Refine Search

New Search

Results: 2,753,690

(searched for: publisher_group_id:47)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 55,074
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
, Alice Ryan, H. Alex Choi, Gunjan Y. Parikh, Xuran Jiang, Andrew G. Day, Daren K. Heyland
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, Volume 36, pp 1141-1148; https://doi.org/10.1177/0885066620966957

Abstract:
Background: A previous study suggested an association between low caloric intake(CI), negative nitrogen balance, and poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH). Objective of this multinational, multicenter study was to investigate whether clinical outcomes vary by protein intake(PI) or CI in SAH patients adjusting for the nutritional risk as judged by the modified NUTrition Risk in the Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score. Methods: The International Nutrition Survey(INS) 2007-2014 was utilized to describe the characteristics, outcomes and nutrition use. A subgroup of patients from 2013 and 2014(when NUTRIC score was captured) examined the association between CI and PI and time to discharge alive(TTDA) from hospital using Cox regression models, adjusting for nutrition risk classified by the mNUTRIC score as low(0-4) or high(5-9). Results: There were 489 SAH patients(57% female with a mean ± SD age 57.5 ± 13.9 years, BMI of 25.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and APACHE-2 score 19.4 ± 7.0. Majority(85%) received enteral nutrition(EN) only, with a time to initiation of EN of 35.4 ± 35.2 hours. 64% had EN interrupted. Patients received a CI of 14.6 ± 7.1 calories/kg/day and PI 0.7 ± 0.3 grams/kg/day corresponding to 59% and 55% of total prescribed CI and PI respectively. In the 2013 and 2014 subgroup there were 226 SAH patients with a mNUTRIC score of 3.4 ± 1.8. Increased CI and PI were associated with faster TTDA among high mNUTRIC patients(HR per 20% of prescription received = 1.34[95% CI,1.03 -1.76] for CI and 1.44[1.07 -1.93] for PI), but not low mNUTRIC patients(CI: HR = 0.95[0.77 -1.16] PI:0.95[0.78 -1.16]). Conclusions: Results from this multicenter study found that SAH patients received under 60% of their prescribed CI and PI. Further, achieving greater CI and PI in hi risk SAH patients was associated with improved TTDA. mNUTRIC serves to identify SAH patients that benefit most from artificial nutrition and efforts to optimize protein and caloric delivery in this subpopulation should be maximized.
, Lucy M Abbott
European Journal of International Relations; https://doi.org/10.1177/13540661211044197

Abstract:
Combining scholarship on norms and trust in International Relations, this article puts forward the concept of entrusted norms as a novel means to understand certain dynamics of cooperation and conflict in international politics. Entrusted norms differ from non-entrusted norms both in the manner that they are policed and in the reaction to their infringement. In the first case, there are few formal hedging mechanisms taken against potential defection. In the second case, when broken, they result in a betrayal reaction where a return to the behavioral status quo is insufficient to return to the political status quo. We illustrate the analytical usefulness of entrusted norms through an examination of the established norms of diplomacy within the Gulf Cooperation Council, paying particular attention to interactions between Saudi Arabia and Qatar in the post-Arab Spring period. We argue that the perception of Qatar’s defection from an entrusted norm, the preservation of individual and collective dignity, contributed to the 2014 diplomatic rupture between these two states and set in motion a betrayal/attempted reconciliation cycle, where even Qatar’s attempts to move back to the behavioral status quo prior to the fallout have been insufficient to fully repair the relationship. In addition to providing a novel interpretation to this case, this paper highlights the need for further theoretical consideration of the severity and duration of punishment after norm transgression within social constructivism, reinforces the theoretical connection between social structures and emotions, and advocates for an expansion in the domains of trust that we study.
Keith Boeckelman, Jonathan Day
Published: 14 September 2021
State and Local Government Review; https://doi.org/10.1177/0160323x211038482

Abstract:
This paper assesses state efforts to both restrict and enable local government discretion by using data from Project Vote Smart's “Key Votes” database. The results show that state legislation, both successful and unsuccessful, is more likely to limit local autonomy than to enhance it, although both tendencies occur. Republican legislators are more likely to support efforts to restrict discretion than Democrats are. Further, preemption attempts are particularly evident on “hot button” issues, such as guns, sexuality and gender roles, and immigration, although such initiatives are not necessarily more likely to successfully become law, especially under conditions of divided government.
Teymursha Muradi, Zafer Turkyilmaz, , Kaan Sonmez, Cem Kaya, Fazli Polat, Abdullah Can Basaklar
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Aims: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) may originate from extrinsic or intrinsic causes in children. The aim of this study is to present preoperative and postoperative data of our patients operated for UPJO. Methods: A total of 64 patients who underwent open pyeloplasty were investigated retrospectively. They were evaluated in terms of demographically, clinics, hydronephrosis, differential renal functions (DRFs), half-time tracer clearance (½TC), and histopathologic results. Patients’ numerical results were stated as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results: Male gender was more prevalent ( n = 47, 73.4%) and mean age at surgery was 46.87 months. UPJO was located at the left side in 56.3% ( n = 36), and at the right side in 39.1% ( n = 25) of patients. It was bilateral in 4.7% ( n = 3). Hydronephrosis was found antenatally in 68.8% ( n = 44) of patients. The mean preoperative DRF was 49.7% (21–78%) and mean postoperative DRF was 49.2% (20–56%). Mean renal scintigraphic t1/2 was >20 min for all patients. The mean AP diameter was 21.58 mm (10–62 mm). Muscular hypertrophy was the most common pathological finding, mean length of excised segment was 10.26 mm (3–40 mm). Crossing vessel (CV) was detected in 17.18% ( n = 11). The CV was statistically associated with increased age of operation, left side, and female gender. Statistically significant hydronephrosis was found in non-CV patients. Re-operation was required in seven patients (7.8%). Conclusions: Intrinsic pathologies are more seen in the etiology of UPJO patients with antenatal diagnosis and this group needs operation at an earlier age. However, CV is found more commonly in patients who are diagnosed and operated at older ages.
Published: 14 September 2021
History of the Human Sciences; https://doi.org/10.1177/09526951211036553

Abstract:
This article critically analyses correspondence and decisions regarding children/young people who were included in the Canadian child migration schemes that ran between 1883 and 1939, and those who were deemed ‘undeserving’ and outside the scope of the schemes. Drawing on critical realist ontology, a metatheory that centralises the causal non-linear dynamics and generative mechanisms in the individual, the cultural sphere, and wider society, the research starts from the premise that the principle of ‘less or more eligibility’ lies at the heart of the British welfare system, both now and historically. Through analysing case files and correspondence relating to children sent to Canada via the Waifs and Strays Society and Fegan Homes, I shed light on the complex interplay between morality, biological determinism, resistance, and resilience in decisions around which children should be included or excluded. I argue that it was the complex interplay and nuance between the moral/immoral, desirable/undesirable, degenerate, and capable/incapable child that guided practice with vulnerable children in the late 1800s. In judgements around ‘deservedness’, related stigmas around poverty and ‘bad’ behaviour were rife. Within this, the child was punished for his/her ‘immoral tendencies’ and ‘inherited traits’, with little regard for the underlying reasons (e.g. abuse and neglect) for their (abnormal) behaviour and ‘mental deficiencies’.
Surangkanang Chaiyasak, , Jakarwan Yostawonkul, Suwimon Boonrungsiman, Tanit Kasantikul, Anudep Rungsipipat,
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
The association of feline morbillivirus (FeMV) with kidney disease in cats is controversial. Two cats with a history of severe hematuria had eosinophilic inclusion-like bodies in the renal tubular epithelial cells, without any inflammatory cellular reaction. Ultrastructurally, aggregations of electron-dense viral-like particles were found where the inclusion-like bodies were located. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against FeMV matrix protein labeled these inclusion-like bodies, and also labeled the cytoplasm of tracheal and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and lymphocytes and macrophages in spleen and mesenteric lymph node. Using double IHC, FeMV antigen was detected in astroglia and oligodendroglia but not in microglia. Phylogenetic characterization of the fusion and hemagglutinin gene sequences revealed FeMV-1A genotypes in both cats. These findings indicated an active viral infection with FeMV. We propose that FeMV is a renal epitheliotropic virus and also localizes in various other tissues.
Ali Rıza Taşkale
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
This article critically engages with Denis Villeneuve’s Blade Runner 2049, focusing on the relationship between colonial logics and biological engineering that understands the natural world as property. First, it discusses the connections between the film and the shifting status of biopolitics becoming thanatopolitics, prompted by advances in synthetic biology. It argues that the film’s preoccupation with the reproductive capacity of its replicants retraces a racialized (post) colonialism and reconfigured slavery, or the voluntary labour of the occupied – as normalized in synthetic biology and the ongoing processes of devaluing of some lives over others for socioeconomic reasons. Second, and relatedly, the film reveals how deeply the thanatopolitics of a biopolitical economy is rooted in an intensification of racialized and colonial logics. The film thus doubles as a medium in which to grasp the centrality of colonial and racial logics to the ongoing real subsumption of life by capital, and the ways in which it continues to shape the present.
Archita Chatterjee, Shreyashi Bhattacharya, Jenia Mukherjee
The Oriental Anthropologist: A Bi-annual International Journal of the Science of Man; https://doi.org/10.1177/0972558x211041675

Abstract:
A culturally vibrant country like India has multiple embedded forms of folk traditions accompanied by an essentially rich history that is constituted by a cultural–ecological heritage. West Bengal, one of the eastern states of India, is inhabited by numerous ecosystem-dependent communities. Nature, culture, and livelihoods remain deeply entangled in the indigenous practices, blurring concrete boundaries that separate tangible from intangible heritage. In mainstream “ecological” and “heritage” discourses, the folk performative customs and their architects are often projected as harbingers of ecological wisdom—relying on nature and, at the same time, giving back to her. Shedding light on Patuas of Naya Pingla, West Medinipur, and Chhau mask makers from Charida, Purulia, we complicate this line of argument by exploring complex interactions between material and cultural variables influencing these “living heritage” traditions. We have been “immersed” in dense ethnographic realms of the field to unpack complexities determining complex human–nature intersections that concurrently offer livelihood provisions and cultural sustenance among folk communities of rural South Asia. By weaving multilayered web of information and exploring the nonlinear ecology–economy–culture correlation along the two case studies, we have brought to the fore the significance of place-based narratives to inform overarching theories on heritage and ecological sustainability beyond mainstream perspectives. The case studies, though in geographical proximity, are neither meant to complement each other or to present a comparative narrative of ecological–cultural connect, but to highlight the importance of unmappable micro-realities and nonlinearities in shaping a community’s resilience.
Ayae Saiki, Teruaki Mizobuchi, Kaoru Nagato, Fumihiro Ishibashi, Junichi Tsuyusaki, Isamu Sugano
Journal of International Medical Research, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.1177/03000605211016998

Abstract:
Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occasionally experience acute exacerbations after surgery for lung cancer. Several recent studies have revealed a prophylactic effect of perioperative pirfenidone treatment on postoperative acute exacerbations of IPF in patients with lung cancer. A 75-year-old woman consulted with her pulmonologist because of an IPF shadow detected by follow-up chest computed tomography 2 months after surgical treatment of biliary cancer. Another 7 months later, chest computed tomography showed a 23- × 14-mm nodule located in the right lower lobe with high accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose detected by positron emission tomography, resulting in a radiological diagnosis of primary lung cancer with IPF. We administered perioperative pirfenidone treatment followed by right lower lobectomy using uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery after attaining a pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The patient developed no acute exacerbations of IPF during the postoperative period, and she had no recurrence of lung cancer for 15 months after surgery. We successfully used a combination of perioperative antifibrotic medication and minimally invasive surgery after lung cancer surgery in a patient with IPF.
Kat Jungnickel
Science, Technology, & Human Values; https://doi.org/10.1177/01622439211044210

Abstract:
This article is about clothing inventions, material participation, and acts of citizenship. I explore how pioneering Victorian women at the turn of the last century inventively responded via clothing to restrictions to their (physical and ideological) freedom of movement. While the bicycle is typically celebrated as a primary vehicle of women’s emancipation at that time, I argue that inventive forms of clothing, such as convertible cycling skirts, also helped women make claims to rights and privileges otherwise legally denied to their sex. I ask: Do clothing inventions create possibilities to act differently? Can they be thought of as wearable technology, and in what ways do they (and their invention) enact political concerns? Might convertible cycling skirts be considered “acts of citizenship?” Throughout, I mobilize concepts of multiplicity, in-betweenness, and ambiguity to make a case for the relevance of clothing research for science and technology studies.
Britta J. Knight, Geoffrey A. Wood, Robert A. Foster,
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Mast cell tumors (MCTs) are the most common skin tumor of the dog, and accurately predicting their clinical behavior is critical in directing patient therapy, as they range from benign lesions to a fatal systemic disease. Grading is useful for prognosis, but it cannot predict the behavior of all MCTs. We hypothesized that biomarker immunolabeling in tumor tissues would correlate with patient morbidity and mortality. A clinically annotated tissue microarray (TMA) of primary, recurrent, and metastatic (to lymph node) canine dermal and subcutaneous MCTs was created. Some dogs whose MCTs were included in the TMA did not receive adjunctive treatment after surgical excision of the MCT, whereas others were treated with one or a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, or oral toceranib. Immunohistochemistry for beclin-1, an autophagy protein, was performed followed by digital image analysis. Beclin-1 immunolabeling was higher in recurrent tumors (mean H-score 110.8) than primary MCTs (mean H-score 73.5), and highest in lymph node metastases (mean H-score 138.5) with a significant difference in means ( P < .001). While beclin-1 level was not prognostic, it was strongly predictive for survival after adjunctive treatment; dogs with high beclin-1-expressing tumors showed poorer survival compared to those with low beclin-1-expressing tumors (HR = 5.7, P = .02), especially in Kiupel high-grade tumors (HR = 16.3, P = .01). Beclin-1 immunolabeling was the only significant predictive factor by multivariable analysis ( P = .04). These findings may improve our ability to predict the response to adjunctive therapy. Importantly, these data suggest that autophagy inhibitors may be useful in improving response to treatment for dogs with high-grade MCTs.
Tingting Chen, Yali Yasen, Jianjiang Wu, Hu Cheng
Journal of International Medical Research, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.1177/03000605211043245

Abstract:
Objective Pulmonary complication is common in older patients after surgery. We analyzed risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection after general anesthesia among older patients. Methods In this retrospective investigation, we included older patients who underwent surgery with general anesthesia. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection. Results A total 418 postoperative patients with general anesthesia were included; the incidence of lower respiratory tract infection was 9.33%. Ten cases were caused by gram-positive bacteria, 26 cases by gram-negative bacteria, and 2 cases by fungus. We found significant differences in age, smoking, diabetes, oral/nasal tracheal intubation, and surgery duration. Logistic regression analysis indicated that age ≥70 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.028, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.115–3.646), smoking (OR 2.314, 95% CI 1.073–4.229), diabetes (OR 2.185, 95% CI 1.166–4.435), nasotracheal intubation (OR 3.528, 95% CI 1.104–5.074), and duration of surgery ≥180 minutes (OR 1.334, 95% CI 1.015–1.923) were independent risk factors of lower respiratory tract infections. Conclusions Older patients undergoing general anesthesia after tracheal intubation have a high risk of lower respiratory tract infections. Clinical interventions should be provided to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with relevant risk factors.
Susan Aguiñaga, Isabela G. Marques, Spyros Kitsiou, , Ben S. Gerber, Susan W. Buchholz, Eduardo E. Bustamante, David X. Marquez
Published: 14 September 2021
Health Education & Behavior, Volume 48, pp 575-583; https://doi.org/10.1177/10901981211027517

Abstract:
Older Latinxs engage in lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (PA) compared with non-Latinx Whites. Latin dance is a culturally relevant type of leisure-time PA that may engage older Latinx populations, particularly when coupled with mobile health technologies (mHealth). This single group pre–post feasibility study described the PA and health outcomes of middle-aged and older Latinxs participating in BAILA TECH—an intervention that combines the BAILAMOS Latin dance program with mHealth (Fitbit Charge 2, Fitbit app, and motivational text messages). Participants ( n = 20, Mage = 67 ± 7.1, female n = 15, 75%) were enrolled in the 16-week BAILA TECH intervention held twice a week. Participants received a Fitbit Charge 2 to assess PA at baseline, during the intervention, and postintervention. An mHealth platform (iCardia) collected Fitbit data and staff delivered weekly motivational and informational text messages. Participants completed questionnaires about PA, sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, social support, quality of life, and cognitive function at baseline and postintervention. Paired t tests evaluated change in pre–post measures. There was a significant increase in device-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA ( d = 0.69), self-reported light-leisure ( d = 1.91) and moderate-to-vigorous PA ( d = 1.05), moderate-to-vigorous leisure PA ( d = 1.55), predicted cardiorespiratory fitness ( d = 1.10), and PA social support ( d = 0.81 [family]; d = 0.95 [friends]) from baseline to postintervention. Although nonsignificant, there was a small effect on physical health–related quality of life ( d = 0.32) and executive function ( d = 0.29). These data describe an increase in PA levels and health-related outcomes of middle-aged and older Latinxs from participation in an mHealth-infused Latin dance intervention. An adequately powered trial is necessary to establish efficacy.
, Liberato Roberto Cecchino, Domenico Parisi, Aurelio Portincasa
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Objective: Scrotal degloving injuries are rare and constitute a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. The authors describe their successful experience with a combined reconstruction protocol using an acellular dermal matrix (ADM), negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and a split-thickness skin graft (STSG), and the retrospective assessment of overall morbidity and esthetic outcomes. Methods: Five consecutive patients underwent a wide excision of necrotic scrotal skin and a reconstruction procedure using a combined protocol with NPWT, Pelnac®, and STSG. The efficacy of this treatment was determined by assessing overall morbidity and esthetic outcomes with the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Results: The combined protocol made it possible to create an environment that promoted wound healing, improved graft intake, and gage the reconstructed site a more natural look. No significant problems were observed. Satisfactory cosmetic and functional results were obtained in all patients as shown by VSS scores obtained. Conclusions: We believe that this combined protocol is a reliable alternative to flaps and should be considered an excellent option in scrotal reconstruction, especially in critical patients.
, Taylor Jones, Kevin A Valenzuela,
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Autistic persons exhibit variable movement, loading, and coordination patterns during walking. While much research has examined walking, little to no research exists regarding running for autistic persons despite its prevalence and benefits as a mode of physical activity. This study determined if autistic adolescents demonstrate increased coordination variability during running compared to matched controls. Seventeen autistic adolescents (aged = 13–18 years) and seventeen sex, age, and body mass index matched controls performed running at two matched speeds: self-selected of autistic adolescents and at 3.0 m/s. Modified vector coding was used to determine the patterns of movement for foot-shank, shank-thigh, left/right thigh, and contralateral arm-thigh coupling. Coordination variability, measuring cycle-to-cycle variability, was determined during loading response and pushoff phases. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to determine group by speed interactions and main effects. Coordination variability was nearly 2× larger (all p < 0.001) in autistic adolescents compared to controls. Speed main effects were found for several sagittal plane couples during loading response. In agreement with walking analyses, this study illustrates that autistic adolescents run with increased intra-limb, inter-limb, and cross-body coordination variability. Like walking, increased coordination variability during running may negatively impact this mode of physical activity for autistic persons. Lay abstract Walking and running are popular forms of physical activity that involve the whole body (pelvis/legs and arms/torso) and are coordinated by the neuromuscular system, generally without much conscious effort. However, autistic persons tend not to engage in sufficient amounts of these activities to enjoy their health benefits. Recent reports indicate that autistic individuals tend to experience altered coordination patterns and increased variability during walking tasks when compared to non-autistic controls. Greater stride-to-stride coordination variability, when the task has not changed (i.e. walking at same speed and on same surface), is likely indicative of motor control issues and is more metabolically wasteful. To date, although, research examining running is unavailable in any form for this population. This study aimed to determine if coordination variability during running differs between autistic adolescents and age, sex, and body mass index matched non-autistic controls. This study found that increased variability exists throughout the many different areas of the body (foot-leg, left/right thighs, and opposite arm-opposite thigh) for autistic adolescents compared to controls. Along with previous research, these findings indicate autistic persons exhibit motor control issues across both forms of locomotion (walking and running) and at multiple speeds. These findings highlight issues with motor control that can be addressed by therapeutic/rehabilitative programming. Reducing coordination variability, inherently lessening metabolic inefficiency, may be an important step toward encouraging autistic youth to engage in sufficient physical activity (i.e. running) to enjoy physiological and psychological benefits.
David B. Brecher, Shane M. Morris
American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®; https://doi.org/10.1177/10499091211046235

Abstract:
Several research studies have shown that code status documentation is misinterpreted or incorrectly defined by a significant number of medical professionals. This misinterpretation among the medical team (i.e. equating Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) with comfort care measures only) may lead to false reporting, poor symptom management, and potentially adverse clinical outcomes. Most Hospice and Palliative Care providers are aware of these distinctions, however a shortage (and continued foreseen shortage) of Hospice and Palliative Care providers may mean these conversations and distinctions will fall to non-subspecialists, or providers of other medical specialties or degrees. The literature has demonstrated that these shortfalls and misinterpretations are present and constitute potential harm to our patients.
Amin Changizi, Ion Stiharu, Bilal Outirba, Patrick Hendrick
Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1177/16878140211043396

Abstract:
Presented herein is a mathematical model employing differential equations formulation for brush seals used in gas turbine engines. These components are used to seal the bearing chamber from the environment and reduce the loss of lubricant in the atmosphere, ensuring a MTBR long enough to have required the change the seals only during the engine overhaul operation. The model assumes a single curved bristle loop in the form of a curved-bridge beam subjected to the influences of complex external loads (static and dynamic). Further, a model for clustered bristles is proposed. Specifically, the static forces acting on the curved-bridge beam include the weight of the oil capillary attached to the beam, the weight of the beam itself, the capillary force developed between the surfaces of the bristles in the brush and the temperature gradient. The dynamic forces include the leakage oil pressure and the rotation of the shaft. This complex loading induces a nonlinear large deflection on the curved-bridge beam. Also, the temperature gradient present on the bristles during the gas turbine engine operation generates a change in the geometry of the beam and in the magnitude of the forces acting on the bristles modeled as beams. In the present model, the weights are assumed as uniformly distributed forces on the surface of the beam while the capillary forces and the force generated by the rotating shaft are considered to be non-uniform. The equation expressing the curvature of the beam under general loading force is developed and one can choose the appropriate method of solving the generated differential equation after the expression of the general force is defined. Hence, the ordinary differential equation describing the nonlinear large deflection of the curved-bridge beam will be derived using general nonlinear elasticity theory.
Micah Newton, , Erin Wynings, Hussein Jaffal,
Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1177/01945998211046527

Abstract:
Objective To determine the rate of tracheostomy-related complications in pediatric patients from nationally representative databases. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting 2016 Kids’ Inpatient Database and 2016 Nationwide Readmission Database. Methods All pediatric tracheostomy procedures were included. Complication type, admission outcomes, and readmission rates were recorded with a logistic regression analysis to determine patient characteristics associated with complications. Results An estimated 5309 tracheostomies were performed among pediatric patients in 2016, 8% (n = 432) of whom developed tracheostomy-related complications. This group was younger (4.7 vs 8.7 years, P < .001) and required longer hospital admissions (68.7 vs 33.2 days, P < .001) than children without tracheostomy-related complications. Mean costs ($459,324 vs $397,937, P < .001) and mean total charges ($1,573,964 vs $1,099,347, P < .001) were increased if a tracheostomy-related complication occurred. These events occurred more often in those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (24% vs 12%, P < .001), heart disease (24% vs 12%, P = .001), gastroesophageal reflux disease (31% vs 19%, P < .001), short gestational age (24% vs 14%, P < .001), and subglottic stenosis (9.9% vs 5.4%, P = .001). The estimated 30-day readmission rate was 24% (SE, 1.7%) but did not increase after tracheostomy complications (27% vs 15%, P = .04). Tracheostomy-related complications were predicted by gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.14-1.97; P = .004), younger age (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .002), and lengthier hospitalization (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01; P < .001) on multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Tracheostomy-related complications occur in approximately 8% of pediatric patients and are higher in younger children or those with longer admission lengths. These data have implications for benchmarking standards of posttracheostomy complications across institutions.
Talia Robledo-Gil, Shakkaura Kemet, Meredith Pensak, Abigail Cutler, Blair McNamara, Holly Powell Kennedy, Lisbet Lundsberg,
Hispanic Health Care International; https://doi.org/10.1177/15404153211041013

Abstract:
Introduction: Research on Spanish-speaking Latina/Hispanic women's experiences during pregnancy is limited. Methods: We recruited women from urban, walk-in pregnancy testing clinics from June 2014 to June 2015. Women aged 16–44 years, at less than 24 weeks gestational age, who spoke either English or Spanish were eligible and completed an enrollment questionnaire and individual interview according to language preference. During qualitative interviews, we explored pregnancy intentions, initial reactions to a new pregnancy, and feelings about the impact of this pregnancy on relationships and daily life. Qualitative narrative content analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti software. Results: Among interviews with 31 Spanish-speaking Latina/Hispanic pregnant women, participants’ average age was 28 years old with a mean gestational age of 7 weeks. We identified social isolation as the most common theme, characterized by four interwoven and overlapping subthemes: (1) sola—the experience of feeling alone; (2) familismo cercano—the importance of close relationships; (3) familismo lejano—overcoming long distance relationships; and (4) mi patria—preserving homeland cultural connectedness. Conclusions: Spanish-speaking Latina/Hispanic pregnant women described experiencing multiple aspects of social isolation. Language preference may suggest risk of social isolation, necessitating provider awareness and support initiatives to improve social support and lessen social isolation among newly pregnant, Spanish-speaking Latina women.
, Leping Jiang
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
There is increasing evidence that the early rice farming communities of southern China emerged from societies heavily dependent on acorns. Recent archaeological investigations have recovered large quantities of acorn remains from multiple archaeological sites (10,000–6000 cal. BP) in the Lower Yangtze River Valley, suggesting that acorns were a staple food for preagricultural societies. However, most previous studies have focused on taxonomical identification, leaving us a poor understanding of acorn processing technology. This research addresses this shortcoming by conducting a systematic microbotanical residue analysis (starch and phytolith) of pottery and grinding stones from the Shangshan culture (10,000–8200 cal. BP). The results show that the artifacts analyzed were predominantly used for processing acorns, and to a lesser extent, USOs and cereals. Combining the microbotanical data and an ethnographic study, we reconstruct a 10,000-year-old acorn processing technology. We suggest that intensive acorn processing provided an impetus for the increased production of pottery and grinding stones in early Holocene China.
, Shimaa Hanafy
Published: 14 September 2021
Political Research Quarterly; https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912921991241

Abstract:
There is an ongoing debate on the relationship between Islam and (lack of) democracy. Considerable literature shows that Islam, represented as an informal institution by Muslim population share, has a negative effect on democracy. This study examines the effects of formal institutions, specifically constitutions that prescribe Islamic law ( Shari’a) as a source of legislation, on democracy. We use a newly developed coding of the degree to which Islam is incorporated in constitutions. Our empirical results show that the constitutional entrenchment of Islamic law has a negative and significant effect on democracy. Our findings are robust to using different estimators and instrumental variable regressions, employing alternative measures of democracy and controlling for Muslim population, natural resource wealth, and additional control variables. While we show that Islamic constitutionalism is a reason for a democracy deficit in Muslim-majority countries, we find no evidence that Islam is inimical to democracy when not entrenched in the constitution.
Whitney Strub
Published: 14 September 2021
New Labor Forum, Volume 30, pp 113-116; https://doi.org/10.1177/10957960211036062

Leah Mueller
Published: 14 September 2021
New Labor Forum, Volume 30, pp 123-123; https://doi.org/10.1177/10957960211036279

Tim Gough
Missiology: An International Review; https://doi.org/10.1177/00918296211040306

Abstract:
Is For the Parish (2010), by Davison and Milbank, a “devastating assault” on the Fresh Expressions movement or a fallacious argument against misunderstood caricatures? The arena is riddled with strong passions and spirited rhetoric, and this article endeavors to cut through the hyperbole and critically evaluate the critique of the Fresh Expressions movement presented in For the Parish. Through discussions of ecclesiology, soteriology, sociology, and missiology, this article evaluates Davison’s and Milbank’s understanding of the Fresh Expression movement and its underpinning theology. This is assessed against their aims to (1) deconstruct Fresh Expressions theology and (2) present the reimagined parish church as the ideal alternative. Through a discussion of six major contentions, this article demonstrates a view that For the Parish offers a necessary and imperative theological critique of careless Fresh Expressions theology, while still significantly misunderstanding its opponent.
, Shokouh Attarilar, Hatice-Varol Özkavak, Ceren Gode
The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design; https://doi.org/10.1177/03093247211045605

Abstract:
Expanding suitable severe plastic deformation processes seems essential to design lightweight wire-formed materials for emerging demands. In this regard, 6063 aluminum alloy in the form of wire was processed successfully by polyurethane rubber assisted-equal channel angular pressing up to 16 passes by route BC. It was found that significant improvement of hardness and strength is achieved at the initial passes due to the increment of material’s dislocations density which leads to the crystallite size decrease and lattice microstrain increase. Also, subsequent passes improve the mechanical properties with a gentle rate due to the saturation of dislocation strengthening. The fractography analysis indicated that the ductile fracture mode of the annealed aluminum decreases by imposing the ECAP process. It is related to the formation of cleavage and rive patterns and the reduction in the number and size of the dimples compared to the initial condition. Eventually, X-ray diffraction findings showed that by adding pass numbers, the isotropy degree of the aluminum sample enhances because of the lowest diffraction scattering.
Iis Gindarsah, Adhi Priamarizki
Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs; https://doi.org/10.1177/23477970211039645

Abstract:
The current maritime challenges that Indonesia faced had not led to the development of the navy and air force. While theories of neoclassical realism highlighted the importance of domestic factors when determining responses at the strategic level, inefficiencies within the state bureaucracy had often been the bane of prudent policies. Our article attempts to engage with the neorealist concept of under-balancing to look at the reasons why there is stagnation in Indonesia’s naval and air force development. The proponents of under-balancing blamed inefficient bureaucracy as the cause of the issue. Our study on Indonesia’s naval and air force development indicated that inefficient bureaucracy was not the only driver of under-balancing. Looking at the agenda of naval and air force modernisation, this research argues the lack of commitment from the government, limited economic sources and the different modernisation priorities at the military unit level that had greatly contributed to the mismatch between systemic pressure and the response, in this case through naval and air force development, against it.
Lisa Morriss
Published: 14 September 2021
Qualitative Social Work, Volume 20, pp 1152-1154; https://doi.org/10.1177/14733250211039074

Published: 14 September 2021
The Journal of Early Adolescence, Volume 41, pp 1128-1128; https://doi.org/10.1177/02724316211043225

, Yaacov Trope
Social Psychological and Personality Science; https://doi.org/10.1177/19485506211044061

Abstract:
Mask wearing plays a vital role in the fight against the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Despite its ubiquity in everyday social life, it is still unknown how masked faces are mentally represented. Drawing on construal-level theory, we test the hypothesis that masked faces and unmasked faces are implicitly associated with psychological distance and proximity in memory, respectively. Four preregistered, high-powered experiments ( N = 354 adults) using the Implicit Association Test lend convergent support to this hypothesis across all four dimensions of psychological distance: social distance, spatial distance, temporal distance, and hypothetical distance. A mini meta-analysis validates the reliability of the findings (Hedge’s g = 0.46). The present work contributes to the growing literature on construal-level effects on implicit social cognition and enriches the current discussion on mask wearing in the pandemic and beyond.
, Elisabeth Boulton, , Gemma Spiers, Fiona Beyer, Peter Bower, Dawn Craig, Chris Todd, Barbara Hanratty
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Background: People with frailty may have specific needs for end-of-life care, but there is no consensus on how to identify these people in a timely way, or whether they will benefit from intervention. Aim: To synthesise evidence on identification of older people with frailty approaching end-of-life, and whether associated intervention improves outcomes. Design: Systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42020462624). Data sources: Six databases were searched, with no date restrictions, for articles reporting prognostic or intervention studies. Key inclusion criteria were adults aged 65 and over, identified as frail via an established measure. End-of-life was defined as the final 12 months. Key exclusion criteria were proxy definitions of frailty, or studies involving people with cancer, even if also frail. Results: Three articles met the inclusion criteria. Strongest evidence came from one study in English primary care, which showed distinct trajectories in electronic Frailty Index scores in the last 12 months of life, associated with increased risk of death. We found no studies evaluating established clinical tools (e.g. Gold Standards Framework) with existing frail populations. We found no intervention studies; the literature on advance care planning with people with frailty has relied on proxy definitions of frailty. Conclusion: Clear implications for policy and practice are hindered by the lack of studies using an established approach to assessing frailty. Future end-of-life research needs to use explicit approaches to the measurement and reporting of frailty, and address the evidence gap on interventions. A focus on models of care that incorporate a palliative approach is essential.
Di Wu
Published: 14 September 2021
Progress in Human Geography; https://doi.org/10.1177/03091325211038714

Abstract:
Synthesising the endogenous-centred evolutionary economic geography perspective, and the globally oriented ‘global pipelines’ and global production networks frameworks, this article develops the ‘boundary spanner’ concept to propose a theoretical framework to illustrate how resourceful actors, as boundary spanners, globalise clusters and in turn drive cluster evolution. This framework comprises four interrelated cluster boundary-spanning functions, namely, discursive construction, innovation promotion, production coordination and market reach. This article aims to advance the cluster literature by unpacking how clusters’ global connections are constructed and maintained, conceptualising the multidimensional role of the agency of boundary spanners and demonstrating boundary spanners’ contributions to cluster evolution.
Natália Otto, Josée Johnston, Shyon Baumann
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Recent research has extended the concept of moral entrepreneurialism to corporate actors. We build on this research to investigate how corporations succeed in this effort by uncovering the strategies and tools they employ as moral entrepreneurs. To do so, we examine the corporate discourse of three prominent fast-food firms to identify how they present hamburgers as good food, in a context where beef is increasingly criticized as morally suspect. Based on a discourse analysis of corporate communications and marketing campaigns, we identify three distinct discursive strategies for managing meat criticisms: (1) global managerialism (McDonald’s); (2) aestheticized simplicity (A&W); and (3) nostalgic, personalized appeals (Wendy’s). These strategies are realized through the use of informational tools to shape what customers think and know about beef, and affective tools to influence how customers feel about beef. Together, these corporate strategies speak to the skilful ability of corporate actors to respond to socio-environmental criticisms. Our case shows how fast-food market actors are able to incorporate critique and offer messages that seek to allow people to feel good about eating beef. This case is relevant to understanding the tools that corporations use to be effective moral entrepreneurs. It also provides a deeper understanding of marketing discourse at the nexus of social problems and consumption choices.
Jordan Greene, Kristin Seefeldt
Published: 14 September 2021
Journal of Adolescent Research; https://doi.org/10.1177/07435584211043295

Abstract:
Summer Youth Employment Programs (SYEPs) help connect youth to opportunities for career exploration, skill development, and mentorship. Despite heightened investment in SYEPs, research regarding positive impacts is limited. Most of the common SYEP evaluation strategies are rooted in deficit thinking and focus on outcomes such as reducing violent crime, risk behaviors, gaps in unemployment, and increasing educational attainment. Despite recent shifts toward approaches that acknowledge structural oppression in adolescent research more broadly, evaluations of SYEPs often perpetuate a discourse of deficiency about marginalized communities by emphasizing disparities without acknowledging the systemic forces that create them. In this article, we utilize the Five Cs of Positive Youth Development to present an alternative set of outcomes identified from focus groups and surveys with youth ages 16 to 24 who participated in SummerWorks, a 10-week SYEP located in Washtenaw County, Michigan. Specifically, we find that SYEPs may help youth make the transition to adulthood, build community and increase their social capital, and access knowledge, resources, and opportunities. Through this approach, we hope to expand the literature on the impacts of SYEPs and encourage antiracist evaluation strategies that build on these findings and challenge deficit thinking.
Perspectives on Psychological Science; https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691621995753

Abstract:
Humans default to functions and purposes when asked to explain the existence of mysterious phenomena. Our penchant for teleological reasoning is associated with good outcomes, such as finding meaning in misfortune, but also with bad outcomes, such as dangerous conspiracy theories and misunderstood scientific ideas, both of which pose important social and health problems. Psychological research into the teleological default has long alluded to Daniel Dennett’s intentional-systems theory but has not fully engaged with the three intellectual stances at its core (intentional, design, physical). This article distinguishes the intentional stance from the design stance, which untangles some of the present knots in theories of teleology, accounts for diverse forms of teleology, and enhances predictions of when teleological reasoning is more likely to occur. This article examines the evidence for a teleological default considering Dennett’s intentional-systems theory, proposes a process model, and clarifies current theoretical debates. It argues that people rationally and often thoughtfully use teleological reasoning in relation to both cognitive and social psychological factors. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
, Qing Li, Devan V Mehrotra, Judong Shen
Statistical Methods in Medical Research; https://doi.org/10.1177/09622802211037076

Abstract:
Non-proportional hazards data are routinely encountered in randomized clinical trials. In such cases, classic Cox proportional hazards model can suffer from severe power loss, with difficulty in interpretation of the estimated hazard ratio since the treatment effect varies over time. We propose CauchyCP, an omnibus test of change-point Cox regression models, to overcome both challenges while detecting signals of non-proportional hazards patterns. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that, compared to existing treatment comparison tests under non-proportional hazards, the proposed CauchyCP test (a) controls the type I error better at small [Formula: see text] levels ([Formula: see text]); (b) increases the power of detecting time-varying effects; and (c) is more computationally efficient than popular methods like MaxCombo for large-scale data analysis. The superior performance of CauchyCP is further illustrated using retrospective analyses of two randomized clinical trial datasets and a pharmacogenetic biomarker study dataset. The R package CauchyCP is publicly available on CRAN.
Evette A. Ronner, Cheryl K. Glovsky, Barbara S. Herrmann, Melissa A. Woythaler, Mark S. Pasternack, Michael S. Cohen
Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1177/01945998211044125

Abstract:
Objective To assess the effectiveness and outcomes of a targeted cytomegalovirus (CMV) testing protocol. Study Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Tertiary care institution. Methods Targeted screening for CMV in children who did not pass the newborn hearing screening (NHS) was introduced in July 2015 for the level 2 and 3 nurseries at our hospital. In January 2016, this policy was extended to include all nurseries. Retrospective chart review was performed for all newborns who did not pass their NHS between 2013 and 2020. CMV testing rates and related outcomes were compared before and after rollout. Results A total of 891 charts were reviewed for infants who did not pass their NHS: 530 (60%) had CMV testing, of which 8 (1.5%) tested positive. Three cases were detected prior to and 5 occurred after initiation of targeted screening. Six CMV+ infants demonstrated hearing loss on confirmatory auditory brainstem response, all of whom began treatment with oral valganciclovir. Hearing remained stable in 3 patients, progressed in 2, and improved in 1. The rate of CMV testing in children who did not pass their NHS increased from 14% to 88% after full implementation of targeted screening ( P < .001). The average age at initial infectious disease consultation was significantly younger for infants born after targeted screening ( P < .001). Conclusion Targeted screening is a feasible and effective method to identify CMV+ infants early in life. Implementation of a targeted screening program for CMV in children who do not pass the NHS resulted in significantly higher rates of CMV testing and earlier referral to infectious disease.
Rohith S. Voora, Alexander S. Qian, Nikhil V. Kotha, Edmund M. Qiao, Minhthy Meineke, James D. Murphy, Ryan K. Orosco
Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery; https://doi.org/10.1177/01945998211043489

Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the predictive utility of the Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS), a stratification tool based on the ICD-10 ( International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision), and other risk factors for 30-day readmissions and mortality in a nationally representative cohort. Study Design Retrospective database review. Setting Nationwide Readmissions Database (2017). Methods Patients with head and neck cancer who underwent major surgical procedures were identified from the 2017 Nationwide Readmissions Database, representing 116 medical centers nationwide. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to identify factors associated with unplanned 30-day readmission, 30-day readmission mortality, and increased length of hospital stay. Results A total of 14,420 patients underwent major head and neck cancer surgery. Unplanned readmission occurred in 11% of patients. The most common reasons for unplanned readmission were procedural complications (26.5%), sepsis (7.3%), and respiratory failure (3.9%). Elevated frailty index (HFRS ≥5) was identified in 22% of patients. Frailty was associated with higher 30-day readmission rates (18.0% vs 9.5%, P < .01), which held on multivariate modeling (odds ratio [OR], 1.59 [95% CI, 1.37-1.85]). Frail patients spent more days in the hospital (8.2 vs 6.8, P = .02) and incurred more charges across hospital stays ($275,000 vs $188,000, P < .01). Patients >75 years old (OR, 1.26 [1.03-1.55]) and patients with electrolyte abnormalities (OR, 1.25 [1.07-1.46] were significantly more likely to be readmitted. Conclusion In this head and neck cancer surgical population, HFRS significantly predicted unplanned readmission. HFRS is a potential risk stratification tool and should be compared with other methods and explored in other cancer populations. Beyond the challenge of identifying at-risk patients, future work should explore potential interventions aimed at mitigating readmission.
Yuan Lang, Chao Sun, Xiaoyan Dong, Yongshuang Fang, Zeyu Zeng
Journal of International Medical Research, Volume 49; https://doi.org/10.1177/03000605211044358

Abstract:
Hemoptysis in children is caused by various factors, the most common of which is basic lung disease or heart disease. Aortopulmonary collateral arteries (APCAs) are blood vessels that originate from the aorta or its branches and provide blood flow to the pulmonary tissues. We herein report a rare case of APCAs without abnormal structures in the heart. The patient was a previously healthy boy with APCAs originating from the descending aorta. He had no history of congenital heart disease and developed repeated episodes of cryptogenic hemoptysis during his school-age years. Arteriography examination facilitated the diagnosis of APCAs. After embolization, the patient developed no further hemoptysis during 10 months of follow-up. Arteriography is of great significance in determining the cause of recurrent cryptogenic hemoptysis.
Derong Xu, Xuexiao Ma, Lei Xie, ChuanLi Zhou, Biao Kong
Published: 14 September 2021
Abstract:
Study Design: Retrospective database study. Objectives: To compare the accuracy and safety of 2 types of a computer-assisted navigation system for percutaneous pedicle screw placement during endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion. Methods: From May 2019 to January 2020, data of 56 patients who underwent Endo-LIF with a robot-assisted system and with an electromagnetic navigation system were compared. The pedicles in all patients were subjected to postoperative CT scan to assess screw correction by measuring the perpendicular distance between the pedicle cortical wall and the screw surface. The registration and matching time, guide-wire insertion time, the entire surgery time, and X-ray exposure time were recorded. Results: In the robot-assisted group, 25 cases with 100 percutaneous pedicle screws were included, and the excellent and good rate was 95%. In the electromagnetic navigation group, 31 cases with 124 screws were included, and the excellent rate was 97.6%. There was no statistical difference between the two groups ( P > 0.05). The registration time and the total time for the surgery also showed no statistical differences ( P > 0.05). The main difference between the two groups was the guide-wire insertion time and the X-ray exposure time ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: Both electromagnetic navigation and robot-assisted are safe and efficient for percutaneous pedicle screw placement. Electromagnetic navigation system has obvious advantages over robot-assisted in terms of faster guide-wire placement and less X-ray exposure. Robot-assisted for percutaneous pedicle screw placement offers a preoperative planning system and a stable registration system, with obvious drawbacks of a strict training curve.
, Conny Wem Quaedflieg, Dennis Hernaus, Bart Hartogsveld, Tom Smeets
Published: 14 September 2021
Journal of Psychopharmacology; https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811211044679

Abstract:
Background: Acute stress is thought to reduce goal-directed behaviour, an effect purportedly associated with stress-induced release of catecholamines. In contrast, experimentally increased systemic catecholamine levels have been shown to increase goal-directed behaviour. Whether experimentally increased catecholamine function can modulate stress-induced reductions in goal-directed behaviour and its neural substrates, is currently unknown. Aim: To assess whether and how experimentally induced increases in dopamine and noradrenaline contribute to the acute stress effects on goal-directed behaviour and associated brain activation. Methods: One hundred participants underwent a stress induction protocol (Maastricht acute stress test; MAST) or a control procedure and received methylphenidate (MPH) (40 mg, oral) or placebo according to a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. In a well-established instrumental learning paradigm, participants learnt stimulus–response–outcome associations, after which rewards were selectively devalued. Participants’ brain activation and associated goal-directed behaviour were assessed in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner at peak cortisol/MPH concentrations. Results: The MAST and MPH increased physiological measures of stress (salivary cortisol and blood pressure), but only MAST increased subjective measures of stress. MPH modulated stress effects on activation of brain areas associated with goal-directed behaviour, including insula, putamen, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, frontal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. However, MPH did not modulate the tendency of stress to induce a reduction in goal-directed behaviour. Conclusion: Our neuroimaging data suggest that MPH-induced increases in dopamine and noradrenaline reverse stress-induced changes in key brain regions associated with goal-directed behaviour, while behavioural effects were absent. These effects may be relevant for preventing stress-induced maladaptive behaviour like in addiction or binge eating disorder.
Page of 55,074
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top