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Ronald S. Burt, Song Wang
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2021.0676

Abstract:
Bridge supervision occurs when the connection between manager and boss is a network bridge between separate social worlds. Improved communication technology has facilitated the use of bridge supervision. Manager and boss can easily interact by audio or on screen as a pair of people disconnected from surrounding colleagues. At what cost to manager and effective management? We argue that bridge supervision affects the way in which a manager plays his or her role, but not how well the role is played. We find clear support for the argument in a traditional corporate hierarchy. Managers operating under bridge supervision exclude the boss from their work discussion and are conservative in expressing emotion. Behavioral correlates notwithstanding, compensation and good ideas have their familiar association with network brokerage independent of bridge versus embedded supervision. In sum, bridge supervision affects manager style, but not performance. We discuss implications for future research.
Denny Gioia
Academy of Management Discoveries; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2021.0200

Abstract:
The assumptions we have typically used to formulate our theories and conduct our research have led us to be seen as irrelevant by an audience we should want to engage. Consequently, our approach to research and writing has put us on a road to hell. I (re)consider the fundamental assumptions we make about the phenomena we study and propose an approach that will allow us to better understand the structures and processes we purport to describe and explain.
Siddharth Vedula, Claudia Doblinger, Desiree Pacheco, Jeffrey York, Sophie Bacq, Michael Russo, Tom Dean
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0143

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship is routinely promoted as a solution to our most pressing societal and environmental challenges, a means to address issues ranging from poverty to human-induced climate change. Two emerging literature streams have sought to examine how and when such solutions may emerge. In this review we examine the literature on social (SE) and environmental (EE) entrepreneurship to expose potential linkages, disconnects, and a path forward. We do so by combining bibliometric network analysis with a detailed qualitative review of the literature from 1994 to 2019. Through this process we: 1) identify a pattern of convergent evolution, whereby SE and EE share some common elements today, while originating in distinct scholarly communities with different epistemological roots, 2) offer a conceptual framework that identifies specific areas for collaboration and learning between SE and EE, and 3) propose how these streams can be integrated, to elevate the impact of the field of entrepreneurship. We argue that such an integration can enable entrepreneurship research to fulfill its promise of understanding how and when entrepreneurial action contributes to the public good.
Basima A. Tewfik
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.1627

Abstract:
Prevailing wisdom paints the impostor phenomenon as detrimental. In this work, I seek to rebalance the existing conversation around this phenomenon by highlighting that it may also have interpersonal benefits. To identify these benefits, I revisit seminal theorizing to advance the construct of workplace impostor thoughts, which I define as the belief that others overestimate one’s competence at work. Incorporating theory on contingencies of self-worth, I present an integrative model that outlines why such thoughts may be positively associated with other-perceived interpersonal effectiveness and why they may not be. I test my theory across four studies (N=3603) that feature survey, video, and pre-registered experimental data. I find that employees who more frequently have such thoughts are evaluated as more interpersonally effective because they adopt a more other-focused orientation. I do not find that this interpersonal benefit comes at the expense of competence-related outcomes (i.e., performance, selection)—a point I revisit in my future directions. When examining my theorized competing pathway, I find that whereas workplace impostor thoughts do somewhat encourage those who have them to self-handicap—consistent with prevailing wisdom—such thoughts do not operate through self-handicapping to harm other-perceived interpersonal effectiveness. I conclude by situating my findings in light of prior work.
Andrew M. Carton, Karren Knowlton, Constantinos Coutifaris, Timothy G. Kundro, Andrew P. Boysen
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1019

Abstract:
One of the most effective ways leaders can promote change is by generating visions with image-based rhetoric (“make children smile”). By conjuring visual snapshots of the future, leaders paint a portrait of what their organizations can one day achieve. It would thus stand to reason that leaders who naturally think and speak in terms of picture-like detail (a concrete orientation) would promote more organizational change than those who are inclined to think abstractly (an abstract orientation). Yet research has established that individuals with a concrete orientation tend to focus on short-term, narrow details (e.g., small features of a single product) rather than long-term visions requiring the coordinated effort of all employees. To determine how and when concrete-thinking leaders induce large-scale change, we integrate theory on attention, organizational hierarchy, and construal. We predict that leaders who have a concrete orientation will promote change by redirecting their attention toward long-term visions of the future if their organizations have strong, rather than weak, hierarchies. By contrast, hierarchical strength will have no effect on leaders with an abstract orientation. We test these predictions in an archival study of CEOs and then examine the attention-based process that helps explain this effect in a pre-registered experiment.
Victoria Sevcenko, Lynn Wu, Aleksandra 'Olenka' Kacperczyk, Sendil Ethiraj
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2019.0130

Abstract:
The division of firm surplus between labor and shareholders, and its impact on firms’ value creation, are central topics in strategy theory and practice. Early studies of value appropriation within firms devoted considerable attention to the dynamics of bargaining between labor— typically, organized labor—and the owners of capital. Since the 1960s, however, a decline in unionization across most of the major economies and a series of technological and economic changes have led to profound shifts in the bargaining process between labor and capital. This review synthesizes the findings of prior literature and argues for three increasingly important and often-overlooked consequences of these changes. First, individual bargaining has dramatically expanded the range of worker characteristics, values, and preferences that can now be accommodated in employment arrangements. Second, surplus division has become a strategic variable that organizations can differentiate on. Third, labor-market institutions have become more varied, and their role in setting the terms of negotiation has become more prominent.
Dana Harari, Michael R Parke, Jennifer Carson Marr
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0049

Abstract:
Research on workplace helping suggests that helpers receive positive outcomes in return for their help. We argue that this predominantly positive view of recipient reactions to helpers is because the literature has not adequately distinguished the outcomes of reactive helping (i.e., assistance provided in response to a request) from those of anticipatory helping (i.e., assistance offered or provided in advance of being asked). We propose that anticipatory helping, especially from helpers with higher status than the recipient, is more self-threatening to recipients than reactive helping; hence, recipients are less likely to accept this help and more likely to lower their evaluations of both the helper’s performance and their relationship with the helper. We find support for these hypotheses with four studies and one supplemental study that use experimental and field methodologies across a range of work contexts and social exchange relationships. Because our findings imply that both peer and higher status employees should withhold anticipatory help, which is impractical and potentially detrimental, we identify how these helpers can instead mitigate the negative effects of anticipatory helping by signaling a more balanced social exchange relationship with the recipient. We discuss how our findings expand research on helping, social exchange, and status.
Violina P. Rindova, Luis L. Martins
Academy of Management Review, Volume 46, pp 800-822; https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2019.0289

Abstract:
The goal of strategy is not only to address a given environment, but also to change it to a firm’s advantage. In this article, we maintain that design science provides a useful theoretical foundation for understanding the development of novel strategies by shifting strategists’ perspective from what is to what could be, from the past and present to the future, and from choosing among existing alternatives to discovering problems and solutions. We propose a structured process based on design mechanisms, which enables strategists to overcome the impediments to generating novel strategies that have been identified in prior research. The process we theorize integrates (i) strategists’ shaping intentions to transform an existing situation into a preferred one, (ii) a discovery-oriented exploration of problems and solutions based on designing without final goals, and (iii) stakeholder dialogue to validate and extend novelty and value. We discuss how it extends the micro-foundations of strategy with respect to the generation of strategic foresight and shaping intentions, as well as the work at the intersection of stakeholder strategies and complex societal problems.
Wei Jee Ong, Michael D Johnson
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0493

Abstract:
Job demands-resources research has largely adopted a variable-centered approach to test main and interactive effects of demands and resources on employee outcomes. Although this approach can inform what happens on average across employees, it cannot detect distinct configurations of job demands and resources that may lead to the same outcomes in different subpopulations. Multiplicative models have also received little empirical support. To address these limitations, we adopted a person-centered theoretical approach to examine configurations of demands and resources that are sufficient to produce exhaustion and engagement. Using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) across three studies, we find evidence for equifinality and causal asymmetry in exhaustion—three distinct configurations were sufficient to produce exhaustion, but none for its absence. We also find evidence for causal asymmetry, but not equifinality, in engagement—one configuration was sufficient to produce engagement and none for its absence. Our person-centered approach yielded more theoretically consistent results than a variable-centered approach. The findings highlight that certain job demands may only be buffered by specific resources, and that certain configurations of demands cannot be buffered at all. We conclude by offering propositions to advance theory and change the current direction of research on job demands and resources.
Santi Furnari, Donal Crilly, Vilmos F. Misangyi, Thomas Greckhamer, Peer C. Fiss, Ruth V. Aguilera
Academy of Management Review, Volume 46, pp 778-799; https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2019.0298

Abstract:
Management scholars study phenomena marked by complex interdependencies where multiple explanatory factors combine to bring about an outcome of interest. Yet, theorizing about causal complexity can prove challenging for the correlational theorizing that is predominant in the field of management, given its “net effects thinking” that emphasizes the unique contribution of individual explanatory factors. In contrast, configurational theories and thinking are well-suited to explaining causally complex phenomena. In this article, we seek to advance configurational theorizing by providing a model of the configurational theorizing process which consists of three iterative stages—scoping, linking and naming. In each stage, we develop and offer several heuristics aimed at stimulating configurational theorizing. That is, these theorizing heuristics are intended to help scholars discover configurations of explanatory factors, probe the connections among these factors, and articulate the orchestrating themes that underpin their coherence. We conclude with a discussion of how configurational theorizing advances theory development in the field of management and organizations, and beyond.
Matthew A. Cronin, Jeroen Stouten, Daan van Knippenberg
Academy of Management Review, Volume 46, pp 667-683; https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2019.0294

Abstract:
Lewin’s famous dictum is that “there’s nothing so practical as a good theory,” yet there is growing concern that management theory is not very useful or usable. Many scholars seek to fix the growing disconnect between theory and managerial realities, as well as the overabundance of weak and untested theory. Our concern is that all this discussion focuses on improving unit theory, which frames empirical work on specific aspects of a phenomenon, rather than programmatic theory, which orients scholars and practitioners toward what the unit theories collectively support as settled science. While programmatic theory must be comprised of solid unit theories, the processes that improve programmatic theory are different from and can be undermined by those that improve unit theory. Our contribution, therefore, is a model for how unit theory becomes programmatic theory that demonstrates how and why programmatic theory needs to drive that process. We conclude by using our model to show why the current suggestions for fixing the crisis of theory are not only insufficient but even draw away from the development of programmatic theory.
Chad David Coffman, Sanwar A. Sunny
Academy of Management Review, Volume 46, pp 823-825; https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2019.0361

Abstract:
In their recent paper, Dencker, Bacq, Gruber and Haas (2019) reconceptualize necessity entrepreneurship—sometimes referred to as necessity-motivated entrepreneurship (McMullen, Bagby & Palich, 2008)—through the lens of motivational theory, utilizing Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs framework. Prior research often conceptualized necessity entrepreneurship within a push-pull framework (Storey, 2016), with necessity entrepreneurship occurring when individuals are pushed into entrepreneurship by negative forces such as job loss or even the need for food and clothing, and opportunity-motivated entrepreneurs pulled into entrepreneurship by its attractiveness (Uhlaner & Thurik, 2007). This push-pull framework resulted in a dichotomous view of necessity entrepreneurship that Dencker et al (2019) correctly describe as over-simplified, and unable to account for the wide array of antecedents, processes and outcomes that occur in developing and developed contexts.
Tae-Youn Park, Sanghee Park, Bruce Barry
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0251

Abstract:
We review and synthesize research on the effects of incentives on ethical and unethical behavior. Our review of 361 conceptual and empirical articles, which are scattered across multiple disciplines (e.g., management, psychology, economics, education, healthcare delivery), reveals wide variation in how they conceptualize key concepts (i.e., incentives, ethics), how they theorize the effects, and what samples and research methods they use in empirical tests. We identify seven conceptual explanations that explain the link between incentives and unethicality, and synthesize them into three primary processes: cost-benefit comparison, motivated reasoning, and decreases in prosocial motivation. Our review of empirical evidence shows that some effects are relatively more established (e.g., goal-driven motivated reasoning) than others (e.g., prosocial motivation decline), but they all await more field (vs. laboratory experiments) evidence. In addition, giving substantial attention to the forms of unethicality in specific contexts, we show whether and how the effects of incentives on unethicality vary by professional domains, especially in education, healthcare delivery, and for-profit business. Building on the review, we present a multilevel, cyclical process model capturing how incentives and unethicality are related. We conclude by identifying opportunities for future research.
Curtis K. Chan, Luke N. Hedden
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.1014

Abstract:
Enacting occupational values is vitally important to expert professionals’ solidarity and sense of purpose. Yet, many professionals face audiences in their relational contexts—especially powerful clients—who can hold incongruent values and may threaten professionals’ jurisdictional control. How can experts enact their values without jeopardizing their jurisdictional control amidst clients holding incongruent values? We examine career advisers in undergraduate business schools, whose occupational values often contrasted with values common among their student clients. Through an ethnography of one school’s career advisers, combined with interviews of such advisers throughout the U.S., we find that advisers navigated interactions by discerning student values and accordingly modulating their value-enactment practices through masking, moderating, or magnifying their values. This allowed advisers to uphold their jurisdictional control when facing students exhibiting incongruent values, while enacting their values with students exhibiting unclear or congruent values. We contribute to the relational perspective on occupations and professions by positing how discernment and modulation help experts navigate relational tensions by recognizing and drawing on intra-clientele heterogeneity, unpacking how professionals might not entirely resist or change amidst incongruence but instead pursue a more mixed approach, and highlighting when and how experts mask or moderate rather than overtly enact their values.
Marco Berti, Christos Pitelis
Academy of Management Review; https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2019.0416

Abstract:
We critically assess the comparative efficiency advantages and disadvantages of capitalist and cooperative firms using team production as a frame of reference. We revisit the debate about such (dis)advantages in the context of open team production (OTP), a situation where team members are both internal and external to the firm. In contrast to the case of traditional (closed) team production, which focuses on the problem of monitoring team members within the firm, open team production, requires incentivizing both internal and external team members to commit to firm-specific cospecialized investments, as well as orchestrating and monitoring these continued investments. We identify some comparative efficiency (dis)advantages of traditional cooperative and capitalist firms in dealing with the novel challenges posed by OTP and we conclude that, in its context, a new type of a hybrid firm can possess comparative efficiency advantages vis-à-vis both types of traditional firms.
Helen H. Zhao, Hong Deng, Rocky P. Chen, Sharon K Parker Parker, Wei Zhang
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1110

Abstract:
Experienced passage of time, the extent to which employees perceive the passage of work time as being fast or slow, is a fundamental aspect of work experience. We identify two novel temporal work design characteristics that can speed up employees’ experienced passage of time: temporal predictability and task segmentation. Jobs with high temporal predictability do not make employees go through uncertain wait times before embarking on their next task. High task segmentation occurs when a large chunk of work time is segmented by categorically different temporal markers. We tested a model in which temporal predictability and task segmentation affect experienced passage of time, which in turn influences job performance, with five studies: two experiments that established the internal validity of temporal predictability and task segmentation (Studies 1a and 1b), a naturalistic field study in a factory that investigated the natural consequences of distinct temporal work design (Study 2), an organizational field study that constructively replicated the model using a sample of knowledge workers and their supervisors (Study 3), and an online survey in which we connected our model with the broader work design literature (Study 4). Altogether, the studies support a new temporal approach to work design.
Elizabeth Rouse, Spencer Harrison
Academy of Management Discoveries; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2020.0076

Abstract:
Research at the intersection of creativity and leadership has predominantly focused on how leaders support employees’ creativity. We break new ground by examining how creative project leaders generate ideas and influence products throughout group project work. Through an inductive study of modern dance groups attempting to develop and perform new choreography, we discovered that high creative team environments did not produce the most creative products; instead, the most creative products were associated with more leader-driven contexts. We show how contexts varied in the level of creative centralization, which we define as the extent to which creative contributions and decisions converge on a focal person. Combinations of six different creative work processes—concept-focused launch, action-focused launch, leader experimentation, co-creation, additive synthesis, and evaluative synthesis—enabled the emergence of variations in creative centralization and its associated outcomes. Our findings reveal new research puzzles at the intersection of creativity, leadership, and group work, as well as how leaders manage compositional creativity over time.
Thomas Will
Academy of Management Learning & Education; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0283

Abstract:
Professors rely upon expertise. As management scholars and teachers we need to know our stuff. Our relationship with expertise, however, is a tricky affair. Observers express frustration with our field’s epistemological perspective and wonder why existing ways of knowing and teaching are so resistant to change. One plausible explanation is that how we enact expertise in management studies makes sense—literally. That is, prevailing forms of expert behavior help professors construct and protect sensical understandings of self in relation to others. Drawing on constructive-developmental theory, I treat scholarship and teaching as meaning-making activities. Subject-object fusion in the context of the professor-expertise relationship means that many of us do not so much have our expertise as we are our expertise. This essay explores how meaning-making structures interact with the demands of academia to sustain disciplinary commitments to traditional ways of knowing and teaching. We are limited by commitments to expertise we have ourselves enacted. Many professors feel stuck; this essay outlines a path toward getting unstuck. I explain how a distinct double loop learning methodology designed to promote subject-object separation can enhance our capacity to make meaning in more expansive ways, such that we have our expertise without it having us.
Joel M Evans, James Oldroyd, John B. Bingham
Academy of Management Learning & Education; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0557

Abstract:
The continuing internationalization of business education offers MBA students a unique cross-cultural environment in which to develop their business acumen. This pluralistic context can produce uncertainty regarding appropriate ethical norms among the cohort and uncertainty in how students react to peers who are perceived to violate ethical norms. In this paper, we explore the violation of ethical norms through peer reactions to academic cheating and examine the effects of peer ostracization on perceived cheaters’ overall academic performance. We further explore how cultural intelligence may help cheaters avoid their peers’ social sanctions. In a three-part longitudinal study of an international MBA cohort, we predicted and found that cheating led to diminished academic performance, mediated by a reduction in friendship ties. Moreover, we found that cultural intelligence moderated the loss of friendship ties, attenuating the negative effect of reduced friendship ties on performance. In general, our findings suggest that peers can apply effective social sanctions to those they perceive as violating social norms, but that the impact of such sanctions may be lessened by the deviant individuals’ cultural intelligence.
Saouré Kouamé, Taieb Hafsi, David Oliver, Ann Langley
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.1143

Abstract:
How do senior managers of social mission-driven organizations build and sustain stakeholders’ emotional resonance with organizational identity beliefs over time in the face of repeated existential threats? This is an important question, given the dependence of many such organizations on external stakeholders who provide the resources necessary for survival. In this paper, we investigate the case of Solidum, a philanthropic organization devoted to poverty causes. Drawing on ethnographic, interview and archival data over 20 years, we develop a process model showing how senior managers may create and sustain stakeholder emotional resonance through three practices of emotional resonance work: building emotional bridges, enrolling stakeholders in collective soul-searching and materializing an appealing identity symbol. We show that stakeholder emotional resonance needs to be continually renewed and reshaped in the face of ongoing challenges associated with macro-organizational trends and the routinization of existing practices that can result in the dissipation of emotional resonance over time. The paper contributes to the literature on organizational identity maintenance by drawing attention to the active managerial work required to sustain stakeholder emotional resonance over time to allow mission-driven organizations to survive and prosper.
Herman Aguinis, Søren H. Jensen, Sascha Kraus
Academy of Management Perspectives; https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2020.0093

Abstract:
We identified policy implications of organizational behavior and human resource management (OBHRM) research based on 4,026 articles in 10 journals (2010-2019). We found that policy implications are underutilized and not part of OBHRM’s zeitgeist because only 1.5% of the articles (i.e., N = 61) included them, suggesting that OBHRM risks becoming societally irrelevant. Societal irrelevance may result in lower perceived value-added, less prestige and status compared to other fields that do offer implications for policy, and less support regarding research funding. However, we see great potential for OBHRM research to make meaningful contributions to policymaking in the future because we uncovered a handful of areas that do offer some policy implications such as labor relations, leadership, training and development, justice/fairness, and diversity and inclusion. We offer a dual theory-policy research agenda focused on (a) designing empirical studies with policymaking goals in mind, (b) converting existing exploratory and explanatory research to prescriptive and normative research, (c) deriving policies from bodies of research rather than individual studies, and (d) creating policies based on integrating theories, fields, and levels of analysis. We hope our article will be a catalyst for the creation and implementation of research-based policies in OBHRM and other management subfields.
Jordan D. Nielsen, Amy E. Colbert
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1288

Abstract:
Contact with beneficiaries has been described as an important job characteristic for shaping perceptions about the meaning of work; however, little is known about the role of negative beneficiary contact. We draw from two tenets of social information processing theory to propose that negative contact with beneficiaries has a dual effect on employees. Whereas negative contact may make employees perceive low social worth, it may simultaneously lead employees to believe they are engaging in self-sacrifice for a worthy cause—a relatively positive justification of such experiences. We investigated these ideas in three studies. In Study 1, a three-wave survey of registered nurses and their supervisors supported the hypothesized dual effect. Further consistent with our theorizing, the effect of perceived self-sacrifice on job satisfaction and performance was contingent on co-worker emotional support: at higher levels of support, perceived self-sacrifice exhibited a null relationship with satisfaction and a positive relationship with performance, whereas at lower levels of support these effects were negative. In Study 2, we again studied nurses using an experimental vignette method, showing that negative contact exhibits a causal effect on employee perceptions, and that negative contact is more likely to lead to perceived self-sacrifice when the contact is attributed to the nature of the work as opposed to one’s own performance. In Study 3, a two-wave survey of people from various occupations replicated the effects of negative contact on perceived social worth and perceived self-sacrifice. Moreover, the effect of negative contact on sacrifice was contingent on affective commitment to beneficiaries.
Paolo Aversa, Emanuele Bianchi, Loris Gaio, Alberto Nucciarelli
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1303

Abstract:
Research on clusters highlights that some areas display superior conditions to locally nurture concentrations of businesses. But why do certain industries—despite ascribing their origin to specific locations—emerge away from their birthplace? We respond by qualitatively investigating the influence that the town of Arco, Italy, and its periodic event ‘RockMaster’ exerted on the emergence of the global sport climbing industry. We advance the concept of ‘catalyzing places’ that support the emergence and growth of industries through an ongoing, cyclical process of three forces—centripetal (i.e., attracting), catalyzing (i.e., reacting), and centrifugal (i.e., ejecting). The forces attract communities of practice to the place, expose them to intense, transformational experiences towards entrepreneurship, and ultimately induce them to establish their businesses elsewhere. By redeploying the resources and reputation acquired in the place, these scattered communities enact a collective phenomenon of user entrepreneurship, and ultimately industry emergence. We claim that the ongoing activities of the place, and the periodic ones of the event, are mutually reinforcing. We advance two novel elements, ‘portable economies’ and ‘springboard firms,’ which in catalyzing places exert the antithetical effect of ‘agglomeration economies’ and ‘anchor firms’ in clusters. We discuss our contribution to research on industry emergence, new practices, and user entrepreneurship.
Prithwiraj Choudhury
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0242

Abstract:
I review and integrate a wide range of literature that has examined how geographic mobility of high-skilled workers creates value for organizations and individuals. Drawing on this interdisciplinary literature, I document that geographic mobility creates value by facilitating the transfer and recombination of knowledge, transfer of social capital, organizational norms, and financial capital, as well as by creating opportunities for individuals to develop skills, seek resources, and experience wage increases. I also review the literature around geographic immobility and synthesize this body of research under a framework of geographic mobility frictions that constrain and add costs to geographic mobility. I enumerate four key types of frictions: regulatory frictions, occupational/organizational frictions, personal frictions, and economic/environmental frictions, which act as impediments to geographic mobility. I then propose a research agenda around studying whether and how provisioning geographic flexibility through ‘work-from-anywhere’ (WFA) policies might help individuals and firms capture value from geographic mobility and mitigate adverse effects of geographic mobility frictions. I also outline future research questions related to how adoption of geographic flexibility might alter future patterns of geographic mobility, and the future geography of work.
Giada Baldessarelli, Ileana Stigliani, Kimberly Elsbach
Academy of Management Annals; https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2020.0198

Abstract:
Organizational aesthetics comprises a way of understanding organizational life based on immediate sensory reactions (i.e., sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) to the material components of organizing (e.g., artifacts, physical settings, and material practices). Despite the growing interest in the topic, however, research is fragmented across management areas. To advance scholarly knowledge in this field, we reviewed the empirical work examining aesthetics in organizations. Our review yields two major insights. First, we identify three perspectives on the role of aesthetics. Scholars have treated aesthetics as (1) a directed stimulus (that elicits product evaluation and work organization), (2) a knowledge tool (that is entwined with creative work and everyday tasks), or (3) an open-ended outcome (that serves as a personal experience). Second, we find that each perspective highlights emotional and cognitive mechanisms through which aesthetics is implicated in organizing. Building on these two insights, our review offers an integrative framework that provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the field, illuminating the work of aesthetics in and around organizations and providing avenues for future studies.
Thomas G. Cummings, Chailin Cummings
Academy of Management Learning & Education; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0262

Abstract:
LANGUAGE AND THE EVOLUTION OF ACADEMIC FIELDS: THE CASE OF ORGANIZATION STUDIES Abstract Considerable research has been directed at how academic fields evolve yet the language used to communicate knowledge has played a minor or passive role in understanding field development. We draw on studies from both linguistics and sociology to develop a conceptual framework that explains how language affects the institutional and social processes involved in the evolution of academic fields. We illustrate the framework with a case study of the evolution of organization studies (OS). It includes a textual analysis of the field’s communication of research knowledge to the academic community over a 50-year period; a review of the institutional and social processes that shaped the field’s research development; and an examination of how the words used to communicate OS knowledge affected those evolutionary processes. Because OS evolved mainly in professional business schools, it also creates knowledge for practitioners. We further explore how the language used to communicate OS knowledge to students and practitioners shaped the practice side of the field’s evolution. This linguistic perspective clarifies the growing divergence between OS’s research and practice sides and suggests how they might be strategically aligned for the field’s successful development.
Dean Xu, Kevin Zhou, Shihua Chen
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2020.0810

Abstract:
The Chinese Communist Party began decoupling its policies and practices from Maoist communist ideology more than four decades ago, yet, why does Maoism continue to influence the behavior of Party members? In this study, we argue that although the influence of Maoist ideology has become weaker among younger Party members and Party members with higher educational attainment, such ideological decay is countered by a process of secondhand ideological imprinting. Based on data from 1,298 non-state-owned Chinese listed firms for 2000–2017, we find that firms with Party-member board chairs file fewer patent applications and are more likely to commit patent infringement. These effects are weaker if a board chair is younger or has higher educational attainment. Importantly, the moderating effect of young age is reduced as the presence of older Party-member corporate directors in a region becomes more prominent. However, the moderating effect of education appears to be unaffected by the presence of older Party-member directors. These findings generate fresh insights on the dynamics of ideological decay and persistence.
Cyril Taewoong Um, Shiau-Ling Guo, Fabrice Lumineau, Wei Shi, Ruixiang Song
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.0943

Abstract:
The prior literature on role congruity theory has revolved around demographic-based expectations, emphasizing role incongruity derived from a mismatch between prescriptive expectations of distinct roles. In this paper, we depart from this traditional focus on between-role incongruity and explore an alternative source of role incongruity by examining how language can trigger the within-role incongruity of function-based expectations. Through an analysis of conference call transcripts and contracts for 7,649 deals during 2003–2018, we show that the incongruity of function-based expectations manifested through the language of the CFO increases banks’ perceived hazards, leading them to employ more debt contract covenants. In addition, by investigating the moderating effects of corresponding CEO language and media sentiment, we show how the social context and sentiment toward the firm weaken this incongruity effect. We discuss the theoretical implications of our study for future research on the sources of role incongruity and the antecedents of contract design.
David Thomas Welsh, Ryan Outlaw, Daniel W. Newton, Michael Baer
Academy of Management Journal; https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2019.1187

Abstract:
We draw on cognitive-motivational-relational theory to build a theoretical model outlining how speaking up affects voicers’ emotions and subsequent social behavior. Across three studies—an experimental pilot study, a daily within-person study of employee–coworker dyads, and a preregistered experiment—we test our proposal that promotive voice elicits pride due to a sense of social accomplishment, whereas prohibitive voice elicits anxiety due to a sense of social uncertainty. We demonstrate that these feelings of pride and anxiety have diverging effects on voicers’ tendency to withdraw from social interaction during the rest of the day. In turn, these diverging effects on voicers’ interpersonal avoidance influence voicers’ daily interpersonal citizenship behaviors. We further propose that recipients of voice have the potential to “hijack” voicers’ affective appraisals in a manner that can amplify or attenuate their emotional reactions and subsequent social behavior. Our results disentangle the complex experience of speaking up and provide novel insights into how voicers and organizations can maximize the benefits of voice while minimizing its harmful social side effects.
Patricia Genoe McLaren, Todd Bridgman, Stephen Cummings, Christina Lubinski, Ellen O’Connor, J.-C. Spender, Gabrielle Durepos
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 293-299; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2021.0318

André Spicer, Zahira Jaser, Caroline Wiertz
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 459-466; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2021.0275

Sergio Wanderley, Rafael Alcadipani, Amon Barros
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 361-381; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0156

Abstract:
The histories of Business Schools (BS) are usually produced from US-centric perspectives. Seeking to re-centre the Global South in the making of these histories, this paper aims to analyse the history of BS in Brazil via dependency studies. Dependency is the condition of a hierarchical relationship between two or more economies that become entangled for the benefit of the richer countries. Dependency studies aim to examine dependent conditions prevailing since colonial times to overcome them. We analyse the creation and dissemination of five BS from 1937 to 1961, a period marked by the emergence of the first undergraduate courses in the field and a heavy push towards industrial development in the country. We argue that dependency macro factors were the main drivers behind the creation, implementation, and dissemination of BS in Brazil. We posit local agents performed dependency ambiguity, i.e. exploring context drivers within the Brazilian technological-industrial dependency and seeking external support to establish early BS in the country. We claim that through dependency lenses we can reposition the narratives about the development of BS in the Global South away from an US-centric explanation, emphasizing the role of local contextual factors and actors within Global South countries dependency longue durée.
Ronald Klingebiel, Christian Rammer
Academy of Management Discoveries, Volume 7, pp 328-342; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2018.0024

Abstract:
We use data from the European Community Innovation Survey to quantitatively explore how firms that discontinue innovation projects differ from firms that do not. Complementing prior literature centered on the option value of innovation projects, our main focus is on the firm characteristics associated with the propensity to abandon projects. In our empirical context of product innovation, firms that select out projects during development (selectors) prove to run more projects and engage in more varied activities than their counterparts (non-selectors). This likely facilitates the re-allocation of resources from discontinued projects and makes opportunity costs more salient. Selectors also organize differently. They tend to sequence resource allocation decisions, have dedicated portfolio managers, and incentivize efficient abandonment. These organization-design features likely counteract the tendency to prolong project commitments. Our discoveries lay groundwork for future inquiry into explanations of firms’ heterogeneous ability to organize innovation in uncertain market environments.
Jean M. Bartunek
Academy of Management Discoveries, Volume 7, pp 325-327; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2019.0254

Abstract:
As academics, we study others’ practices as important and meaningful. Outside accrediting agencies, websites that track the outcomes of our work and news media treat our own work as important and meaningful. However, academics rarely pay scholarly attention to our interactions with each other as sources of scholarly learning, even though we experience these as consequential for our careers and lives. I suggest the value of enhanced scholarly attention to our own practices, and as a stimulus to such scholarship I discuss two related phenomena, the news media’s attention to bullying and harassment in academia and a Facebook group entitled “Reviewer 2 must be stopped”. Both are salient in contemporary academic interactions, both are very pertinent to, and inform understanding of, dynamics that we regularly study, and neither is adequately understood conceptually. Attention to them can benefit both our research and practice.
Charles A. O’Reilly, Jennifer A. Chatman, Bernadette Doerr
Academy of Management Discoveries, Volume 7, pp 419-450; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2019.0163

Abstract:
Research has shown that a leader’s personality can affect organizational culture. We focus on leader narcissism and examine how it affects two specific organizational culture dimensions - collaboration and integrity. In two field studies and three laboratory studies, our results reveal that people who are more narcissistic are less likely to demonstrate collaboration and integrity in their behavior, and when we examine leaders specifically, we find that those higher in narcissism prefer and lead organizational cultures that are less collaborative and place less emphasis on integrity. In our laboratory studies, we show that narcissists endorse policies and procedures that are associated with cultures with less collaboration and integrity, and that employees follow the culture in determining their own level of collaboration and integrity, suggesting that narcissistic leaders’ behavior is amplified through culture. We discuss the potentially enduring impact that narcissistic leaders have in engendering cultures lower in collaboration and integrity to enable future theory-building connecting leader personality to organizational culture.
Alistair Mutch
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 407-422; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0079

Abstract:
Historical exploration based on archival sources indicates the subsequently somewhat obscured development of a distinctive approach to business and management education in the United Kingdom. Based in the polytechnics that were created in the 1960s, this approach featured a learner-centred and structured approach to course design and assessment. Innovative developments at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels were conditioned by a system of national monitoring. While often experienced as bureaucratic and intrusive, the practices of visits and committee discussion fostered reflection on teaching and learning. However, a key weakness was a lack of focus on research. When the so-called ‘binary line’ dividing polytechnics from universities was abolished in 1992, the polytechnics were subject to the isomorphic pressures of league tables and accreditation requirements, ones which often privileged the research activities of the universities. The value of a historical approach is in uncovering traditions that have often been obscured by later developments but which offer resources to address contemporary concerns.
Mary Beth Doucette, Joseph Scott Gladstone, Teddy Carter
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 473-484; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0530

Abstract:
Relationships, past, present, and future, and applied learning are critically important aspects of Indigenous knowledge systems. We advocate bringing forward Indigenous ways of thinking, old ways of thinking, as novel and relative to the ways of thinking generally practiced by Academy membership. This article demonstrates how three Indigenous business scholars use applied relational methods to imagine new possibilities for business studies. Using a combination of autoethnographic and conversational style writing, we reflect on our experiences as Indigenous scholars working, learning, and teaching in business schools. We highlight how business school knowledge systems, past and present, reinforce colonial narratives, despite calls for diversity. We explain the double bind that Indigenous scholars face engaging with the critical study of history. Finally, we encourage our colleagues to consider using relational methods to reflect on their sources of agency within business school systems.
Francois Bastien Bastien
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 488-490; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2021.0143

Abstract:
A symptom of systemic discrimination actually pertains specifically to institutions of higher learning such as business schools. For many of our schools, the white Eurocentric west has typically used its own stories and theories to justify and defend its reign over anything that relates to business practice and education. This discourse has indeed benefitted some while marginalizing others, such as the contribution of many African American business leaders. Giving credit to its promptitude, African American Management History: Insights on Gaining a Cooperative Advantage is straightforward: “it is important to learn, and be proud of African traditions and philosophies because most business schools throughout the world only teach management from an Anglo-Saxon perspective, and highlight the contributions of the white pioneers” (p. 1).
Tumbe Chinmay
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 485-487; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0188

Abstract:
None, as indicated in the guidelines for the Resource Review section.
Caitlin C Rosenthal
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 467-472; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0447

Abstract:
As we rethink the goals of business education, we need to consider both the ways such training can be used and the ways it has been misused. The history of slavery offers valuable insights for those who care not just about running profitable businesses, but ethical ones as well. Beyond a general cautionary tale, slavery offers specific lessons for the ways managers use data. In our data-obsessed moment, reflecting on slaveholders’ calculations can help us to see how quantification can erase and obscure human costs. Slaveholders left behind lots of account books—essentially paper spreadsheets of output, valuations, and lives. These records offer insights into how numbers and balance sheets erase some things even as they make others visible.
Leon Christopher Prieto, Simone Trixie Allison Phipps, Neil Stott, Lilia Giugni
Academy of Management Learning & Education, Volume 20, pp 320-341; https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2020.0127

Abstract:
Race matters and racism still exists. However, although growing critical scholarship has recently questioned business schools’ management research and teaching practices, both the historical trajectories of Black Business schools and the legacy of the African American academics who shaped them remain largely unexplored. In this paper, we address this intellectual lacuna by providing a critical history of experiential business teaching at the Department of Business Administration at Bluefield Colored Institute. Building on insights from Critical Race Theory (CRT), we reconstruct how management education at Bluefield during the 1920s-1930s was influenced by Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois’ pioneering ideas and Prof. W. C. Matney’s practical experiments on economic cooperation. We then consider the relevance of cooperative economics and business education as well as experiential teaching to modern Black business schools, contributing to debates on both curriculum reform and how mono-cultural histories of management constrain present and future developments.
, Katleen De Stobbeleir, Stijn Viaene
Academy of Management Discoveries, Volume 7, pp 367-380; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2019.0093

Abstract:
As employees cannot always readily stretch their competencies and professional identity on the job through regular job crafting, we ask the question: are there alternative ways of crafting inside organizations through which people can stretch themselves? Using grounded theory methods, we step into the shoes of federal employees active in Open Opportunities, a digital market for temporary assignments in the U.S. federal government. We find that employees use such temporary assignments to craft a liminal space in which they can explore new skills, establish new professional ties, and claim new professional identities unavailable in their full-time jobs. However, due to its visibility, this way of crafting can also generate substantial supervisory pressures resisting it. These pressures may induce an image cost, and trigger increased frustration, stress, and strain in people’s jobs. As we describe this new job crafting pattern, we pay attention to both its benefits and burdens, and the impact thereof on people’s efforts to stretch themselves at work. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our study and its consequences for future research on job crafting, professional identity development, and the future of work.
Stephen E. Christophe, Hun Lee
Academy of Management Discoveries, Volume 7, pp 406-418; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2019.0161

Abstract:
Initial public offering (IPO) firms confront a puzzle on how to balance the need for short-term performance against the long-term performance benefits of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This puzzle arises because IPOs face immense growth expectations and the short-term market demands of shareholders while encountering a liability of newness challenge and a myriad of CSR issues that might be pursued. Consequently, we explore: (1) how they engage in CSR activities relative to industry peers, (2) whether they engage in the CSR issues that are material or immaterial for their industry, (3) what firm characteristics affect an IPO’s investment in CSR, and (4) if those CSR activities have discriminating effects associated with post-IPO corporate financial performance (CFP). Our results show that IPOs generally have lower overall CSR ratings relative to industry peers. However, that is because IPOs discriminately focus their efforts on the CSR topics that are material for their industry. Moreover, IPOs with the most net positive material CSR activities relative to industry peers also exhibit significantly positive post-IPO abnormal returns and experience fewer post-IPO stock delistings. Overall, our study shows that IPOs are strategically managing their CSR investments by emphasizing material rather than immaterial CSR issues.
Chia-Jung Tsay
Academy of Management Discoveries, Volume 7, pp 343-366; https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2019.0234

Abstract:
Entrepreneurs and investors often deem substantive content to be particularly important as they evaluate the potential value of business propositions. Yet across 12 studies and 1,855 participants using live entrepreneurial pitch competitions, silent videos—but not sound recordings, video-with-sound recordings, or pitch transcriptions—best allowed both experts and novices to identify the original investors' selections of winning entrepreneurial pitches. These results suggest that people’s judgment may be highly influenced by visual information. Further, people do not seem to fully recognize how much visual information factors into their decisions, such that they neglect the more substantive metrics that they explicitly cite and value as core to their decisions. The findings highlight the power of dynamic visual cues—including gestures, facial expressions, and body language—and demonstrate that visible passion can dominate the content of business propositions in entrepreneurial pitch competitions.
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