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Ann Bunger
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5102

Abstract:
This paper describes a set of flipped learning materials that I created for emergency remote teaching of introductory linguistics. My goals were to create a set of asynchronous materials that would scaffold student progress through a syntax unit, require active engagement in the material, and enable students to receive incremental formative feedback. Assessment of formative and summative student progress in the unit demonstrates that these materials were as effective at supporting student learning as face-to-face pedagogical methods. The discussion touches on additional issues related to pedagogy of care that were overlooked.
Christina Bjorndahl
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5089

Abstract:
I describe the implementation of a class wiki in an introductory linguistics class. There were two pedagogical goals: (1) facilitate asynchronous student engagement and collaborative learning; (2) provide opportunities for students to engage with various linguistic issues having to do with justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. Assessment for the wiki was done using a version of specifications grading (Nilson 2015), so that students could choose their level of engagement with the wiki. A full description of the wiki is available at https://cbjorndahl.github.io/CMUNoLWiki/, which includes detailed descriptions, learning objectives, and prompts given to students for each wiki cate-gory. The present paper focusses primarily on the pedagogical motivations, design of the pedagogical intervention, and a reflection of its effectiveness.
Iara Mantenuto
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5094

Abstract:
Students find linguistics at times abstract and intimidating and they have a hard time understanding how they can apply what they learn in our classes to the real world and how to relate their cultural/community experiences to it. As a consequence, we inadvertently restrict the pool of linguistic students. Inspired bywork done by Hudley et al. (2017), Trester (2017), Chávez & Longerbeam (2016), and by my personal experiences, I created a series of activities for my introduction to linguistics and syntax courses to respond to this problem. I offer some suggestions on how to make our linguistics courses more practical and relatable to our students, in particular first-generation students. The long-term goal is to organically engage and retain a diverse pool of students, thus enriching our field with their perspectives. We can achieve this goal by balancing teaching practices across cultural frameworks.
Julia Nee, Emily Remirez
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5108

Abstract:
How can we foster the learner investment required for difficult, reflexive discussions about linguistic justice? We address this question through our efforts as instructors in a general education course on language in the US. To help students reflect on their own positionality within systems of oppression, we nurtured student-instructor relationships where students felt respected, valued, and capable of success using objectives-based assessment strategies and structured independent research projects. Students’ positive feedback and focus on LEARNING over simply earning a grade demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.
Leah C. Geer
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5103

Abstract:
My goals as an instructor are to be transparent and approachable and to cultivate a community of learners. The transition to virtual instruction in Sign Language Structure and Usage presented significant challenges. I wondered how students could engage effectively with me, with each other, and with course content; how students could identify what they understood and on what they needed further instruction. To address these questions, I went all in with Google Slides to build engaging, searchable, self-paced slide presentations with built-in formative assessments. COVID-19 inspired this shift in slide creation, but I envision using these slides going forward because they are more equitable and more inclusive. If studentsare not able to come to class for any reason, they can review videos and complete selfassessments, just as they would in class. Anecdotal remarks suggest this approach appeals to a wider range of students and learning styles, but further study should explicitly examine student perceptions of this slide format. Other faculty in my college have recently expressed interest in adopting this style of presentation in their owncourses.
Reed Blaylock, Evan D. Bradley, Ann Bunger, Taylor Sharp
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5111

Abstract:
In the spring of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic forced many higher education institutions to transition suddenly to emergency remote teaching. This paper describes the results of a survey that the Linguistic Society of America carried out on the response to this situation among teachers and learners in the linguistics community. We consider what teachers tried, what students found helpful, and what got overlooked.
Kazuko Hiramatsu, Michal Temkin Martinez
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5129

Abstract:
This special issue contains peer-reviewed papers presented during an organized session on scholarly teaching at the 2021 LSA Annual Meeting. The session was organized by an NSF-sponsored Faculty Learning Community that was formed in 2019 to build capacity among a cohort of linguists to advocate for scholarly teaching and the scholarship of teaching learning (SoTL).
Laurel Smith Stvan
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5101

Abstract:
This paper details how a collaborative assignment to edit Wikipedia entries on linguistic topics can help students practice and improve their research skills and navigate group work through an engaged learning task. It describes strategies for group formation, types of cognitive skills that were deployed in the task, equitable distribution of workload and ways that individual student contributions to the project were tracked and assessed, along with project feedback from student reflections. The editing task is also shown as a way to increase gender diversity and widen the language background of the site’s editors.
Beth Rapp Young
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5109

Abstract:
This paper describes an introductory online assignment for an upper-division grammar class that helps students overcome preconceived notions about grammaticality. In anonymous end-of-semester surveys, students often label this assignment “the discussion assignment that taught me the most.” This assignment helps students understand that their intuition, while useful, is not sufficient for recognizing grammatical utterances.
Katie Welch
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5070

Abstract:
Gamification, the use of game-based principles to promote learning (Kapp 2012), allows instructors a pathway through which they can maintain curricular rigor while simultaneously fostering strong work habits and soft skill development. In this paper I describe my own experience of gamifying an online linguistics undergraduate course as I sought to combat engagement challenges such as spotty attendance and assignment procrastination. By implementing a gamified bonus level in the course, I was able to reimagine the traditional notion of extra credit in a way that incentivized self-regulation and engagement without creating a high amount of grade inflation in the process. Unlike traditional extra credit which advantages high-performing students, the bonus level sought to provide equity to the lower-performing students at a regional university with a predominant first-generation population.
Steven H. Weinberger, Hussain Almalki, Larisa A. Olesova
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5112

Abstract:
It is axiomatic that one of the chief goals of an applied linguistics program is to instruct teachers in the intricacies of English language structure. Explicit knowledge of the target language can help domestic and international teachers when dealing with adult 2nd language learners. But while most programs offer courses in English grammar, we found a paucity of (online) phonetics classes. We discuss three characteristics to be included in an online phonetics course: the description and learning of the sounds of the world’s languages, the technology-based collaborative procedures to narrowly transcribe a wide range of accented English speech, and the specific design to engage a variety of online students. Particular attention is devoted to our unique collaborative online project that at once trains students in the phonetic analysis of non-native speech. The results of these analyses are contributed to the online database, the speech accent archive (accent.gmu.edu), thereby giving students ownership of a publicly available online archive. The outcomes are described, with justifications and specific methods for measuring them. This paper emphasizes that learning to narrowly transcribe leads to enhanced listening and analysis, and that peer-to-peer collaboration is vital for any asynchronous online class.
Sonja Launspach
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5097

Abstract:
This paper explores the initial use of Team-Based Learning (TBL) and Ungrading approaches in a synchronous on-line basic English grammar course for non-linguistics majors. The study employs TBL and Ungrading approaches to create a supportive learning community, address students’ fear of grammar, and provide more effective formative and summative assessments. Qualitative analysis of students’ reflective writing suggests that implementation of both TBL and Ungrading has a positive effect on students’ learning experiences.
Lynn Santelmann
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5110

Abstract:
This paper describes an activity designed to help students improve skills in drawing syntax tree structures without significantly increasing instructor grading time. In this formative exercise, students draw ten trees prior to each class period, correct their own work, and reflect on their mistakes. This assignment incorporates many practices that research on learning suggests are essential for understanding and retention of material. In addition, this exercise incorporates some best practices on effective feedback. The activity works best when students understand the science behind it, so discussion of the pedagogical reasons for the exercise is essential. Further, overt discussion of how to learn helps students develop effective skills for learning linguistics. Self-correct homework assignments like this can be applied to many courses that involve learning skills or terminology.
Leslie Lee
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5098

Abstract:
The sudden shift to online teaching and learning brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to consider alternatives to entrenched teaching practices. Making use of the private channel function in Microsoft Teams, I replaced traditional sections in an introductory linguistics course with asynchronous groupwork. This enabled students to form learning communities that facilitated peer learning and support in spite of remote learning, while unexpectedly connecting students with instructors in more personalized ways than typically witnessed in traditional sections. The medium allowed the teaching team to provide tailored feedback on each group’s work, as well as point out errors that were common across groups. I reflect on some of the problems encountered and consider how these might be addressed in the future.
Cornelia C. Paraskevas
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5096

Abstract:
Wanting to shift the focus in the introductory linguistics classes in an access institution from teaching to learning, I created a tripartite (hybrid) contract that consists of three distinct tasks: labor-based tasks (collaborative forums and breakout activities); content-based tasks (assignments and final project on changing understandings about language) and self-regulated tasks (learning logs, metacognitive awareness surveys, capstone). This contract gives students agency and establishes a culture of “forgiveness” (while maintaining high standards), providing flexibility since my students’ life challenges can affect their academic performance.
Shelby Miller
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5095

Abstract:
Only 8.8% of faculty have reported receiving formal training for develop-ing ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) compliant online courses (Gould & Harris, 2019), yet in any given semester, faculty may be required by federal law to make their course accessible for a student that has enrolled with a disability. Linguis-tics faculty face many of the same challenges (namely time and resources) as other disciplines with implementing ADA federal guidelines. However, there are further obstacles with linguistic specific topics (such as dialect illustrations, phonology, morphology) that require special attention when devising accessible material for those that are either visually or hearing impaired. Through the exploration of an un-dergraduate linguistics course (LING 2050: Language of Now), this paper reflects on best practices, suggested modifications, barriers in developing an ADA compliant online linguistics course, and presents a resource developed by the author aggregat-ing resources that facilitate making a course ADA compliant.
Dawn Nordquist
Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v6i2.5100

Abstract:
Drawing on mindset, belonging, and equity scholarship, a journaling assignment was developed as a low-stakes, writing-to-learn, formative assessment instructional tool for engaging students with content, normalizing mistakes, and supporting students during remotely scheduled online instruction for introductory linguistic analysis courses. Anecdotal data from student evaluations and instructor impressions suggest that journals provide high impact learning opportunities.
Phonological Data and Analysis, Volume 3, pp 1–40-1–40; https://doi.org/10.3765/pda.v3art4.37

Abstract:
This paper establishes the lexical tone contrasts in the Nigerian language Izon, focusing on evidence for floating tone. Many tonal languages show effects of floating tone, though typically in a restricted way, such as occurring with only a minority of morphemes, or restricted to certain grammatical environments. For Izon, the claim here is that all lexical items sponsor floating tone, making it ubiquitous across the lexicon and as common as pre-associated tone. The motivation for floating tone comes from the tonal patterns of morphemes in isolation and within tone groups. Based on these patterns, all lexical morphemes are placed into one of four tone classes defined according to which floating tones they end in. This paper provides extensive empirical support for this analysis and discusses several issues which emerge under ubiquitous floating tone. Issues include the principled allowance of OCP(T) violations, and the propensity for word-initial vowels and low tone to coincide.
Itai Bassi, Guillermo Del Pinal, Uli Sauerland
Semantics and Pragmatics, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3765/sp.14.11

, Manfred Krifka
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 224-236; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.5072

Abstract:
There are different theories about the nature of pseudo-incorporated nouns (PINs), which feature a non-specific, number-neutral interpretation. For a proper analysis it is crucial to take their anaphoric potential into account. This paper investigates if and how PINs introduce discourse referents, with evidence from Persian, and which theory matches this behavior best. We report on experiments in which the stereotypical enrichment of the number-neutral interpretation was systematically varied with two types of biases — towards a singular or a plural interpretation — and in the neutral case, when such a bias is lacking. The results of the experiments are compatible with Krifka & Modarresi (2016), which considers PIN objects as dependent singular definites (similar to weak definites) within existential closure over an event variable.
Adina Camelia Bleotu, Anton Benz, Nicole Gotzner
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 47-58; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4863

Abstract:
In the current paper, we employ a novel Shadow Play Paradigm in order to test Romanian monolingual adults’ sensitivity to truth and informativeness and investigate their ability to derive implicatures with epistemic adverbs. We show that implicature rates with epistemic adverbs are higher when participants are asked to reward characters depending on the truth of their statements rather than on whether what they say is the best description of the situation. Given participants’ task-sensitivity, we recommend instructions using optimality criteria as a more sensitive method of probing into implicature generation.
Anissa Neal, Brian Dillon
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 237-248; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4885

Abstract:
Experimental work on islands has used formal acceptability judgment studies to quantify the severity of different island violations. This current study uses this approach to probe the (in-)violability of definite islands, an understudied island, in offline and online measures. We conducted two acceptability judgment studies and find a modest island effect. However, rating distributions appear bimodal across definites and indefinites. We also conducted a self-paced reading experiment, but found no sig- nificant effects. Overall, offline, definite islands differ from other uniform islands, but online, the results are more complicated.
Imke Kruitwagen, Yoad Winter, James Hampton
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 197-203; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4868

Abstract:
Many languages have verbal stems like hug and marry whose intransitive realization is interpreted as reciprocal. Previous semantic analyses of such reciprocal intransitives rely on the assumption of symmetric participation. Thus, 'Sam and Julia hugged' is assumed to entail both 'Sam hugged Julia' and 'Julia hugged Sam'. In this paper we report experimental results that go against this assumption. It is shown that although symmetric participation is likely to be preferred by speakers, it is not a necessary condition for accepting sentences with reciprocal verbs. To analyze the reciprocal alternation, we propose that symmetric participation is a typical feature connecting the meanings of reciprocal and binary forms. This accounts for the optionality as well as to the preference of this feature. Further, our results show that agent intentionality often boosts the acceptability of sentences with reciprocal verbs. Accordingly, we propose that intentionality is another typical semantic feature of such verbs, separate from symmetric participation.
Adina Camelia Bleotu, Anton Benz, Nicole Gotzner
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 59-70; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4866

Abstract:
The current paper employs a novel Shadow Play Paradigm to investigate the semantic knowledge and pragmatic ability of Romanian 5-year-olds with respect to the epistemic adverbs poate ‘maybe’ and sigur ‘certainly’. The paradigm is an improved version of the Hidden Object Paradigm, where, instead of merely looking at an inaccessible entity, participants can now infer the presence of the entity on the basis of evidence (a shadow, as well as a specific sound). We argue that Romanian children as young as 5 are able to derive implicatures with epistemic adverbs at an almost adult-like level. However, they exhibit the tendency to accept overly strong statements (i.e., statements where a certainty adverb is wrongly used instead of a possibility adverb) as optimal to a much higher degree than adults. This can be explained as a cognitive/communicative strategy to reduce multiple alternatives to a single one in cases of uncertainty.
Yuhan Zhang, Kathryn Davidson
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 310-321; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4874

Abstract:
Determiner phrases (DPs) under intensional operators give rise to multiple interpretations, known as the de re/de dicto ambiguity. Formal theoretical approaches to modeling this ambiguity must rely on nuanced semantic judgments, but inconsistent judgments in the literature suggest that informal judgment collection may be insufficient. In addition, little is known about how these ambiguities are resolved in context and how preferences between these readings vary by context and across individuals, etc. We reported three controlled experiments to systemize the truth-value judgment collection of de re/de dicto readings. While the de dicto readings were robustly accepted by nearly all English speakers, de re readings exhibited strongly bimodal judgments, suggesting an inherent disagreement among speakers. In addition, the acceptability of de re judgments was affected by the DP's internal structure as well as idiosyncratic scenarios. More broadly, our experimental results lend support to the practice of including quantitative data collection within semantics.
Jaime Castillo-Gamboa, Alexis Wellwood, Deniz Rudin
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 78-89; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4872

Abstract:
This paper investigates the semantics of implicit comparatives (Alice is tall compared to Bob) and its connections to the semantics of explicit comparatives (Alice is taller than Bob) and sentences with adjectives in plain positive form (Alice is tall). We consider evidence from two experiments that tested judgments about these three kinds of sentence, and provide a semantics for implicit comparatives from the perspective of degree semantics.
Sea Hee Choi, Tania Ionin
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 113-124; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4867

Abstract:
This paper reports on a study that uses a novel methodology, the minimal part identification task, in order to probe the relationship between morphosyntax and interpretation. English, Korean and Mandarin Chinese differ from one another with regard to the count/mass distinction. Building on prior research but using a new methodology, this study examines whether speakers of these three languages also differ in how they interpret count vs. mass nouns. The findings, while uncovering some language-specific effects of morphosyntax, point to the importance of universality, and suggest that interpretation drives morphosyntax rather than the other way around.
Danielle Dionne, Elizabeth Coppock
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 147-158; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.5013

Abstract:
This paper addresses the question of how to predict which alternatives are active in scalar implicature calculation, and the nature of this activation. It has been observed that finger implicates 'not thumb', and a Manner-based explanation for this has been proposed, predicting that if English had the simplex Latin word pollex meaning 'thumb or big toe', then finger would cease to have the implicature 'not thumb' that it has. It has also been suggested that this hypothetical pollex would have to be sufficiently colloquial in order to figure in scalar implicature calculation. This paper makes this thought experiment into a real one by using a language that behaves in exactly this way: Spanish has pulgar 'thumb' (< pollex), a non-colloquial form. We first use a fill-in-the-blank production task with both English and Spanish speakers to guage the likelihood with which a speaker will produce a given form as a way of describing a given digit. Production frequency does not perfectly track complexity, so we can then ask whether comprehension follows production frequency or complexity. We do so using a forced choice comprehension task, which reveals cross-linguistic differences in comprehension tracking production probabilities. A comparison between two RSA models -- one in which the speaker perfectly replicates our production data and a standard one in which the speaker chooses based on a standard cost/accuracy trade-off -- illustrates the fact that comprehension is much more closely tied to production probability than to the mere existence of sufficiently simple alternatives.
Jasmijn E. Bosch, Mathilde Chailleux, Francesca Foppolo
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4880

Abstract:
A sentence like 'Lyn has peeled the apple' triggers two types of inferences: a telicity inference that the event is telic; and a culmination inference that the event has reached its telos and has stopped. This results in the final interpretation of the sentence that Lyn has completely peeled the apple. We present an eye-tracking study to test children's ability to predict the upcoming noun (e.g., the apple) during the incremental processing of sentences like 'Look at the picture in which he/she has peeled the…' in which the predicate is telic and the verb appears in the perfective form. By means of the Visual World Paradigm, we aimed to investigate children's ability to use the lexical semantics and aspectual morphology of verbs during language processing. To test if children can predict the target (e.g., a completely peeled apple) by exploiting the lexical-semantic meaning of the verb, we contrasted the target picture with a picture of an object that cannot be peeled; to test if they can predict on the basis of the verb's perfective morphology, we compared the target with the picture of a half-peeled apple. Our results show that Italian children can anticipate the upcoming noun in both cases, providing evidence that children can exploit the morphosyntactic cue on the verb (perfective aspect) to incrementally derive the culmination inference that the telos is reached and the event is completed. We also show that the integration of aspect requires some additional time compared to the integration of the basic lexical semantics of the verb.
Claire Bergey, Daniel Yurovsky
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 39-46; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4946

Abstract:
In the face of unfamiliar language or objects, description is one cue people can use to learn about both. Beyond narrowing potential referents to those that match a descriptor, listeners could infer that a described object is one that contrasts with other relevant objects of the same type (e.g., “The tall cup” contrasts with another, shorter cup). This contrast may be in relation to other objects present in the environment or to the referent’s category. In two experiments, we investigate whether listeners use descriptive contrast to resolve reference and make inferences about novel referents’ categories. While participants use size adjectives contrastively to guide novel referent choice, they do not reliably do so using color adjectives (Experiment 1). Their contrastive inferences go beyond the current referential context: participants use description to infer that a novel object is atypical of its category (Experiment 2). Overall, people are able to use descriptive contrast to resolve reference and make inferences about a novel object’s category, allowing them to infer new word meanings and learn about new categories’ feature distributions.
Naomi Francis, Shuli Jones, Leo Rosenstein, Martin Hackl
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 159-171; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4889

Abstract:
This paper presents an experimental investigation of how English-learning children acquire the additive discourse particles either and too. In the target grammar these items exhibit near-complementary distribution conditioned on the polarity of their host sentence. The path leading to that grammar appears to be rather intricate. We present comprehension data showing that for an extended period of time (3–5 ya) learners find both items acceptable in both polarity environments, exhibiting only a weak adult-like tendency of preferring either in negative and too in positive sentences. At 6 ya, their grammar appears categorical wrt. either in that they no longer tolerate it in positive sentences while still exhibiting only a weak dispreference for too in negative environments. These findings are even more striking in the context of production data. We find that child-directed speech is essentially categorical, providing unambiguous evidence for the adult grammar. Moreover, we find essentially categorical, adult-like use of either and too in child production from the earliest stage of development. These observations raise a number of challenges for theories of either and too and for approaches to learning focus particles more generally. Perhaps most strikingly, the protracted insensitivity of the learner's grammar to accumulation of unambiguous evidence constitutes a novel argument from the abundance of evidence for encapsulated learning.
, Elena Pasalskaya
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 298-309; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4858

Abstract:
This paper presents experimental evidence for overspecification of small cardinalities in refer-ence production. The idea is that when presented with a small set of unique objects (2, 3 or 4), the speaker includes a small cardinality while describing given objects, although it is overin-formative for the hearer (e.g., 'three stars'). On the contrary, when presented with a large set of unique objects, the speaker does not include cardinality in their description – so she produces a bare plural (e.g. 'stars'). The effect of overspecifying small cardinalities resembles the effect of overspecifying color in reference production which has been extensively studied in recent years (cf. Rubio-Fernandez 2016, Tarenskeen et al. 2015). When slides are flashed on the screen one by one, highlighted objects are still overspecified. We argue that one of the main reasons lies in subitizing effect, which is a human capacity to instantaneously grasp small cardinalities.
Remus Gergel, Martin Kopf-Giammanco, Maike Puhl
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 184-196; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4869

Abstract:
The current work discusses the Human Diachronic Simulation Paradigm (HUDSPA), a method to experimentally probe into historical meaning change set up to (i) scan for configurations similar to attested alterations of meaning but in (typically, but not necessarily, related) languages or varieties which did not actualize the change(s) under investigations; (ii) measure the reactions of native speakers in order to ascertain the verisimilitude as well as the particular semantic and pragmatic properties of the items scrutinized. Specifically, the present paper discusses the relative propensity of a particularizer (German eben) to be interpreted with comparatively high confidence as a scalar additive particle such as even and of a concessive item like English though to be interpreted similar to a modal particle along the lines of German doch.
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4865

Abstract:
Although perspectival expressions are a diverse group, they share a common property: their meanings depend on the perspective of a discourse-given individual whose identity is under-specified. This paper investigates how perspective holder prominence is determined through a series of forced choice experiments on American English motion verbs exploring a number of discourse factors: definiteness, mention order, topicality, and subjecthood. The results suggest that both global and local prominence effects play a role in determining how perspectival motion verbs are interpreted.
Nattanun Chanchaochai
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 101-112; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4877

Abstract:
Using the negated universal quantifiernot every, the study investigates the interpretations of scalar implicatures, lexical presuppositions, and implicated presuppositions by Thai children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; n= 32), comparedto their typically-developing (TD) peers (n= 70) and adults (n= 40). The results provide further empirical evidence to the literature (Chevallier et al. 2010, Hochstein et al. 2017, Pijnacker et al. 2009) that not only do adolescents with ASD perform on par with TD adolescents,children with ASD are also age-appropriate in their performance on deriving scalar implicatures. Despite the children with ASD's ability to compute scalar implicature, they still tend to give more logical, literal responses, compared to their peers. Compared to adults, both children with ASD and TD children still have a higher tendency to rely on the logical meaning rather than pragmatically inferred meaning. They are also less likely than adults to derive scalar implicatures, but equally likely to derive lexical presuppositions. No additive effects of implicated presuppositions are found in any group of the participants.
Ilana Torres, Kathryn Slusarczyk, Malihe Alikhani, Matthew Stone
Experiments in Linguistic Meaning, Volume 1, pp 273-283; https://doi.org/10.3765/elm.1.4873

Abstract:
In image-text presentations from online discourse, pronouns can refer to entities depicted in images, even if these entities are not otherwise referred to in a text caption. While visual salience may be enough to allow a writer to use a pronoun to refer to a prominent entity in the image, coherence theory suggests that pronoun use is more restricted. Specifically, language users may need an appropriate coherence relation between text and imagery to license and resolve pronouns. To explore this hypothesis and better understand the relationship between image context and text interpretation, we annotated an image-text data set with coherence relations and pronoun information. We find that pronoun use reflects a complex interaction between the content of the pronoun, the grammar of the text, and the relation of text and image.
Mathieu Paillé
Semantics and Linguistic Theory, Volume 30, pp 843-860; https://doi.org/10.3765/salt.v30i0.4831

Abstract:
While predicates in taxonomies (e.g. colour terms) are interpreted as mutually incompatible, this paper shows that their incompatibility is in many cases not lexical. Rather, it is the result of a previously undescribed exhaustivity effect. What is more, this class of exhaustivity effects displays novel behaviour. Exhaustivity is both obligatory and tightly constrained: at first approximation, any taxonomic predicate must be in the immediate scope of the exhaustivity operator it requires. Taxonomic predicates, in this sense, are argued to "control" exhaustivity.
Yuhan Zhang
Proceedings of the Annual Meetings on Phonology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3765/amp.v9i0.4938

Abstract:
While classic theories utilize the comparison between cómp[ɛ]nsate going to comp[ə]nsátion and cond[ɛ́]nse going to cond[ɛ]nsátion to argue that stressed vowels are immune to reduction in multiple affixations (e.g., SPE), this paper presents a corpus-based case study that looks into this quantitative interaction between vowel reduction and stress shift during English -ion nominalization and offers discoveries that go against the classic claim. After analyzing 1,047 verb-noun target pairs extracted from the CELEX2 dictionary corpus, this study claims that vowel reduction only partially depends on its stress-bearing feature and that the suffix type, the stress shift pattern, vowel tenseness, and crucially some lexically specific constraints also predict vowel reduction. This finding is further supported by an OT analysis and a statistical model. As a quantitative study that relies on an exhaustive list of English samples to derive theoretical analysis, this research not only provides new insights into this long-lasting debate but also aims to highlight the significance of incorporating large data samples for a complete understanding of phonological phenomena.
Koorosh Ariyaee, Peter Jurgec
Proceedings of the Annual Meetings on Phonology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3765/amp.v9i0.4919

Abstract:
In this paper, we conduct two experiments to examine variable hiatus in Spoken Persian. The production experiment reveals that variation is restricted. For instance, elision of the first vowel, which is cross-linguistically common (Casali 1997), is never attested. Moreover, elision of the second vowel is rare with monosegmental (-V) suffixes. The perception experiment confirms that elision of the second vowel is preferred with polysegmental suffixes, but rare with monosegmental suffixes, where hiatus is favoured instead. The preference of hiatus over epenthesis remains constant regardless of suffix length. This study contributes to the discussion of variable phonological processes and constitutes the first experimentally confirmed case of variable hiatus to date.
Gloria Mellesmoen, Suzanne Urbanczyk
Proceedings of the Annual Meetings on Phonology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3765/amp.v9i0.4924

Abstract:
This paper explores the role of binarity in prosodic morphology by proposing that all representations are maximally binary branching, as stated in (1).(1) Binarity Hypothesis: All representations are maximally binary branching.Our evidence comes from examining patterns in which fission (Integrity violations) and fusion (Uniformity violations) of segments satisfies morphological and phonological constraints: multiple reduplication, haplology, coalescence, and breaking. Where there appears to be 1:3 or a 3:1 mapping between input and output segments, we propose that this must arise from two separate 1:2 or 2:1 mappings (perhaps at a stem and word level). We illustrate that a number of seemingly complex patterns of multiple reduplication in Salish, Wakashan and Uto-Aztecan languages follow naturally from the Binarity Hypothesis.
Dan Brodkin
Proceedings of the Annual Meetings on Phonology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3765/amp.v9i0.4915

Abstract:
Recent work suggests that prosodic structure has the capacity to retain significant information about recursive syntactic constituency. This paper presents a novel argument for this view from the domain of second-position clitic linearization. In Mandar (Austronesian, Indonesia), many second-positon elements are linearized in domains which correspond to functional projections along the clausal spine (TP, vP). The process which positions these clitics is irreducibly postsyntactic in nature. This observation suggests that TP, vP, and other 'functional' phrases must remain constituents at a prosodic level of representation. This conclusion provides further evidence for the view that under ideal circumstances, syntactic phrases map to prosodic equivalents in a one-to-one fashion.
Jack Isaac Rabinovitch
Proceedings of the Annual Meetings on Phonology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3765/amp.v9i0.4917

Abstract:
Through a corpus of five pre-Qin (before 221 BCE) texts, this paper argues that the authors of both prose and poetry in Classical Chinese were sensitive to OCP violations at cross-word boundaries, and changed diction and used marked word order as a way to avoid the creation of pseudogeminates across words. The frequency of bigrams which result in pseudogeminates are compared to the predicted frequency of pseudogeminates across the corpus. This paper finds that pseudogeminates are significantly (p<0.00001) rarer than expected through randomization. Furthermore, by analyzing these texts with multiple possible phonological reconstructions, this paper suggests that post-codas, segments which were present in Old Chinese, but were elided during the process of tonogenesis between Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, were most likely present in the Chinese of the writers of the texts. Evidence comes from the consistency of OCP avoidance across all tones of Chinese assuming the presence of post-codas, and the lack of consistency thereof when post-codas are not assumed.
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