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K. Kannathasan, P. Kokila
Published: 22 September 2021
Current Botany pp 188-191; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7277

Abstract:
The colour is one of the most important features in textile industry and customers requirements. Synthetic colours are available at affordable prices due to their bulk production. On the other hand, they pose undesirable taste (in case of foods) and harmful effects to ecosystem. The natural colours when used in textiles do not threat the environments and do not cause any skin allergy, toxicity and other hazards to living things as compared to the synthetic counterparts. In the present study, dyeing experiments were conducted with the aqueous extract of bark chips of Caesalpinia sappan at 60, 80 and100° C and using different mordant treatments. The fastness to washing for most of cotton fabrics showed fair grey scale rating. Among the mordants Alum, CuSo4 and Myrobalan used, the natural mordant myrobalan showed poor fastness properties compared to other two mordants. The staining tests showed that most of fabrics exhibited only slight/completely no pilling in majority of the treatments.
Madhuri Suryawanshi, Vilas Patil, Varsha Jadhav (Rathod)
Published: 21 September 2021
Current Botany pp 180-187; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6852

Abstract:
Buchanania lanzan Spreng belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. The primary focus of this study was to examine phytochemical, proximate, antioxidant property and GCMS evaluation of unripe and ripen fruit of B. lanzan Spreng. The phytochemical studies showed that alkaloids, phenols, flavones, saponins, coumarins, glycosides and tannins are present in both ripen and unripe fruits. The proximate evaluation confirmed that crude fat (14.5%) and protein (6.37±0.69 g/100g) is high in ripen fruit. In unripe fruit (11.3%) crude fat and protein (4.11%) is less percent. The carotenoid (5.58 ± 0.5 mg/100g) and catalase (0.226±0.074 mg/100g) activity is higher in unripe fruit. The total polyphenol (6.4±0.8 mg/100g) and peroxidase (0.362±0.017 mg/100g) content show greater activity in ripen fruit. In DPPH and FRAP highest activity showed in methanol extract of ripen and unripe fruit than the other solvent. GC-MS evaluation showed many bioactive compounds present in unripe and ripen fruit. It is concluded that nutritional and bioactive ability is high in ripen and unripe fruits of B. lanzan. The fruits of B.lanzan are a good source of nutrition and medicinally important.
R. Vasundhara, N. B. Prakash, K. S. Anil Kumar, Rajendra Hegde, S. Dharumarajan
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 83-93; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7254

Abstract:
The present study was undertaken to assess the soil fertility status of major coconut and arecanut growing soils in different agro-climatic conditions of Karnataka. Based on the agro-climate variability, thirty typical soil pedons representing five different agro-climatic zones (ACZs) of Karnataka, namely, eastern dry zone (EDZ), southern dry zone (SDZ), southern transitional zone (STZ), hilly zone (HZ), and coastal zone (CZ) were studied for their physicochemical properties. The study revealed that soils of semi-arid (EDZ and SDZ) and sub-humid (STZ) zones have near neutral to moderately alkaline reaction and humid region soils (coastal and hilly zones) have high acidity. The soils are non-saline with low cation exchange capacity. Greater soil organic carbon was recorded in arecanut soils than coconut under all ACZs except coastal zone. The major nutrients status of the soil samples indicated that the available nitrogen is low in all the pedons; the pooled data of available nitrogen content was higher in arecanut (166.3 kg ha-1) than coconut (152.6 kg ha-1), and hilly zone soils recorded higher available nitrogen. A wide range of available P2O5 was noticed in coconut and arecanut soils, ranging from 1.0 to 64.2 kg ha-1. The coconut soils (11.5 kg ha-1) recorded higher available P2O5 than arecanut soils (9.62 kg ha-1) when data were pooled. The soils were low to medium in available potassium, and a higher available K2O content was recorded in arecanut soils (151.7 kg ha-1) compared to coconut (110.1 kg ha-1). The available K2O ranged from 66.8 to 511.7 kg ha-1 in the surface and 37.6 to 461.2 kg ha-1 in sub-surface soils.
R. Srinivasan, K. S. Anil Kumar, M. Chandrakala, K. V. Niranjana, N. Maddileti, Rajendra Hegde
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7255

Abstract:
Six soil series representing major coconut growing soils of the Eastern Ghats in Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu State, India, were evolved from granite gneiss and alluvium parent materials. Characterization of different soil properties was done using a detailed soil survey at 1:10000 scale. The soils were neutral to moderately alkaline in reaction (7.31 to 9.19), non-saline, poor to moderately well-drained and moderately shallow (150 cm) in depth. The soils were sandy to clay in texture, sub-angular blocky to crumb in structure, dark reddish-brown to brown, very low to high in OC content (0.06 to 2.70%), low to medium in AWC (3.44 to 22.39%), low to high in CEC (4.70 to 54.0 cmol (p+) kg-1) and having high base saturation (77 to 100%). The soils also had sizable amounts of exchangeable sodium (4.29 to 33.46%), which was maximum in P5, P6 and P1, and high clay content in P5 and P2. The distribution of CaCO3 in different depths was found to be maximum in P4 and P1. The soil orders identified in the coconut area were Inceptisols, Entisols, Alfisols and Vertisols. Assessment of soil resources and identification of yield-limiting soils factors on coconut could be by way of better management and improved productivity.
P. P. Shameena Beegum, Monika Sharma, M. R. Manikantan, R. Pandiselvam, R. K. Gupta
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 128-135; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7259

Abstract:
A study was conducted to explore the potentiality of coconut milk residue (CMR) for cold extrusion (pasta preparation). Proximate analysis revealed that coconut milk residue is a rich source of crude fibre (24.03%) in addition to crude fat (41.55%), crude protein (5%), total carbohydrates (26.24%) and ash content (0.97%) at 2.23 per cent moisture. The effect of coconut milk residue upon replacing durum wheat semolina on cooking qualities, colour parameters, textural property and overall sensory acceptability of pasta samples were evaluated. Incorporation of coconut milk residue significantly influenced the observed parameters (P<0.01). Cooking time was unaffected by incorporating milk residue up to 10 per cent (P<0.05). Though the addition of residue increased the gruel loss (0.84 to 1.34%), the per cent loss was below the technologically acceptable limit (0.05). Thus, the study recommends incorporating 10 per cent coconut milk residue in durum wheat semolina for pasta preparation. Moreover, the entrepreneurs engaged in the coconut milk/milk powder and virgin coconut oil industry would be benefitted by adopting this venture, wherein they would be able to fetch huge additional income by placing their residue product on an upgraded fast-moving consumer good (FMCG) value chain.
K. B. Hebbar, Sugatha Padmanabhan, S. V. Ramesh, S. Keshav Bhat, P. P. Shameena Beegum, R. Pandiselvam, M. R. Manikantan, A. C. Mathew
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 136-141; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7260

P. Anisha Babu, N. K. Leela, J. Venkatesh, D. Prasath
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 111-120; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7257

Abstract:
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the important and widely used spices throughout the world in fresh and dried forms. The study on quality characterization and essential oil profiling of 13 ginger genotypes was conducted at ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Kozhikode, Kerala, during 2019-2020. The genotypes included eight promising exotic accessions (Acc. 393, Acc. 607, Acc. 736, Acc. 833, Acc. 869, Acc. 872, Acc. 873 and Acc. 874), four popular cultivars (Nadan, Himachal, Maran, Rio-de-Janeiro) and a released variety IISR Varada. Significant differences among the genotypes were recorded for various quality parameters such as oleoresin, essential oil and crude fibre content. Among the exotic genotypes, Acc. 869 recorded the highest essential oil content (2.44%), followed by Acc. 393 (2.42%), Acc. 833 and Acc. 873 (2.10%). The accessions, Acc. 869, Acc. 874, Acc. 873 and Acc. 393 recorded higher oleoresin content of 5.88 per cent, 5.63 per cent, 5.34 per cent and 5.28 per cent, respectively. Considering essential oil and oleoresin contents, the exotic accessions, Acc. 873, Acc. 393 and Acc. 869 were identified as promising genotypes. Among the other genotypes, Rio-de-Janeiro recorded the highest essential oil (2.76%) and oleoresin content (6.69%). The exotic genotypes, viz., Acc. 607, Acc. 736 and Acc. 393 recorded crude fibre content of less than 5 per cent whereas, Acc. 869 recorded the maximum of 7.85 per cent. Fifty compounds were identified through essential oil profiling, and the major classes were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major compound identified was α-zingiberene and was highest in Acc. 393 (30.49%), followed by Maran (30.32%).
R. M. Phukon, J. C. Nath, S. Sumitha, H. P. Maheswarappa, Elain Apshara
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 77-82; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.6636

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Station (AICRP on Palms), Kahikuchi of Assam Agricultural University for three consecutive years (2018-20) to study the initial performance of cocoa clones as intercrop in adult coconut (Cocos nucifera L) garden spaced at 7.5 m × 7.5 m taking sixteen cocoa clones. Data on tree height, stem girth, number of pods, pod weight, number of beans pod-1, dry bean weight tree-1 year-1 and single dry bean weight revealed significant variations among the 16 cocoa clones. Dried beans are the prime economic produce of cocoa, and single dry bean weight ranged from 0.95 to 1.4 g. With respect to dry bean yield tree-1, VTLC-20 recorded a significantly higher dry bean yield of 2.2 kg tree-1 followed by VTLC-18 (1.5 kg tree-1) compared to other cocoa clones, and eight clones yielded more than 1.0 kg dry bean tree-1. Results showed that the number of leaves on the crown, number of inflorescences per palm and nut yield of coconut was not negatively affected; rather, there was an increase in the yield of coconut over a period.
B. Kalaiselvi, Rajendra Hegde, K. S. Anil Kumar, R. Vasundhara, S. Dharumarajan, R. Srinivasan, M. Lalitha, S. K. Singh
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 146-150; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7262

B. Sudha, Jacob John, A. V. Meera, A. Sajeena, D. Jacob, J. S. Bindhu
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 104-110; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7256

Abstract:
A coconut-based integrated farming system (IFS) model suited for lowlands was developed at the Integrated Farming System Research Station (IFSRS), Karamana, Kerala State, India, under Kerala Agricultural University. The area of the model was decided as 0.2 ha, matching the average per capita land availability of a marginal farmer in the State. Apart from the major crop coconut, intercrops, such as vegetables, fruit crops, spices, fodder and tuber crops were included in the model. The allied enterprises integrated were livestock, azolla, and agroforestry. Tree components of the model comprised of teak, jack, breadfruit, garcinia and mango. Research data for five years revealed that the model generated food products above the requirement of a four-member family, and the surplus production could contribute to farmer’s income. The productivity under the IFS model was enhanced ten-folds compared to that under the sole crop of coconut for the same area. Plant nutrients were generated within the farm through organic recycling, which contributed to the substantial saving of chemical fertilizers. The system was found climate-smart because of reduced use of chemical fertilizers and net negative emission of greenhouse gases mostly achieved through agroforestry. This IFS model could also ensure considerable employment generation. The model could be adopted by farmers of lowland tracts of Kerala having similar agro-climatic features for better economic returns and environmental benefits.
S. C. Sahoo, S. Sumitha, A. K. Karna, G. Mishra, H. P. Maheswarappa
Journal of Plantation Crops pp 121-127; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpc.2021.v49.i2.7258

Abstract:
Cocos nucifera L. is a perennial oil yielding crop with a long productive life span (>60 years); thus, identifying a suitable high yielding hybrid to a particular agro-climatic region plays a prime role in achieving sustainable coconut yield. In this context, an evaluation trial with varietal cross combinations involving Tall × Dwarf (six crosses) and Dwarf × Tall (two crosses) was conducted at All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Palms, Bhubaneshwar Centre, Odisha, for 15 years. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replications maintaining six palms per replication. Observations on yield and yield attributing characters during 2018 to 2020 revealed the superior performance of ECT × GBGD (99.1 nuts), which was followed by ECT × MYD (86.9 nuts) over the local check (ECT) by recording higher nut yield. Copra output per palm was significantly the highest under ECT × GBGD (20.6 kg palm-1), followed by LCT × COD (18.6 kg palm-1). Hybrids possessed a higher quantity of organoleptically ‘good’ tender nut water (270.3 to 354.1 mL) with TSS of 5.8 to 6.9 °Brix, 25.4 to 34.0 ppm of sodium and 2065.9 to 2885.0 ppm of potassium.
Sinthia Ganesan, Palanichamy Mehalingam, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam
Published: 20 September 2021
Current Botany pp 174-179; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6590

Abstract:
Ginger spent is the byproduct of spice industries that remove the essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for food industry and medicinal purposes. Ginger is a well known spice used often for seasoning in Indian cuisine. The de-oiled ginger has no specific use mostly goes to waste. Hence, we utilized this industrial waste product in the efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of UV irradiation from a solution of 1mM silver nitrate and spent extract in the ratio 9:1. Immediate colour change from pale yellow to dark brown was noted indicating the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were centrifuged, dried and well characterized. UV Vis Spectroscopy, XRD analysis, Zeta potential and SEM analysis was carried out. It was commendable that the size of the nanoparticles fell well within the upper limit of 100nm. Agar well diffusion method was used to screen the antimicrobial activity of the well characterized silver nanoparticles. They were tested against seven pathogenic strains of three gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) three gram positive bacteria(Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis) and a fungus (Candida albicans). It was seen that the zone of inhibition(ZOI) in well plate method increased on increasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles. Further studies could lead to the application of these silver nanoparticles in medicine.
S. Soundararajan, R. Karkuvel Raja, S. Vishnu Chitthan, S. Sanjay Prasad, N. Thajuddin
Published: 20 September 2021
Current Botany pp 166-173; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6986

Abstract:
Wound healing is a complex process in which bacterial infection is a major cause for delayed wound healing. Occurrence of drug resistance among bacterial pathogens led to discovery of new antimicrobial agents from new sources. The present study aimed to identify microalgal metabolites with antibacterial activity and to develop a wound dressing film with their potential healing activity. Microalgal samples were collected from three different freshwater habitats, isolated, made them pure cultures and physico-chemical properties of water samples from the respective sampling sites were analzed. Among the three microalgal isolates, Chlorella sp. NRMC-F-0350 showed antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, functional groups present in Chlorella sp. NRMC-F-0350 were identified using FTIR and GC-MS analysis. Several antibacterial compounds viz. benzoxazole, 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, sistosterol, 9-Octadecanoic acid, eicosane and hexadecane were identified. Wound dressing films were developed and showed evident antibacterial as well as significant wound healing activity (84.5%). Therefore, the developed films can be used as a potential wound dressing material.
Sumaiya Farzana, Rasel, Tahjib Ul Arif, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Golam Azam, Asadulla Al Galib,
Published: 19 September 2021
Journal of Phytology pp 130-145; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7217

Abstract:
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress inhibiting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and development. Therefore, finding efficient strategies to prevent salt-induced growth retardation and yield loss is critical for modern agriculture to sustain production. The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and thiourea (TU) in regulating salt tolerance was investigated by evaluating morpho-physiological characteristics and antioxidant response in two wheat genotypes at the seedling stage. In both wheat genotypes, salt stress reduced growth characteristics and leaf water status, photosynthetic pigments, while simultaneously increasing the Na+/K+ ratio, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA). In contrast, exogenous application of SA and/or TU alone in the salt-stressed plants significantly reduced the negative effects of salt stress and improved the growth performance by up-regulating photosynthetic pigments, leaf water status, and proline content in both genotypes. Besides, when compared to seedlings treated only with salt stress, SA and TU played an important role in maintaining lower Na+/K+ levels and reducing oxidative stress by lowering MDA and H2O2 levels in salt-stressed plants through boosting the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase. In addition, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed a significant interaction among growth characteristics, chlorophyll content, carotenoid content and antioxidant activity with the salt, SA, and/or TU treatments. The findings suggested that exogenous application of SA or TU could be a useful technique for reducing the negative effects of salinity on wheat growth and development.
Umar Aliyu Abdullahi, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Nadiawati Alias, Elyni Mat Shaari, Amirul Alam, Noor Afiza Badaluddin, Khamsah Suryati Mohd
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Phytology pp 122-129; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6903

Abstract:
Seaweeds are plants found in sea that have tremendous applications in the fields of agriculture and environment. It comprises of three giant classes with a large number of different species. their ability to adopt to various conditions qualifies them more applicable to various environmental and agricultural arena. Agriculturally, both three classes Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta, have significant roles in promoting plant growth and productivity and soil protection as well as reclamation with class Phaeophyta has highest contribution due to its alginic acid content and other multifaceted components that are higher followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. Seaweed (living or dead biomass) has ability to phycoremediate environment against heavy toxic metals and lessen the excessiveness of non-metal inorganic elements via physisorption, chemisorption with the aid of binding sites provided by proteins and carbohydrates functional groups existing in their cell walls and secretion of organic acids and intracellular transformation and accumulation. Seaweed is an important factor in environmental remediation and soil restoration processes.
Karishma Rajbhar, Himanshu Dawda, Usha Mukundan
Published: 14 September 2021
Current Botany pp 161-165; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6579

Abstract:
Pectin polysaccharide has galacturonic acid with linear chains of α-(1–4)-linked D- galacturonic acid. Rhamnogalacturonan I pectins (RG-I) shows the existence of the repeating disaccharide 4-α-D-galacturonic acid-(1,2)-α-L- rhamnose, which acts as a backbone. Chiefly, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and D-xylose are the sugars types and its proportions of neutral sugars are varied according to the origin of pectin. Pectinase, pectinmethylesterase, and pectolyase enzymes have important applications in food, textile and agricultural industries. These enzymes play an important role in the breakdown of the central part of the plant cell wall. Pectin forms the center part of the plant cell wall. Pectins are termed as structural polysaccharide that has integrity for the steadiness of the plant cell wall. Citrate buffer of molarity 0.1 utilized to verify optimal pH along with temperature, for standardising enzyme activity of pectinase, pectolyase, and pectinmethylesterase by the dinitrosalicylic acid reagent method. Confirmatory check of enzyme’s activity was performed on plant leaves dried particles. Impact of catechin presence in enzyme reaction was too studied. Results delve into degradation of the plant polysaccharide by applying these enzymes. An increase in the monosaccharide galacturonic acid quantity was also significant. The highest release of the polyphenols was found due to pectolyase followed by pectinmethylesterase and pectinase. Pectinmethylesterase effect showed the maximum release of the flavonoids followed by pectinase and pectolyase which was remarkable.
Seval Eliş, Mehmet Yıldırım
Journal of Aridland Agriculture pp 103-108; https://doi.org/10.25081/jaa.2021.v7.6879

Abstract:
Dual-purpose barley and wheat production is a valuable resource to fill feed gaps and grain production, but availability at drought and heat stress conditions is still not clearly studied. Two experiments were conducted at semi-controlled green house to determine biomass production at vegetative stages, chlorophyll content and grain yield. Experiment 1 consists of four clipping treatments on wheat, i.e. one, two, three times clipping and un-clipping control. Experiment 2 combined two clipping treatments (one clipping and un-clipping) and two levels of water (low: 40 % of field capacity; normal: 85 % of field capacity) on barley. Wheat grain yield was severely affected by increasing clipping number under heat stress. Total biomass at one clipping was the same level as control treatment. Although physiological maturity was delayed 8 days from control to 3 times clipping application, biomass and yield remained below the control application due to shrinkage in plant height and other organs size. Clipping and water levels at barley significantly impacted biomass and plant height, but all traits were not related by interactions clipping x water level. The clipping application in heat stress reduced total biomass by 21.3 and 30.4 % in well-watered and dry conditions, respectively. Contrary to what is expected, it seems clear to obtain satisfactory forage and grain yield by optimizing the management technique, growing in dual-purpose production in wheat and barley in warm environments.
Sakthipriya Mathavaraj, Kalluvettankuzhy Krishnannair Sabu
Published: 10 September 2021
Current Botany pp 150-160; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6971

Abstract:
In recent years, demand for medicinal plants increased due to the rise in attraction towards herbal products which are safer compared to modern drugs. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb is known as an important medicinal plant in herbal medicinal systems. It also used as an active ingredient for many products in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. So far, review on this plant concerns mainly on medicinal, cosmetology and photochemical works reported. This review presents the genetic studies conducted in this herb along with a mention on conservation. Since documenting and studying genetic variation and its composition has an important connection for the understanding of evolution and improving the conservation of this species.
Shamima Nasrin Asha, Naima Sultana, Lutful Hassan, Shirin Akhter, Arif Hasan Khan Robin
Published: 9 September 2021
Journal of Phytology pp 108-121; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7081

Abstract:
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated around the world. Waterlogging stress is a major production constraint of maize production in rain-fed agricultural systems. The main objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of continuous waterlogging on morphological and biochemical traits of maize genotypes at the vegetative stage. Ten maize genotypes were treated under no waterlogging (control) and continuous waterlogging of five centimeters depth for 10 days. The treatments were applied to the plants at their 45 days of age. Visual leaf injury scores from Leaf 4 (youngest leaf is the reference point) to Leaf 7 separated tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Waterlogging stress significantly reduced the total number of live leaves and chlorophyll content in leaf tissues in susceptible genotypes. The anatomical study revealed that tolerant maize genotypes produce a large number of aerenchyma cells under waterlogging stress compared to susceptible genotypes. The enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) exhibited a greater increase in tolerant genotypes than susceptible genotypes whereas the contents of reactive oxygen species (H2O2) greatly increased in susceptible genotypes than tolerant genotypes under waterlogging stress compared to control. Principal component 2 (PC2) indicated that increasing plant height in the genotypes BHM-14, BHM-13 and BHM-9 was associated with waterlogging tolerance. The findings of this experiment will add value to maize breeding to screen out maize genotypes for waterlogging stress tolerance.
Taslim Mahmud Bhuyain, Robin Kuri, Nayeem Al-Tamzid Bhuiyan, Sahadat Hossain Sagor, Riazul Haidar
International Multidisciplinary Research Journal pp 13-24; https://doi.org/10.25081/imrj.2021.v11.7246

Abstract:
With solar tracking, it will become possible to generate more energy since the solar panel can maintain a perpendicular profile to the rays of the sun. Even though the initial cost of setting up the tracking system is considerably high, there are cheaper options that have been proposed over time. This research discuss the design and construction of a prototype for a solar tracking system that has a single axis of freedom. Light Dependent Resistors (LDRs) are used for sunlight detection. The control circuit is based on an ATMega328P microcontroller. It was programmed to detect sunlight via the LDRs before actuating the servo to position the solar panel. The solar panel is positioned where it is able to receive maximum light. As compared to other motors, the servo motors are able to maintain their torque at high speed. They are also more efficient with efficiencies in the range of 80-90%. Servos can supply roughly twice their rated torque for short periods. Through tracking, there will be increased exposure of the panel to the sun, making it have increased power output. The trackers can either be dual or single axis trackers. As a single tracking system is cheaper, less complex, and still achieves the required efficiency, so it was used.
Aurpita Shaha, Mintu Sarker, Nazmul Islam, Trishna Khatun, Abdul Bashir, Shamim Hossain
International Multidisciplinary Research Journal pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.25081/imrj.2021.v11.7215

Abstract:
The outburst of COVID-19 influenced the lives of all segment of society as people were requested to self-quarantine in their homes to stop the outspread of the virus. The lockdown had consequential impacts on mental health, triggering psychological problems encompassing frustration, stress, and depression. The outbreak of Covid-19 has significantly affected the lives of all parts of the society. One of the most instant changes launched was the closure of educational institutions to decelerate the spreading of the virus. Students no longer had availability of institution-based physical activities such as physical education, recess, and walking to/from universities/colleges/school. Inadequate physical activities and enormous sedentary behavior amid students exhibits a noteworthy problem because health behavior patterns can result in heightened risk for a number of hazardous health conditions (e.g., overweight/obesity, type II diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) in later. The objective of this study was to explore the pervasiveness of physical and mental health condition among Bangladeshi students during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also focuses on recognizing the stimulus of various states of physical and mental conditions throughout COVID-19 pandemic. The cross sectional data was gathered by means of interviews or self-responses among the university students from various districts of Bangladesh on July to August 2020. The study was performed with structured questionnaire. To reduce threats of Covid-19 infection, in this investigation, participants were interviewed over telephone instead of face to face interaction. In order to explore the effects of this pandemic on the lives of students, we performed a survey in which a total of 576 participants were participated. In this survey, among them 377 (66%) are male and 197 (34%) female. It was discovered that 92% of participants appreciate participating in physical activities & rest of them (8%) don’t like to participate in physical activities. In addition, our study also revealed 46% of the students having trouble in sleep and 45% students feels concentration problem. The findings of this study show that greater numbers of the students are not in sound physical or mental conditions. They are bored, helpless, anxious and depressed than previous. This study shows that the mental conditions of female students are more affected by Covid-19 compared to male students. 82% of female students are stressed about their study, future life and so on. 46% female students are feeling helpless, 61% become upset and 60% feel bored during lockdown and close of education institution. COVID-19 is striking threat both on physical and mental health since its outbreak. During this challenging time, it is necessary to continue taking care of physical and mental health.
Mohammed Ahmed El-Shirbeny, Samir Mahmoud Saleh
Journal of Aridland Agriculture pp 95-102; https://doi.org/10.25081/jaa.2021.v7.7087

Abstract:
The importance of active and passive remote sensing data integration appears strongly on cloudy days. The lack of passive remote sensing data on cloudy days prevents the benefit of large-scale satellite data in cloudy areas, while the advantage of active remote sensing, it could penetrate the cloud and collect data underneath the cloud. The main objective of this paper is to determine the benefits of combining active and passive remote sensing data to detect actual evapotranspiration (ETa). Sentinel-1 radar data represents active data, while Landsat-8 represents passive data. Multi-date data for Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 were used during the 2016 summer season. The characteristic soil texture in the study region is clay. The meteorological data were used to estimate ETo based on the FAO-Penman-Monteith (FPM) process, while the Lysimeter data were used to test the estimated ETa. Landsat-8 data are used to measure the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI). Crop Coefficient (Kc) is calculated on the basis of NDVI. The CWSI, Kc, and ETo were then used to determine ETa. Backscattering (dB) C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data extracted from the Sentinel-1 satellite was correlated with Kc and used to estimate ETa. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) reported relevant results for active and passive satellite data separately and the combination process. For Sentinel-1, Landsat-8 and combination methods, the RMSE reported 0.89, 0.24, and 0.31 (mm/day) respectively.
Azzeddine Zeraib, Lamia Boudjedjou, Naziha Suici, Tarek Benmeddour, Khaled Rahal, Azzedine Fercha
Journal of Phytology pp 101-107; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7088

Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world’s most pressing public health threats. The combination of essential oils with conventional antibiotics is one of the emerging approaches that could help prevent this problem. In light of this, this study aimed to investigate the impact of combination of Ruta montana essential oil with conventional antibiotics on some pathogenic bacteria. The essential oil isolated by steam-hydrodistillation was first analyzed using GC-MS then tested alone and in combination with five recommended antibiotics against three bacterial strains by the agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Out of forty-nine peaks, thirty-eight components were identified representing 98.17% of the total oil composition. The major components were 2-Undecanone (63.39%), 2-Nonanone (5.65%), 2-Acetoxytetradecane (4.94%), 2-Decanone (4.47%) and 2-Dodecanone (3.35%). While R. montana essential oil showed only weak antibacterial activity compared to the antibiotics tested alone, unexpectedly, the combination of RM essential oil with antibiotics remarkably increased the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics through synergistic effects in up to 70% of cases. These results suggest that combining antibiotics with essential oils, even those with low antibacterial activity, may be effective in overcoming problems caused by increasing bacterial resistance.
Lado Aquilino, A. Pariyo, Y. Baguma, R. Edema, P. Gibson, J. Bisikwa
Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture pp 26-37; https://doi.org/10.21839/jfna.2021.v4.7222

Abstract:
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production has been constrained by biotic and abiotic factors, which could be solved by conventional breeding. However, cassava hybridization is difficult because many genotypes do not flower or set seeds and yet cassava sexual reproduction is essential for breeding programs. Consequently, this study was undertaken to identify agro ecologies in Uganda that best promote cassava flowering and seed set in order to facilitate breeding. Field evaluation of eight genotypes in randomized complete block design with three replications at three agro-ecologies of Uganda for two cropping seasons was conducted. Weather data were monitored and cassava flowering/seed set-related traits were collected at one-month interval commencing from 1.5 Months after planting. Results indicated that varieties previously categorized as high flowering and seed set performed differently than those identified as poor flowering and seed set, although with varying genotypic differences in each environment. Genotypes mean performances, additive main effect and multiplicative interaction and genotype main effect and genotype by environment interaction bi-plots model’ results indicated Rwebitaba in Western savannah grassland agro-ecology and Namulonge-NaCRRI in Lake Victoria Crescent agro-ecology as the most favorable environments for the performance of all the evaluated traits, and season one as the most favorable season. However, the most stable environment for all the evaluated traits was Abi-ZARDI. Conclusively, the high proportion of variation which occurred between genotypes and environments was explained by the genotypic variances. Dry months had poorer cassava flower initiation and development than wet months of the cropping season. Therefore, Abi-ZARDI in North-western savannah grassland agro-ecology and season one could be recommended for the establishment and timing of cassava breeding nursery.
David Lomeling, Salah Joseph Huria
Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture pp 16-25; https://doi.org/10.21839/jfna.2021.v4.6943

Abstract:
Historical rainfall data from 1997-2016 of Juba County, South Sudan were used in a Feed-Forward Neural Network (FFNN) model to make future predictions. Annual rainfall data were aggregated into three seasons MAMJ, JAS and OND and later trained for best forecasts for the period 2017-2034 using the Alyuda Forecaster XL software. Best training of the time series was attained, once the minimum error of the weight expressed as MSE or AE between the measured variable and predicted was achieved during gradient descent. The results showed that for MAMJ and JAS months, the number forecasts were over 85% whereas this was between 60-80% for OND months. The Seasonal Kendal (SK) test on future rainfall forecasts as well as the Theil-Sen slope showed negative monotonic trends in the mean values till the end of 2034 of all three seasons with MAMJ, JAS at OND at 100, 150 and 80 mm respectively. Rainfall forecast showed that the MAMJ months for the years 2019 to 2027 will be moderately wet except in April 2021 which will experience some severe wetness (due to intensive rainfall). Interdecadal severe drought with less than 60, 100 and 10 mm for MAMJ, JAS and OND respectively, is expected between 2028 to 2033 after almost two decades. The declining onset of MAMJ rains is expected to significantly affect the timing for land preparation and crop planting.
Vladimir A. Smirnov, Sergey A. Bazanovich, Mikhail Ya. Yadgarov, Marina A. Zvyagintseva, Andrew A. Grin, Sergey I. Ryabov
Journal of Experimental Sciences pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.25081/jes.2021.v12.6999

Abstract:
In the most of functional studies, various stress tests are used to assess functional improvement following spinal cord injury in animal models. However, available methods of motor function evaluation are not always accurate and unbiased. The main objective of the study was to create a new method of motor activity assessment in minor animal models of spinal cord injury. This method should provide an objective and accurate evaluation of limb motor function in models having severe neurological disorders following contusion spinal cord injury. The swimming test was used as the key behavioral test. To assess the motor function of swimming animals’ hind limbs, we measured angles of hind limbs movements adjusted to the motion direction axis. Then we calculated individual angles dispersion for each joint and limb using the parameters of angles sample dispersion and amplitude-depending dispersion. The current study included two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: control group and a group of animals having moderate thoracic spinal cord contusion injury. Control animals demonstrated stable dispersion indicators for 6 weeks of follow-up. In the experimental group, a tendency to the improvement of motor function in hind limbs between 1 and 3 weeks was revealed followed by stabilization and preservation of both indicators between 3 and 6 weeks. Provided method based on the measurement of joint angles adjusted to the movement direction axis followed by calculation of indicators of variance of a random variable and amplitude-depending variance can be an effective and objective alternative for motor function evaluation.
V. Sangeetha, P.S. Sharavannan
Published: 9 August 2021
Current Botany pp 146-149; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7148

Abstract:
The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of tannery effluent on different varieties of Sorghum bicolor. The disparate concentrations of tannery effluent viz., 5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were tested for its impacts on six varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (TNAU CO 5, TNAU CO 30, CO (S) 28, BSR 1, K Tall and Paiyur 1). The experimentation was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications. The impact of tannery effluent on the germination percentage, shoot length (cm), root length (cm), seedling weight (g), vigour index, tolerance index and phytotoxicity were recorded. The outcome revealed that the parameters escalated in 5% effluent concentration and declined after 25% concentration of tannery effluent.
Vikrant, A. Jasmine, M. Roselin Roobavathi
Journal of Plant Stress Physiology pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.25081/jpsp.2021.v7.7150

Abstract:
Abiotic stress such as drought and agrochemicals leads the drastic reductions in legume yields, hence, in order to mitigate the loss of yields due to abiotic stresses, the production of stress tolerance genotypes of the legumes could be a rewarding approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the drought and herbicide stress effects under ex-vitro conditions on seed germination and early seedling growth in a legume crop mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). To begin with, drought stress was induced by employing various concentrations of mannitol (50mM, 100mM, 250mM, 500mM, 750mM, and 1000mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG-5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) while during herbicide stress experiments, dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) and picloram (4-Amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridine carboxylic acid) were considered in various concentrations (5mg/L, 25mg/L, 50mg/L, and 100mg/L) of each. Moreover, data were collected as partial and full seed germination after 3- and 7-days of stress treatments respectively. After 7-days of mannitol stress treatments, results reveals that even the high concentration of mannitol (500mM) could be proved as weak osmotic stressor for seed germination (35%±0.14) in comparison to control (91%±0.74) while further increase in mannitol concentration (750mM) was proved to be lethal, toxic and inhibits seed germination completely. Furthermore, in comparison to mannitol, PEG turns out as strong osmotic stressors and (15%) of PEG was proved to very lethal for seed germination. Even during early seedling growth, increased concentrations of both mannitol and PEG were found to be inhibitory. Among two herbicides, the result shows that both herbicides (dicamba and picloram) were proved to be completely toxic and lethal even at very low concentrations (5mg/L) and induced abnormal seed germination and inhibited completely seedling growth. However, the inhibitory response of picloram herbicide stress on seed germination was found to be more pronounced and severe than dicamba herbicide. Hence, the present study reveals that in comparison to mannitol, PEG turns out as a strong osmotic stressor while picloram proves to be a relatively more toxic herbicide than dicamba for seed germination. Additionally, drought stress induced seedlings on transfer to soil exhibit inhibited growth under continuous irrigation with either mannitol or PEG solutions.
J. Evitex-Izayas, M. Udayakumar
Published: 7 August 2021
Current Botany pp 138-145; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.7138

Abstract:
Tropical thorn forests (TTFs) are characterized by the presence of small and thorny trees which usually shed their leaves in dry season. A quantitative phytosociological study was conducted in Uthumalai Reserve Forest of Peninsular India to record density, species richness, diversity and population structure of trees. Diameter of all free standing trees ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, cm) was measured at 1.37 m above the ground. A sum of 4135 trees ≥1cm DBH recorded from one hectare study plot. With 2272 (54.94%) individuals Dalbergia spinosa dominated the study plot followed by Commiphora berryi (484, 11.70%), Grewia flavescens (259, 6.26%), Dichrostachys cinerea (206, 4.98%) and Anogeissus pendula (171, 4.14%). In total, 26 species belonged to 19 genera and 15 families found in one ha study plot. The family Mimosaceae had a large number of species followed by Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Tiliaceae, Rhamnaceae. Rubiaceae (each 2 species). Stand basal area of tree community recorded as 15.238 m2 ha-1. Commiphora berryi constituted 50.80% (7.74 m2 ha-1) of stand basal area followed by Dalbergia spinosa (19.43%, 2.96 m2 ha-1). The forest showed a reverse J shaped population structure. Shannon diversity (H), equitability (H’) and Simpson’s dominance (D) indices of study area recorded as 1.76, 0.54 and 0.335, respectively. Dalbergia spinosa, Commiphora berryi, Grewia flavescens, Dichrostachys cinerea and Anogeissus pendula topped the species important value index with 87.80, 73.53, 20, 19.79, 17.43 scores, respectively. In family important value index, Papilionaceae topped the list followed by Burseraceae and Mimosaceae with scores 129.32, 74.23 and 34.43, respectively. The study area endowed with a moderate species richness and diversity, and acts as one of the homes for an IUCN’s vulnerable tree species.
Abdi Adem, MohammedSani Amin
Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture pp 13-15; https://doi.org/10.21839/jfna.2021.v4.6944

Abstract:
This study was conducted with the objective to assess the incidence and severity of coffee berry disease (CBD) and coffee leaf rust (CLR) in the highland of Eastern Ethiopia. In the east Hararge Zone of Eastern Ethiopia, coffee was grown by 331,651 holders on 7,584 ha with a production output of 3,722 tons and a yield of 0.5 ton/ha in 2017. Bedeno is the leading coffee producer district in the Zone followed by Melka-ballo, Deder and Meta districts. In Bedeno, coffee is mainly grown in altitudes ranging from 1690 to 2260 masl. Coffeeberry disease and leaf rust are the two major diseases of coffee in the area. A total of 34 representative coffee farms at nine study sites (3-4 coffee farms at the interval of 3-5 kilometers) were selected through discussion with Bedeno district’s coffee experts. The study sites were selected using sequential sampling techniques through discussions with the district’s coffee experts. Incidence of coffee berry disease and leaf rust was determined as percentage of diseased trees. Disease severity was determined as percentage of diseased coffee berries per plot. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of this study revealed the incidence of CBD in Bedeno district ranged from 30.0 to 93.3% with a mean of 70.19%. The severity of the CBD was from 13.3% to 44.4% with an average severity of 28.53%. Both incidence and severity of CBD were high at Barkalle followed by Barakat and Hindhessa areas. On the other hand, the incidence of coffee leaf rust varied from 18.9 to 87.4% with a mean of 52.7%. The high mean incidence of CLR at highland areas of eastern Ethiopia is clear evidence for the occurrence of climate change in the area. Hence, it is advisable to introduce improved coffee varieties that are resistant to coffee berry disease and leaf rust for production in the area. Training farmers to implement proper cultural disease management practices such as prunning and sucker management will also help alleviate the constraint.
, Min Cheol Kim, Yong Suk Chung,
Journal of Aridland Agriculture pp 89-94; https://doi.org/10.25081/jaa.2021.v7.7198

Abstract:
This study analyzed the effect of plant hormones, zeatin, 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin, and thidiazuron (TDZ) on the growth of Tartary buckwheat sprouts and analyzed the fresh weight, shoot and root length, and production of phenolic compounds. All the hormone-treated plants at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) showed the highest levels of growth parameters (fresh weight, shoot, and root length) when compared to the control. Among the various hormones treatment, the plant treated with 1 mg/L of BAP, kinetin, and zeatin showed the highest total phenolic level, whereas the TDZ showed the highest accumulation of total phenolic at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L). A total of 6 compounds were identified (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, and trans-cinnamic acid) were quantified by high liquid performance chromatography (HPLC) after treatment of plant with different concentrations of hormones. Among these individual phenolic compounds, at the higher hormonal concentration (1 mg/L) the rutin showed the highest accumulation in BAP, zeatin, and kinetin treated sprout, whereas in the TDZ treated sprout the rutin content was highest at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L). From these results, it is suggested that BAP, zeatin, and kinetin at the lowest concentrations might positively enhance the growth of buckwheat sprouts, whereas at the highest hormonal treatment the accumulation of the phenolic compounds was higher. However, in TDZ treatment the growth and phenolic compound accumulation were highest at the lowest concentration. From these results, it is showed that suitable concentrations might enhance the growth and phenolic compound accumulation in Tatary buckwheat sprout.
Emiru Chimdessa Gemechu
Journal of Scientific Agriculture pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.25081/jsa.2021.v5.7126

Abstract:
Plants have been a source of medicine in Ethiopia from time immemorial to treat different human and livestock ailments. The purpose of this study was to identify the medicinal plant species and associated indigenous knowledge in livestock treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess indigenous knowledge of local people on medicinal plants used for livestock treatment in five selected kebeles of kersa district from March to June 2014. A total of 40 traditional healers (33 male and 7 male) 7-9 from each study sites were selected purpouvely with the help of knowledgeable elders, local authorities and kebele leaders. Ethno botanical data regarding plant species, plant parts used, livestock disease treated, and method of preparation and route of administration were collected through structured interview and field observation. A total of 33 plant species distributed in 24 families were identified in the study area. The majority of the medicinal plants 63.63% were collected from the wild and 33.33% from home garden. The major growth habit of the medicinal plants identified in the study area were herbs 39.39%, followed by shrubs 33.33%.The most frequently harvested plant parts were leaves and roots with proportion of 57.7% and 21.21%, respectively followed by seeds (9.09%) and fruits (6.06%). Pounding and crushing were the most commonly used method of remedies preparation whereas the widely used method of administration is oral. The study reveals that the local people of the study area harvest medicinal plants used to treat livestock health problem from the wild habitat. Therefore, awaring the local people of the study area to conserve medicinal plants in their home garden is recommended.
Huda Y Ghidan, Alaa Y Ghidan, Hytham M Ahmed
Journal of Applied and Advanced Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.21839/jaar.2021.v6.7191

Abstract:
A virus is an ultramicroscopic (20-300 nanometers in diameter) metabolically inert, infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is announced by World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. As of 23 August 2020, 23,407,334 infected people and 810,242 deaths were reported worldwide. COVID-19 has affected our daily lives and influences all aspects of life, including economic, social, health, etc. On the healthcare level, the world is faced with many challenges, including diagnosis, quarantine, and treatment of suspected cases, overloaded doctors and healthcare professionals and the requirement of a high level of protection. This research focused on preventive measures - preventive medicine - to combat coronavirus according to Islamic law's and modern medicine's perspective. Sharia focuses on preserving diseases to achieve its objectives thereby, so it has legislated some of the rulings that achieve this purpose, so it based its provisions on bringing interests and warding off evil. This research has been divided into two requirements; the first requirement is that the researcher talked about preventive strategies, one of the most important branches of medicine because it precedes disease before it occurs to be rectified with awareness and guidance. The second requirement: supporting scientific research to make vaccines and medicines is the most important findings of the researcher. Besides the review intent to explaining the extent of compatibility and difference between practical applications in Islamic jurisprudence and modern medicine, Explaining the importance of treatment from diseases and epidemics and the necessity of supporting scientific research to find medicines and vaccines( not only preventive strategies), and A statement of the importance and necessity of adhering to the instructions and instructions issued by the competent medical authorities and institutions with expertise and competence to prevent transmission of infection by prevention, treatment and taking vaccinations.
Patturaj Raj, S. Noorunnisa Begum, K. Ravikumar, P. Sheema Dharmapal, P. S. Udayan
Published: 23 July 2021
Current Botany pp 132-137; https://doi.org/10.25081/cb.2021.v12.6455

Abstract:
The anatomical studies on leaf and stem of T. formanii Udayan & Pradeep an endemic species to southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India was carried out focusing on its macroscopic, microscopic, maceration along with organoleptic evaluation. Distinguishing characters of the stem revealed the presence of calcium oxalate crystals, simple and compound starch grains and pitted lignified fibers. Leaf anatomy showed the anomocytic and paracytic stomata, pitted lignified fibers, spiral vessels, non-glandular small trichomes, C or half-moon shaped vascular bundle, surrounded with sclerenchymatous tissues and rosette and prism shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Whereas, maceration studies revealed the presence of spiral and scalar form vessel, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, simple starch grains. These anatomical studies are vital in the present-day trade scenario not only helpful in the proper identification of the genuine materials in use but also to distinguish different species of Tinospora, where the stem and leaf are often admixed with other species of Tinospora in the crude drug markets.
R. K. Kuziev, S. A. Arabov, Sh. M. Bobomurodov, Z. A. Baxodirov
Journal of Aridland Agriculture pp 83-88; https://doi.org/10.25081/jaa.2021.v7.6598

Abstract:
The article analyzes the opportunities of effective land management using geographical information systems. The perspectives of the using of geo information systems in the efficient use of agricultural lands especially in the development of recommendations for improving the reclamation of saline soils are given. The development of algorithms for the provision of relevant regulatory recommendations on the state of the lands in the studied area and the creating of salt washing norm maps based on GIS technologies have been studied.
Sonia Heni, Hicham Boughendjioua, Salima Bennadja, Abdelghani Djahoudi
Journal of Phytology pp 95-100; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.7164

Abstract:
In this work, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare. L. obtained by hydrodistylation was warried out and it allowed to identify 98.1% of its constituents. The main components are carvacrol (47.6%), thymol (16.6%), p-cymene (13.5%) andγ-terpinene (11.2%). The chemical components of the essence are distributed over five biochemical classes represented mainly by monoterpene phenols and monoterpene carbides. The extraction gave a yield of oil 2.8%. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this oil was determined against food spoilage bacteria and pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus tested in vitro. This study aims to enhance the value of oregano essential oil by determining its chemical composition on the one hand, and by its application as a natural antibacterial preservative in substitution of synthetic chemical additives on the other hand. The sample was incorporated into a sensitive food matrix exposed to bacterial contamination: white meat. The bacteriostatic/bactericidal power of this bioactive extract was determined by a significant reduction in the number of bacteria and a clear increase in shelf life. Thus, it is possible to propose the use of this aromatic essence as a source of natural preservative.
Ramasamy Elankanni, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok Kumar
Journal of Phytology pp 91-94; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6969

Abstract:
Cancer is one of the major causes of death both in developed and developing countries. Recently the secondary metabolites produced by plants are being investigated due to their promising anticancer activities. Accordingly in the present study the anti-cancer potentials of Euphorbia hirta L., a well-known medicinal plant was explored for its anticancer activity. The methanol and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. (EHA and EHM) were tested against Artemia salina nauplii for toxicity and MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines for its cytotoxic potentials. Both the extracts EHA and EHM exhibited maximum toxicity towards Artemia salina among which the methanol extract was able to kill all the nauplii in its highest concentration. Excitingly, Euphorbia hirta L. extracts exhibited minimal cytotoxicity on normal cells (VERO) than in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). In conclusion, the results suggest that EHM extract of the selected plant may have promising therapeutic potential against human breast cancers and may lead to the development of new clinical drug specifically against ER-positive breast cancer.
Piriya Latha Veerasamy, Fitri Ab Aziz Zakry, Wong Sing King, Susilawati Kasim, Masnindah Malahubban
Journal of Phytology pp 85-90; https://doi.org/10.25081/jp.2021.v13.6918

Abstract:
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) phytohormone plays an essential role in forming and initiating main, lateral, and adventitious roots in vegetative propagation. Plants are receiving IAA naturally from a diverse group of soil-plant associated rhizobacteria. However, IAA synthesis by rhizobacteria is influenced by abiotic growth conditions. Three indigenous Bacillus isolates were subject to in vitro assay for the effects of abiotic factors (temperature, salinity and pH) on growth and IAA production. All isolates grew well between 25 - 40°C, and only B. megaterium UPMLH3 was capable of synthesising IAA (21.18 µg/ml) at 40°C. All three bacterial growth under saline stress were slightly dropped over control (0% NaCl), but still producing IAA up to 1% NaCl condition. B. cereus UPMLH24 revealed high resistance to salinity up to 5% NaCl. The optimum growth of all three Bacillus spp. was at pH 7. B. cereus UPMLH1 and UPMLH24 discovered higher IAA production in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 8). Each rhizobacterium shows different physiology trait against each abiotic factor. However, the multiple tolerance ability of PGPR against abiotic factors is an indication that its ability to survive under harsh soil and plant environments while delivering benefits to the plant. Thus, B. cereus UPMLH1, B. megaterium UPMLH3 and B. cereus UPMLH24 might serve as potential biofertiliser, enhancing the growth performance of test plants at various environmental conditions.
K C Veny Krishna, M K Dhanya, M Joy, N S Radhika, B Aparna
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6845

Abstract:
Cardamom plantations are subjected to constant threat due to the Fusarium rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht which is pronounced during summer months. The current study deals with the identification of an effective and ecofriendly management practice for the disease through the use of biocontrol agents. Survey conducted between February and May 2019 revealed maximum disease severity and incidence in Pampadumpara panchayat of Nedumkandam block (84.40% and 100%) and minimum in Erattaar panchayat of Kattappanablock (50.40% and 60.00%). A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of three bioagents (Glomus fasciculatum, Trichoderma asperellum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) individually as well as in combinations. Root inoculation of G. fasciculatum with basal application and spray with P. fluorescens as well as root inoculation of G. fasciculatum along with basal application of T. asperellum and P. fluorescens spray were identifiedto be effective against the disease. Disease suppression by the above bioagents was facilitated by reduced pathogen antagonist ratio in the soil, high level of mycorrhizal colonization in the roots and enhanced biochemical activity of defense enzymes like peroxidase, poly phenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the plants.
M K Rincy, R Praveena, S J Eapen
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 117-125; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6923

Abstract:
Pochonia chlamydosporia, is one of the most promising biological control agents for managing phytoparasitic nematodes. Isolation and enumeration of viable colonies of P. chlamydosporia from soil and other substrates without contamination is a major limitation, when commonly available nutrient media are used. Development of a suitable selective/semi-selective media by incorporating one or more inhibitors of microbial growth can facilitate isolation of the fungus. In vitro studies were carried out to test the compatibility of commonly used pesticides, namely, metalaxyl, metalaxyl-mancozeb, carbendazim, copper oxychloride, and chlorpyrifos with P. chlamydosporia. The fungus showed relatively high tolerance to higher doses of metalaxyl and carbendazim and was used in the modified medium for better suppression of other soil borne fungi. In the present study, Kerry’s semi-selective medium was modified and evaluated by counting the viable fungal propagules in different substrates (rice, farmyard manure, maize, rice bran, barley, and sorghum) and soil artificially inoculated with the fungus. The results showed that the modified Kerry’s semi-selective medium can effectively be used for isolation and quantification of P. chlamydosporia in routine studies.
C Raj, S Singh, H Kalita, R K Avasthe, R Gopi, M Singh, C Kapoor, R Kumar, N J Singh
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 42-49; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6665

Abstract:
Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) is one of the important cash crops of Sikkim and Darjeeling areas of West Bengal. In this study, a fixed plot survey on insect pests of large cardamom was conducted and found that stem borer (Glyphipterix spp., Lepidoptera: Glyphiperidae), shoot fly (Merochlotops dimorphus Cherian, Diptera: Chlororpidae), leaf eating caterpillar (Artona chorista Jordon, Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) and tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse, Hemiptera: Miridae) are the major pests of the crop. Eco-friendly organic treatments like neem-based oil, petroleum-derived horticultural oil, spinosad and different formulations of entomopathogens were tested against these major insects. Among all, application of spinosad 45 SC @ 0.3 ml L-1 was found effective followed by neem-based oil (Azadirachtin 0.15% EC) 1500 ppm @ 3 ml L-1 at three different time intervals (first application in February-March, second application in June-July and third application in October-November) against all insects. Moreover, entomopathogenic bio-control agents (Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2 ml L-1, Metarhizium [email protected] 5 ml L-1 and Beauveria bassiana @ 5 ml L-1) were on par with neem-based oil for the management of stem borer. Considering the economic importance of the crop and absence of valid technology for management of insect pests in large cardamom through organic options, application of either of them could be helpful in organic management of insect pests in Sikkim.
T R Haritha, K S Gopal
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6884

Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microbial inoculants consortia on ginger under field conditions. Three biofertilizers comprising of Azospirillum lipoferum (nitrogen fixer KAU-AZO), Bacillus megaterium (phosphate solubilizer KAU-PSB), Bacillus sporothermodurans (potash solubilizer KAU-KSB) and two biocontrol agents namely, Pseudomonas fluorescen (KAU-PF) and Trichoderma viride (KAU-TV) were used in the study. Compatibility studies revealed that all the isolates were compatible with each other. However, P. fluorescens and T. viride were incompatible with each other under in vitro. Under field evaluation, consortia of microbial inoculants performed better than the single inoculants in terms of yield and disease management. The organic Adhoc package recorded the minimum incidence of rhizome rot (2.09 %) among all the treatments. However, KAU-AZO + KAU-PSB + KAU-KSB + KAU-TV recorded the minimum rhizome rot (5.23%) incidence among the consortia. In the case of Rhizoctonia leaf blight disease, consortia of KAU-AZO + KAU-PSB + KAU-KSB + KAU-PF showed the minimum incidence (5.21%). In general, consortium of A. lipoferum, B. megaterium (PSB), B. sporothermodurans (KSB) and T. viride was the most efficient for plant growth promotion and disease management in ginger.
G S Thanuja, B Srinivasulu, K M Yuvaraj, K. Giridhar
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 100-106; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6576

Abstract:
Experiments were conducted for two consecutive years during 2017-19 to study the effect of organic manures, PGPR and micronutrients on yield and quality of ajwain seed. Farm yard manure (FYM) and vermicompost (VC) were used as organic sources at 50% and 75% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) as basal dose. PGPRs namely Azospirillum lipoferum, Bacillus megaterium and Frateuria aurantia were used for seed priming. Micronutrients namely ZnSO4 and Fe2SO4 were applied thrice as foliar application @ 0.5% first before flowering, second at 50% flowering and third during grain formation. The results revealed that highest number of umbels plant-1, umbellets umbel-1, number of fruits umbellet-1, seed yield plant-1, seed yield hectare-1, straw yield, biological yield, test weight of seeds and essential oil yield were recorded with the application of 50% RDN through VC, which was on par with 50% RDN through FYM, seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc with respect to their individual effect. Maximum essential oil content, fixed oil content and thymol content were also observed in case of application of 50% RDN through VC, seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc individually. Highest Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 3.33 was recorded with combined application of 50% of RDN through FYM along with seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar spray of Zn at 0.5%. The integrated use of organic manures, PGPRs and micronutrients could also exert significant influence on yield and quality of Ajwain. It was observed that highest seed yield, yield attributing characters and essential oil yield and quality parameters were recorded with combined application of 50% of RDN through vermicompost along with seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc which was statistically on par with application of 50% of RDN through FYM along with seed priming with Azospirillum and foliar application of zinc.
S J Eapen
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.7153

Abstract:
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in December 2019 from Wuhan in China, had reached the stage of a pandemic. To date (28.06.2021), there are more than 181.9 million confirmed cases of the disease in the world. Even though vaccines have been developed, antiviral drugs are yet to be developed for management and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Since several medicinal plants are used in traditional medicines, though with controversial efficacy claims, they can be considered as sources of new antiviral drug compounds against emerging viruses. In this context, spices are noteworthy as their anti-oxidant, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory properties are well studied and documented. The emerging scientific literature includes a number of papers on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of spice extracts and specific compounds proven through different types of laboratory experiments. Here, the information pertaining to anti-viral properties of spice-based phytochemicals or natural compounds (not crude extracts) is summarized in this review. Spice-based compounds discussed here are an option for testing in COVID-19 patients though we don’t have strong data to support their active recommendation. Because of their natural origin, safety, and low cost, they can be a viable option in our fight against viruses and this compilation may be useful for planning and designing more robust experiments in future.
P C Tripathi, H M Jadhav, A A Qureshi, V Sankar, V Mahajan, K E Lawande
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6571

Abstract:
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important constituent of many of traditional medicines. The nutrient composition and biochemical ingredients of garlic vary among varieties and locations. The current experiment was conducted with 35 genotypes of garlic to study variation in morphological and biochemical properties among these genotypes. The weight of bulbs ranged from 6.9 g to 22.6 g. Highest number of clove bulb-1 was recorded in collection -286 (44.6) followed by GG-2 (40.6). Clove weight was higher in collection - 316 (1.41 g). The dry weight ranged from 28.6 per cent to 38.65 per cent. Highest total soluble solids were found in collection -79 (35.1°Brix). Potassium, iron and zinc content were higher in GG-2 (1.70%, 47 ppm and 19.2 ppm, respectively). Sulphur and copper content were higher in G-41. Manganese content ranged from 6.90 to 23.1 ppm. Highest anthocyanin pigment was found in the peel of cv. Godavari (5.35 mg). There was not much difference in anthocyanin content in pulp of purple and white colour varieties. Pyruvic acid content ranged from 20.9 µ mol ml-1 to 24.9 µ mol ml-1. Over all cvs. G-50, G-41, collection -316 were found superior over others.
A Indhushree, A Kuruvila
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 34-41; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6525

Abstract:
Market price volatility, the major challenge faced by the cardamom exporters greatly hinders the investment and destabilizes the earning of small holders. The present study attempted to analyse the price transmission between Indian and international markets and study the supply response of small cardamom to changes in price. The co-movement of prices of small cardamom exist between the Indian and international markets after trade liberalisation and the price transmission has been from the international market to the Indian market. The short-run disequilibrium has been found between the Indian and international prices of cardamom, which got corrected with varying speed of adjustment. The positive and significant elasticity of supply of small cardamom with respect to its own two year lagged price has been established. Crop specific price stabilization mechanism would help to overcome the wide fluctuations in prices of small cardamom.
D Goswami, M B Syiem
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 69-80; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6586

Abstract:
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria benefit plants by producing phytohormones and acquiring vital nutrients from soil. They also form a shield against potential phytopathogens with the production of antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocin, biosurfactants etc. In the present study, among various rhizobacteria isolated from ginger rhizosphere, the isolate identified as Bacillus altitudinis VS7 that showed a potent biosurfactant producing ability in the preliminary tests was selected for the further study. Compositional analyses indicated that the biosurfactant produced by VS7 was a surfactin like compound, a cyclic lipopeptide. In both microtitre plate and mycelium growth inhibition studies, the biosurfactant showed dose dependent antagonistic activities against Pythium aphanidermatum that causes soft rot in ginger. Although there are reports of biocontrol activity of various rhizobacteria against soft rot in ginger, this is the firstinformation regarding biocontrol activity of a biosurfactant produced by the rhizobacterium B. altitudinis VS7 against P. aphanidermatum.
P Sruthi, M M Naidu
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 24-33; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.7049

Abstract:
Ionizing radiations are detrimental to the biological system. Exposure to ionizing radiations results in many chronic diseases including cancer. It may cause dysfunctions to almost all organs of the body depending on the total dose, duration and site of irradiation. Apart from its bad effect, radiotherapy is now extensively used for the treatment of several kinds of cancers. Still, the key disadvantage in the procedure is that normal cell, in the surrounding area of the tumor, also receiving radiation doses similar to the tumor, leads to undesirable side effects and risk to patients. Curcumin has been found to protect harmful effects of ionizing radiation. So, it can be beneficial during radiotherapy of cancer. Curcumin helps to kill tumor cells effectively by enhancing the effect of radiation. It also protects normal cells against the harmful effects of radiation. Pre clinical studies are expected to lead to clinical trials to prove the potential of this age-old golden spice for treating cancer patients. This review summarizes the protective effect of curcumin against harmful radiations.
A A Khan, M K Shahid
Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.25081/josac.2021.v30.i1.6855

Abstract:
Use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation to increase the hygienic quality of spices is increasing worldwide. Among several detection methods, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is one of the reliable techniques for irradiated foods containing some hard and dried parts. Spices are therefore candidates of such a method and radiation treated spices can be detected. The purpose of the present work was to identify the radiation treatment of spices like cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and rosemary using the sensitive technique of ESR spectroscopy. The spice samples were irradiated to 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilogray (kGy) or unirradiated and the samples were dried in vacuum oven and were placed into quartztubes for ESR measurement. On measurements, the unirradiated samples were found to show the ESR-signal at g-value of 2.004 that is typical in case of plant foods containing cellulose. Whereas, the irradiated samples showed a formation of a new paramagnetic structure that appeared in the form of a triplet-signal, attributed to radiation-induced cellulose radical. The clear difference between the nature of ESR signals in case of unirradiated and irradiated samples provided the evidence of the radiation treatment of spices samples. It is therefore concluded that radiation treatment of spices can be identified using sensitive ESR spectroscopy during a storage period of three to ten months.
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