Refine Search

New Search

Results: 24,449

(searched for: publisher_group_id:5265)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 489
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Trang Le Thi Thuy, Thang Nguyen Tat, , Hao Nguyen Trong, Trung Van The
Published: 27 October 2021
Abstract:
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a tissue-specific autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring and rapid onset of hair loss. Interleukin (IL)-17A is mainly produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells and may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases including AA.Objectives: We conducted this research to measure serum level of IL-17A in patients with AA and investigated its relationship with the clinical manifestations in patients with AA.Methods: We assessed 36 patients with AA and 20 healthy control subjects. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were determined by physical examination and via the review of medical history. Serum IL-17A was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Serum IL-17A concentration was significantly higher in patients with AA than in the control group (P=0.004). The AA patients with severe presentation, personal atopy, nail abnormalities, or active phase had significantly higher serum IL-17A levels compared to others without these signs.Conclusion: Increased serum IL-17A levels in patients with AA correlate with severity and indicate an active disease state. These findings suggest that IL-17A may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of AA and may serve as a valuable clinical biomarker of this disease.
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze; https://doi.org/10.4081/scienze.2021.767

Abstract:
Robert Grosseteste (ca. 1170-1253) was one of the first scholars to embed the newly rediscovered ideas of Aristotle into medieval natural philosophy. In a series of short scientific treatises written between about 1215 and 1230 he focused on explaining why, rather than how, the natural world behaves as it does. He adopted a principle of subalternation in which complex phenomena could be understood in terms of simpler underlying behaviour that could be tested by observation. For example, he explained the features of the rainbow in terms of optics, which in turn could be explained by geometry. Grosseteste’s “Big Bang” theory of the formation of the universe, based on the expansion of light from a point, is founded on the need to explain the stability of solid matter. Although surviving manuscripts do contain almost no diagrams, it is evident that he thought both mathematically and pictorially in developing a unified model of natural phenomena. In a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between historians, philosophers, palaeographers, linguists, artists and scientists (www.ordered-universe.com) we have shown how detailed examination of Grosseteste’s science can stimulate both new contemporary scientific research and artistic creativity.
Angela Saraiello, Federica Ferrentino, Nunzia Cuomo, Maria Grimaldi, Erasmo Falco, Marcello Raffone, Antimo Di Spirito, Nazareno Melillo, Gennaro Montanino, Valentino Guarino, et al.
Published: 26 October 2021
Microbiologia Medica, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.4081/mm.2021.9999

Abstract:
Background and aims. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold-standard assay to detect SARS-CoV-2, but it has limitations compared to viral load analysis. Quantitative detection improves surveillance, diagnosis, and prevention. We performed a comparative study of qualitative and quantitative tests for the diagnosis of COVID-19 on respiratory samples from patients screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and explored the correlation between viral load compared to the threshold cycle (Ct) value obtained in RT-PCR.Materials and methods. Sixty respiratory samples from patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 were subjected to both the qualitative (Allplex ™ 2019-nCoV Seegene) and the quantitative (Clonit® Quanty COVID-19) assays, and the relationship between viral load and Ct value was assessed by Spearman correlation analysis (ρ). In addition, the viral load of samples collected from a patient with symptomatic cancer was monitored. Results. The results show 100% agreement between the results obtained with quantitative assay and the reference standards, whereas 99.2% agreement was found for the qualitative test. A strong negative Spearman’s correlation between the Ct values of the N genes and RdRP gene was observed from qualitative assay values and viral loads.Conclusions. Quantitative assay has a higher sensitivity than qualitative assay, and viral load testing allows the clinicians to better orient themself in the choice of therapeutic treatment to be adopted. The constantly higher viral load of clinical cases considered, irrespective of the different therapies used, confirms that viral load monitoring could represent a great advantage in clinical practice.
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze; https://doi.org/10.4081/scienze.2021.764

Abstract:
This presentation will bring the reader on a journey across the micro-scopic world of water clusters. After a brief introduction about molecular spec-troscopy, I will show how the semiclassical approximation to quantum molecular dynamics allows for accurate full-dimensional quantum simulations of water cluster vibrational spectra, differently from classical molecular dynamics approaches. I will employ the semiclassical spectroscopy tool to determine the minimal network of sur-rounding water molecules needed to make the central one display the same vibra-tional features of liquid water. Remarkably, the minimal surrounding structure even-tually responsible for proper solvation is made of just a few water molecules and includes two complete solvation shells.
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze; https://doi.org/10.4081/scienze.2021.766

Abstract:
The first examples of the application of analytical chemistry methods to artistic and archaeological materials date back to the beginning of the 19th century and follow the evolution of chemistry as a modern science. It was immediately evident that such methods had to be less invasive as possible towards the artefacts. This need was met in the next two centuries by the development of new analytical techniques, especially spec-troscopic ones, that make it possible to investigate a work of art directly in its place of conservation. It was also soon highlighted that the interest of such investigations cannot be purely academic, as they should provide precise answers to scholars, conservators or restorers dealing with those works. This ability is certainly enhanced by the synergy between the acquisition of experimental data and the examination of sources contempo-rary to the artefact, of incalculable importance for the interpretation and validation of data themselves. Finally, it should be noted that the parallel evolution of chemistry as a science led to the introduction of new synthetic materials (such as pigments or plastics), that artists also began to use in a short time. Of course, when a material, whose date of first synthesis or commercialization is well known, is recognised in a work of art, an indi-rect “post quem” dating of the work is made possible. On the other hand, however, the variety of new materials poses to conservators of contemporary cultural heritage unusual challenges related to their possible degradation, and the identification of their chemical components can certainly be of great help in addressing these challenges.
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Rendiconti di Scienze; https://doi.org/10.4081/scienze.2021.765

Abstract:
Diffuse optics studies the propagation of light in highly scattering media (e.g. biological tissues). Time-resolved techniques – which measure the time-of-flight distribu-tion of photons in the medium – permit to separate the contribution of absorption (linked to chemical composition) from scattering (produced by microstructure). Furthermore, for increasing photon time-of-flight, larger tissue depths are reached. These two proper-ties, combined with the intrinsic non-invasiveness of the technique, are very interesting for clinical applications, such as diagnosis of breast cancer, imaging of brain activity, mon-itoring the functional and metabolic state of biological tissues in depth. The technology has undergone impressive growth, moving from laboratory laser systems to miniature wearable devices. To grant the reliability of the information obtained in vivo, international collaboration is needed to set objective validation protocols, in view of a growing diffu-sion of the method, from clinical diagnostics to home care.
, Romina Álvarez-Troncoso, Yasmina Martínez-Barciela, Alejandro Polina, Josefina Garrido
Published: 25 October 2021
Abstract:
This paper studies the effect of wastewater discharges on benthic macroinvertebrates in the Furnia River (Pontevedra, NW Spain). Semiquantitative surveys were carried out in spring 2008 and 2017 in three different locations, upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant built in 2013. Different indexes were calculated based on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages: abundance, richness, Shannon-Wiener, EPT, IASPT, IBMWP and several physicochemical variables were measured concurrently. Although the indexes values decreased slightly along the water course, the results indicate an optimal water quality of the Furnia River, supporting a very diverse community of aquatic macroinvertebrates.
Abubakar Umar, Salisu Ismail, Abdullahi Abdulkarim Aitek, Aliyu Abdulrahman, Ibrahim Galadima, Aminu Abbas, Sirajo Haliru Tambuwal, Solomon Ukwuani I., Isah Abdullahi, Moyijo Maishanu
Published: 22 October 2021
Chest Disease Reports, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.4081/cdr.2021.9844

Abstract:
Empyema thoracis is defined as the presence of pus in the pleural space or a purulent pleural effusion. Chronic empyema is characterized by thickened visceral and parietal peels, which hamper the ability of the affected lung to re-expand and require definitive surgical intervention. In a resource constraint environment like ours, open thoracotomy and decortication is the treatment of choice. We review our experience with cases of chronic empyema thoracis that had thoracotomy and decortication. This is a descriptive, retrospective, and observational study. Medical records of patients who had thoracotomy and decortication on account of chronic empyema thoracis in the Cardiothoracic surgery unit of our hospital between 2012 and 2020 were retrieved and reviewed. The information obtained from the records included sex, age, premorbid conditions, aetiology of empyema, cultures of pleural fluids, histology results of the cortex removed, duration of chest tube drainage, duration of hospital stay, postoperative complications, and outcome. One hundred and eighty-five patients diagnosed with empyema thoracis were seen in the study period. Sixty-five patients had thoracotomy and decortication on account of chronic empyema thoracis while the remaining 120 (64.9%) had closed tube thoracostomy drain insertion. Male: female was 5:1, mean age at presentation 24.24 years with age ranging from 2 years to 70 years. Fourteen (23.33%) were in the paediatric age group while the remaining (76.67%) were adults. The aetiology of empyema was pneumonia in 36 (60%). Strept pneumoniae was the commonest organism isolated from pleural fluids of these patients accounting for 23.33%. All patients underwent thoracotomy and decortication. The mean duration before surgery was 17 days with a range of 2 days to 40 days. The average duration of surgery was 2 hours. Chest tube was removed after an average of 7 days (range 5 to 33 days. Twenty-one patients (35%) had complications. The average duration of drainage was 18.87 days and that of hospital stay was 36.74 days. There were 3 mortalities (5%). The mean duration of follow-up was 3 months. Chronic empyema thoracis is still common in our environment and presentation is usually very late. In our series, open thoracotomy and decortication was found to be an excellent procedure with low morbidity and mortality. The majority of our patients had good functional outcome with few complications.
Jorge Mendez-Cornejo, Ruben Vidal Espinoza, Gernot Kurt Hecht Chau, Camilo Urra Albornoz, Rossana Gomez-Campos,
European Journal of Translational Myology; https://doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2021.10031

Abstract:
The components of physical fitness, aerobic capacity and anthropometric characteristics play an important role in maintaining and protecting cardiorespiratory functioning during all stages of life. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between body fat indicators and aerobic capacity of students in a physical education program. A descriptive study (cross-sectional) was carried out with 110 physical education university students (75 males and 35 females). Ages ranged between 17.7 and 26.1 years old. Weight, standing height, sitting height, waist circumference (WC), and seven skinfolds (mm) were evaluated. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The Navette test (20m back and forth run) was used to assess the students. The correlations between adiposity and aerobic capacity for males varied from r= -0.21 to 0.34 and for females, from r= -0.21 to 0.34. In general, greater body adiposity (BMI, WC, and skinfolds) was a determinant in the males (R2= 14 to 27%). For the females, the Σ 7 skinfolds explained 11% of the adiposity. Males and females classified as having a high level of aerobic capacity showed less fat tissue (Σ 7 skinfolds) than those with moderate and low aerobic capacity (p<0.05). The results from this study indicated that body adiposity expressed as fat tissue limited aerobic capacity in a greater proportion of the males than in the females. The youth classified with high aerobic capacity showed less body fat than their counterparts classified as having moderate and low levels of aerobic capacity.
Heba Wagih Abdelwahab, Shaker Wagih Shaltout, Ahmed Mohamed Fouda, Raed Elmetwally Ali, Nesrein M. Shalaby, Fatma Elhoseiny, Nesrine Saad Farrag, Ahmed Ehab
Published: 22 October 2021
Chest Disease Reports, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.4081/cdr.2021.9842

Abstract:
The pandemic of COVID-19 infection is rapidly progressing to one of the most severe threats to human health. The different responses of the immune system in females and males to a range of infectious and inflammatory stimuli were investigated. We aimed to explore the association of sex with the course of infection among the hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This Comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on RT- PCR positive COVID-19 patients. Severe and critical patients who required hospital or ICU admission were included in the study. The total number of patients was 150 (75 males and 75 females) with mean age of 57Y±14.7. There was a statistical significance in age between both groups [mean ± SD: males 60.5 (12.2), females 54 (15.3) (p=0:0.007)]. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease was higher among males but without statistical significance. Consolidation was significantly more prevalent in female group (85.3% vs 61.3% in male group). The need of mechanical ventilation was higher in men, but with no statistical significance (44% Vs 32%, p=0.302). Also, mortality rate was higher (48%) in males than in females (37.3%), but with no statistical significance (p=0.262). During the COVID-19 infection, the risk factors of severe disease and progression to the need of mechanical ventilation support in addition to mortality rate are more prevalent among males. However, radiological patterns apart from consolidation, distribution of radiological abnormalities and CT severity score in both groups did not show significant sex difference.
, Budi Hidayat, Pujiyanto Pujiyanto, Suci Puspita Ratih, Risky Kusuma Hartono,
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2392

Abstract:
Background: The sustainability of the National Health Insurance (NHI) program heavily relies on the premium of its member. The negligence of a large number of members to pay the premium lead to the failure of the Social Security Agency for Health (SSAH) to deliver its services. This study aims at analyzing important factors that influence the sustainability of premium payment of NHI’s self-enrolled members in the Jakarta Greater Area.Design and MethodS: This study performed an econometric analysis from the panel and the same respondent’s data in 2015 and 2017. The population of the study was NHI’s self-enrolled members who lived in the City of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, (Jakarta Greater Area) and it represents the urban area of Indonesia. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to determine the type of sustainability NHI premium payment.Results: The survey shows that around 28.3% of self-enrolled members do not pay the NHI insurance premium regularly. Applying ordered logit this study statistically confirms that age of household head, income per month, never experience economic hardship, 1st/2nd class registration, and benefits of SSAH are positively correlated with compliance rate to pay NHI insurance premium. Whereas tobacco consumption, health-seeking behavior, and the 2016 increase of premium are negatively correlated with regular premium payment.Conclusion: This study calls for policy intervention to improve compliance of premium payment such as 1) massive promotion of insurance literacy and benefits of insurance through a health professional, internet, and government officer; 2) expanding auto-debit and installment premium payment; 3) incentive for paying premium regularly and not smoking; and 4) improving access and quality of health services.
, Gasim Dobie
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2521

Abstract:
Background: Studies of risk factors are especially valuable at this difficult time in the midst of a pandemic. High levels of particulate matter (PM) represent a serious risk factor on health. While this is a direct impact on health, indirect effects are worth considering too.Design and Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PM in the transmission of viruses, especially SARS-CoV-2. Also, we sought to understand dynamics of PM in still air at high and low altitudes. Historic AQI and physical PM measurements were collected between August and September 2020 using air quality detector. Potential correlations between the number of total confirmed COVID-19 cases and average air quality index (AQI) from varied geographic locations were also assessed.Results: Airborne PM levels were weakly associated with COVID-19 cases after analysing 77 territories. PM remained longer in the air at high altitudes compared to measurements made at sea level. This suggests that the link between PM and COVID-19 transmission could be aggravated in areas of high altitude.Conclusions: This article highlights that particulate matter can be involved in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, confounding factors may have impacted the association between the two variables. These findings can serve as a foundation for future studies on the effect of air pollutants and fine particulate matter on viral transmission.
, Retno Indarwati, Gading Ekapuja Aurizki, Ika Adelia Susanti, Antoni Eka Fajar Maulana
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2386

Abstract:
Background: Mental health issues following the occurrence of disaster remain neglected area especially for older people group. The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders’ perspectives on post-disaster management related to the elderly’s mental health needs.Design and Methods: This qualitative case study was conducted between June and October 2020. The investigators conducted in-depth interviews with policymakers who were in charge of disaster management at national, provincial, and regional levels. The policymakers were selected through purposive sampling. A policy analysis was conducted by the investigators to answer the research question.Results: The results were presented based on actor, content, context, and process. The actors engage in intersectoral collaboration between disaster agencies, health agencies, and social agencies. The content is largely comprehensive; however, the disaster management policy should not neglect to address mental health conditions after a disaster event. The context is the vulnerability and risk of the elderly in terms of experiencing physical and mental issues after a disaster, which should be considered by policymakers in Indonesia. The process is the development of disaster management policies, which are influenced by cultural, economic, political, and international factors.Conclusion: This study reveals that stakeholders need to pay attention to the mental health issue of elderly in national and regional policy, particularly during post-disaster situations. In addition, posttraumatic stress in post-disaster situations should be highlighted in order to formulate a better aged care policy.
, Roberto Bertoni
Published: 20 October 2021
Journal of Limnology, Volume 80; https://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2021.2057

Abstract:
Celebrating an anniversary is, at the same time, appreciation of past well-being and hope for a favourable future. However, celebrating the birthday of a scientific journal is not just an act of hope in the future, but rather an act of faith in research and in science as tools for the advancement of the human species....
Narges Ansari, Mohadeseh Pirhadi, Mahsa Alikord, Mahmoud Bahmani, Parisa Sadighara,
Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino della Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale; https://doi.org/10.4081/jbr.2021.9874

Abstract:
COVID-19 known as the “novel coronavirus disease 2019” is a respiratory illness, and the causative pathogen is officially named as Sars-CoV-2whose epidemic has spread rapidly worldwide. Thus, human-to human transmission has reduced if people's attention to health has increased and precautionary measures have been implemented.It is known that the virus can survive on infected surfaces and handsfor hours and days. It is possible to get infected by touchingthe contaminated surface of food packaging by customers in the grocery and then touching their own mouth, nose, or eyes. Thus, the public supposes that touching food or food packing by salesmen and buyers in the grocery can transmit the virus to the customers. Therefore, the World Health Organization encourages people to wash their hands regularly and disinfect areas where the virus can survive, such as metal and plastic surfaces.In fact, overwashing can cause disadvantages such as moisture penetration into food packages and increased water activity in food, which provides the conditions for fungi to grow and cause spoilage in food. Accordingly, this phenomenon would have shown significant negative effects on public health as the post-pandemic phase of COVID-19. The corona virus has had a significant impact on people's behavior in the food chain, washing and disinfecting food in these critical situations. People also quickly changed the way they bought and procured food from supermarkets to ensure food safety and eradicate the virus.Use of substances/disinfectants such as Sodium hypochlorite, reduce COVID-19 from surfaces and objects or reduce viral particles from surfaces and objects. COVID-19 is the disease caused by the virus. The virus is present on the surface of objects and the disease caused by the virus does not occur on objects. Washing and disinfecting food packaging may cause damage the products thereby reducing their shelf life and provide. Therefore, health experts report public awareness of hands and disinfect surfaces regularly to eliminate the virus. It is also recommended to wash and disinfect hands and disinfect surfaces.
Mohd Azmeer Abu Bakar, ,
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.987

Abstract:
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common causes of disability in childhood, leading to functional limitations and poor nutritional status. Families with CP children face challenges in providing proper care. Thus, accessibility of CP patients to health facilities is important to ensure that they can maintain regular visits to health facilities for proper treatment and care. The current study aimed to map the spatial distribution of CP in Johor, Malaysia and measure the accessibility of CP patients to nearby hospitals, health clinics and community-based rehabilitation centres. The study is based on CP cases in 2017 obtained from the Department of Social Welfare, Malaysia and analysed using the average nearest neighbour, buffer analysis and Kernel Density Estimation. Results indicate that there is generally good access to health care services for many of the CP children in Johor, but for 25% of those living more than 10 km away from the health clinics or community-based rehabilitation centres, regular visits can be a problem. This information should be used for targeted intervention and planning for health care strategies. Furthermore, information on hospital accessibility of CP children would allow for planning of proper and regular treatment for these patients. The study has shown that it is possible to improve the understanding of the distribution of CP cases by integrating spatial analysis using geographical information systems without relying on official information about the density of populations.
, Fazlay Faruque, Ammar Naji, Alok Tiwari
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.1002

Abstract:
Considering spatial accessibility of health services is a critical part in the planning and management of health services. There is evidence that poor geographical locations can obstruct prompt basic health care services to some population sections. We developed a location-allocation P-median model for health centres after analysing their sites, demand location of health services and the road network in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This model attempts to optimize health care services network and to put forward location recommendations to maximise service coverage. Our model is shown to be useful as it provides a robust evidence base to urban planners and policymakers responsible for making spatial decisions for the development of the health sector. Besides, it follows the paradigm of new urbanism that encourages decentralisation of essential facilities including basic healthcare in cities, where emphasis is on offering all basic services within walkable distances of 15 min. or less.
, Luigi Aronne, Domenica Francesca Mariniello, Valentino Allocca, Maria Ilaria Palma, Francesco Saverio Cerqua, Carlo Iadevaia, Adriano Costigliola, Roberto Parrella, , et al.
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.1803

Abstract:
Identification of risk factors for severe outcome of Sars-Cov-2 infection is an important issue in COVID-19 management. Much attention has been focused on comorbidities as well as drugs taken by patients. Usage of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) appears to potentially influence disease course. These drugs are known to reduce stomach acid and also modulate the immune system. Their use, prior to and during COVID-19 infection, seems to predispose to the development of more severe pneumonia and therefore to a greater risk of mortality. Instead, the use of Histamine receptor 2 antagonists (H2RAs) seems to be associated with a better outcome in patients with COVID-19, in terms of symptoms, risk of intubation and death. As PPIs are essential for treatment of many disorders, usage of these drugs should be balanced considering the benefits and risk ratio, in order to guarantee their correct use for the necessary time. It remains to be clarified whether the detrimental effects, in terms of COVID19 severe outcome, are due to PPIs or to the underlying disease for which they are administered. New controlled-randomized trials are required to better understand their impact in SARS-COV-2 infections. *Vanvitelli/Monaldi COVID Group: Adriano Cristinziano, Carolina Delle Donne, Cecilia Calabrese, Fabio Perrotta, Filippo Scialò, Francesco Lassandro, Gennaro Mazzarella, Giorgio Paoli, Leonardo De Luca, Maria Galdo, Miriam Buonincontro, Roberta Cianci, Rosalba Donizzetti, Stefano Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Tullio Valente, Vito D’Agnano, Vittorio Bisogni
, Sara L. McLafferty
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.982

Abstract:
In the late 1960s, Indonesia established community health centres (CHCs) throughout the country to provide basic healthcare services for the poor. However, CHC expenditures and investments vary widely at the sub-provincial level, among administrative areas known as cities and regencies, raising concern that facilities and services do not correspond to population needs. This study aimed to examine spatial and socioeconomic inequalities in the availability of CHCs in the Jakarta region. We used spatial and statistical analysis methods at the village level to investigate these inequalities based on CHC data from the Ministry of Health and socioeconomic data from Indonesia Statistics. Results show that CHCs and the healthcare workers within them are unevenly distributed. In areas with high need, the availability of CHCs and healthcare workers were found to be low. There is a mismatch in healthcare services and delivery for low-income, unemployed populations at the village level that needs to be addressed. The findings discussed in this paper suggest that Jakarta Department of Health should coordinate with local public health districts to determine locations for new CHCs and assign healthcare workers to each CHC based on need as this would improve access to essential health services for the low-income population.
Nur Adibah Mohidem, , Farrah Melissa Muharam, Saliza Mohd Elias, Rafiza Shaharudin, Zailina Hashim
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.980

Abstract:
In the last few decades, public health surveillance has increasingly applied statistical methods to analyze the spatial disease distributions. Nevertheless, contact tracing and follow up control measures for tuberculosis (TB) patients remain challenging because public health officers often lack the programming skills needed to utilize the software appropriately. This study aimed to develop a more user-friendly application by applying the CodeIgniter framework for server development, ArcGIS JavaScript for data display and a web application based on JavaScript and Hypertext Preprocessor to build the server’s interface, while a webGIS technology was used for mapping. The performance of this approach was tested based on 3325 TB cases and their sociodemographic data, such as age, gender, race, nationality, country of origin, educational level, employment status, health care worker status, income status, residency status, and smoking status between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2017 in Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia. These data were collected from the Gombak District Health Office and Rawang Health Clinic. Latitude and longitude of the location for each case was geocoded by uploading spatial data using Google Earth and the main output was an interactive map displaying location of each case. Filters are available for the selection of the various sociodemographic factors of interest. The application developed should assist public health experts to utilize spatial data for the surveillance purposes comprehensively as well as for the drafting of regulations aimed at to reducing mortality and morbidity and thus minimizing the public health impact of the disease.
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.998

Abstract:
Medicinal plants are increasingly used, both for medical applications and personal healthcare. However, existing herbal database systems for plant retrieval offer only basic information and do not support real-time analysis of the spatial aspects of plantations and distribution sites. Moreover, data records are usually static and not publicly available as they rely on costly proprietary software packages. To address these shortcomings, including limiting the time needed for collection and data processing, a novel medicinal plants geospatial database management system is proposed. The system allows localization of plant sites and data presentation on an interactive heat map displaying spatial information of plants selected by the user within a specific radius from the user’s location, including automatic presentation of an itinerary giving the optimal route between user location and plant destinations selected. The approach relies on dynamic and role-based data management, an interactive map that includes graphics and integrated geospatial analyses thanks to cross-platform, geographical a JavaScript library and Google API. Both spatial data and attributes are available in real time. The system would support effective collaboration, among herb farmers, government agencies, private investors, healthcare professionals and the general public with regard to various aspects of medicinal plants and their applications.
Larisa A. Marchenkova, Ekaterina V. Makarova, Mikhail A. Eryomushkin, Anatoly D. Fesun, Elena M. Styazkina, Ekaterina I. Chesnikova
European Journal of Translational Myology; https://doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2021.9945

Abstract:
Medical rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VF) remains an insufficiently developed topic and requires additional research. Aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of back muscles training and balance therapy in rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Prospective, interventional, open-label, controlled study in two parallel groups, performed in inpatient department settings at “National Medical Research Center of Rehabilitation and Balneology” during 2018. The study involved 120 patients (11 men and 109 women) aged 40-80 (mean age 65.4±9.1 years) who were admitted for medical rehabilitation for systemic OP and VF. The rehabilitation program in the main group included: 1) Mechanotherapy on the Back-Therapy-Center Dr. Wolf complex with biofeedback (Germany); 2) Balance therapy on a double unstable COBS platform, with biofeedback (Germany); 3) Hydrokinesiotherapy in a pool; 4) Gymnastic exercises (Gorinevskaya-Dreving method). Results. The use of the three-week program of physical rehabilitation using mechanotherapy, balance therapy and special complexes of physiotherapy exercises in the gym and in the pool in patients with osteoporotic VF significantly increases the strength of the muscle corset, helps to eliminate the existing muscle deficit in TE and TF and results in a more physiological distribution of the strength ratio between TE and TF. The rehabilitation program improves the function of static and dynamic balance, both with closed and open eyes, which can be observed in the return of the center of gravity to a physiological position and in improved reaction speed to changes in body position. Usage of mechanotherapeutic methods in rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic VF is effective for basic motor function improvement and disability reduction.
, Henry Mwambi, Oliver Bodhlyera,
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.1004

Abstract:
There is a vast amount of geo-referenced data in many fields of study including ecological studies. Geo-referencing is usually by point referencing; that is, latitudes and longitudes or by areal referencing, which includes districts, counties, states, provinces and other administrative units. The availability of large geo-referenced datasets for modelling has necessitated the development and application of spatial statistical methods. However, spatial varying coefficients models exploring the abundance of tick counts remain limited. In this study we used data that was collected and prepared by researchers in the Department of Biological Sciences from the Old Dominion University, Virginia, USA. We modelled tick life-stage counts and abundance variability from 12 sampling locations, with 5 different habitats (numbered 1-5), three habitat types; namely: woods, edges and grass; collected monthly from May 2009 through December 2018. Spatio-temporal Poisson and spatio-temporal negative binomial (NB) count data models were fitted to the data and compared using the deviance information criteria (DIC). The NB model outperformed the Poisson models with all its DIC values being smaller than those of the Poisson model. Results showed that the covariates varied spatially across counties. There was a decreasing time (in years) effect over the study period. However, even though the time effect was decreasing over the study period, space-time interaction effects were seen to be increasing over time in York County.
Walter Peterson
Published: 19 October 2021
Geospatial Health, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2021.983

Abstract:
Nineteenth-century London experienced four extraordinarily severe summertime cholera epidemics. Three were preceded by less severe non-summer outbreaks. Twenty-first-century research hypothesizes them as herald waves of potentially new cholera strains. This study examined the geographical characteristics of these herald waves and compared them to their subsequent main waves to determine if there was a geographical component to the significant difference in wave severity. Cholera mortality data for London’s parishes and registration districts were extracted from contemporaneous records. The data were normalized and scaled. Each epidemic wave was divided into two segments for analysis. A Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between a herald and its subsequent main wave. Geospatial analytical tools were used to determine and display each segment’s geographic distribution pattern using autocorrelation techniques to determine its central point. Results show that the herald wave of each epidemic shared characteristics similar to its following main wave. Central-point locations were similar and Spearman’s rank coefficients showed high degrees of correlation. Autocorrelation results were similar, with one exception reflecting an appalling anomalous cholera outbreak at an institution for children. Because of the demonstrated similarity of each epidemic’s herald and main waves, this study did not detect a spatial characteristic that could explain the observed difference in severity between the studied heralds and mains.
Muhammed Shikhani, , Artur Gevorgyan, , Amalya Misakyan, Levon Azizyan, Klemens Barfuss, Martin Schulze, Tom Shatwell,
Published: 18 October 2021
Abstract:
Lake Sevan is the largest freshwater body in the Caucasus region, situated at an altitude of 1,900 m asl. While it is a major water resource in the whole region, Lake Sevan has received little attention in international limnological literature. Although recent studies pointed to algal blooms and negative impacts of climate change and eutrophication, the physical controls on thermal dynamics have not been characterized and model-based assessments of climate change impacts are lacking. We compiled a decade of historical data for meteorological conditions and temperature dynamics in Lake Sevan and used a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model (GLM 3.1) in order to study thermal structure, the stratification phenology and their meteorological drivers in this large mountain lake. We then evaluated the representativeness of meteorological data products covering almost 4 decades (EWEMBI-dataset: 1979-2016) for driving the model and found that these data are well suited to restore long term thermal dynamics in Lake Sevan. This established model setting allowed us to identify major changes in Lake Sevan’s stratification in response to changing meteorological conditions as expected from ongoing climate change. Our results point to a changing mixing type from dimictic to monomictic as Lake Sevan will experience prolonged summer stratification periods and more stable stratification. These projected changes in stratification must be included in long-term management perspectives as they will intensify water quality deteriorations like surface algal blooms or deep water anoxia.
European Journal of Translational Myology; https://doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2021.10052

Abstract:
Culture-bound syndromes are a group of abnormal behavior patterns occurring only in definite cultural groups. As a form of culture-bound syndromes, possession trance is known as the “replacement of personal identity customary sense by a new identity.” Djinnati syndrome is a possession state restricted to specific areas of Iranian and Pakistani Baluchestan. Preceding studies suggested that complex behavioral manifestations of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were likely to contain dissociative states symptoms. Nonetheless, people in numerous developing countries hold a belief that Jinn possession causes epilepsy even in quite well-educated people. The aims of the present report are to describe a patient who presented Djinnati syndrome as the very first manifestation of TLE and address the feasible detrimental impacts of cultural misconceptions on diagnosing and treating epileptic seizures.
Claudia Dresti, ,
Published: 13 October 2021
Abstract:
In this paper we review a significant sample of the modelling studies carried out on medium-to-large deep European perialpine lakes (MLDEPLs). The reviewed bibliographic corpus was obtained querying Elsevier’s Scopus® database with a tailored search string on 8 January 2021. Results were filtered, accepting only journal papers written in English dealing with natural lakes having surface area > 10 km2. A list of 75 works was obtained, published between 1986 and 2021. Most studies have been carried out on Swiss lakes (44 out of 75 papers), Lake Geneva being the most investigated environment. A significant positive correlation was found between lake surface area and volume and the number of dedicated papers, suggesting that scientific attention is higher for environments characterised by large dimensions and relevant socio-economic interests. Both the number of papers and their citation count have experienced an exponential growth in time, pointing to a rising interest in quantitative modelling applications, but also to the increasing availability and ease of use of numerical modelling tools. Among the 75 selected papers, 55 employ a hydrodynamic driver, used alone or coupled with an ecological module, while the remnant 20 works adopt an ecological-only model. Among the papers employing hydrodynamic models, the use of three-dimensional (3D) drivers is surprisingly slightly more frequent (28 papers) than that of one-dimensional (1D) ones (26 papers), with most 3D applications having been published in the last 2011-2020 decade (24 papers). This reflects the interest on the hydrodynamic processes leading to the observed spatial heterogeneities in the biochemical properties of the MLDEPLs. However, coupling of ecological modules with 3D hydrodynamic drivers, to directly simulate these phenomena, is still restricted (2 papers) compared to that of 1D hydrodynamic drivers (8 papers), due to calibration and computational difficulties, which could be strongly reduced by future research achievements. Nevertheless, 1D models allow performing long-term prognoses considering multiple climate change and watershed management scenarios, due to their much smaller computational burden. The largest group of works dealing with ecological-only models (6 papers) is dedicated to applications of phosphorus budget models, which can above all be used to forecast variations in lake productivity in response to changes in the availability of the limiting nutrient. Graphical abstract
Andrea Fontanella, , Francesco Landi
Italian Journal of Medicine; https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.q.2021.s1

Abstract:
Il presente documento è stato redatto nell’ambito del progetto di sensibilizzazione sul tema di Fondazione Onda.
The Editors
Working Paper of Public Health, Volume 9, pp 1-68; https://doi.org/10.4081/wpph.2021.9400

Abstract:
Atti "Iconografia della Salute 2020"
, Alice Dalla Vecchia
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
A huge knowledge gap exists on riverine pioneer herbaceous vegetation. Despite its relevance in regulating the C metabolism at the catchment scale, and the triggering role in shrubs and trees establishment along riverbanks, little data is available on its environmental determinants. Indeed, most existing knowledge in this field refers to woody species or aquatic macrophytes neglecting the ecosystem relevance of ephemeral herbaceous vegetation. Focusing on three gravel bed rivers located in northern Italy (Baganza, Nure and Parma streams), the present study is aimed to evaluate the riverine ephemeral plant richness, considering both native and alien taxa, and the role of hydrogeomorphological disturbance and sediment quality in the observed richness patterns. At higher disturbance rates (e.g., larger river sizes), our data indicates a progressive decrease in overall plant richness, but also an increase in the coverage-abundance rates mainly due to alien species. This evidence confirms that variations in hydrology imply changes in pioneer plant species richness at in-stream periodically exposed sediments. More attention must be given to the vulnerability of pioneer vegetation to climate change and direct human impacts to fully understand the functioning of lotic ecosystems, especially the non-perennial ones.
Ravindra Nath, Neeraj Kumar Gupta, Amandeep Jaswal, Sparsh Gupta, Navjot Kaur, Santvana Kohli, Anirudh Saxena, , , Poornima Tiwari, et al.
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.2034

Abstract:
The similarities and differences between the mortality patterns of the two waves in India remain largely unknown. This was a retrospective study of medical records conducted in the COVID data center of our hospital This study analyzed data of patients who died in the month of August, 2020 to October 2020 (one month before and after the peak of first wave i.e., 16th September, 2020) & April 2021 to June 2021 (one month before and after the peak of second wave i.e., 6th May, 2021), corresponding to an equal part of the pandemic during first (2020) and second (2021) wave. Out of 1893 patients in the study, 764 patients were admitted during the first wave and 1129 patients during the second wave of pandemic. In total, 420 patients died during the entire study period. Of those, 147 (35%) deaths occurred during the first wave and 273 (65%) during the second wave, reflecting a case fatality rate (CFR) of 19.2% during the first wave and a CFR of 24.18%. There were no significant differences in the Age Group, Gender, Presenting Complaints, Duration of Stay and Comorbidities. However, the deceased COVID-19 patients had an increase in Case Fatality Rate, average duration of symptoms from onset to Hospital Admission (DOSHA) and a major shift from MODS to ARDS being the Cause of Death during the second wave of Pandemic. This study demonstrates increased CFR, average DOSHA and a paradigm shift to ARDS as cause of mortality during the second peak of the Pandemic. It is necessary to remain vigilant of newer COVID-19 variants of concern, follow COVID-19 appropriate behaviors and keep emphasizing on care of high-risk groups including patients with comorbidities and elderly population to prevent mortality.
, , Giulio Barbiero, Carlo Maria Dellino, Elena Reffo, Giovanni Di Salvo, Raffaella Motta
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.1915

Abstract:
SCA from the right sinus is the rarest coronary anomaly. We describe 2 cases: 1 with SCA type-1RI; 2 with SCA type-2RII-A. Appropriate and successful treatment (CABG in case-1; PTCA in case-2) was chosen relying on accurate morphological description provided by MDCT, in order to recognize all the possible mechanisms of myocardial ischemia.
, Paolo Spina, Esther Papalia, Renzo Boldorini, Michele Abruzzese, Ottavio Rena
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.2028

Abstract:
Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are a rare finding, and one third of them are seminomas. Seminomas are found in the anterior mediastinum, whereas they are extremely rare within the posterior compartment. Most clinicians would not consider a primary seminoma in the differential diagnosis of a posterior mediastinal mass, as only two cases have been reported in literature. Here we present the case of a 57-year-old male with a primary seminoma arising in the left posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and the mass was an incidental finding. Positron emission tomography (PET) revealed a small area with an avid tracer uptake. Transthoracic needle aspiration led to a non-diagnostic result. Due to the strong suspect of malignancy, a surgical excision was chosen to obtain a diagnosis. He underwent complete excision, and pathology report demonstrated a mediastinal seminoma. Subsequent further staging did not reveal any other location of the disease. Given the complete excision of the primary tumor, active surveillance was the treatment of choice. The patient is free of disease 48 months after diagnosis.
, Abdullah Eltayeb, , Maie AlShahid, Aly AlSanei, Ali AlEnazy,
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.2043

Abstract:
Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVPA) formation is a potentially lethal complication of myocardial infarction (MI] and mitral valve (MV) replacement that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. A female patient who had been complaining of exertional dyspnea underwent a two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) which revealed a functioning mechanical MV with severe paravalvular leak, severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and severely elevated pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Moreover, echo-lucent space at the postero-lateral portion of the left ventricle near the MV was seen, suggestive of a large LVPA. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and Computed Tomography (CT) angiography confirmed these findings. Afterwards, the patient had a surgical repair for the LVPA along with mitral and tricuspid valve (TV) replacement. Three months later, the patient presented with symptoms of congestive heart failure. The LVPA had recurred at the same location of the previous pseudoaneurysm and given the high risk for reoperating on the patient, close monitoring and medical management was deemed as a better option.
, Angelo Coppola, Andrea Perduno, Gian Marco Manzetti, Ermanno Puxeddu, Paola Rogliani
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.1925

Abstract:
Ambulatory oxygen therapy (AOT) is commonly prescribed in Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) patients, with the aim of reducing dyspnea and increasing exercise tolerance. Despite its frequent use and a reasonable physiological rationale, there is a lack of evidence supporting the effect of AOT on improving dyspnea during exercise. Moreover, dyspnea encompasses distinct sensory (intensity, quality) and affective (anxiety, fear) components with different underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen supplementation on exercise tolerance and dyspnea in ILD patients with exercise induced hypoxia (EIH). Forty-seven ILD patients performed a six minute walk test (6MWT) on room air (RA) and with oxygen supplementation (Ox). The 6MWT distance (6MWD) was significantly greater with oxygen supplementation (RA: 242±143 m vs Ox: 345±106 m p<0,01). With oxygen supplementation, the overall dyspnea and anxiety significantly decreased both at rest (1,1±1,4 Borg Unit (BU) vs 0,4±0,9BU , p.<0.01, and 1,1±1,6BU vs 0,5±1,3 BU, p.<0.05, respectively) and at the end of exercise (5,1±2,6 BU vs 3,7±2,5 BU, p.<0.001 and 3,4 ±2,9 vs 2,5 ±2,8, p.<0.01, respectively) despite a greater walked distance. In ILD patients with EIH, oxygen supplementation increases the exercise tolerance and reduces overall dyspnea perception and the anxiety component of breathlessness.
, Nikolaos Garmpis, Dimitrios Mermigkis, Christos Damaskos, Serafeim Chlapoutakis, Konstantinos Mantzouranis, Aikaterini Gkoufa, Chrysovalantis Papageorgiou, Anna Garmpi, Sotiria Makrodimitri, et al.
Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease; https://doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2021.2008

Abstract:
Cancer immunotherapy aims to stimulate the immune system to fight against tumors, utilizing the presentation of molecules on the surface of the malignant cells that can be recognized by the antibodies of the immune system. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, a type of cancer immunotherapy, are broadly used in different types of cancer, improving patients’ survival and quality of life. However, treatment with these agents causes immune-related toxicities affecting many organs. The most frequent pulmonary adverse event is pneumonitis representing a non-infective inflammation localized to the interstitium and alveoli. Other lung toxicities include airway disease, pulmonary vasculitis, sarcoid-like reactions, infections, pleural effusions, pulmonary nodules, diaphragm myositis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This review aims to summarize these pulmonary adverse events, underlining the significance of an optimal expeditious diagnosis and management.
, Alfredo Procino
Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino della Società Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale; https://doi.org/10.4081/jbr.2021.10072

Abstract:
Dear editor, The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated the production of different therapeutic approaches for the resolution of coronavirus infections. On one hand, nanobiomolecules have been proposed as bait material for viruses, 1 on the other hand unconventional messenger RNA vaccines have been produced like SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines (BioNTech / Pfizer BNT162b2 and Moderna mRNA-1273).
Eisa Yazeed Ghazwani, , Awad Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Yahya Hussein Ahmed Abdulla, , Mugahed Ali Al-Khadher, Sadeq Abdo Alwesabi, Ahmad Abdullah Alshehri, Mosleh Hamad Almas, Sherif Mohamed Khorshid
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2343

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic contributes to a significant mental health crisis. This pandemic caused a widening economic crisis, growing financial loss, and numerous uncertainties. This pandemic brought alarming implications and overall increased risk for psychiatric illness. This study explores the psychological impact experienced by patients who tested positive from coronavirus disease in the Najran region, Saudi Arabia.Design and Methods: This exploratory analysis included 210 COVID-19 positive patients. The study was conducted during a six month period starting from March to September 2020, in two tertiary government hospitals in Najran, Saudi Arabia. Samples were selected using purposive sampling. The researches utilized survey questionnaire and face-to-face interview to collect the data. The statistical data were calculated using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 2.0 to compute the following statistical formulas: percentage distribution, mean, standard deviation, and Chi-square test of independence.Results: The findings of this study revealed that the majority of COVID-19 positive patients were middle-aged adults (n=98 or 46.7%), male (n=178 or 84.8%), and were non-Saudi nationals (n=132 or 62.9%). It was found out that COVID-19 patients experienced bothersome behaviour at a very high level (x̅=2.63 ± 0.6734). Meanwhile, depression (x̅=2.51 ± 0.7070), worry (x̅=2.23 ± 0.8811), and anxiety (x̅=2.21 ± 0.8719) was only at a high level.Conclusions: The study findings revealed that the majority of participants had high levels of depression, anxiety and bothersome behaviours. However, demographic characteristics like age, sex, and nationality were not significantly related to coronavirus patients' psychological health problems during the pandemic. Assessment and interventions for psychosocial concerns, integration of mental health considerations, consultation with specialists, and treatment for severe psychosocial consequences must be administered in COVID-19 care facilities.
, , Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa, Gulia Di Donato, Chiara Cauzzo, Roberta Patacchiola, , Sabrina Di Pillo, Francesco Chiarelli
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4081/mrm.2021.786

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to compare the number of the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) visits for young allergic patients with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 with the same period in 2019, evaluating the percentage of positive cases to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We carried out a retrospective analysis using data from young patients who visited the PED with cutaneous or respiratory symptoms in the period from 20th February to 12th May of the years 2020 and 2019. Data on allergy and COVID-19 nasal swab were also collected. We observed eleven (28.2%) PED visits for allergic patients with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms for the period from 20th February to 12th May of the year 2020 and ninety-three (31.8%) PED visits for the same time frame of the year 2019 (p=0.645). Only a two-month-old child out of 39 patients with non-allergic respiratory or cutaneous symptoms resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, we found for all the PED visits: 21 (7.2%) in 2019 vs 2 (5.1%) in 2020 for patients with urticaria/angioedema or atopic dermatitis (p=0.634); 3 (1.0%) in 2019 vs 3 (7.7%) in 2020 for patients with anaphylaxis (p=0.003); 19 (6.5%) in 2019 vs 2 (5.1%) in 2020 for those with asthma (p=0.740); 11(3.8%) in 2019 vs 1(2.6%) in 2020 for those with lower respiratory diseases, excluding asthma (p=0.706); 39(13.4%) in 2019 vs 3 (7.7%) in 2020 for those with upper respiratory diseases (URDs) (p=0.318). We also showed a substantial decrease (~80%) in all PED visits compared with the same time frame in 2019 (absolute number 263 vs 1211, respectively). Among all the PED visits a significant reduction was mostly found for URDs [155 (12.8%) in 2019 vs 17 (6.5%) in 2020; p=0.045)]. The total number of PED visits for allergic patients with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms dropped precipitously in 2020. It is very tricky to estimate whether it was a protective action of allergy or the fear of contagion or the lockdown or a reduction in air pollution that kept children with allergy from visiting the PED. Further studies are needed to better understand the impact of underlying allergies on COVID-19 susceptibility and disease severity.
Sirajuddin Sirajuddin, Saifuddin Sirajuddin, Razak Thaha, Amran Razak, Ansariadi Ansariadi, Ridwan M Taha, Purnawan Junadi, Pungkas Bahjuri Ali
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2393

Abstract:
Background: Evaluation of large-scale stunting interventions in Indonesia has never been carried out, because it found limited sensitive and specific interventions that were carried out massively at the village level. The provincial government of South Sulawesi Indonesia in 2020 has implemented a stunting intervention model called Gammarana. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the impact of Gammarana on changes in stunting at the project site. Location project as many as 30 villages with a population estimated 60,000. Design and Methods: Evaluation in this study using a retrospective method and internal and external audit to document potential, then validated after the field visit Gammarana first phase in 2020. Basic Logic Model evaluation model with 22 indicators (input, process, secondary output and primary output). Proving the effect of Gammarana on changes in stunting by comparing the phenomena in the comparison village.Results: The comparison villages were set as equal and comparable in 13 indicators that could disturb the study conclusions. The result of the initial condition is that the conditions of the two villages of Gammarana and Villages Comparison are seen as the same in various characteristics, so that whatever the results of this evaluation study are believed to be the impact of Gammarana Project.Conclusions: this protocol eligible to evaluation of Gammarana Project Intervention in Enrekang District, South Sulawesi Indonesia.
Shafiqul Hassan, Yusuff Jelili Amuda, Emna Chikhaoui,
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2440

Abstract:
The pandemic of Covid-19 at the global level cannot be underestimated. Arab world including Saudi Arabia is affected with the pandemic of Covid-19. More importantly, the surge of the numbers of infected individuals in Iran has brought fear and anxiety in the whole region in general and Saudi Arabia in particular. Several studies have investigated the prevalence of the virus in different countries from various perspectives. Nonetheless, little focus is given to academic research on health challenge of the virus resulting to fear and anxiety in the recent time in the context of Saudi Arabia. This study primarily aims at exploring the health effect of Covid-19 in Saudi Arabia despite the fact that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has clamored for preventive measures in addressing global health effect of the virus. The methodology of the study is systematic literature review (SLR) and content analysis of the secondary data on health impact of Covid-19 and preventive measures against its transmission in the country are critically analyzed. The results of secondary data of the study indicated that a number of confirmed cases, active cases and deaths in Saudi Arabia manifested negative impact of Covid-19 on citizens’ health especially fear and anxiety despite the fact that records have showed steady recovered cases in the country. More specifically, the findings indicated that, health impact of Covid-19 are as follows namely: fear or anxiety, negative attitude among health workers and women in health workforce. Similarly, Saudi Arabia has put in place various preventive measures such as: preventive measures against transmission of Covid-19 which are as follows: institutional preparedness and strengthening mechanism, curfews and lockdowns and suspension of activities and order of social distancing. In conclusion, this paper has lucidly highlighted the health effect of Covid-19 and safety measures against the transmission of Covid-19 have been elaborated in the context of Saudi Arabia. It is thereby suggested that, the outcome of this study can be helpful to the health workers and policymakers in the country to be acquainted with the magnanimity of the novel coronavirus as well as putting effective safety mechanisms in place in curtailing the spread of Covid-19 in Saudi Arabia.
Chrystal L. Erickson, Ileana G. Barron,
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2551

Abstract:
Background: There is growing concern about the recent increase in oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing. Studies linking adverse birth outcomes and maternal proximity to hydraulic fracturing wells exist but tend to use individualized maternal and infant data contained in protected health care records. In this study, we extended the findings of these past studies to evaluate if analogous effects detected with individualized data could be detected from non-individualized county-wide aggregated data.Design and Methods: This study used a retrospective cohort of 252,502 birth records from 1999 to 2019 gathered from a subset sample of 5 counties in the state of Colorado where hydraulic fracturing activities were conducted. We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of county-wide well density and production data over unidentified birth weight, and prematurity data. Covariates used in the model were county-wide statistics sourced from the US Census.Results: Our modeling approach showed an interesting effect where hydraulic fracturing exposure metrics have a mixed effect directional response. This effect was detected on birth weight when well density, production and their interaction are accounted for. The interaction effect provides an additional interpretation to discrepancies reported previously in the literature. Our approach only detected a positive association to prematurity with increased production.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate two main points: First, the effect of hydraulic fracturing is detectable by using county-wide unidentified data. Second, the effect of hydraulic fracturing can be complicated by the number of operations and the intensity of the activities in the area.
, , Andrés Boltovskoy, John J. Ramírez-Restrepo
Published: 7 October 2021
Abstract:
The first comprehensive study of dinoflagellate flora and their related environmental variables in reservoirs, swamps, and an insular lake of Colombia is presented. Fourteen Colombian water bodies were assessed. In each, water temperature, electric conductivity, oxygen saturation, turbidity, and apparent color were the physical and chemical variables measured. Twelve dinoflagellate taxa were recorded, indicating a considerable richness compared to similar surveys. Ensembles recovered showed a spatial structuration mediated by the type of the water bodies (reservoirs and swamps); environmental variables and species richness explained equally the differences among the water bodies. The dinoflagellate flora showed altitudinal segregation, with intermediate altitude systems displaying the highest richness values. A brief discussion about the geographical distribution of the species collected is offered. The study contributes to the knowledge of the ecological aspects of dinoflagellate flora and outlines preliminary biodiversity tendencies of ensembles in tropical water systems.
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2492

Abstract:
Introduction: A variety of empirical studies have shown the negative effects of unemployment on health. A research gap exists regarding salutogenic factors and successful coping strategies to master involuntary job loss and unemployment with the least damage to health. Hence, this study aims at generating a deeper understanding of coping with unemployment and maintaining health.Design and Methods: We conducted problem-centered guideline interviews with 21 unemployed people. For the analysis of the interviews, we followed the qualitative content analysis.Results: The study identified that five themes were particularly relevant in coping with unemployment: (1) the financial situation, (2) social support and psychosocial strains due family obligations, (3) health problems, (4) time structure and (5) coping strategies. The respondents expressed their financial situation as a major strain in unemployment. They emphasized the importance of social support by their families, but reported also stressful psychosocial demands due their family members. Furhter, our respondents mentioned their health problems as a barrier for re-integration into the labour market. In connection with social role demands, a rudimentary time structure was reported by the participants The common reported coping strategy in unemployment is seeking for social support.Conclusions: In summary, our results show – besides health problems and a deteriorated financial situation in unemployment – the great importance of social support and time structure for maintaining mental health in unemployment. Consequently, health promotion approaches for the unemployed should especially target social support and time structure.
Valeria Di Nica, , Antonio Finizio, Lorenzo Ferraro,
Published: 7 October 2021
Abstract:
In this study, the behaviour of Daphnia magna was studied under equipotent and sub-lethal concentrations of two pesticides congeners: chlorpyrifos (CPF; 5 ng L-1 to 50 ng L-1) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPF-m; 30 ng L-1 to 300 ng L-1) with aims to assess and compare the behavioural swimming responses (BSRs) of the cladocerans elicited by both compounds at different concentrations and exposure times. A video tracking analysis after 24 h and 48 h of exposure allowed us to evaluate different behavioural responses (distance moved, average velocity, active time, and average acceleration). The results indicate that BSRs are sensitive indicators of sub-lethal stress. Highly concentration- and time-response changes for both compounds were observed during the experiments. In particular, in the first 24 h of exposure, both compounds elicited a similar decreasing trend in swimming behaviour, in which CPF induced the highest decline. Further, hypoactivity was associated with the narcotic effects of both compounds. Conversely, after 48 h of exposure, we observed an increasing tendency in the swimming parameters, particularly at the highest tested concentrations. However, the compounds did not exhibit the same trend. Rather, CPF-m induced high variations from the control groups. This reversal trend could be due to the activation of compensatory mechanisms, such as feeding, searching, or avoidance behaviours. These results suggest that BSRs are measurable active responses of organisms, which are controlled by time.
Tânia C. Dos Santos Ferreira,
Published: 7 October 2021
Abstract:
Until recently, knowledge of the impact of invertebrate predators on cladocerans in the Brazilian Lake Monte Alegre was limited to a few species. In order to assess the effects of predation on other cladoceran species, experiments were carried out with different pair-wise combinations of prey species. The experiments tested predation by fourth instar larvae of the dipteran Chaoborus brasiliensis Theobald on neonates and adults of the cladocerans Daphnia gessneri Herbst, Diaphanosoma birgei Kořínek, and Ceriodaphnia richardi Sars, and predation by the water mite Krendowskia sp. on neonates and adults of C. richardi and D. gessneri. In replicated treatments, the prey was offered alone or in combination with neonates and adults of two species and kept in bottles on a plankton wheel under controlled temperature, photoperiod, and light conditions. Chaoborus larvae preyed on neonates of D. birgei and D. gessneri and on adults of the former species. They preyed preferentially on neonates and adults of D. birgei over neonates and adults of C. richardi. The mite Krendowskia sp. preyed on only one species: neonates and adults of D. gessneri. Data on the distribution and strategies of prey in the lake are discussed in light of the experimental results, in an attempt to establish a link between laboratory data and field conditions.
, Mirian Agus, Laura Atzori, , Luigi Minerba, , , Germano Orrù, , Ferdinando Romano, et al.
Journal of Public Health Research; https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2546

Abstract:
Background: Changes in social and behavioral rhythms (SBR) in elderly are related to health status. Nevertheless, there is no data on factor analysis of the Brief Social Rhythm Scale (BSRS) an internationally well-known tool in this field. The aim was to analyze, in elderly, the factorial structure of the Italian version of BSRS.Design and Methods: Principal Component Analysis of the BSRS carried out in elderly living at home.Results: Sample of 141 participants (83 Females, 58,9%), aged 72.3±4.8. All the items of the questionnaire were related and could compose a single factor, explaining 56% of variance. A solution adopting two factors, the first (including items 1,2,3,4,9,10), the second (including items 5,6,7,8), covered cumulatively 78.8% of the variance.Conclusion: The study confirms that the BSRS is consistent with the idea for which it was built and can be useful for the study of regularity of SBR in old adults.
Elena Sammarco, Orsola Ametrano, Maria Elena Errico, Giuseppe Ruocco, Delfina Bifano, Filomena Barbato,
Published: 6 October 2021
Abstract:
Angioma serpiginosum (AS) is a rare benign vascular lesion that typically arises in early childhood, with a prevalence in female, and then grow up over a period of months/years. It is characterized by small asymptomatic purple-red dots that cluster together and they do not disappear on diascopy. It is mainly localized on the arms but some cases on face and neck have been reported. The etiology of AS is unknown, dermoscopy may aid in the diagnosis but usually the biopsy is necessary. We report 2 cases: one male and one female with angioma serpiginosum, aged 13 and 8 years old.
Page of 489
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top