Refine Search

New Search

Results: 6,111

(searched for: publisher_group_id:5199)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 123
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Aleksandar Babić
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421095b

Abstract:
Dizajn ambalaže predstavlja jednu od najkompleksnijih disciplina grafičkog dizajna. Pored standardne problematike kreativnog procesa i stvaranja primenjenog dizajna koji odgovara marketinškim i drugim zahtevima tržišta, dizajn ambalaže ograničen je određenim tehničkim karakteristikama. Proizvodnja ambalaže na tržištu Republike Srbije i Bosne i Hercegovine značajno je napredovala u poslednje dve dekade, prateći svetske trendove u pogledu materijala i tehnika štampe. Ipak, vrlo često, zbog nepoznavanja celokupnog procesa kreiranja ambalaže i nedovoljne komunikacije prilikom produkcije, dolazi do određenih problema na relaciji dizajner/agencija – klijent – štampa. Takođe, utvrdili smo da štamparske kompanije često imaju probleme u komunikaciji sa klijentima i dizajnerima, koji ne razumeju proces štampe, nemaju adekvatna dizajnerska rešenja i pripreme za štampu, te očekuju nerealne rezultate. Fokus ovog istraživanja odnosi se na aktuelne trendove u pogledu vrste ambalaže, tehnika štampe, specifičnih materijala i dorade, kao i njihovih implikacija na dizajn ambalaže i sam kreativni proces. Osnovni izazov istraživanja bila je analiza tržišta pakovanja ambalaže za hranu u regionu, te klasifikovanje raspoloživih standardnih i specijalnih tehnika štampe u odnosu na praktičnu primenu dizajna u praksi. Kako bi došli do klasifikacije i određenja navedenih elemenata, primenili smo kvalitativnu strategiju istraživanja, koristeći metode dubinskog intervjua kao i kvalitativne analize sadržaja. U okviru istraživanja našle su se neke od najvećih štamparskih kompanija u regionu, prehrambeni proizvođači i reklamna agencija.
Amra Kurešepi
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421029k

Abstract:
Social media has a huge impact on everyone’s lifestyle especially on the youth. This influence has its pros and cons, some of which are further discussed in the article below. The main purpose of the article is to show both positive and negative sides of using social media and contribute in achieving the right balance between real and virtual world. The inspiration for the article has been drawn from some buzzwords which are fashionable in the context of technology and which clearly denote what challenges young people face on a daily basis as far as virtual reality is concerned.
Хатиџа Бериша, Јелена Митић
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421067b

Abstract:
Током присутне пандемије ковида вируса, видно је забележено велико интересовањезапраћења медија. Посебно пандемија на глобалном нивоу променила је начин на које се одређене категорије људи тежиле ка вестима и другим садржајима информисања. Појава корона вируса изазвала је велики пораст информисања у форми вести, али такође, важно је указати да су вести односно информације добиле другу форму и све више пренос се врши у оналај форматима. Свет који је захваћен паником, пуно непознаница о новој појави вируса, шире се дезинформације које постају део свакодневнице, губи се осећај између праве и стварне информације, па често долази у оптицај и нови називи као што је инфодемија (ширење лажних вести). У раду се анализира долазак револуционарне технологије кроз деловање друштвених мрежа, које у зависности од развоја и степена ширења ковид вируса добија различите улоге, у једном тренутку делују позитивно пружајући значајне информације, док у другом негативном тренду кроз ширење разних дезинформација шири панику и страх код људи и јавности.
Tisa Dobovšek
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421157d

Abstract:
Starostniki so zaradi različnih razlogov bolj podvrženi k razvoju krhkosti in sarkopenije, zato je pri njih ustrezna prehranjenost in pravočasna prehranska intervencija ključnega pomena za okrevanje, zmanjševanje posledic ter napredovanje različnih bolezni. Proces izgube mišične mase se lahko upočasni in stanje se celo izboljša, če so deležni pravočasne prehranske obravnave. Le ta lahko zmanjša število hospitalizacij in njihovo trajanje, pogostost zapletov, stroške oskrbe in hranjenja ter posledično smrtnost. Enteralna prehranska podpora vsebuje vsa potrebna hranila v pravilnem razmerju ter vse potrebne vitamine in minerale. Tako se lahko z ustrezno prehransko obravnavo in uvedbo farmacevtske enteralne prehrane zmanjšajo celotni stroški prehrane, zdravljenja, hospitalizacij in oskrbe bolnikov.
Alma Zaimović
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421033z

Abstract:
Sa oglasima se možemo susresti na tradicionalnim medijima, a sve veća je prisutnost oglasa i na savremenim medijima, odnosno medijima koji koriste digitalnu tehnologiju. Cilj oglasa je pružiti uvjerljive poruke o proizvodu ili usluzi, kako bi privukao potrošače i pretvorio ih u kupce. Etički problemi se pojavljuju u različitim slučajevima i oblicima. Uvjeravanje u bilo kakve neistine i obmane potrošača smatra se teškim povredama etike. Na bh. tržištu vidan nedostatak zakonskih rješenja koji bi korisnicima dali na uvid šta je dobro, šta ne i gdje se krše etičke, pa i zakonske norme.
Vesna Đurović, Zorana Agić, Slavica Išaretović
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421021d

Abstract:
Podučavanje stranog jezika na visokoškolskim ustanovama sastavni je dio skoro svakog plana i programa. Studenti na visokoškolske ustanove dolaze sa predznanjem stečenim u okviru svog prethodnog formalnog i neformalnog obrazovanja. Uprkos tome, često je slučaj da studenti raspolažu vrlo skromnim govornim vještinama. Upotreba različitih medijskih sadržaja doprinosi raznovrsnosti tema koje se obrađuju na času, a studente istovremeno motiviše da istražuju i saznaju više o različitim temama koje izlaze iz strogih okvira predmetnog korpusa dajući im ujedno i mogućnost da istovremeno proširuju i svoja znanja iz stranog jezika. Cilj ovog rada je upravo predstaviti neke praktične metode za motivaciju studenata za razvoj jezičkih vještina, a posebno govora i komunikacije na odabrane teme sa ciljem poboljšanja određenih gramatičkih i jezičkih vještina.
Jozo Piljić
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421215p

Abstract:
Preduvjet za uspješan i kontinuiran rast i razvoj te konkurentnost nacionalne ekonomije je sustavno obrazovanje za poduzetništvo. Ono treba biti sadržano u obrazovnim programima na svim razinama formalnog, neformalnog i informalnog obrazovanja i osposobljavanja. Usvajanjem i podizanjem poduzetničkog obrazovanja povećava se i konkurentska sposobnost nacionalne ekonomije. Na taj se način osigurava pretpostavka za povećanje stupnja zapošljivosti stanovništva. Konkurentnost nacionalne ekonomije ogleda se i u sposobnosti stalnog dinamičkog prilagođavanja koje uvjetuju brze promjene u nauci i tehnologiji kao i proces globalizacije. Svaki pojedinac se susreće s izazovom stalne potrebe za učenjem i promjenama zaposlenja za koje su potrebna posebna znanja i vještine. U Europskoj uniji već odavno se vodi politika cjeloživotne karijerne orijentacije. U Bosni i Hercegovini karijerna orijentacija je tek u povoju. Ekonomija i tržište rada u Bosni i Hercegovini sve više su pod utjecajem jake konkurencije zbog čega je potrebno brzo prilagođavanje, kontinuiran razvoj i inovativnost domaćih poduzeća.
Mihajlo Manić
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421011m

Abstract:
Jezik, nesumnjivo, predstavlja najvažnije sredstvo čovekovog sporazumevanja, ali ono se može odvijati i posredstvom neverbalne komunikacije. Primeri su mnogobrojni: izraz lica, kontakt očiju ili gestikulacija, držanje tela, pokreti ruku..., pri čemu postoje neverbalni aspekti verbalne komunikacije (kolebanje, kašalj, jačina, tempo, intonacija, boja glasa, naglasak – paralingvistički elementi). Bez obzira na činjenicu da određeno društvo ima sopstveni jezik, nije moguće zaključiti da se čovekova komunikativna praksa, isključivo zasniva na verbalnoj komunikaciji. Jezik tela se, kao i verbalni jezik, uči u određenom društvu i razlikuje se od društva do društva. Interpretacija neverbalnom komunikacijom se temelji na ličnom iskustvu. Neverbalnom komunikacijom se prenosi informacija o onome ko govori i o komunikativnoj situaciji u kojoj se on nalazi, o njegovim stavovima i mišljenjima. Pomoću nje se uspostavljaju međuljudski odnosi, odnosi koje komunikator želi sa drugim, koristeći neverbalne kanale komuniciranja (gestovi, ton i boja glasa, grimase, izraz lica, facijalna ekspresija) posredstvom kojih komunikator prenosi svoje namere. Često neverbalna komunikacija više govori o odnosu, nego li o samom govorniku, odnosno, primaocu.
Aleksandar Lukić, Milan Novović
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421107l

Abstract:
Ekonomska propaganda je najvidljiviji deo ekstenzivne promocije i komunikacionog miksa. To je primarni oblik masovnog komuniciranja s okruženjem koji ima za cilj da prenese informaciju, razvije sklonost i podstakne potrošača na akciju u korist proizvoda i usluga preduzeća. Savremena ekonomska propaganda je utemeljena na marketing istraživanju i zasniva se na strategijskom pristupu, dugoročnim ciljevima i objektivnom prezentiranju informacija o preduzeću i njegovim proizvodima i uslugama. Ekonomska propaganda preduzeća podrazumeva postojanje brojnih aktivnosti i predstavlja veoma efikasan način informisanja, uveravanja i podsticanja potrošača.
Veljko Đukić, Ognjen Đukić, Biljana Đukić
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421195d

Abstract:
Suočavajući se sa aktuelnim pitanjima zaštite životne sredine mora nam biti jasno da je za njihovo rješenje potreban miltidisciplinarni pristup, prirodnih, medicinskih, tehničkih i pravnih nauka. Pojedina od ovih znanja su već niz decenija sistematskih obrađena i korišćena od strane ekologa, dok su druga rezultat zadnjih dvadeset godina, te još uvijek nisu generalno teoretski obuhvaćena. U vezi sa pravnim normama koje treba da regulišu i spriječe opasnosti od zagađenja životne sredine postavlja se pitanje, da li se putem prava može kontrolisati savremena tehnologija, koja sa jedne strane čovjeku omogućava velike koristi, a sa druge strane prijeti njegovom opstanku. Očigledno je, da pravne norme mogu da predstavljaju jedan od značajnijih instrumenata za sprečavanje negativnih pojava, koje mogu da nastanu od nekontrolisanog razvoja savremene tehnologije. Bitan uslov je da zakonodavni organi budu dovoljno dinamični i da mogu svaku pojavu, koja može da ugrozi životnu sredinu, da spriječi zajedno sa organima uprave i drugim institucijama koje pravne norme primjenjuju. Razvoj posebne grane pravnog sistema – EKOLOŠKOG PRAVA, prati procese razvoja u mnogim zemljama. Uvođenje nastavnog programa ovog predmeta na Pravne fakultete u Bosni i Hercegovini značiće snažan podsticaj konačnom normiranju svih elemenata ove pravne discipline.
Brankica Todorović
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421173t

Abstract:
Potreba za upravljanjem rizicima javlja se kao odgovor menadžmenta na globalnu konkurenciju i nestabilno poslovno okruženje. Na ovaj način se upravlja promenama radi uspešnog poslovanja u budućnosti i prilagođavanja poslovanja u sadašnjim uslovima, posebno izazvanim pandemijom COVID-19. U radu se analizira upotreba računovodstvenih informacija i matrica rizika u svrhu poslovnog planiranja kojim će se blagovremeno predvideti rizik i reakcija preduzeća na promene u poslovnom i globalnom okruženju.
Zorana Agić
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421165a

Abstract:
Posljednjih godina statističko mišljenje i primjena statističkih metoda zauzimaju sve važniju ulogu u upravljanju poslovanjem preduzeća. Slobodno se može reći da su statističke metode namijenjene da pomognu preduzećima u praćenju i poboljšanju postojećih poslovnih procesa i u donošenju poslovnih odluka. I pored brojnih prednosti koje imaju preduzeća koja koriste statističke metode, one su još uvijek neiskorišteni potencijal. Autori su došli do zaključka da većina preduzeća još uvijek ne koristi statističke metode i alate ili ih koristi u vrlo maloj mjeri. Upravo zbog toga, cilj rada je da ukaže na dostupne metode i alate pomoću kojih se mogu realizovati različite statističke analize, a dobijeni rezultati mogu pomoći rukovodiocima preduzeća prilikom donošenja poslovnih, finansijskih i investicionih odluka. Date su i preporuke za unapređenje statističke pismenosti u preduzeću, jer su upravo statističke metode namijenjene da olakšaju praćenje i poboljšaju postojeće poslovne procese, te da olakšaju donošenje poslovnih i finansijskih odluka.
Nikola Vidović
ZBORNIK MES, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.7251/blczr0421147v

Abstract:
Fragmentacija lanaca proizvodnje i autsorsing su jedne od glavnih ekonomskih posljedica globalizacije i jedna od obilježja savremene svjetske industrije. U procesu fragmentacije, dijelovi lanaca proizvodnje se iz različitih razloga razmještaju u države širom svijeta, a najviše u zemlje u razvoju. Ovaj rad objašnjava mehanizme i razloge preseljenja dijelova proizvodnih procesa u zemlje u razvoju, te ulogu ekonomskih sloboda na integraciju ekonomija zemalja u razvoju u globalne lance proizvodnje. U radu je uz analizu dosadašnje literature koja se bavi ovom temom i pokriva uglavnom liberalizaciju trgovinskih i tokova kapitala, objašnjeno kako i ostali aspekti ekonomskih sloboda utiču na integraciju u globalne lance proizvodnje, te zašto je ona potrebna zemljama u razvoju.
Miloš Lazić, Amra Mačak Hadžiomerović, Dženan Pleho, Aldina Alibegović, Nino Alić
Quality of Life (Banja Luka) - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 113-120; https://doi.org/10.7251/qol2103113l

Abstract:
Introduction: The way of life in modern society goes along with new technological discoveries and achievements. This lifestyle leaves its positive and negative consequences on children. Such changes are especially reflected on health already in earliest stages of life. The studies show that most children have been using computers even since kindergarten and that children’s computer use is longer than recommended. It is more effective and cheaper to prevent musculoskeletal disorders than to cure them. Goal: To examine all risk factors concerning the development of musculoskeletal disorders connected with a long use of information and communication technologies by reviewing scientific literature. Material and methods: Non-experimental qualitative research into the risk factors of the development of musculoskeletal disorders connected with a long use of information and communication technologies based on relevant databases. Results and discussion: Based on a discussion of the attitudes and opinions of other authors, risk factors are divided in three basic groups: ergonomic, individual, and psychosocial risk factors. As it is shown in the discussion of this paper, a disbalance of the desk for a desktop computer, the non-ergonomic design of the furniture, the type and time of the ICT usage device, the sedentary way of using the ICT devices at school and at home are just some of the numerous risk factors to children’s health. Conclusion: By examining the risk factors in the development of musculoskeletal disorders in children connected with an extended use of information and communication technologies, the presented evidence in the discussion section based on other authors’ attitudes and opinions, leads us to the conclusion that numerous risk factors that affect children’s health are due to a larger and more frequent use of computers, console games, tablets and mobile phones.
Radomir Zrnić, Saša Jovanović, Željko Vukić, Gorana Tešanović
Quality of Life (Banja Luka) - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 104-112; https://doi.org/10.7251/qol2103104z

Abstract:
Sedentary life significantly affects the working abilities and health status of middle-aged women. On the other hand, appropriate systematic exercise can have a preventive effect on reducing symptoms and the appearance of some diseases, and thus have a positive effect on improving psychosomatic status. The research aimed to determine the subjective assessment of the psychosomatic status of women under the influence of recreational aerobics. The population from which the sample was drawn is a population of healthy women, age from 35 to 45 years, who dominantly live a sedentary lifestyle. For this study, a scale of subjective psychosomatic status assessment (SPPPS) was applied. The scale consists of 32 characteristic discomforts (disorders) which are divided into eight groups: shoulder and arm pain; back pain; leg pain; fatigue and sensorial discomfort; indigestion; cardiovascular disorders; neuropsychiatric disorders, symptoms of general fatigue. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test revealed statistically significant changes (p = 0.000) in all analyzed variables between initial and final measurements. Based on this finding, it can be concluded that recreational aerobics has a positive effect on improving the psychosomatic status of sedentary middle-aged women.
Milan Dajić, Maja Staletović, Jelena Dajić
Quality of Life (Banja Luka) - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 121-132; https://doi.org/10.7251/qol2103121d

Abstract:
In economic theory and practice, the term standard of living has emerged in recent decades. It was created as a suitable response to problems related to people’s lives, regional inequalities in the level of development and served as an acceptable concept for more complex valorization of development potentials, especially in rural areas. The subject of the research is a comparative analysis of the quality of life in Serbia and Northern Macedonia according to Numbeo database. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of living standards from both economic and sociological aspects, as well as to review the position of Serbia and Northern Macedonia in relation to other countries in the region based on the analysis of collected data and research. The reason for the comparative presentation of Serbia and Northern Macedonia is that the quality of life is at an approximate level. The salary of employees in education in these countries represents an average income that is sufficient for a satisfactory quality of life. The standard of living of a country depends on a number of factors such as political factors, economic factors, demographic, environmental and cultural factors.
Merima Toromanović, Vildana Jogić, Jasmina Ibrahimpašić, Aida Džaferović, Samira Dedić, Halid Makić
Quality of Life (Banja Luka) - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 77-84; https://doi.org/10.7251/qol2103077t

Abstract:
Phytoremediation has proven to be a suitable method for removing heavy metals from the soil with the help of plants. To examine the phytoremediation potential, the experimental study monitored the influence of high and low concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Zn) on Helianthus annuus L., as well as their accumulation in seeds, roots, stems and leaves. The experiment was carried out during one growing season in outdoor conditions, in pots with a volume of 5L in which Helianthus annuus L. was planted, and the soil was contaminated with these heavy metals in concentrations below and above the maximum allowable concentration prescribed by the Rulebook on Determining Permissible Quantities of Harmful and Dangerous Substances in Soil and Methods of Their Testing. After growth and development of the plant, the experimental research examined the accumulation potential of the plant, the growth of the plant itself and its ability to survive depending on different concentrations of heavy metals. By processing the obtained results, statistically significant differences of heavy metals were determined in individual parts of the plants, depending on the applied concentration. The highest concentration of Zn was recorded in the leaves of the plant in the amount of 18.21 mg/kg, and the lowest concentration in the stem, 3.92 mg/kg. The measured values of heavy metals Cd and Pb differ from the above because the lowest concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded in the seed, and were 12.02 mg/kg for Pb and 9.20 mg/kg for Cd, which is a statistically significantly lower determined value relative to other parts of the plant.
Biljana Angjusheva, Emilija Fidancevska
Quality of Life (Banja Luka) - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.7251/qol2103085a

Abstract:
Glass-ceramics based on CAS (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2) system was produced by controlled crystallization of vitrified fly ash. Fly ash was pre-treated by magnetic separation and nonmagnetic part of fly ash (NFA) was used. Maximal crystallization of parent glass occurs in the temperature region from 900 oC to 1160 oC. Glass-ceramics was produced by consolidation of parent glass i.e. pressing (45 MPa) and sintering at 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 oC, and isothermal time at the final temperature of 30, 60, 120 minutes. The dominant crystalline phase was calcium aluminum silicate (anorthite). The obtained glass-ceramics could be potentially used in construction applications.
Erhan Mustafa, Katerina Atkovska, Stefan Kuvendziev, Mirko Marinkovski, Kiril Lisichkov
Quality of Life (Banja Luka) - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 93-103; https://doi.org/10.7251/qol2103093m

Abstract:
In the last decade the application of membrane separation technology is more increasing. The membrane in water purification and wastewater treatment is essential separation process used for water reclamation. The production of new membrane types with different permeable characteristics and performances allows them to be fitted in different membrane modules that can be used in the membrane filtration. The water characteristics are important for the membrane performance. It can seriously affect the permeability characteristics and increase the fouling on the membrane surface. In wastewater treatment, the characteristics of the aqueous influent can reduce the permeability of the membrane and the process efficiency of the membrane bioreactor (MBR). The aim of this paper is to explore the effect of different aqueous solutions on membrane permeability using dead end filtration process. For this purpose, NaCl solution with different concentration were prepared and the effect of the concentration polarization on the membrane was observed. The constructed membrane module was also tested with real water sample and the membrane permeability was analyzed. In this experiment a polymeric membrane produced from polyether sulphonate (PES), with diameter of 5.0 cm and pore size of 0.04 µm was assembled in a constructed module for dead-end filtration. The module was constructed in a way that would allow turbulence of the solution on the membrane surface. The following working parameters were examined: transmembrane pressure (TMP), the types of solutions, the working temperature, and the influence of agitation on the feeding to the specific membrane flux and permeability. The results showed that the membrane permeability is affected by the water organic and inorganic constituents and in the process of design of membrane reactor for wastewater treatment, the water composition should be taken in consideration.
Ognjen Erić, Goran Popović, Jelena Bjelić
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 63-78; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101063e

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemic has caused the deepest crisis since the World War II. Many countries have slid into recession due to continuous GDP fall. Lockdown has an impact on unemployment growth, while the provision of health systems and state aid to vulnerable sectors and population are deepening fiscal deficits. Based on the example of 31 European countries (27 EU members and several countries with which the Union has different agreements), this research determines impact of key economic and social variables in period of the First wave of COVID-19 pandemic on the “Economic stimulus”, which is represented by composite index CESI. It is about a combination of variables: Democracy Index, Stringency Index, Final Consumption, Gross Investment, Health Expenditure, and Hospital Beds per Thousand People. Using the median method, the total sample has been divided into two groups, the one with less and the one with more infected people. The results of cross section regression analysis show that 52% variations in the Economic stimulus in the total sample is determined by predictor variables in the model. Analysis for the countries with less infected people shows that more than 75% variations in the Economic stimulus is determined by joint trends of the predictor variables, while the Analysis with more infected cases shows coefficient of determination (R2) over 71%. In general, the results of econometric analysis unambiguously show that democracy contributes to the economic policy response to pandemic in all three observed cases. Stringency index contributes to democracy in an inversely proportional sense, especially in the case of countries with larger number of infected persons. The same could be said for the variable Final Consumption in the case of the total sample of countries, where markedly reduced final consumption requires stronger economic reaction and the governmental aid of all the countries included in the sample.
Vlatka Bilas, Martina Sopta
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 217-226; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101217b

Abstract:
Competitiveness is a central issue of a growing open, interconnected and integrated global economy, but it is not yet uniquely defined. There are many factors that determine competitiveness, and they change with the development of globalization, and even today, under the conditions of Industry 4.0. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has also provoked a situation in which both policies to foster competitiveness need to be adapted. In order to achieve competitiveness, countries must create factors and develop policies that will create the conditions for better positioning in the global market. In order to successfully integrate into new markets, but at the same time highlight and continue economic development, reevaluation of competitiveness determinants, as well as past positioning strategies, is necessary. The paper analyses the theoretical settings and determinants of competitiveness, as well as the challenges of today that economies should respond to. Understanding new features of the competitiveness can help policymakers develop approaches for enhancing their economic performance.
Vinko Miličević, Danijel Knežević, Zoran Bubaš
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 201-216; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101201m

Abstract:
The problems in this paper belong to the field of migration and economy. The connection between migration and the economy has been proven on a global level, and as far as the Republic of Croatia is concerned, it is especially important to observe it through the City of Zagreb, which is the most important migration and economic center in the Republic of Croatia. Also, the accession of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union emphasized the observation and research of this connection because it created the preconditions for freer movement and employment of the population of the Republic of Croatia and the City of Zagreb within the European Union. The aim of this paper is to determine the contribution of migration to the economic growth of the City of Zagreb. The hypothesis presented in the paper is that there is a significant contribution of migration to the economic growth of the City of Zagreb. The disposition of the paper consists of six parts. The introduction explains the relevance of the topic, states the aim of the paper and hypotheses, explains the empirical part, the contribution of the paper and the disposition. The second part of the paper refers to the theoretical framework of the impact of migration on economic growth. The third part of the paper presents the migration processes of the City of Zagreb in the period from 2011 to 2018. The fourth part deals with economic activity in the City of Zagreb in the period from 2011 to 2017. The observed indicators of economic activity in the City of Zagreb are GDP and GDP per capita, and the graph in this part of the paper shows that GDP and GDP per capita in the observed period are higher at the end of the period than at the beginning. The fifth part of the paper refers to the empirical research of the contribution of migration to the economic growth of the City of Zagreb. The empirical part of the paper is based on correlations and regression analyses. This paper proves the hypothesis because the results indicate a significant impact of the variables of total and external migration on the GDP of the City of Zagreb and GDP per capita of the City of Zagreb. Decision-makers in the City of Zagreb can use the results of the research as a basis for maximizing the economic benefits they can get from migration. The conclusion provides an overview of the aim of the work, the results of the research, the limitations, the implications and the recommendations for future research.
Sandra Zajmi
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 294-306; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101294z

Abstract:
Issues of liquidity and solvency of companies, and not only issues of profitability, are crucial in the context of considering the future business of companies, and thus the economic sectors and the economy as a whole. For several years now, the required short-term funds are still not enough to service current liabilities. Liquidity rates are at half of a satisfactory level, while the growth of long-term loans, together with equity, is still not sufficient to finance fixed assets (solvency). Liquidity and solvency issues affect both the efficiency and productivity of the company, and indirectly the profitability. Based on the available information, the paper discusses the results of the real sector of the Serbian economy for the period 2018-2019, in the context of liquidity and solvency, as well as selected individual sectors, using generally accepted indicators. In the new crisis caused by the COVID 19 virus, companies have found themselves in a position where many of them need additional capital in order to improve and harmonize their financial structure. The illiquidity of the economy is a chronic problem, it is structural in its nature, which is the result of business inefficiency and a high degree of volatility on the impact of exogenous variables. In terms of solvency, we can conclude that one of the basic problems of all sectors is efficiency in inventory management, slow collection of receivables and late payment of liabilities. If we add the IMF forecasts, to this already disrupted structure of the solvency of the economy, ie the real sector, in which, the share of insolvent companies in developing countries will increase by between 14% and 30% in 2020, (due to the pandemic), we can be not optimistic. On the other hand, we must emphasize that the forecasts of economic growth for the countries of the region in 2021 are fairly optimistic, and for Serbia the predicted growth is 6.1%. The result of the analysis points to the conclusion that there will be no significant changes in terms of revenue and profitability of the real sector in the short term, but that the crisis caused by coronavirus will mostly affect small, micro and medium enterprises when it comes to liquidity and solvency, in this respect. In the long run, impaired solvency, and after that liquidity, will affect the still intact profitability of the sector. In that regard, solvency issues have a more significant impact, because in the long run, if corrective measures are not being taken, they will cause the inability of the companies to pay long-term overdue liabilities, and increase the number of companies operating without equity and the number of blocked companies. The sectors that will have the biggest problems in terms of liquidity and solvency are certainly transport, accommodation and tourism, art, entertainment and recreation, and very likely construction.
Maja Bašić, Davor Vlajčić
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 35-46; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101035b

Abstract:
Technology specialization is supported by processes combining inhouse and external innovation. Applying a macroeconomic and international trade theory approach (Linder, 1961), country specialization depends on international RiD cooperation partnerships. External, international RiD cooperation is essential for technology specialization, as it raises awareness of countries’ position on a global technology map. This paper studies international RiD cooperation as a determinant of countries’ technology specialization. Cross-country panel regression was done on a sample of 37 OECD countries for the period 1980-2018. The analysis examined the effect of international RiD cooperation on technology specialization. Data were obtained from the OECD database. Co-patenting with foreign inventors was used to indicate the level of international RiD cooperation. Patent per technology was used to calculate technology specialization based on the Herfindahl index. Results indicate a positive effect of international RiD cooperation on technology specialization. The effect of RiD cooperation on technology specialization is more pronounced when GDP and RiD expenditure were used as control variables. Additionally, the size of the GDP negatively affects technology specialization. This paper identifies international cooperation as a bridge for global information exchange, which results with countries’ technology specialization.
Zorica Drljača, Elvir Muminović
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 117-133; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111117d

Abstract:
Tax consulting is a special type of service activity, with certain specifics related to some other activities. The name itself indicates that it involves providing advisory services, given by specially qualified and trained professionals, with respect to professional-ethical and professional principles, and above all the principles of legality, independence, autonomy, expertise, conscientiousness and professional secrecy as well as other principles that are mutually determined and supplemented. The main purpose of tax consulting is to help taxpayers in completing their tax obligations and to properly understand and apply tax laws. In a broader sense, it means representing the taxpayer in tax and court proceedings. On the other hand, observing the complexity of the tax-legal relationship, the inequality of the parties in this relationship, which stems from the very nature of taxes, it is indisputable that tax advice contributes to tax efficiency and overall tax policy, humanization of tax-legal relationship, development of taxpayers’ awareness on the importance of taxation and the development of tax morale. The goal of this paper is to investigate tax consulting in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the countries of the region, using research, historical, normative and comparative methods.
Veljko Ikanović
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 151-165; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111151i

Abstract:
The author deals with the new position of the injured party in criminal proceedings, persons who may refuse to testify and exceptions from the direct presentation of evidence due to the unavailability of witnesses after the amendments to the Criminal Procedure Code of Republika Srpska from 2021. Starting from the current regulation of this matter, pointing to the solutions in the comparative legislation, the analysis of these changes indicates the consequences of such inconsistent and in some institutes unnecessary and erroneous standardization of this sensitive matter. Attention is drawn to the contradiction between the decision on the privileged witness and juvenile legislation, which is in line with the conventions protecting their position, and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. In that sense, the legislator is critically pointed out the shortcomings of certain solutions and suggests appropriate changes and additions in order to eliminate the problems that may arise during their practical application.
Siniša Macan
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 186-199; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111186m

Abstract:
Cyberspace is becoming the dominant global arena for the exchange of goods and services. In addition, cyberspace is playing an increasing role in meeting the social needs of the modern human being. Services provided by public administrations are moving to the Internet and modern information and communication technologies. In such an environment, the need for reliable identification of an individual in cyberspace becomes increasingly demanding. E-commerce, as well as e-business in most cases implies the possession of bancing cards as an instrument of non-cash payment transactions. Therefore, a banking card is recognized as an instrument that confirms the identity of an individual within electronic interactions, and the bank can also be seen as a provider of trust services in electronic identification procedures. In a large number of electronic transactions in cyberspace, there is often no need for identity verification via credit cards, because no financial transaction. At the same time, there is a need to reliably determine the identity of an individual in cyberspace. The intensive development of the Internet, the transfer of a large number of business and social activities in cyberspace has led to the need to adapt legal solutions that regulate some activities on the Internet, or the mentioned cyberspace. Thus, a system of reliable digital authentication of transactions and recognition of an individual’s identity when appearing in cyberspace has been developed. In the Republic of Srpska, but also in Bosnia and Herzegovina, legislation has been adopted that recognizes electronic signatures, as well as trust and electronic identification services. Back in 1999, the European Union adopted a regulation for digital signatures, which was replaced by the Regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market number 910/14, popularly called eIDAS. eIDAS regulations legally regulate the methods of digital identification, as well as the legal validity of electronic documents and electronic business with traditional documents and business. The paper studies the levels of electronic identifications, possible solutions in legislation and practice in the Republic of Srpska and Bosnia and Herzegovina and presents examples from neighboring countries.
Miroslav Janjić
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 200-212; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111200m

Abstract:
One of the main characteristics of the investigation in Germany is that the public prosecutor is in charge of investigation and the role of the police mainly depends on whether and to what extent the public prosecutor will entrust them with undertaking investigative actions. France has retained the division into inquests and investigation, as well as a powerful investigative judge. When a formal investigation is optional (it is obligatory only in the event of crimes) and is not conducted, inquests are the only form of preliminary proceedings. Preliminary investigations (inquests) are conducted by the judicial police, at the request of a public prosecutor or ex officio. The Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Italy, which was adopted in 1988 and which came into force in 1989, with its subsequent amendments, is significant, among other things, for introducing the accusatory model of criminal procedure instead of the inquisitorial one included in the Criminal Procedure Code of 1930 that was revoked when the new Criminal Procedure Code came into force.
Duško Glodić
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 91-104; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111091g

Abstract:
The article explores the use of legally non-binding (informal) instruments in contemporary international practice by international political actors. In this context, the article examines definitions and main characteristics of legally non-binding instruments, as well as their effects. In addition, the use of this type of instruments was assessed as a practical response to the need of concerting between the political actors at the international plane due to their functionality and flexibility. It was concluded that these instruments implied a softer form, unlike treaties, and the act of their conclusion does not require conducting a formal and cumbersome procedures, such as parliamentary ratification. These instruments imply political commitments between their parties and their effects are usually shielded by the bona fides principle. Although these instruments are generally deprived of legally binding effects, they remain quite pragmatic tools in brokering political agreements at the diplomatic level between relevant international political actors.
Dragana Došenović, Marija Todorović
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 141-157; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101141d

Abstract:
The concept of job satisfaction, which is most often defined as a satisfactory or positive emotional state that arises as a result of evaluating work or work experience, is one of the most important and most researched employee work-related issues. The relevance of the observed concept is the result of the belief that any changes in the level of job satisfaction have numerous positive, but also negative consequences, both for the individual and for the organization. In addition to the demographic or personal characteristics of employees, the cause of changes in the level of job satisfaction may be the related to the organizational elements through which the work environment is shaped. As the demographic characteristics of employees cannot be greatly influenced, the attention of researchers is usually focused on a group of organizational factors or characteristics. Precisely for that reason, the research problem presented in this paper is the influence of the process in the organization on job satisfaction in various organizations operating in the Republic of Srpska. The main goal of this paper is to investigate and determine the existence and nature of the relationship between defined process factors in the organization as independent variables and their impact on job satisfaction as dependent variables. In order to investigate the observed impact and prove the set hypotheses, an empirical research was conducted, using a custom-made survey questionnaire, on a sample of 738 workers employed in 283 organizations from the Republic of Srpska. Reliability analysis, expressed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, shows a very high reliability of the developed instrument for testing satisfaction with organizational design. Testing of the set hypothesis was performed using correlation analysis, and the obtained results confirmed the hypothesis which claims that the processes in the organization affect job satisfaction.
Dejan Stankov
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 123-140; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101123s

Abstract:
The paper explores the income distribution as a channel of transmission of the effects of economic growth on poverty reduction. For that purpose, we analyse data for the CESEE countries with a focus on the Macedonian economy. Since the 1990s, in the transition process to market economies, inequalities within countries in the CESEE region have risen the most. The income distribution achieved in the last decade is not sufficient to neutralise the high inequality created after 1990. The Macedonian economy shows improved income distribution in the last decade as well, which influences the level of poverty. Still, income inequality and the relative poverty rate are among the highest in the CESEE region. The study sheds light on the effects of the predistributive and redistributive factors on the level of inequality and poverty. We consider the extent to which different parts of the income distribution are affected by the process of average income growth. The main conclusion from the empirical analysis for the CESEE countries is that the sign of the growth rate of the average income of the population, in most cases, is an important predictor of the income growth rate of the quintile groups. Correlation results show that the sign of the growth rates of the average income of the population is the most important determinant for the sign of the growth rates of the average income of the quintile group for the quintiles nearest to the average income of the population.
Elvis Mujkić
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 240-253; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101240m

Abstract:
In the modern business environment, the appearance of mergers and acquisitions, the sale of companies, as well as the disappearance of companies from the market are an everyday occurrence. In these, so called “transactions”, there is a need to determine the value of a company that is merged with another company, or that is being sold, or on the other hand that disappears from the market, i.e. goes into liquidation. The companies that are the subject of these “transactions” differ in a number of criteria. One of these criteria is the capital structure. The capital structure is conditioned by numerous factors, from profitability, creditor security, all the way to financial elasticity. Each of these factors implies a different ratio of equity and borrowed capital. The aim of the research is to determine the influence of the financial structure of capital on the estimated value of the company. The methods used to estimate the value of the company are: the method of discounting net cash flow, as a method of yield approach and the method of multiplier based on comparable transactions, as a method of market approach. The influence of the capital structure on the estimated value of the company was determined on the basis of regression and correlation analysis. The results obtained by applying the multiplier method based on comparable transactions, indicate that, with the increase of the share of borrowed capital in the capital structure, the estimated value of the company increases, which is in line with Modigliani - Miller theorem from 1964. However, as the costs of financial troubles increase with the increase in indebtedness, i.e. creditors lose trust in a given company, the question arises what is the upper limit of the company’s indebtedness that maximizes the estimated value of the company. To answer this question, the method of discounting net cash flows was applied. Applying the method of discounting net cash flows, it was determined that the relationship between the share of debt in capital and the value of the company is in line with the theory of static compromise. This means that with an increase in the share of debt in capital, the value of the company will grow to a certain level of that leverage, and after that level, the value of the company will decrease with an increase in the share of debt in capital. The level of debt participation in the capital that maximizes the value of the company differs from company to company, i.e. it is not unambiguously determined and it depends on the price of equity and borrowed capital, as well as the level of income tax rate. Taking into account the above-mentioned results, as well as the results of hypothesis testing, it can be concluded that the hypothesis was confirmed, according to which with increasing share of borrowed capital, the value of the company will grow to a certain level of leverage, and after that level with further increase of leverage the value of the company decreases.
Oleh Vysochan, Andriy Boychuk, Vasyl Hyk
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 94-108; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101094v

Abstract:
The article focuses on the study of the closeness of the relationship obtained from different sources and used in different areas, finance, with the effectiveness of innovation, measured by the number of developed innovative products and the number of introduced new technological processes. The input information was the data of industrial enterprises of Ukraine for the period 2015-2019, summarized in statistical reporting and presented on the official resources of the State Statistics Service. To accomplish these objectives, the methods of correlation-regression analysis and analysis of the dynamics and structure of statistical indicators of innovation of industrial enterprises of Ukraine were used. Possible causes of crisis phenomena of innovative activity of Ukrainian enterprises that hinder the economic development of the national economy are discussed. The basis for further research of complex and individual influence of factors on development of innovative activity of the enterprises of various branches of economy is provided.
Željko V. Račić, Đuro Mikić, Neven Mikić
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 109-122; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101109r

Abstract:
The concept of examining decisions using abstract research constructions as virtual aids enables the design of the management platform and the creation of the behavior of the future state of the system. Checking the effects of decisions in a real system through an appropriate mathematical-logical apparatus certainly affects the reduction of randomness and spontaneity of management. The symbolic connection of the input that produces the combined input action and the output that manifests the reaction expressed by the degree of sensitivity and enables the translation of the imaginary expression of reality into the operative mathematical language. The commitment to this type of model is based on the fact of almost standardized procedures in terms of choosing the priority of including certain forms of resources, which makes it representative in terms of achieving the goal function defined by the criterion of optimality. In this sense, we can talk about a whole range of optimization problems with mutually inconsistent tactical goals and thus the need for their refined balance, and one of such challenges is the focus of attention of a specific research project. The mathematical model represents a formalized description of the action of physical contents, and we use it to support the decision-making process when the complexity of reality allows that. Accordingly, to express the regularity of functioning, a deterministic model of linear programming in the form of a set of relations describing the input-output effect of influential factors used in this paper. With a tolerant simplification of reality, the perception of the model, based on the coincidence with the structure of the original, actually shows an approximation that means analogous behavior demonstrated on the quantitative model or its derivative - the optimization model. This thesis supports the fact that the corresponding relationship between the model and the original allows the examination of the behavior of the observed hypothetical system, and the analysis of the sensitivity map of the variable, in the form of a goal function, becomes a source of modeling information. Also, the system is not influenced by a high rate of change that would mean expanding from deterministic to stochastic modeling, but all methodological resources are mobilized so that the model concept would not become a theoretical misconception that would lead to quasi-decision making. The author’s analytical thinking and logic try to give a chance to the imagination, which connects creativity and physical resources that indicates several alternatives, which contain future parameters. In this way, the authors use the model as an increment of knowledge to connect the a priori management reserve of their accuracy with the reality of hypothetical data within a rational approach.
Marija Čutura, Anto Jerković
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 47-62; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101047c

Abstract:
Because of the benefits for all stakeholders, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept that is now becoming increasingly popular and is also an integral part of doing business in the modern world. Through applying CSR, the business sector contributes to sustainable development and companies use it as their competitive advantage because it represents not only a desirable but also a necessary form of behavior in all business activities. The aim of this paper was to investigate the level of CSR policies implementation in small, medium, and large companies that are operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research instrument is adapted in order to analyze the application of particular CSR policies: workplace policies, environmental policies, marketplace policies, and community policies. The study also analyzed the possession standards related to the CSR implementation practice. For the purposes of the survey, data were collected from 90 companies operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The collection of primary data was conducted using the online survey technique. Based on the conducted research, it has been obtained that companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of the size of the companies, apply certain forms of CSR policies in their operations. The analysis also found that companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina attach different importance to certain CSR policies. The results related to the selection of CSR areas, the directing of financial resources in CSR, as well as the method of decision-making, and the degree of application of norms and standards, indicate that companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina do not have a strategic approach to CSR. Economic responsibility is the primary responsibility of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but following current global trends, it is necessary to work to improve other dimensions and areas of CSR. The lack of significant differences in practices of CSR companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with regard to their size and giving the most importance to economic aspects of CSR, indicates an insufficient understanding of the modern approach to CSR from the side of the management of the companies. Government as well as the non-profit sector should support companies in implementing CSR policies to become more environmentally and socially responsible. Nevertheless, although there is no strategic approach, it can be concluded that companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina implement certain CSR policies. Based on the research results, the paper provides an overview of CSR policies in Bosnia and Herzegovina and offers some implications guidelines for managers, as well as guidelines for future CSR research.
Jasmin Bajić, Ružica Škurla Babić, Mirko Tatalović
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 254-269; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101254b

Abstract:
By the end of September, 2020 total worldwide number of Covid-19 infections has surpassed 34 million inhabitants, while the number of deaths caused by health pandemic crisis stands at more than one million. It’s predicted that the year 2020 will see about 10 percent drop in economic growth compared to the previous year. Different macroeconomic scientific and professional authors in their forecasts agree that the worse scenarios will be suffered by global and regional tourism industries together with air transport industry. The consequences of Covid-19 on air transport results in 2020 compared to results in the last three decades are analysed on four different levels - worldwide, European, South-East European and Croatian aviation achievements. Besides, the correlation between the global touristic and air carriers’ results in last three decades is considered in the paper with adequate conclusions. IATA monitors developments related to the Coronavirus outbreak, publishes industry statistics and analysis of COVID-19 impacts on the financial and traffic performance and produces outlook for the global air transport industry. According to its latest forecast, full-year 2020 traffic is expected to be down by 66% compared to 2019 while revenues are expected to fall by even more than demand. ICAO has prepared few models and analyses of final business results with different magnitudes on air transport industry recovery. Special attention and business details in the paper are devoted to the Croatian air transport situation in light of Covid-19 with conclusions, suggestions and proposals for future survival and development scenarios, including appropriate actions and measures as well as state, regional or local financial support. The activities and measures taken by Croatia Airlines can be characterized as an example of good practice in the conditions of the Covid-19 pandemic and are articulated as guidelines for the operations of regional airlines in the mentioned conditions.
Ante Mandarić, Goran Matijević
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 280-293; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101280m

Abstract:
The epidemic of the disease COVID-19, in Požeština in relation to China, where it originated in other parts of Croatia, appeared somewhat later, while Požega-Slavonia County in terms of total share in relation to other counties in Croatia remained relatively well , 16th place, out of a total of 20 counties, ie a smaller number of patients was recorded. In the conditions of public health danger to the health and lives of people with expressed uncertainty, citizens around the world were flooded with numerous information, about the disease, ways of prevention, treatment that at one point threatened to turn into an infodemia, as warned by the WHO. The importance of crisis communication in such conditions is of great importance, and how governments and headquarters communicate messages about the crisis to the public, which is discussed in the first parts of the paper and points out several inconsistencies and illogicalities in the actions of the state headquarters. prohibition and permission to make recommendations contrary to the epidemiologist’s recommendations. But more important than the recommendations of headquarters and governments, today are the recommendations and news transmitted by digital media, and especially the local ones that bring news and recommendations for the area where we live. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate in the central part the significance of the local 034 Portal in the Corona crisis, and its monitoring of the crisis and its impact on the public. Research through several segments, it was found that the portal maintained the level of reporting on regular events and adjusted reporting on the Crown to the conditions and situation in the county, not leading to sensationalism, concern, fear, but was a carrier of preventive activities and a good ally in the fight. against the epidemic, that is, he followed the guidelines for informing the WHO and did not contribute to the creation of an infodemia.
Hristo Katrandjiev, Yovka Bankova, Radica Jovanović
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 158-175; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101158k

Abstract:
The business environment and cluster development in given economy have a defining role for the development, maintenance and enhancement of national competitiveness and this has been proven repeatedly in theory and in practice. Cluster development in Bulgaria started with some delay compared to the other European countries. In Bulgaria, companies even though being a member of a cluster, they do not fully realize their advantages in terms of competition and joint efforts. The reason is that clusters in Bulgaria are still in a process of building efficient internal interactions between their members. The study focuses on the way and the extent the state of business environment and cluster development foster national competitiveness in the case of Bulgaria and selected Central and Eastern European EU member states countries. For the purposes of the study of business environment the Diamond Model of Michael Porter is employed and it is carried out through the World Economic Forum’s indicators of Global Competitiveness Reports. Both, business environment and the level of cluster development in Bulgaria are evaluated in a comparative context with selected Central and Eastern European EU member states countries. The results of the study show domination of limitations and obstacles to enhancing national competitiveness. We may conclude that the state of the business environment, the level of cluster development, and their interaction are not very favourable for more intensive competitive development of Bulgarian economy.
Jana Aleksić, Mirjana Landika, Marijana Barjaktarević
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 189-200; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101189a

Abstract:
Business activity and the production portfolio of business systems are directed to the consumers’ requirements by marketing activities, therefore, there are situations in which these activities create and stimulate certain needs and requirements. Market creation is a complex activity that affects a large number of disciplines and synergistically creates satisfaction with the product and / or service, which, in a pandemic, is a special challenge for the creators of the product portfolio, especially for distribution channels. Distribution of products and / or services is a key factor of business success in the conditions of social distance and insufficiently developed technical - technological support for the transition to the virtual sphere of business and communication. A useful base of business activity includes adequate modeling of consumer profiles in order to adapt the marketing strategy to them, which ultimately provides guidelines for market positioning as a precondition for business efficiency. Creating consumer profiles requires a model analysis of habits, preferences, talents, personal and socio - psychological characteristics that allow the creation of similar groups, and thus the adaptation of marketing strategies in line with the created consumer profiles. The empirical basis of the proposed solutions enables a confidence in the modeled information, and thus reliability in their objectivness, which enables business flexibility conditioned by external stimuli, such as the COVID - 19, but it can also be used in other business conditions. The aim of the research is to establish a correlation and find answers on how to fit consumer profiles and their purchase under pandemic conditions. Consumer purchase depends on numerous factors, both internal and external, which are valid in regular conditions as well. Considering the current conditions, it is necessary to evaluate consumers’ behaviour during the purchase. Consumer profiling is not universal and cannot be generalized for the global market, especially if it is programmed for providers within a selected geographic unit. The research assumption is that different results would be obtained in another territorial unit and a different consumer typology would be profiled, but this assumption needs to be checked, which opens up the possibilities of new research projects. The research marked off another group of factors, known as factor II, which includes: marital status, number of children, respondent’s age, children’s age, ownership of a residential building and employment status. Consumers’ reaction to consumption is mostly within these factors. Data analysis and generation of management information that profiles consumers can be performed in other territorial units and in other time frames, and they are based on the knowledge of tools for data collection and processing, and then consulting service management - marketing adjustment of strategic commitments and business policy in accordance with the generated results.
Omer Kurtanović, Haris Dacić, Admir Kurtanović
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 270-279; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101270k

Abstract:
This paper extends the general problem of minimizing the total cost of transport on the road network (CNF) by considering the total time, maximum time and total amount of cargo with the longest time. In the literature available to us, models with timing and amount of cargo in the case of a standard transport task were exposed. Optimization is possible by combining 5 criteria, 2 linear and 3 nonlinear ones over the same set of linear constraints. Multicriteria optimization determines Pareto-optimal solutions. Interactive analyst-software algorithms for solving the selected models were defined. The solution of hypothetical problems was illustrated. Closed model with 5 two-way asymmetric communications using software for CNF and it is possible to use software for LP. Four one-criteria problems were solved: total costs, overall transport performance from a time standpoint, transport time (problem of the second type by time) total transport time (problem of the third type by time) and one bi-criteria problem related to the simultaneous minimization of the maximum duration of transport and total costs.
Francesco Palermo
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 5-26; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111005p

Abstract:
In public law, the concept of property plays, arguably, a much more limited role than in private law. At a closer look, however, a rather different picture emerges. In fact, in public (national and international) law, property is less (if at all) regulated, but not less important than in private law. Rather, it is implicitly assumed and developed in collective rather than individual terms. Especially in the nation state construct, territory is the property of a state and the state is the property of a group of people (the dominant nation), whose power to control a territory is called sovereignty. For this reason, when the question emerges of how to deal with a territory predominantly inhabited by a minority group, the answers by different actors involved might be diametrically opposite. This is essentially because the link between people and territory is always framed in terms of ownership: who “owns” a territory? And how to deal with those who inhabit the territory without (being seen as those) owing it? This essay explores the responses to such questions. The focus will be on challenges posed by autonomy regimes as instruments for the accommodation of minority issues, including the evolving concept of territory. Against this background, the different understandings of the link and the recent practice of selected international bodies will be analysed, leading to some concluding remarks. It will be argued that territory is an unavoidable point of reference, but many aspects are not sufficiently addressed, such as the issue of the addressees of such arrangements, the evolution that minority-related concepts are facing in the present era, marked by the challenge of diversity and the overall understanding of territorial arrangements.
Marina Simović, Vladimir Simović
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 44-53; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111044s

Abstract:
Life imprisonment is the term for a prison sentence based on which a convicted person remains in prison for their whole life. After the death penalty, it is the severest criminal sanction. Many countries have introduced it in their legislation as a substitute for the death penalty. On the other hand, many legislations have, along with the long-term sentence, introduced the possibility of the convicts’ release, most often conditional release. From the second half of the 20th century onwards, life imprisonment as well as the death penalty has most often been regarded an inhumane and inefficient sanction, given that people sentenced to life imprisonment are considered permanently excluded from society, that is, losing any kind of interest in rehabilitation. This paper analyses the issues related to long-term sentences - life imprisonment in the countries of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and in the contemporary European criminal law.
Jelena Ćeranić Perišić
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 77-90; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111077p

Abstract:
Malgré le fait que la construction communautaire est fondée sur le principe d’unité d’application de droit communautaire, dès le début de processus de l’intégration européenne le principe de différentiation a été appliqué. L’idée principale était de préparer le terrain pour pouvoir poursuivre les objectifs communs. Déjà, lors des premiers élargissements de la Communauté européenne, les périodes de transition de certains États ont été prévues. La prise de conscience de l’impossibilité pour l’ensemble des États d’avancer de la même vitesse a conduit à la constitutionalisation du concept de différentiation/ flexibilité. L’intégration différenciée a été institutionnalisée par le traité d’Amsterdam (1997) sous la forme du mécanisme de coopération renforcée. Les modalités d’intégration différenciée sont assez nombreuses et diversifiées. On peut les trouver dans des matières différentes. Presque tous les domaines d’actions de l’Union sont potentiellement ou effectivement concernées par la différenciation. L’hétérogénéité de l’intégration différenciée se manifeste aussi à travers la multitude d’expressions désignant cette notion. Une gamme des notions diverses est développée. Ainsi, cet article présente un essai de faire une typologie des modalités de l’intégration différenciée. La difficulté ne consiste pas dans la découverte d’un classement de la flexibilité, mais plutôt dans le choix de typologies décisives. Une classification est la plus courante en doctrine. On peut donc la qualifier de classique et elle est examinée dans la première partie de cet article. Étant donné que cette classification s’avère plutôt politique que juridique et qu’elle ne reflète pas suffisamment le droit positif, les nouvelles typologies sont analysées dans la deuxième partie.
Nana Weber
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 54-76; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111054w

Abstract:
The article deals with Slovenian regulation of the termination of employment contracts due to business reasons. According to settled case law, any termination of an employment contract is ultima ratio of the employer. In addition to pre-redundancy alternatives in ZDR-1 and a review of measures from the PKP packages, the options offered to employers by the state to prevent redundancies, at least at the moment do not provide a sufficient basis for the legality of redundancies solely because of an economic crisis due to the pandemic.
Radmila Dragišić
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 166-185; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111166d

Abstract:
In this paper, we explore the implementation of the Directive on services in the internal market in the Member States of the European Union, with the focus on assessing the clarity of the norms of this acquis. We perform analysis of selected cases from the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice. The source of law in question, among other things, we consider with regard to its implementation in the areas of public health, certification and technical supervision, and in the field of veterinary services. The topic of our work is useful for the professional and scientific community due to the further clarification of the importance of the development of the case law of the Court of Justice for the uniform application of the Directive governing a very important segment of the internal market.
Miodrag Simović, Marina Simović
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 105-116; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111105s

Abstract:
The well-known sentence in English Justice delayed is justice denied confirms historical awareness of the value of a speedy court decision. The right to a fair trial within a reasonable time applies to both civil and criminal proceedings. In a criminal trial, the issue of adjournment may also be regulated under Article 5 paragraph 3 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms when a person is detained. The rationale for the principle, in criminal proceedings, is “based on the need to allow the accused not to remain for too long in a state of uncertainty as to the outcome of criminal charges against him” (Kart v. Turkey, European Court of Human Rights, 2009). Furthermore, the variability of criminal proceedings that take too long - generally damages the reputation of the alleged offender. The European Court of Human Rights explained that “the reason for the verdict in so many lenghty proceedings is that certain contracting parties have not complied with the ‘reasonable time’ requirement under Article 6 paragraph 1 of the European Convention and have not prescribed a domestic remedy for this type of appeal” (Scordino v. Italy (no. 1) [GC], 2006-V).
Slobodan Stanišić
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 27-43; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111027s

Abstract:
Although the legal regulation of this contract as a special named modality of the basic type of contract of sale was missing in our positive legislation, its significance for today’s modern legal transactions is undoubted. Sales contracts with the right of redemption are still concluded today and are an integral part of the living organisms of our contractual contract law. This was also noticed by the Commission for the Drafting of the Civil Code of the Republic of Serbia, which envisaged the legal regulation of this important legal work in the Pre-Draft of the new Civil Code. In this way, the intention of the Commission to finally fill the legal gap that still exists in the Serbian contract law regarding the legal regulation of this legal transaction as a special named contract was expressed. Sales contracts with the right of redemption are valid legal transactions that still produce legal effects, under the condition that they are concluded in accordance with the general principles of our contract law, within the limits prescribed by positive laws and regulations and are not contrary to public order and good customs. In this paper, the author looks at the origin and historical development of this modality of the contract of sale, the concept, features and subject of the contract, including the rights and obligations of the parties, presented significant understandings of legal science on the legal nature and duration of contracts of sale and pointed out the need for its legal regulation as a named contract.
Ljubinko Mitrović, Saša Rendić
Годишњак факултета правних наука - АПЕИРОН, Volume 11, pp 134-150; https://doi.org/10.7251/gfp2111134m

Abstract:
There are two categories of tax offenses in the so-called tax legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and these are criminal offenses and misdemeanors. Unlike tax crimes prescribed exclusively in criminal law (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Brcko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina), tax offenses are prescribed by dozens of laws and bylaws in force at all levels of government. : at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then the entities - Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, cantons, Brcko District and finally cities and municipalities. The taxation system in Bosnia and Herzegovina is conceived and constituted in accordance with its constitutional system and it can be characterized as a hybrid system, but also a very complex system with a complex fiscal structure and divided responsibilities for taxation with direct taxes under the jurisdiction of the entity tax administrations. that is, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republika Srpska and the Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The competent institutions at the entity level are the Ministries of Finance (Ministry of Finance of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Ministry of Finance of the Republika Srpska), ie the Finance Directorate of the Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On the other hand, indirect taxes are the responsibility of the Indirect Taxation Authority of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while at the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Ministry of Finance has been established within the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 79-93; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101079g

Abstract:
In the world economy, small and medium sized entreprises (SMEs) dominate in the number of overall enterprises (90-99% of all enterprises, depending on the definition used) and in economic contributions (GDP growth, productivity, job creation, innovation, level of competition, etc.) (Lundström i Stevenson, 2001). Because small businesses generate jobs, tax revenue, functional products, charitable donations, technological development, and social contributions to communities, their success and sustainability are important for social and economic development. In addition to the impact on public health, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a major economic shock and the greatest consequences were felt by the small and medium-sized enterprises. Due to the crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, countries and their companies are facing major problems of human and business capacities sustainability. Although governments have enacted private sector policies, there are constraints that have direct implications for economic growth potential. In this paper, we investigate the impact of COVID-19 on SMEs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, focusing on the impact of the Law for mitigation negative economic consequences, better known as the Crown-Law. We first examined how the companies performed this year compared to the previous year, and then we examined whether there were barriers to the implementation of the Crowv-Law and if so, whether they were internal or external. The results of this research point to the fact that the Crown-Law is not good enough. The measures are not in line with the strategic needs of SMEs, there is a time limit and the measures are short-term. The SME development strategy should be coordinated based on the mechanism of public-private dialogue. SMEs need business services to improve their competitiveness (information, consulting, training, accounting, legal services, advertising, marketing, technical and technological services, including testing standards and certification requirements abroad, product upgrades, etc.). The results of this research provide some information of the business results and expectations of SMEs in times of crisis, while offering insight into measures designed to aid recovery. The results highlight the role that the length of the crisis will play in determining its final impact, which policymakers should consider when considering the scale of interventions needed. On the other side, the Covid-19 pandemic has opened up new challenges, but also opportunities for SMEs, such as technological advances that create new products and transform almost every phase of the business from manufacturing to marketing, procurement and logistics. Currently, only a small part of the SME sector is able to recognize and seize these opportunities and meet the challenges.
Branko Velov, Dragan Kolev
EMC Review - Časopis za ekonomiju - APEIRON, Volume 21, pp 8-22; https://doi.org/10.7251/emc2101008v

Abstract:
This research aims to examine the attitude towards the ways in which the female body is represented, i.e. to determine the extent to which the respondents (women) agree with the statements based on critical observations of feminist and researchers on gender issues on unethical (unacceptable) representation and treatment of woman and the female body in media and marketing. The study involved 509 women, aged between 18 and 55 years. The attitude towards the representation of the female body is operationalized by a scale (RFB scale) of 21 statements, grouped into three dimensions- sexual objectification, promotion of the “ideal” female body and instrumentalization of the female body. The results show that the respondents, although to varying degrees, agree with all the statements that describe the ways in which the female body is presented in the media and in marketing. Although all three dimensions are quite common in the media and in marketing, the respondents see the instrumentalization (abuse) of the female body for commercial purposes as the most pronounced phenomenon. Both on an overall scale and in dimensions, women from urban areas show a higher score than women living in rural areas. There are no statistically significant differences between groups defined by other sociodemographic characteristics (age, marital status, region, type of neighborhood, education). The conclusion is that the respondents support the attitude of feminists and researchers of gender issues that in the media and in marketing there is sexual objectification and promotion of the “ideal” female body, and especially pronounced instrumentalization (abuse) of women and the female body for commercial purposes.
Page of 123
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top