutic mechanism of the basic mechanical stimulation via acupuncture and tuina on the facial fibroblasts around the meridians.
, , Akbar Karimi, Hossein Salavati
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1543

Abstract:
Background: Magnesium oxide nanoparticles are characterized with a wide variety of applications and are mass-produced throughout the world. However, questions remain regarding their safety. There has been paucity of toxicology research on their side effects, especially under in vivo conditions. Objectives: The present paper aims at evaluating the toxicity of administering 10-15 nm magnesium oxide nanoparticles to Wistar rat under in vivo conditions. In addition, hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology of the rats are examined at various concentrations (62.5-125-250-500 µg.mL-1) over 28-days period. Materials and Methods: In this study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, comprising one control group and four experimental groups, assigned to various doses of MgO nanoparticles by intraperitoneal injection. Eventually, blood samples were collected, and all animals were sacrificed for liver and kidney tissue investigation. Results: The findings showed that high concentrations of Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (250 and 500 µg.mL-1) significantly increased white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the nanoparticles elevated the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, whereas no significant difference in levels of alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, urea, and creatinine were recorded in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Histopathological examinations in the rat's liver showed proliferation of bile ductules, congestion in some regions of the liver sinusoids, and apoptotic cells (probably) in high-dose groups, but no histological changes were found in the kidney functions. Conclusions: The results from the present study showed that the magnesium oxide nanoparticles in concentrations lower than 250 µg.mL-1 are safe for desired applications.
Maryam Mehravar, , Mohammad Mehdi Mehrazar, Mahboobeh Nazari, Mehdi Banan, Maryam Salimi
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2205

Abstract:
Background: Recombination Activating Genes (RAG) mutated embryonic stem cells are (ES) cells which are unable to perform V (D) J recombination. These cells can be used for generation of immunodeficient mouse. Creating biallelic mutations by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has emerged as a powerful technique to generate site-specific mutations in different sequences. Objectives: The main purposes of this study were to achieve complete knock-out of RAG1 gene by investigating the nature of mutations in mutant mESC and to generate RAG1 knock-out mESCs containing homozygous indels with the aim of creating desired and specific RAG-1 -/- mutant mouse in a shorter period of time. Materials and Methods: Here, we first utilized CRISPR/Cas9 system to target RAG1/RAG2 genes in NIH3T3 cells to test the activity and efficiency of our CRISPR system. Then we used the system for targeting RAG1 gene in mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) to generate knock-out embryonic stem cells. This method combined with highly active single guide RNA (sgRNA) is an efficient way to produce new RAG1-knockout mESCs in the selected regions of early coding DNA sequence, approximately between nucleotide c. 512-c. 513 and nucleotide c. 725-c. 726 of RAG1 coding sequence that had not been targeted previously. Results: CRISPR gene editing resulted in a multitude of engineered homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations, including both in-frame and out-of-frame indels in 92% of mES cell clones. Most of the mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system were out-of-frame, resulting in a complete gene knockout. In addition, 59% of the mutant ES cell clones carried out-of-frame homozygous indel mutations. The RAG1-knockout mESC clones retained normal morphology and pluripotent gene expression. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently create biallelic indels containing both homozygous and compound heterozygous RAG1 mutations in about 92% of the mutant mESC clones. The 59% of mutant ES cell clones carried out-of-frame homozygous indel mutations.
Lia Farahi, Fatemeh Ghaemimanesh, Saeideh Milani, Seyed Mohsen Razavi, Ali Ahmad Bayat,
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2277

Abstract:
Background: The unique expression of fibromodulin (FMOD) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been previously reported. Detecting FMOD in CLL patients using specific anti-FMOD mAbs might provide a promising method in detection, monitoring, and prognosis of CLL. Objectives: In this study, we aimed for producing specific antibodies against FMOD to facilitate further cohort study of CLL, thus addressing FMOD as a potential target of detection. Materials and Methods: Human FMOD gene (1087 bp) was extracted from genome of the CLL patients, and was cloned into the expression vector of pET-22b (+). The recombinant FMOD protein (rFMOD) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified rFMOD protein was used as an immunogen in rabbit and mice. Hybridoma technology was used to develop the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Polyclonal antibody (pAb) was purified from the rabbit sera using affinity column. The reactivity of anti-FMOD antibodies was assessed in ELISA, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Western blot. Results: ICC results showed that the anti-FMOD antibodies specifically detected FMOD in CLL PBMCs and cell lines. The developed anti-FMOD pAb detected FMOD in CLL lysates, compared to healthy PBMCs, in Western blot and ELISA. Conclusions: The developed anti-FMOD mAbs, and pAb specifically detect FMOD in CLL samples and might be used as research tools for further investigations in CLL.
Nagesh Dattgonde, , Swapnil Sapre, Iti Gontia-Mishra
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 68-73; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1563

Abstract:
Background: Oat (Avena sativa) with high nutritive value and fiber content is used as the main food grain in many countries for human diet as well as animal feed. Recently, it became difficult to transfer new genes through the conventional breeding due to the lack of desirable traits. Objectives: The current study aimed at achieving a standardized protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in oat. Materials and Methods: For oat transformation, mature seeds were sterilized, germinated, and used for explants generation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 with the binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.1, which carries gus as reporter gene, was utilized in the transformation. The co-cultivation treatment assisted with sonication, and vacuum infiltration, and their combination was employed for transformation with different incubation periods of 48, 72, and 96 hours under the dark conditions. Results: Among the different transformation treatments, the vacuum treatment with 72 hours dark incubation had the best results. Vacuum infiltration of the cultures from leaf base produced a maximum of 25% hygromycin-resistant explants. These explants upon GUS assay and PCR analysis revealed 21.85% and 19.04% transformation efficiency, respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that vacuum infiltration assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most efficient method to conduct the genetic improvement of the oat using transformation protocol.
Forough Mahdavinezhad, Parinaz Kazemi, Parisa Fathalizadeh, Fatemeh Sarmadi, Ehsan Hashemi, Hadi Hajarian,
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 90-97; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2157

Abstract:
Background: While mammalian embryos can adapt to their environments, their sensitivity overshadows their adaptability in suboptimal in vitro conditions. Therefore, the environment in which the gametes are fertilized or to which the embryo is exposed can greatly affect the quality of the embryo and consequently its implantation potential. Objectives: Since providing an optimal culture condition needs a deep understanding of the environmental effects, and regarding the fact that normal morphology fails to be a reliable indicator of natural embryo development, the current study aimed at comparing in vivo- and in vitro-derived blastocysts at the molecular level. Materials and Methods: In vivo and in vitro mouse blastocysts were obtained by flushing the uterine horns and in vitro fertilization/culture, respectively. Normal blastocysts of both groups were evaluated in terms of hatching rate and expression of three lineage-differentiation-, apoptosis-, and implantation-related genes. Results: The hatching rate was lower in In vitro fertilization (IVF)-produced blastocysts in comparison with that of the in vivo counterparts. More importantly, the study results indicated significant changes in the expression levels of eight out of ten selected genes, especially Mmp-9 (about -10.7-fold). The expression of Mmp-9 in trophoblast cells is required for successful implantation and trophoblast invasion. Conclusions: The current study, in addition to confirming that the altered gene expression pattern of in vitro-produced embryos resulted in normal morphology, provided a possible reason for lower implantation rate of in vitro-produced blastocysts regarding the Mmp-9 expression.
Xingmei Zou, Zuo Xu, Yuanfang Wang, Xiaowen Ou, Yiwen Li, Delong Liu, Weidong Gan, Manjiao Lu, Qiusan Chen, Hao Peng, et al.
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 74-79; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.1609

Abstract:
Background: The UL31 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) plays an important role in the HSV-1 replication, however, its pinpoint functions in the life cycle of the virus have yet to be adequately elucidated. Objectives: An antiserum specific for detecting HSV-1 UL31 was prepared as the foundation for future research on the role of UL31 in the course of HSV-1 infection. Materials and Methods: Recombinant protein of UL31 was expressed in Escherichia coli, which was then purified and employed to raise the level of antiserum in mice. Subsequently, western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) were utilized to detect the specific antiserum. Results: The recombinant UL31 protein consisting of N-terminal 27 aa of UL31 was fused to EYFP and His-tag. It was expressed, purified, and applied to the preparation of the antiserum. Western blot analysis and IFA demonstrated that this antiserum could detect both the recombinant UL31 and the native UL31. Conclusions: Our results manifest that this antiserum could be conducive to further investigations concerning the roles of UL31 in the HSV-1 infection.
, C. N. Lakshminarayana Reddy, K. S. Shankarappa, M. Krishna Reddy
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2134

Abstract:
Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. Willd) is one of the important cucurbitaceous crops grown across the world for vegetable and medicinal purposes. Diseases caused by the DNA viruses are becoming the limiting factors for the production of spine gourd reducing its potential yield. For the commercial cultivation of the spine gourd, propagation material used by most of the growers is tuberous roots and stem cuttings, which in turn results in an increased occurrence of the mosaic disease. There is a need for understanding the causal agent; through characterization of which will lead to the designing management strategies for the spine gourd mosaic disease control. Characterization of a begomovirus and its satellites associated with mosaic disease on spine gourd. Total DNA was extracted from spine gourd samples exhibiting symptoms typical to the begomoviruses infection (mosaic mottling, leaf curl) and was tested by PCR using begomovirus specific primers. Furthermore, the complete genome of begomo viruses (DNA A, DNA B, alpha satellite, and beta satellite) was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) method. The full-length sequences of DNA A, DNA B, alpha satellite, and beta satellite isolated from symptomatic spine gourd were determined. The full length genomes (DNA A and DNA B) of the Tomato leaf curl New Delhi Virus (ToLCNDV) infecting spine gourd were compared with the other begomovirus genomes available in the data base. The sequence analysis has revealed that DNA A and DNA B components of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd share 95.4-96.2 and 86.7-91.2% identical sequence (i.e., nucleotide (nt) identity) with that of ToLCNDV infecting potato and cucurbits in the Indian subcontinent isolates reported earlier (available in GenBank), respectively. Further, alpha satellite and beta satellite were also detected in the begomovirus infected spine gourd samples. The recombination analysis of the DNA A, DNA B, beta satellite, and alpha satellite of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd showed the associated begomovirus and satellite DNAs were driven from the different begomoviruses, leading to emergence as a new variant of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd. The commercial cultivation of the spine gourd by most growers depends on the tuberous roots and stem cutting. The occurrence of begomovirus in spine gourd gives an alarming signal against utilization of such infected plant materials in the crop breeding and improvement programs. Using the clean virus-free vegetative propagation material is considered as one of the most important methods for controlling viral diseases. The study is highly useful for detection of the begomovirus infecting spine gourd in the detection of the virus infection in the clonally propagated planting material.
, Abdolreza Bagheri, Ali Reza Afsharifar, Maziar Habibi-Pirkoohi
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 54-59; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijb.2215

Abstract:
Background: Newcastle disease is a major avian disease that causes enormous economic loss in poultry industry. There have been a number of reports on the suitability of plant-based recombinant vaccine against this disease. Fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) epitopes of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) represent the major immunogenic sites for development of recombinant anti-ND vaccines in plant hosts. Objectives: The main objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of a recombinant anti-ND vaccine in induction of immune responses in animal model. Materials and Methods: In this study, immunogenicity of recombinant fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) epitopes of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is investigated in an animal model. The corresponding genes encoding amino acids 65-81 of the F protein and 346-353 amino acids of HN were expressed in tobacco seedling using agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression of the foreign gene in the tobacco seedlings was investigated by a number of molecular assays including Real-Time PCR and ELISA. Transgenic plant extract was used to induce immunogenic response in animal model. Results: Integration of the foreign gene in plant host genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of the foreign recombinant protein was confirmed by Real-Time PCR and ELISA assays. Immunogenicity of the recombinant protein was investigated in rabbit by subcutaneous injection. Results indicated that the transgenic plant extract can induce immune responses in the host as confirmed by presence of specific antibodies in the sera in ELISA assay. Western blot assays showed that the foreign gene was actually expressed in transgenic seedlings. Conclusions: The results obtained in this research provide further evidence on applicability of plant-based recombinant vaccines for protection of poultry against Newcastle disease.
Hasan Sadeghi, Masoumeh Najafi, Tahereh Sarboozi Hosseinabadi
Iranina Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, Volume 6, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijpn-06068

Abstract:
Introduction: The purpose of present study was the study of relationship between personality traits and its dimensions with emotion expression (impulse intensity, expressiveness) of emergency nurses in Tehran hospitals. Methods: This research is descriptive and correlational. The statistical population of the study consisted of all nurses of the emergency nurses ...
Azita Amirfakhraei, Sana Rezaei,
Iranina Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, Volume 6, pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijpn-06062

Abstract:
Introduction: In recent years, the eating disorder as a psychosocial disorder has increased dramatically and this disorder has an important role in reduction of physical and mental health. This research aimed to predicting of nursing students’ eating disorder based on alexithymia, coping styles and cognitive emotion regulation. Methods: This study was ...
, Farah Naderi
Iranina Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, Volume 6, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijpn-06063

Abstract:
Introduction: Mindfulness is a skill that allows people to take incidents at a disadvantage in the present. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mind-fullness based cognitive therapy on emotional cognitive regulation, resiliency and competitive anxiety in female athletes. Methods: This experimental study was a pre-test and post-test type ...
Efat Sadeghian, Mina Nezafat Dost, Lily Tapak,
Iranina Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, Volume 6, pp 48-56; https://doi.org/10.21859/ijpn-06066

Abstract:
Introduction: One of the main goals of treatment in patients with mental disorders is compliance with drug therapy because non-compliance of the drug causes relapse of the disease and disrupts the treatment process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pharmacotherapy training on drug availability in ...
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