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Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n2p16

Abstract:
This reflection article deals with the nursing profession and its skills. The discussion begins with the birth of nursing and how it has advanced from the angel of nursing to scientific technical nursing in some parts of the world. The aim of this paper is to present a new kind of nurse, the patient advocate and its relation with clinical economics. The work of the “Patient Advocate” is based in the best health care, observing lower costs of resources, particularly those which affect the patient’s quality of life, and identifying and questioning the team’s decisions which are not supported by the principles of clinical economics. As a result, “Patient Advocate” is a proposal that encourages social actors to invest in the academic training of nursing personnel as well as in improving nurses’ clinical and methodological competency, proactivity, and leadership in relation to health care.
, Rikke Volmer Brandsen, Troels Krarup Frandsen, Anikke Bing, Heidi Næsted Stuhaug, Kim Petersen
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n2p23

Abstract:
Background and objective: Assisting frail older adults in home care settings with personal hygiene is a daily nursing role. Both Nightingale and Henderson had in their approach to basic nursing focus on assisting patients in their need of nurse assisted bath. Since 1994 focus on using a new technology to patient in dependency of nurse-assisted bath was developed. A clinical study involving older adults in need of nurse-assisted bath was carried out in a public homecare setting. This study aimed to study and compare older adults’ attitudes, experiences and evaluation of using traditional bath with soap and water versus prepacked products to their personal hygiene.Methods: A number of 20 men and women participated in our research with focus on their daily need of nurse-assisted bath. The older adults had given a written consent. All participants were informed about the study verbally and in writing and they all agreed to participate and signed written informed consent forms. All data were handled confidentially, and the participants’ anonymity was assured. A clinical study was carried out. During three weeks, the older adults had nurse- assisted bath with soap and water two days followed by two days using prepacked was-cloths. The same nurse assisted the older adults all days, and they were interviewed before the research. Relevant data as age, gender, bath facilities at home, walking ability, dependency on help from others, contact to family/friends were collected. In the research period the older adults’ self-reported experiences with the two types of baths were registered. The nurses observed the baths with focus on the older adults’ attitude, satisfaction and experiences.Results and conclusions: The patients preferred to have their own individual choice of daily bath type. Pre-packed wash-cloths were overall preferred by the nurses.
, Kerstin Ulin,
Journal of Hospital Administration, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/jha.v6n5p31

Abstract:
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of an intervention on the organizational culture in five hospital wards in Sweden. The organizational culture was measured at the start of the project and compared with data collected five years later. The intervention was aimed at changing activities towards a new evidenced-based care model called the Gothenburg Person-centred Care model (PCC).Methods: In total, 230 registered nurses and assistant nurses participated in this cross-sectional health-care culture survey during 2009 and 2014. The Organizational Values Questionnaire was used.Results: The results indicated cultural change in all five wards at the clinic. A dominating culture of flexibility decreased and a culture of routines and structure increased. The wards moved towards a higher degree of cultural uniformity. The combination of cultural dimensions also seems to have become more equal during the study period.Conclusions: Few studies have focussed on the development of organizational culture in health-care contexts over time. The results suggest that the implementation of a new model of care has an impact on organizational culture. This implies that health-care managers should have confidence in the outcomes from change projects. It seems that systems of dual logic can develop over time to facilitate change and sustainability. However, if a new working model is to change the culture profoundly, it requires years of zealous implementation.
Ahmed Halawa, Aja Sharma, Julie Bridson, Sarah Lyon, Denise Prescott, Arpan Guha, David Taylor
Published: 7 August 2017
World Journal of Education, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v7n4p117

Abstract:
Introduction: It was a challenge to design a feedback pathway for distance learning course that deals with complexand ambiguous clinical subject like organ transplantation. This course attracts mature clinicians (n=117 spread overthree modules) from 27 countries where in addition to the time and zone barriers; there are cultural, institutionalbackground and also ethnic barriers. In addition to the challenges faced in designing the curriculum and assessmentthat match this diverse group of students, we have to deliver a quality feedback to achieve our leaning objective. Howwould we construct and deliver this feedback to students you have not seen (in a virtual classroom) and may be on adifferent continent of this busy planet?Methods: We analysed the published data on feedback with reflection on the nature of this course and the pedagogyused while considering the diversity of the students joined this courseConclusion: In this distance-learning course constructing a quality feedback to the students is more technicallydemanding compared to a traditional course. Students in distance learning need much more support and feedback thanin a traditional course. There is a potential threat that these students feel isolated in their own online world and may notengage with this virtual educational environment properly.
Arooj Makki,
Published: 4 November 2016
Studies in Asian Social Science, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/sass.v4n1p38

Abstract:
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is important determinant of employee’s task performance as it represents the level ofmotivation of employees to their work and company. This study examined the influence of intrinsic and extrinsicmotivation on employees’ task performance and also aimed to find out the difference between males and females ontask performance based on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Work Preference Inventory (Amabile, T. M., etal., 1994) and Job Performance Scale (Goodman, & Svyantek, 1999) was used to gather data. It was predicted thatintrinsic and extrinsic motivation will be positively correlated with employees’ task performance and will have impacton employees’ task performance. The results showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has positive correlationwith employee’s task performance and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has impact on employee’s task performance.Findings also show that females are more intrinsically motivated as compared to males.
Abdulbari Mahboob Al-Hassaani, Mohammed M Nassaer Hassan Ja'ashan
International Journal of English Language Teaching, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijelt.v4n1p9

Abstract:
This paper has presented a case study of English and Arabic adjectives in attributive position at the sentence level withpedagogical implications at Aden University. This study has focused on undergraduate pre-service teacher-trainees ofBachelor Program, College of Education, Saber, English Department, University of Aden. It particularly dealt withEnglish adjectives in attributive positions which students studied in their English Grammar Cours1(E131). Thecollege's students face difficulty in English adjectives construction. They make mistakes in constructing Englishadjectives in attributive position at the sentence level because of their mother tongue interference, besides English andArabic employ different processes and structures in forming the adjective sentences of the various types. The majorobjective of this study was to investigate the problems faced by the students and to examine the appropriateness of thecurrent teaching materials, tasks, and methods of teaching English adjective types in the Grammar Course1(E131). Toachieve this objective, the authors have used a quantitative research method for data collection. The quantitativeresearch instruments comprised the students' questionnaire, open-ended questions, and the students' test. The numberof the respondents in this study were 120 students girls and boys. The authors concluded that students indeed face agreat difficulty in constructing English adjectives in attributive position at the sentence level due to the intense mothertongue interferences. Communicative teaching methods would bring about progress in the level of the students andintegrate other language skills. Students should acquire the ability to perform various types of language functions,related to English adjectives construction in attributive position and other types of English adjectives.
Niaz Mohammad, Joynal Abedin, Asif Rahman
Published: 31 August 2017
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v6n4p164

Abstract:
Now-a-day’s businesses are highly concerned about the operations and how their activities affect the surroundings. Aiming to create better environment for the future generations, a number of steps has been taken by various local and international associations and bodies. Recently three of the components such as Corporate Governance (CG), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Intellectual Capital (IC) Disclosure has grab the major attention and maintained with an important manner. CG, CSR and IC disclosure are three of the most talkative prospects which have direct effects towards sustainability. Private Commercial banking sector is one of the most popular and growing segments in Bangladesh. Governed and monitored by the Bangladesh Bank, those banks contribute highly towards national economy. As a result, various components of sustainability are effectively maintained by the banks. This paper shows how CG, CSR and IC disclosure affect the sustainable practice of the private commercial banking sector in Bangladesh. It also relates various components and shows ways to improve the sustainable practice in the banking sectors.
Elsayed Elsiefy, Moustafa Ahmed Abdelaal
Published: 31 August 2017
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v6n4p197

Abstract:
This paper examines the effect of the foreign investors fund flow into the domestic stock market. We investigated whether foreign investors are only herders or if they have also the ability to push the market up and down. To answer this question, we include investors’ types as an independent factor in Markov-Switching Model used by Hamilton (1989) to examine the asymmetric effect of the foreign investors during the bull and bear states. Empirical results from Qatar Stock Market suggested that foreign institutional traders are only herding in the market and they cannot play the role of the market maker. We have also found that neither foreign investors nor domestic investors have the ability to switch the regime of the market. The time-varying relationship between the various investors’ types has been investigated. We reported that, although the correlation matrixes of the investors’ categories with the market are time-varying, the foreign institutional trader is still the leader of the market during the bull (bear) states of the market. Finally, we proposed some procedures to minimize the harmful of the foreign investors bad trading.
Ha Thi Thuy Van, Vu Thi Kim Anh
Published: 31 August 2017
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v6n4p155

Abstract:
It is essential for each nation to invest, improve and retrofit its infrastructure. However, with the diverse participation of all economic sectors, each country has its own method of calling and attracting funds for infrastructure development.Vietnam is in a strong urbanization context, so the development of infrastructure and capital investment in infrastructure development is a very important issue. According to the current development trend, the demand for investment capital for infrastructure has exceeded the state budget's ability. At the same time, traditional solutions in order to increase public investment resources are now hampered by the fact that the Vietnamese budget can not expand for infrastructure investments. Therefore, the infrastructure investments in the coming period must be based mainly on the experience of developed countries.Studying the practical experience of mobilizing capital to develop infrastructure in ThaiLand, Malaysia, Singapore, Chile, China and India shows that developed countries have effective solutions to mobilize resources to invest to infrastructure development, creating a development motivation for socio-economic. This article explores the experience of raising capital for investment in infrastructure development in some countries who have many similarities in socio-economic situation with Vietnam, thereby we can learn a lot of good experience for Vietnam
Huai-Chun Lo
Published: 31 August 2017
Accounting and Finance Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/afr.v6n4p181

Abstract:
This study investigates whether analysts issue more favorable research reports for small stocks than for large stocks. Small stocks tend not to attract investors due to their size, bad liquidity, easily manipulated price, insufficient information, and high-uncertainty risk. If analysts follow a small stock, it might be because the firm is thought to have good prospects. This study finds that analysts report more positively on small stocks, including in their stock recommendations and earnings growth forecasts. The empirical results show that small stocks perform better in the following year than do other stocks but that this is not the case for operating performance. This finding suggests that analysts are more likely to recommend under-valued stocks, but this may not imply that the operating performance of these stocks will improve the following year.
Robert F. Stanley, Michael Licata, Arpan Sinha,
Case Reports in Clinical Pathology, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/crcp.v4n3p19

Abstract:
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a clinical syndrome that can be inherited or acquired. Herein, we report a case of HLH and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in the setting of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) in a male toddler who presented with prolonged fever, respiratory distress, and failure to thrive. On histologic examination, hemophagocytosis was observed in lymph node, bone marrow sections and aspirates. Lung wedge resection was consistent with PAP. LPI was confirmed with genetic sequencing which revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC7A7 gene. LPI is a rare inborn error of metabolism and is not widely known beyond the pediatric group. Though the association of LPI with HLH has been previously described, we believe this is the first reported case of HLH and PAP associated LPI with histopathological correlation. Early recognition of HLH is critical to successful treatment and LPI should be considered in any young infant who presents with HLH- and PAP-related symptoms.
Avani Singh, Michael Kuncewitch, James T. Mothershed, , Parisa Mansoori
Case Reports in Clinical Pathology, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/crcp.v4n3p24

Abstract:
Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma (DPA) is a very rare neoplasm of sweat glands, with approximately 100 cases in the literature. We present a rare case of DPA of the ankle in a 66-year-old African American man. DPA has a high potential for metastases to the lung and lymph nodes, and initial treatment often entails wide excision or complete digital amputation. DPA typically presents as a painless lesion or mass of the distal digits of the hands or feet. With the limited available literature regarding this malignancy, there is no standard approach to treatment. Wide excisional margins with sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy are based on extrapolation for other tumors. In the following report, we discuss a representative case and the current literature on the presentation, treatment and pathology of this rare neoplasm.
Chunxiao Li, Jiahui Yao
Journal of Business Administration Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/jbar.v6n2p46

Abstract:
This paper studies the management model of typical Chinese family from the perspective of Chinese thought history, and defines the ideological and industrial advantages of its special management mode. From the perspective view of human resources, capital investment and product development, how to transform and upgrade the family management mode are discussed so as to adapt to the enterprise development during the Internet era.
, Håkan Nunstedt
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n2p8

Abstract:
During nursing education students obtain knowledge and skills to develop their professional competence. Teachers may elect to provide pedagogical tools preparing students for current and future healthcare needs. The purpose of this theoretical article was to highlight Work-Integrated Learning combined with the Portfolio Method as a pedagogical strategy and tool for nursing students to develop professional competence for lifelong learning. This strategy contains six phases: pre-reflection, reflection-in-action, reflection-on-action, self-evaluation, meta-reflection and knowledge-in-action, which can help nursing students, during their clinical education, develop deeper understanding of their future profession, while also providing a teaching planning tool.
Lisa B. Robinson, Mary Bishop
Published: 17 July 2017
Clinical Nursing Studies, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.5430/cns.v5n4p88

Abstract:
Objective: Contemporary advanced professional nursing requires the ability to communicate effectively in written and oral forms. Many registered nurses enter graduate nursing school with experience writing in medical records but with no experience writing scholarly papers or writing for publication. This article describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a writing course developed in an online graduate nursing program in the southeastern United States. The goal of this research was to determine if graduate nursing students’ writing self-efficacy increased after the completion of a newly developed one-credit online writing course.Methods: Fifty-three first-semester graduate nursing students participated in a 16-week online asynchronous writing course developed at a school of nursing. The course instructors designed writing experiences with the goal of increasing writing competency. The faculty defined writing competence as achieving mastery of the necessary writing skills to produce an organized, logical, understandable message containing the effective use of language, grammar, and punctuation.Results: The students’ writing self-efficacy increased significantly from pretest and posttest. The results revealed a significant increase in self efficacy scores with the second administration of the tool. The mean of the 20-question Likert scale pretest was 70.59. Results obtained after the conclusion of the course resulted in a mean of 80.12. The finding of a mean increase of 9.529 was found to be statistically significant.Conclusions: The information from this research can be used to develop effective strategies to support online graduate students with their writing skills. This experience highlights the fact that we cannot leave the development of academic writing to chance. Achieving academic writing success requires structured instruction, practice and frequent feedback from faculty who have the passion for and expertise in scholarly writing.
, Zain Badar, Alfredo L. Valente, Gustavo De La Roza
Published: 22 September 2017
Journal of Solid Tumors, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jst.v8n1p10

Abstract:
Soft tissue chondroma is a benign cartilaginous neoplasm composed of cells with a chondroid phenotype. Chondromas of soft tissue can have variable histological appearances including deposition of calcium, histiocytic reaction, ossification, and myxoid change. One notable variation is the presence of histological features reminiscent of chondroblastoma of the bone, and the term used in this scenario is chondroblastoma-like chondroma of soft tissue. There have been fourteen previous case reports of chondroblastoma-like chondroma of soft tissue, predominantly in the hands; with one case being reported in the base of the skull. We report two cases of chondroblastoma-like chondroma of soft tissue occurring in the hand and foot. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of chondroblastoma-like chondroma of soft tissue in the foot.
, Xenya Kantaris
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v7n11p123

Abstract:
Background and objective: Clinical practice in acute inpatient environments is complex and demanding for clinical staff. To facilitate service user recovery, it is essential that personnel working in these environments are competent and confident in a range of therapeutic interaction skills, which can have impact in a brief period. This paper describes an exploratory study which determined the outcomes of a brief therapeutic engagement education and training short course for staff working in adult inpatient acute wards. As far as we know this was the first time, based on evidence from earlier research involving service users that Heron’s Six Category Intervention Analysis and solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) have been combined in an education and training short course that was coproduced and delivered in partnership with service users for staff working in acute environments.Methods: The short course explored the myriad applications of the six categories of intervention initially proposed by Heron and the widespread applicability of SFBT. The programme evaluation adopted focus group methodology and examined: (1) how useful the training content was to daily practice and how relevant the skills learn were to interactions with service user residing on the ward; (2) the factors than helped enable the transference of the learning to the ward environment as well as any barriers; (3) personal learning; and (4) strengths of the learning experience and suggestions for improvement to the training and learning experience.Results: Feedback from participants reflected a high degree of skill and knowledge acquisition and enhancement. Staff found the content of the training useful and helpful to their daily practice as it aided in increasing confidence, therapeutic interventions and care-planning. Skills learnt by the trainees were considered relevant to interactions with service users residing on the ward. Factors that helped to enable encounters with service users, as well as the barriers, when transferring the learning to the ward environment were discussed and included managerial support, demand for beds, time, opportunity and staffing shortages. Regarding personal learning, staff reported feeling more able to connect with service users when employing SFBT techniques and Heron’s intervention approaches and felt that the training validated their current working practice.Conclusions: The SFBT training appears to have provided an interactional communication toolkit for healthcare professionals and could be further embraced given the right circumstances e.g. managerial support and attitude change of nursing staff in general. Further research is needed to gain an understanding of the effect of short and concentrated education and training programmes aimed at staff members working within adult acute inpatient mental healthcare settings, as well as measuring whether the activity, i.e. healthcare professional–service user interactions, is meaningful to service user outcomes.
Jessika Lopes Figueiredo Pereira, Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira, Inacia Sátiro Xavier De França
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n1p114

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the systematization of nursing care in intensive care unit (ICU).Methods: This is an integrative review of the literature carried out through the VHL, SCIELO and LILACS databases with articles published between 2009 and 2014.Results: Five articles were selected, where it was possible to observe that the lack of applicability of the systematization of nursing assistance in the ICU is more reality found, however, when held, this process provided a registry organized and directed the data and execution and evaluation of the nursing care.Conclusions: The instruments need to be fairly discussed and proposed nursing professionals to become empowered.
Journal of Business Administration Research, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.5430/jbar.v1n2p110

Abstract:
This paper presents a new factor model for the term structure of futures prices of commodities. This model fills a gap in the literature by providing not only flexibility on the deterministic drivers of the term structure’s (TS) curve but also a clear meaning of the stochastic factors implied by the model. These benefits allow the user of the model to predict, and to protect himself against, changes in the slope and concavity of the TS curve. In particular, these new factors are identified as the spot price, the slope and the concavity of the curve, and they directly tackle the phenomena defined as contango and backwardation movements. It is shown that the model provides a good fit for the term structure’s curve under the historical measure. Conditions on the processes of the factors are obtained under an equivalent measure which ensures an absence of arbitrage. Explicit expressions for the term structure of volatilities and correlations are also provided. The paper concludes with a set of derivatives inspired by the new factors which could be used to protect an investor against contango and backwardation movements.
Lauretta Luck, Harrison Ng Chok, Lesley Wilkes
Published: 17 July 2017
Clinical Nursing Studies, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.5430/cns.v5n4p82

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of the paper is to describe the implementation of a peer buddy mentoring model to support the career development of Registered Nurses (RNs) seeking Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) positions.Methods: A qualitative survey design was used to collect data during the workshops, with follow-up semi-structured telephone or face-to-face interviews. Data were also collected via the researchers’ notes.Results: A total of 32 participants attended the program and 31 completed the surveys. The participants’ reported needing more support when applying for a CNS position. Despite these issues, the participants recommend the use of peer buddy mentoring as a motivational, supportive and instructive model.Conclusions: Peer buddy mentoring, and facilitated workshops, is a relatively low cost and effective strategy to support nurses aspiring to advance their careers. Participants valued the development of the peer buddy relationship and the mutual support and motivation it engendered.
Sofia L.S. Barilli, Karina S.M. D’Almeida, Melina M. Trojahn, Gabriela C. Souza, Graziella B. Aliti, Eneida R. Rabelo-Silva
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n1p98

Abstract:
Background and objective: Nonadherence to sodium restriction is one of the main precipitating factors of heart failure (HF) decompensation. The three-subscale Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ) enables evaluation of factors that can interfere with adherence. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, barriers, and attitudes of patients with decompensated HF toward dietary sodium, by comparing those hospitalized for decompensation due to dietary nonadherence (alone or with medication nonadherence) versus those admitted for decompensation due to other causes.Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out at the emergency departments of two public hospitals in Southern Brazil between 2013 and 2014. The sample included patients admitted for decompensated HF. Patients were divided into two groups: decompensation due to nonadherence to diet (alone or with medication nonadherence) and other causes.Results: A total of 225 patients were included (mean age 66 ± 12 years). Patients exhibited a high degree of knowledge about sodium restriction (up to 50\% achieved 40 of 45 points). The opinions of family and health professionals influenced adherence. The main barriers to adherence concerned palatability and dietary preferences. When compared to patients admitted for other causes, those decompensated due to nonadherence had lower ejection fraction (p = .004) and higher Perceived Behavioral Control subscale scores (p = .009).Conclusions: Patients have a high level of knowledge about sodium restriction. The opinion of significant others affects adherence. Nonadherent patients appeared to be more severely ill and endorsed a greater number of barriers that prevent adequate behavior. Some factors-particularly the taste of foods and patients’ dietary preferences – may justify the high prevalence of nonadherence.
Yasuyo Sato, Sachiko Okamoto, Kazunori Kayaba, Hiroaki Nobuhara, Keiko Soeda
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n2p1

Abstract:
Objective: Patient safety education in nursing education is a matter of worldwide concern. Various simulation training has been introduced into patient safety education. It is difficult for nursing students to fully understand the situation of scenarios in simulation training. Having attempted to solve the problem, educators have used the illustrations, videos and manikins. Role-play is widely used in simulation training in nursing education. As to patient safety education, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported the effectiveness of role-play compared with traditional situational presentation methods such as illustrations and videos. Therefore, we performed an RCT to examine the effectiveness of role-play compared with illustrations using hazard prediction training (Kiken-Yochi-Training; KYT) which is one of simulation training widely used in Japan.Methods: The participants were 94 second-year nursing students. All students were randomly allocated to a role-play group (R-group) or an illustrations group (I-group). Participants were asked to complete the risk sensitivity scale for nursing students before and after KYT. After KYT, all participants were asked to undergo a hazard prediction test. Linear mixed models were used to examine differences in the scale scores within and between intervention groups.Results: Participants in the R-group had a significantly higher number of hazard prediction points than those in the I-group (R-group: 2.50 ± 1.07, I-group: 1.77 ± 0.95, p = .001). Scores were significantly increased on the risk sensitivity scale for nursing students in both groups, while no significant differences were seen in score increments between the groups.Conclusions: The results of our randomized study showed that effectiveness of role-play in hazard prediction training in university-based nursing education. Our study also suggested KYT increased risk sensitivity among nursing students, and that this effect was not affected by the situation presentation method, role-play or illustration.
Sahar A. Abd-El Mohsen, Nagwa M. Ahmed
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n1p107

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of teaching patients stretching neck exercises on pain and disability of the neck following thyroidectomy.Methods: Research design: a randomized controlled trial was utilized. Setting: the study was conducted at the general surgery ward and outpatient surgery clinic-Assiut university hospital. Sample: 60 adult male and female patients scheduled to undergo thyroidectomy and are willing to take part in this study. Tools of data collection: Tool (I): Patient assessment sheet, Tool II: Neck pain and disability index questionnaire.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding their socio-demographic variables and medical data while there was a highly statistical significant difference between both groups regarding pain in the neck and disability 7 days post thyroidectomy.Conclusions: Teaching and applying neck stretching exercises significantly improved the neck condition of patients in the study group regarding pain and disability of the neck. Nurses working in the general surgery department must include the stretching neck exercises in care and follow-up protocols of patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and to use the validated neck pain and disability questionnaire in monitoring patient’s condition.
, Jamie Sarfeh, Robert Kalyesubula
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v8n1p94

Abstract:
Background: In 2004, the African Community Center for Social Sustainability (ACCESS) established a Nursing Assistant School in Nakaseke, a rural district in Uganda, to address the region’s severe shortage of healthcare resources. A survey conducted in July 2014 assessed the retention of its graduates in rural healthcare work.Methods: A survey aimed at evaluating the retention of ACCESS graduates in rural areas was created with the help of local stakeholders, focusing on demographics, the training program, employment, career development goals, and community impact. A short-form telephone survey was administered to graduates living outside Nakaseke, and a long-form in-person survey to graduates residing close to the school. Quantitative data was analyzed using standard statistical software, and qualitative data via identification of common themes.Results: Thirty-seven participants were contacted using telephone numbers stored in a database containing information for 109 graduates. The mean participant age was 24 years, and 86.5% were female. Nearly all worked in healthcare (91.1%), primarily in health clinics (37.14%) and pharmacies (33.33%) in communities they described as rural (80%), low-resource (60%), and underserved (25.7%). Most graduates planned to continue working in healthcare (85.3%) in rural areas (61.3%). All felt that their work positively impacts their community.Conclusions: The ACCESS nursing assistant training program provided a stepping stone for trainees while contributing to increased health service provision to the community. Rural-focused location and school curriculum, along with confidence building, may help retain nursing assistant trainees in underserved areas.
Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez, Allyson Jones, Don Voaklander
Published: 20 September 2017
Journal of Epidemiological Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/jer.v4n1p8

Abstract:
Background and objectives: The association between arthritis and falls has been study mainly in older adults, and information about fall-related injuries and arthritis in younger population is scarce. In addition, there is a gap of knowledge about the activities and types of injury associated with falls among people with arthritis in different age groups. The aims of the study were: 1) to explore the association between arthritis and fall-related injury among different age groups, and 2) to compare the main activity associated with fall-related injury and the type of injury resulted from falls between age groups in people with arthritis.Methods: This study used aggregated data from the Canadian Community Health Survey for the years 2001, 2003, 2005, 2009/2010 and 2013/2014.Results: People with arthritis were significantly more likely to report fall-related injuries than people without arthritis across all age groups. Younger people (12-19 years) were over six times more likely to fall when practicing sports, whereas all adults were more likely to slip/trip/stumble while walking. As a result of the falls, older adults (65 and over) were more likely to have broken bones and other kind of injuries (i.e., bruises, cuts, etc.), while all younger age groups reported more strains/sprains.Conclusion: Fall-related injury is a concern across all age groups in people with arthritis, and not only among older adults. In addition, the activities performed when the fall occurred and the type of injuries resulted from the falls were different between age groups. These findings contribute to reduce the gap of knowledge about fall-related injuries among people with arthritis in different age groups.
Marcianna Nosek, Elizabeth Gifford, Brendan Kober
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v4n10p1

Abstract:
Background: Ineffective communication among healthcare team members is associated with decreased collaborative efforts and adverse patient outcomes. The impact of empathy on collaboration with colleagues and patient interaction has been previously demonstrated. Studies have yet to measure the impact of (Nonviolent Communication [NVC]) on empathy in nursing students. Purpose: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to test a communication intervention (NVC) with baccalaureate student nurses to examine its effect on empathy. Methods: A mixed methods single group pre/post test design incorporating the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) to measure empathy was used. A paired samples t test was calculated to compare means scores pre and post intervention. One-way ANOVA was used to examine between group differences. Interpretive methods were used to analyze qualitative data collected via journal entries during the training and focus groups immediately following and 2 years post intervention. Results/Findings: Quantitative results revealed an increase in empathy (69.1 to 71.4, p = .037) post training. Qualitative analyses demonstrated positive impact of NVC in empathizing with self and others. Clinical impact was especially noted when working with psychiatric patients. Conclusion: Incorporating NVC into nursing education could feasibly prevent future hardship as students advance their nursing careers. Further research may be needed to capture the larger impact that NVC could have on nurses and nursing students.
Derrald Stice
International Journal of Business Administration, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijba.v8n6p46

Abstract:
Although the cash flow statement has been required in public financial reports since 1988 in the United States (and since 1994 according to International Financial Reporting Standards), these important cash flow data are still often overlooked in standard financial analyses. Accounting net income measures economic performance which does not necessarily match up with the timing of cash flow. Many profitable businesses have been killed by cash flow problems, often in the start-up phase. A business has three types of cash flows: operating, investing, and financing. A key measure of cash flow health is free cash flow, the amount of operating cash flow generated in excess of the cash needed for important spending such as for capital expenditures. Managers must pay particular attention to the difference in timing between when cash is collected from customers from the sale of inventory and when cash must be paid to suppliers for the purchase of that inventory. A significant discrepancy between those numbers indicates a potential cash flow problem. Managers and owners of a business that is burning through cash spend much of their time worrying about cash flow survival and are therefore distracted from making the tactical and strategic decisions important to the long-run success of their business.
Robert Rouwenhorst, Liang Zhao
Published: 18 August 2017
Business and Management Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/bmr.v6n3p85

Abstract:
As digital-video-recorders (DVRs) become more popular, an increasing number of television commercials are being zipped (fast-forwarded). This paper examines how memory for brand names, products and attitudes toward commercials are influenced by zipping at the speeds used by the popular DVR manufacturer, TiVo (300, 1800 and 6000 percent). Experimental results show that compared to ads shown in real-time, memory for the advertised brand names improves when the commercials are zipped at 300 percent of normal speed. However, brand name recall dramatically declines as the commercials are zipped at faster speeds (1800 and 6000 percent). Speed of zipping had a significant effect on the ability to recall the advertised brand for all commercials except those at the end of a commercial pod. This suggests that all else being equal, ads placed at the end of a commercial pod are more likely to be recalled at all zipping speeds. Viewers of zipped commercials had more neutral attitudes toward the ads compared with those who saw them in real-time.
Sheng Li, Huifang Feng, Yu Huang
Published: 18 August 2017
Business and Management Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/bmr.v6n3p94

Abstract:
We develop a game model to describe the game between a seller and a group-buying website in order to study the operating mode of Chinese static group-buying(GB). A seller sells products by a website and allocates a proportion of revenue to it. Based on this mode we establish the profit function of the seller and that of the GB website. The website decides its allocation proportion and the sale price of its products according to the profit maximization principle and the revenue sharing proportion in the contract. We then analyze the relationship among different parameters and find that the products’ price decreasing with the increasing of the revenue sharing proportion. In addition, there also exists an optimal GB period to maximize the seller’s profit in a GB.
, Maria Segklia
Published: 24 July 2017
English Linguistics Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v6n3p62

Abstract:
Research has repeatedly shown a cross-linguistic skills transfer from the first language (L1) to the second/foreign language (L2) and its impact on L2 learning. In the present article we report preliminary results from a pilot study we conducted in order to examine linguistic skills transfer from L1 (Greek) to L2 (English) among secondary school students with learning difficulties (L.D.). Our results have shown that the difficulties that occur in L1 (decoding reading skills and spelling) also occur in L2. These findings are in line with previous research and enhance further the existence of the link between first and second language learning difficulties.
Kadir Vefa Tezel
International Journal of Higher Education, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n5p88

Abstract:
Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers’ high school education contributed to the development of linguistic intelligence which is essential for language teachers. The data were collected, using the Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences. The results showed that of the seven intelligences in the inventory, linguistic intelligence was not the most dominant intelligence of the participants. Variables such as the type of high school the students graduated from, the number of years of English learning, and gender did not have any effect on the linguistic intelligence scores of prospective English teachers either. The findings indicate that a change in the criteria of selection needs to be made in admitting prospective language teachers to universities.
Published: 22 September 2017
Journal of Solid Tumors, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/jst.v8n1p1

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if adiponectin and IGF-1 salivary concentrations are altered in combination with the presence of obesity and breast cancer. The null hypothesis is that there are no significant adiponectin and IGF-1 concentration alterations secondary to the presence of obesity and/or carcinoma of the breast.Methods: There were two groups of test subjects: healthy controls (n = 20) and individuals diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 20). The two cohorts were further stratified into four groups. These included subjects who are healthy and of normal BMI (n = 10); are healthy but have an elevated BMI (n = 10); have breast cancer and a normal BMI (n = 10); and have cancer and an elevated BMI (n = 10). The presence and concentration of adiponectin and IGF-1 was determined using the ELISA methodology.Results: The investigation revealed a significant increase in mean adiponectin levels in subjects with cancer compared to the controls (t = -2.57; p < .01). Individuals that were diagnosed with breast cancer and were obese exhibited the highest concentrations (F = 5.13; p < .005) of adiponectin. Adiponectin concentrations were also found to be correlated to IGF-I levels (r = 0.05; p < .001).Conclusion: Salivary adiponectin levels were significantly higher among cancer group. There were no significant differences between the cancer and control groups for IGF-I levels.
Samson C. Lee, James B. Groce Iii, Jennifer J. Kim
Journal of Hospital Administration, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/jha.v6n5p20

Abstract:
Objective: To pilot a process for identifying and switching high-risk warfarin patients to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) or venous thromboembolism (VTE).Methods: A pharmacy resident identified high-risk warfarin patients using three criteria. The resident reviewed medical charts, communicated recommendations to the primary care physician (PCP), and scheduled patients for appointments to switch to DOACs. Patients were followed every 1 to 3 months after initiating DOACs. The primary outcome of the study was the percentage of high-risk warfarin patients before and after process implementation. Secondary outcomes at 6 months included bleeding or thrombotic events, patient-reported side effects, recommendation acceptance rates, adherence rates, clinic time in therapeutic range (TTR), and patient satisfaction.Results: Out of 76 patients evaluated, 22.4% were identified as high-risk using the pre-specified criteria. After program implementation, this percentage was reduced to 9.2%. No significant adverse events occurred by 3-month follow-up, and 100% of recommendations were accepted by physicians. Adherence rates and clinic TTR also improved after implementation (87.5% to 94% and 60.9% to 81.1%, respectively). Overall, patients reported satisfaction with switching from warfarin to DOAC.Conclusions: A pilot process was successful in reducing the percentage of high-risk warfarin patients by switching to DOAC therapy.
Sriharsha Talluri
Published: 28 August 2017
Case Reports in Internal Medicine, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/crim.v4n4p21

Abstract:
Pseudohyperkalemia, also known as factitious or spurious hyperkalemia, is predominantly due to hemolysis during the collection process of the specimen. Pseudohyperkalemia is a condition in which the falsely elevated potassium can cause significant clinical dilemma as patients may be given unnecessary and harmful treatment for hyperkalemia. In addition, pseudohyperkalemia can also mask hypokalemia resulting in patients potentially not receiving adequate potassium replacement. Thus, it is pivotal for clinicians and laboratory personnel to have a high index of suspicion for this condition in order for the patient to receive appropriate treatment. We present a case of pseudohyperkalemia without obvious hemolysis due to the use of a 23-gauge needle blood draw in a patient with stage IV chronic kidney disease from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Cam Caldwell, C. Stewart Holloway
Published: 18 August 2017
Business and Management Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/bmr.v6n3p51

Abstract:
Trust and faith have been described as similar constructs, although trust is secular and faith is religious in its basic nature. This paper compares secular trust and religious faith in context with cognitive beliefs, affective feelings, conative intentions, and actual behaviors – consistent with the theoretical framework provided by the Theory of Reasoned Action. It also identifies ten similarities between trust and faith in context with the committed actions and behaviors of the individuals who exercise that trust or faith. Finally, the paper suggests that understanding the nature of either trust or faith increases one’s understanding of the other construct as well.
Christoph H. Winnefeld, Anja Permantier
Published: 18 August 2017
Business and Management Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/bmr.v6n3p65

Abstract:
During the last years, the German banking sector has faced major changes due to significant progress in the technological sector and hence an increased digitalization in many areas. Changing consumer behavior and customer needs force credit institutions to adjust to these developments in order to maintain their competitiveness. An enlarged number of new financial technology (FinTech) corporations started providing financial services comparable to the ones conventional banks offer. In this context, especially the topic of robo-advice is becoming more and more relevant. Robo-advisors can be defined as digital platforms that provide automated, algorithm-driven financial planning services with little to no human supervision. In our article, we investigate robo-advisors as part of the FinTech movement and in particular analyze the eligibility of digital investment advisory service as potential alternative to conventional asset management. We specifically emphasize the influence that FinTech companies and innovations have on the German banking sector.
Mykolas Deikus
Published: 18 August 2017
Business and Management Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/bmr.v6n3p58

Abstract:
Background: This article deals with the historical and cultural prerequisites for the decline of significance of truth in Western societies. In response to the formulated problem question, the ideas taught in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences are briefly discussed, the existing conditions of the power to form the directive regime of truth in the context are outlined.Objectives: The aim of the paper is to analyze historical and cultural prerequisites for the decline of the meaning of the truth in the public discourse.Method: This article is prepared using the methods of analysis and synthesis of academic literature. The analysis of academic sources and the citation follows the chronology according to the publishing year of the source. The methods of comparison and analogy are also used, the authors’ insights and generalizations are provided.Conclusion: The main conclusion is formulated that culture, as shown by the history, has some self-regulatory mechanisms that occur in different forms as a significant condition, which prevents the establishment of a unidirectional regime of the truth.
Wan Tin Lim, Chiara Jiamin Chong, Robert Chen, Tharmmambal Balakrishnan
Published: 28 August 2017
Case Reports in Internal Medicine, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/crim.v4n4p16

Abstract:
Infective endocarditis (IE) can often present with neurological manifestations, due to embolization from valvular vegetation, but the presentation is often variable and unpredictable. Septic emboli to both occipital lobes supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries, resulting in visual disturbances are also an uncommon presentation of IE reported in the literature. While S. gallolyticus is a classical cause of IE, it is less common and usually occurs in a less suspecting group of patients with no predisposing cardiac conditions. We report the case of a 48-year-old man, who presented with predominant complaints of blurring of vision and temporal headache, without any other infective symptoms. The procalcitonin level was also normal even in the setting of bacteremia with septic embolism. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multifocal enhancing lesions in cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem, with leptomeningeal enhancement. Transesophageal echocardiography and blood cultures subsequently confirmed diagnosis of S. gallolyticus IE of the mitral valve. The patient was treated with antibiotics upon diagnosis of IE. However, he developed intracranial hemorrhage secondary to mycotic aneurysms, and partial seizures. He eventually succumbed to the intracranial hemorrhage. This case serves to highlight that neurological manifestations can precede symptoms or signs of IE and the presentation are often variable. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to suspect neurological manifestations of IE, especially in patients without risk factors.
Alberto L. Aguilera, Christine P. Stewart, Adela De La Torre,
Published: 20 September 2017
Journal of Epidemiological Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.5430/jer.v4n1p1

Abstract:
Background and purpose: Studies in adults and children have demonstrated a strong correlation of skin carotenoids with fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake. There are few studies testing the usefulness of this methodology in a community setting. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) skin carotenoid intensity scores in young children to assess F/V intake.Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to capture the RRS skin carotenoid intensity scores using the Pharmanex BioPhotonic Scanner. The RRS skin carotenoid intensity score ranges from 0 to 70,000+ with increasing scores indicating a higher carotenoid concentration. Children’s dietary intake of F/V was assessed within one-month period using a 26-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple pass 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) administered to the parent of the child. Participants were 51 Mexican-origin children (ages 3-8 years) living in two rural California school districts during July-August 2014. RRS skin carotenoid intensity scores; frequency of fruit and vegetable intake from FFQ; daily servings of fruit and vegetables and carotenoid intake from 24HDR. Spearman correlation was used to determine the correlation between RRS skin carotenoid intensity scores and average 24HDR F/V intake and FFQ F/V intake.Results: The results of the study demonstrate a significant positive correlation between skin carotenoid levels and parent-reported 24HDR vegetable consumption (r = .41, p = .003) but not with 24HDR fruit, FFQ fruit, or FFQ vegetable consumption.Conclusion: The use of skin carotenoid measurements may be more indicative of short-term vegetable consumption than overall fruit and vegetable or fruit-only consumption in this population of Mexican-origin children.
Idegbekwe Destiny
Published: 24 July 2017
English Linguistics Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v6n3p38

Abstract:
Texts are not just texts. Texts are considered texts because of the structure and organization they have. Many linguists do not pay attention to the structure of the text instead attention is paid to the nature of delivery and other aspects of the text. Thereby leaving a vacuum as to what is the internal build of a text. In response to this, the present study presents an analysis of the textual patterns of four of Buhari’s speeches focusing on the textual patterning models of problem to solution, General to Specific and Claim to Counter Claim. The purpose of the study is to unravel the technique behind the arrangement of ideas in the speeches. The study adopts Hoey’s theory of textual patterning as the theoretical framework and reveals amongst others that in the problem to solution model, more problems are presented in Speech A and C which were presented in Nigeria against Speech B and D presented in the United States and in Ethiopia respectively. The problems presented in Speech A and C are local and remote problems related to Nigerians alone while the problems presented in Speech B and D have global links as they affect many countries. The study also discovers that the provision of a futuristic solution in the Problem to Solution Model of Textual Patterning acts as a pointer to the present situation even if it was not stated expressly and the use specificity in the general to specific model acts as a form of reinforcement on the information value of the general statement.
Shuling Zhang
Published: 24 July 2017
English Linguistics Research, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v6n3p27

Abstract:
Conversational narrative or storytelling is a prevalent activity in everyday talk. This paper, drawing on the speech act theory and conversational analysis methodology, examines the conversational storytelling in performing a few types of illocutionary acts like assert, warn, object, advise in Chinese everyday talk. It is found that storytelling plays several significant roles in performing some types of illocutionary acts, i.e. to make a point, to build rapport among friends and even to reduce the face threat. Conversational storytelling may occur immediately after the expression of an illocutionary act, and sometimes before it to indicate certain illocutionary force.
International Journal of Higher Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v2n4p131

Abstract:
In preparing pre-service teachers for their professional practice in the information age, we need to impress upon them that the children in their classrooms will be Digital Natives, with skills for digital fluency rather than skills in the orthodoxy 3Rs developed with talk, chalk and board; paper, pencil and pen. Since most of our pre-service teachers belong to the pre-digital generation without the skills for 21st century digital fluency, there is a great need for us as higher education practitioners, to prepare them well for the new classrooms they will work in so as to prevent a mismatch between them and their students where they could be seen as illiterate teachers trying to teach literate children. Embedding digital pedagogy in the skilling of these teachers is urgently needed to help them appreciate the role of technology in the teaching of pedagogy and content knowledge (TPACK). Fortunately enough, a wide range of apps are available for use on iPads, Androids, eTablets, Smart Phones and other platforms, which our pre-service teachers could apply in their teaching. One example of how this was achieved in higher education with two cohorts of 2nd year B.Ed pre-service teachers is discussed in this paper. The paper demonstrates that social media digital tools can be embedded in pre-service higher education to help train pre-service teachers so they appreciate the TPACK model. The paper concludes that it is incumbent upon higher education providers, to ensure that graduates are well prepared to be effective teachers for the digital generation.
Alexios S. Strimpakos, Muhammad W. Saif,
Published: 10 December 2012
Journal of Solid Tumors, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.5430/jst.v3n1p1

Abstract:
Tumours depend greatly on blood supply to grow, spread and metastasise. It has been proposed, for a long time now, that angiogenesis and neo-vasculature development are present in tumours.(1;2) Angiogenesis is subject to regulation by a number of pro-angiogenic growth factors such as the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), angiopoetin, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), placental growth factor (PlGF) and others, which are counteracted by proangiogenic growth factors such as angiostatin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and others.(1;3) Among those growth factors, the most studied and associated with tumour growth and neo-angiogenesis is the family of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which includes VEGF-A (the archetypal member, often called as VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), VEGF-B, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D (known also as c-Fos-induced growth factor, FIGF), and the viral VEGF-E. These growth factors exert their biological function through the VEGF transmembrane receptors VEGFR-1, -2 and -3. In particular, VEGF binds to VEGFR-1 and -2, VEGF-B and PlGF only to VEGFR-1, VEGF-C and VEGF-D to VEGFR-2 and -3.(4-8)
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v3n5p39

Abstract:
Awareness of cultural concepts is an important component of nursing education and cultural immersion experiences are invaluable in fostering understanding of them. These types of experiences take students out of their comfort zone and challenge them both personally and professionally. For several years, students on all levels have been participating in a 10-day trip to Kenya led by nursing faculty. Undergraduate students who go on the trip receive clinical credit for their community health course and are required to journal daily about their experiences while on the trip and write a reflection paper for the course when they return. The content of these papers was analyzed for common themes to determine what students learned from the trip and to see if it was worthwhile to allow students to do their clinical capstone experience in Kenya, that would be part of the schools new curriculum. Four main themes emerged from the student reflection papers. They were: “Making a difference”, “Not knowing what to expect”, “Feeling like a real nurse” and “Renewing my Identity”. The Kenya experience has fostered student growth in various ways and our school of nursing will continue to support this learning experience by encouraging senior students to complete their clinical capstones in Kenya.
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v3n5p31

Abstract:
There is an increased interest in higher education in the use of e-learning resources for students. This can be attributed to many factors including, the availability of advanced technology systems, a growing student population that is technology focused, financial implications and the recruitment of international students. However, the introduction of technology and e-learning into teaching has given rise to issues regarding quality and quantity of educational practice. The challenge now is for educationalists is to deliver an optimal learning experience that is effective and appropriate for students’ learning needs.
, Dorthe S. Bille, Ebbe Thisted, ,
Journal of Biomedical Graphics and Computing, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.5430/jbgc.v3n1p35

Abstract:
Background: Proton MR Spectroscopy (1H MRS) can be used to measure hepatic fat fractions (HFF) in liver cells for assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The measurement is typically performed in a single volume. For correct diagnosis it is important to know variability of HFF within liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate regional differences in HFF in a large group of overweight and obese children and adolescents using 1H MRS at 3T. Methods: The study included 175 consecutive children and adolescents from 7 to 18 years old with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and gender. 1H MRS was performed at 3.0T using a point resolved spectroscopy sequence in two 11mmx11mmx11mm volumes positioned in different parts of the right liver lobe. Results:Up to 12% difference in HFF between the two volumes was observed: the regional differences in HFF are below 1% for patients with HFF under 3%; patients with HFF between 3% and 20% have regional differences in HFF up to 5%; patients with HFF over 20% have regional differences in HFF up to 12%. Conclusions: 1H MRS diagnosis and severity assessment of NAFLD in overweight and obese children and adolescents should take up to 12% regional differences in hepatic fat fractions into account.
Jin Zhang, Haeyoung Shin
International Journal of Financial Research, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijfr.v8n4p99

Abstract:
We investigate the association between the bias and accuracy of consensus analysts’ earnings forecasts and whether a firm is a sin firm or not. We measure analyst forecast bias as the difference between the consensus earnings forecast and the actual earnings, scaled by the stock price. We measure analyst forecast accuracy as the negative of the absolute value of the difference between the firms’ forecasted and actual earnings, scaled by the stock price. We find a positive association between the level of forecast optimism and sin firm membership. We find a negative association between the level of forecast accuracy and sin firm membership. Overall, these results imply that analysts tend to issue over-optimistic and less accurate earnings forecasts on sin firms.
Maja Miskovic, Elena Lyutykh
International Research in Higher Education, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.5430/irhe.v2n3p60

Abstract:
Little has been said on how to teach qualitative research in general and more recently on how to do so in online courses. Drawing on the cultural-historical theory of Lev Vygotsky and his followers, we engage with theoretical tenets that inform a design of an online qualitative research course in a private liberal arts university in the United States with large enrollments of doctoral students in leadership studies. Though examination of constructivist approaches to online education that are integrated within our classroom practices, we highlight unique challenges of teaching qualitative research online and offer insights to inform instructors of similar courses with intent to continue an important conversation about complexities of teaching qualitative research.
Halit Karatay
International Journal of Higher Education, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n5p65

Abstract:
In order to make teaching activities more appealing, different techniques and strategies have been constantly employed. In this study, the strategy of “literature circles” was utilized to improve the text-analysis skills, reading desires, and interests of prospective teachers of Turkish. “Literature circles” was not chosen to be used as the sole strategy throughout the entire weekly class hours; instead, it was used only for one class hour of every weekly four-hour classes, being complementary to and supportive of other teaching activities. The study was carried out as action research. A total of 92 third-year students in two sections of the department of Turkish Education voluntarily participated in the study. In order to improve the students’ book reviewing skills and reading interests, “literature circles” was implemented for a period of 12 weeks for one class hour. At the end of the implementation of “literature circles” when the students’ reading comprehension pre-test and post-test scores were compared, a significant difference was observed. Based on the results, it may be concluded that “literature circles” is effective in developing students’ abilities to find the theme, main idea, and keywords in a text. Besides, the students pointed out that the implementation of this strategy increased their interest and desire for communication, their self-confidence, cooperative learning, critical thinking, reading objectively without bias, and independent reading skills.
Torhild Erika Lillemark Hoydalsvik
International Journal of Higher Education, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n5p76

Abstract:
The purpose of this exploratory two site case study is to examine how teacher educators, student teachers and programme leaders experience their ‘curriculum developer role’ in times of change, against the background of a new national guideline for preschool teacher education being implemented in Norway. The multidisciplinary team approach established by policy for this reform is examined as a strategy to create coherent programmes. Data collected for the study include fifteen semi-structured interviews and four focus groups conducted at two educational institutions. Qualitative data processing software is used to process four stages of qualitative data analysis. The evidence indicates that the actors involved experienced the ‘reproduction’ of curriculum elements from before the recent reform to a modest extent. Most frequently, they describe incorporation of earlier practices, ‘moderate translation’, in order to meet the demands of multiple disciplines. ‘Radical translation’ also takes place as part of their new collaborative role.
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